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Sample records for progeny carcass conformation

  1. Growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred progeny from lean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood, internal organs, intestines before and after removal of digesta, head, feet, pelt and carcasses were recorded. The left sides of the carcasses were cut into six pieces. ... The differences of eye muscle ( Longissimis dorsi ) area (cm2), and protein and bone percentages were not significant between both breeds and their ...

  2. Growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in F1 and F2 progenies of somatic cell-cloned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Akiyuki; Miura, Narumi; Sunaga, Seiji; Oishi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Oishi, Takatsugu; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hanada, Hirofumi; Kubo, Masanori; Onishi, Akira

    2014-04-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production.

  3. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Relling, A E; Felix, T L; Shoup, L M; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2-yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed as a single group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was less for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than in calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than in calves from cows fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate that prepartum maternal dietary energy source can alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin

  4. The Main Index of Carcasses Conformation at Young Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilişiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose is to obtain information on the development of carcasses obtained from Tsigai race and its hybrids with Suffolk and German blackface breeds. The results showed that hybrids Suffolk x Tsigai and German blackface x Tsigai have made a better form of carcass compared with Tsigai race, being superior with 1.86% to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids and 1.48% German blackface x Tsigai hybrids. Regarding the index of carcass compacted, its value is around the value of 100% in all three groups. The best development of the leg of mutton is found at Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids. Value of leg of mutton development index was 203.58% for hybrids with race Suffolk, being superior with 14.91% compared with Tsigai race, while the index value at German blackface x Tsigai hybrids was higher only 4.56% compared to Tsigai breed. The best proportionality of leg of mutton meets to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids, the index value was 65.42%, with 11.05% higher, compared with Tsigai race. At German blackface x Tsigai hybrids, the index was higher with 6.45%, compared with that obtained at Tsigai breed. Carcasses obtained from hybrids are appropriate format, to those corresponding meat breeds.

  5. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on II. Progeny performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Blair, A D; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study using primiparous crossbred beef heifers (n = 114) was conducted to determine the effects of protein supplement during late gestation on progeny performance and carcass characteristics. Pregnant heifers were stratified by heifer development system, initial BW, and AI service sire and placed in an individual feeding system. Heifers were offered meadow hay (8 to 11% CP) from early November to mid-February and provided no supplement (CON; n = 37), 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplement (HI; n = 39), or 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried corn gluten feed-based supplement (LO; n = 38). Supplements were designed to be isonitrogenous (28% CP) and isocaloric but to differ in RUP with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). After the individual feeding period, heifers were placed in a drylot for calving. All heifers were bred using a fixed-timed AI protocol and pairs were moved to a commercial ranch in the Nebraska Sandhills for summer grazing. Calf weaning BW did not differ (P = 0.14) based on maternal diet. However, feedlot entry BW was greater (P = 0.03) for HI compared with CON calves. Average daily gain during the initial feedlot phase tended (P = 0.10) to be greatest for calves born to CON dams and lowest for calves born to LO dams. However, overall ADG was similar (P = 0.50) for the entire feedlot period. Residual feed intake during the reimplant and total feeding period was improved in calves born to supplemented dams in yr 2 and 3 compared with calves born to CON dams. There was no difference in final BW among treatments (P = 0.71). Hot carcass weight was similar (P = 0.72) among treatments; however, steers had greater (P calves born to LO dams. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force was increased (P = 0.03) in longissimus samples from calves from CON dams compared to calves from LO dams. Similarly, crude fat levels tended to be greater (P = 0.07) for calves from CON dams compared

  6. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on post-weaning progeny growth, glucose tolerance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-08-24

    Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed high in fat and protein, to lactating beef cows can alter milk production and composition, resulting in improved pre-weaning growth of progeny. This alteration in milk profile may consequently alter the growth and carcass composition of the offspring after weaning. Therefore, Angus×Simmental steers (n=48) whose dams were fed one of two diets supplemented with either DDGS or soybean meal (CON) from calving to mid-lactation were placed in a feedlot to determine the effects of maternal nutrition during lactation on progeny development and carcass composition. Cow-calf pairs were allotted to two treatments at birth based on cow and calf BW, breed and age. Maternal diets were isocaloric (3.97 MJ/kg NEg) and consisted of rye hay supplemented with DDGS at 1% of BW (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat) or rye hay and corn silage supplemented with CON (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). After conclusion of the treatments at 129 days postpartum, cow-calf pairs were comingled and managed as one group until weaning at 219 days postpartum. Steers were then transitioned to a common diet composed of 60% DDGS, 34% corn silage and 6% vitamin/mineral supplement and were placed indoors in individual pens with slatted floors. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed 134 days after feedlot entry on 16 steers (CON, n=7; DDGS, n=9) to determine the effect of maternal diet on glucose and insulin sensitivity. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 645 kg. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS, respectively. Steers from DDGS dams tended to be heavier on day 85 of feedlot finishing (P=0.09) compared with steers from CON dams. However, there were no differences in final weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake or efficiency (gain:feed, P⩾0.18). Maternal treatments did not affect progeny days on feed (P=0.15), despite a mean difference of 9 days in favor of DDGS. Glucose and

  7. Effect of carcass fat and conformation class on consumer perception of various grilled beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the attributes influencing consumer perception of grilled beef steaks. The objects were 30 carcasses out of which eight cuts were obtained (2100 single samples were prepared). A total of 350 consumers were asked to rate the meat samples (6 samples for each consumer) by assessing: tenderness, juiciness, flavour, overall acceptability and satisfaction. The MQ4, which is a combination of consumer rates for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability that is transformed into a single parameter with greater discriminatory ability, was calculated using linear discriminate analysis. The tenderloin was the cut that had the highest ratings for all attributes, however, tenderness, juiciness, MQ4 and consumer satisfaction evaluated for oyster blade were not significantly different from tenderloin. The results of this study indicated that consumer preferences regarding grilled steak were not influenced by fat class, conformation rib fat thickness and ossification score of the carcasses but only by the type of meat cuts.

  8. Effect of Polish and foreign purebred Arabian stallions on conformation traits of their progeny participating in shows in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Czarnecki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations confirm correctness of the statement that the best recommendation for a stallion is his progeny. The aim of this study was indicating purebred Arabian stallions passing on to their progeny best conformation traits, assessed in Polish shows, in the past decade, taking into consideration their origin. The analysis included national and foreign stallions used in Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses, which are fathers of at least 5 heads of progeny. The authors own research proved that progeny of foreign stallions statistically differed significantly from the progeny sired by Polish stallions within all conformation traits tested in shows. In the studied period, the highest final score (91.37 points and note for the trait type (19.11 points was characteristic of the progeny of QR Marc. The best head was passed on by stallions: QR Marc (19.06 points and WH Justice (18.78 points, born in the United States and owned by the European breeders. In the Top Ten of producers passing on a refined head to their progeny, there was only one Polish stallion bred in the Horse Stud Michalw, Ekstern (18.29 points. Progeny with the most correct body structure was sired by foreign stallions, Eden C (18.13 points and QR Marc (18.13 points, and by the Polish stallion, Zlocien (17.95 points. The highest score for the trait legs was obtained by the progeny of the Qatar stallion Gazal Al Shaqab (16.30 points. However, the title of the father of the best movers got an Israeli stallion, Laheeb (18.91 points.

  9. Effects of cows grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue in late gestation on cow performance, reproduction, and progeny growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, L M; Miller, L M; Srinivasan, M; Ireland, F A; Shike, D W

    2016-12-01

    Very little is known regarding the effects of cow exposure to toxic ergot alkaloids in late gestation and the subsequent, long-term effects on progeny. Therefore, the objectives were to determine the effects of grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue () or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue during late gestation on cow BW, BCS, hair coat score (HCS), respiration rates, milk production, and reproduction and on growth performance and carcass characteristics of progeny. Eighty gestating, Angus × Simmental cows (age = 6.68 ± 0.32 yr; 588 ± 16 kg initial BW; initial BCS = 5.66 ± 0.28) were stratified by initial BW and allocated into 8 pasture groups (10 cows/group) with 4 groups per treatment. Each group was allotted to 1 of 2 grazing treatments: toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Kentucky-31'; E+) or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Jesup MaxQ'; NOV). Cows were placed on grazing treatments at 110 ± 6 d prepartum (May 28, 2014) and remained on treatment until the end of the calving period (October 8, 2014; 23 ± 6 d postpartum). Cow BW and BCS did not diverge ( ≥ 0.15) at any time point among grazing treatments. However, cows grazing E+ had increased ( period of the progeny, dam grazing treatment did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) respiration rates, HCS, or prolactin concentration of the progeny when all progeny grazed E+ pastures. However, progeny born to dams grazing NOV tended ( > 0.06 to ≤0.10) to have increased BW at 70 ± 6 d of age, 205 d (adjusted weaning BW), and throughout the postweaning calf grazing period. Despite a tendency for BW to differ throughout the postweaning calf grazing period, finishing phase performance and carcass characteristics of progeny did not differ ( ≥ 0.20) between dam grazing treatment. In conclusion, results indicate that by the time progeny enter the feedlot and are finished on a high-grain diet, any fetal programming effects are minimal.

  10. Carcass conformation and fat cover scores in beef cattle: a comparison of threshold linear models vs grouped data models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, Joaquim; Fina, Marta; Varona, Luis; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2011-05-14

    Beef carcass conformation and fat cover scores are measured by subjective grading performed by trained technicians. The discrete nature of these scores is taken into account in genetic evaluations using a threshold model, which assumes an underlying continuous distribution called liability that can be modelled by different methods. Five threshold models were compared in this study: three threshold linear models, one including slaughterhouse and sex effects, along with other systematic effects, with homogeneous thresholds and two extensions with heterogeneous thresholds that vary across slaughterhouses and across slaughterhouse and sex and a generalised linear model with reverse extreme value errors. For this last model, the underlying variable followed a Weibull distribution and was both a log-linear model and a grouped data model. The fifth model was an extension of grouped data models with score-dependent effects in order to allow for heterogeneous thresholds that vary across slaughterhouse and sex. Goodness-of-fit of these models was tested using the bootstrap methodology. Field data included 2,539 carcasses of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed. Differences in carcass conformation and fat cover scores among slaughterhouses could not be totally captured by a systematic slaughterhouse effect, as fitted in the threshold linear model with homogeneous thresholds, and different thresholds per slaughterhouse were estimated using a slaughterhouse-specific threshold model. This model fixed most of the deficiencies when stratification by slaughterhouse was done, but it still failed to correctly fit frequencies stratified by sex, especially for fat cover, as 5 of the 8 current percentages were not included within the bootstrap interval. This indicates that scoring varied with sex and a specific sex per slaughterhouse threshold linear model should be used in order to guarantee the goodness-of-fit of the genetic evaluation model. This was also observed in grouped

  11. Performance, carcass and meat quality in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, Anke

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, influences of conventional and organic rearing systems, breed crosses and feeding regimens on performance, carcass and technological and sensory meat quality traits in pigs were investigated. In two studies, a seasonal outdoor rearing system was investigated. Maternal performance of once-bred gilts was studied and their carcass and meat quality was compared with maiden indoor reared gilts. In a third study, the outdoor-born progeny was raised indoors and outdoors; performance,...

  12. Evaluation of Simmental carcass EPD estimated using live and carcass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Quaas, R L

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass EPD predicted using yearling live animal data and/or progeny carcass data, and to quantify the association between the carcass phenotype of progeny and the sire EPD. The live data model (L) included scan weight, ultrasound fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and percentage of intramuscular fat from yearling (369 d of age) Simmental bulls and heifers. The carcass data model (C) included hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score from Simmental-sired steers and cull heifers (453 d of age). The combined data model (F) included live animal and carcass data as separate but correlated traits. All data and pedigree information on 39,566 animals were obtained from the American Simmental Association, and all EPD were predicted using animal model procedures. The genetic model included fixed effects of contemporary group and a linear covariate for age at measurement, and a random animal genetic effect. The EPD from L had smaller variance and range than those from either C or F. Further, EPD from F had highest average accuracy. Correlations indicated that evaluations from C and F were most similar, and L would significantly (P EPD using a model including contemporary group, and linear regressions for age at slaughter and the appropriate sire EPD. The regression coefficient was generally improved for sire EPD from L when genetic regression was used to scale EPD to the appropriate carcass trait basis. The EPD from C and F had similar linear associations with progeny phenotype, although EPD from F may be considered optimal because of increased accuracy. These data suggest that carcass EPD based on a combination of live and carcass data predict differences in progeny phenotype at or near theoretical expectation.

  13. Comparative Physical Carcass Characteristics in the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated highly significantly different (P<0.01), proportions of lean and fat significantly (P<0.05) different proportions of bone and skin in the carcasses of IND and LWXLD pig. The LWXLD pigs had more lean, and bone, less fat and skin, than the indigenous pigs. Carcass conformation was also clearly different in ...

  14. Predicting carcass cut yield by carcass weight and visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom

    The linear models included carcass weight and visual assessment of fatness and conformation by means of .... Table 1 Characteristics of the South African classification system for beef, lamb, mutton and goat meat ... Linear models for yield of each cut, the model variance (adjusted R2) and standard errors are presented.

  15. Effects of Prosopis laevigata pods on carcass characteristics, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary inclusion of PL decreased carcass shrinkage loss. Lambs fed PL500 had better muscle conformation and degree of fat. ... Mesquite diets of up to 500 g/kg dry matter (DM) for growing lambs improved carcass quality and nutritional parameters of the meat. Keywords: Mesquite, muscle conformation, rumen content ...

  16. Beef cuts yield of steer carcasses graded according to conformation and weight Rendimento de cortes cárneos de carcaças de novilhos classificadas de acordo com a conformação e o peso de carcaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonir Luiz Pascoal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated total and individual yield of commercial cuts, bones, and trimmings of carcasses from 38 Braford steers at 22 months of age finished in a feedlot. Carcasses were ranked according to three conformation classes (good minus = score 10; good = score 11; good plus = score 12, and three weight classes (heavy = 229.4 kg, intermediate = 205.0 kg, and light = 184.0 kg, ranging from 222.9 to 250.4, 201.5 to 209.0, and 170.0 to 190.3 kg, respectively. Carcass cold shrinkage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly lower in heavy (1.83% than in intermediate (2.53% and in light carcasses (2.30%, which were not different among each other. Carcass flank percentage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly higher in heavy (13.93% and intermediate carcasses (13.87% as compared to light carcasses (13.07%. Deboned beef cuts (78.08% of carcasses of steers, bone (16.57%, and trimmings (5.23% yields and losses due to deboning (0.12% were not significantly affected by carcass weight. However, when they were evaluated according to conformation classes, those with better conformation showed higher meat cut yield (78.75 vs 77.92 and 77.29%. Conformation affects meat cut yield of carcasses of young steers while carcass weight does not show this characteristic.Avaliaram-se os rendimentos cárneos total e individual de cortes comerciais, de osso e de retalho de carcaças de 38 novilhos Braford com 22 meses de idade terminados em confinamento. As carcaças foram classificadas de acordo com três classes de conformação (boa menos = 10 pontos; boa = 11 pontos; e boa mais = 12 pontos e três classes de peso (pesadas = 229,40 kg; medianas = 205,04 kg; e leves = 184,00 kg com variação, 222,9 a 250,4; 201,5 a 209,0; e 170,0 a 190,3 kg, respectivamente. A quebra no resfriamento não foi influenciada pela conformação, mas foi significativamente menor nas carcaças pesadas (1,83% em comparação às medianas (2,53% e

  17. The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirić, J.; Lukić, M.; Radulović, S.; Janjić, J.; Glamočlija, N.; Marković, R.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef, classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals (60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle) were analysed. The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant. However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle.

  18. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

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    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  19. Artificial intelligence techniques point out differences in classification performance between light and standard bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, J; Bahamonde, A; Alonso, J; López, S; Del Coz, J J; Quevedo, J R; Ranilla, J; Luaces, O; Alvarez, I; Royo, L J; Goyache, F

    2003-07-01

    The validity of the official SEUROP bovine carcass classification to grade light carcasses by means of three well reputed Artificial Intelligence algorithms has been tested to assess possible differences in the behavior of the classifiers in affecting the repeatability of grading. We used two training sets consisting of 65 and 162 examples respectively of light and standard carcass classifications, including up to 28 different attributes describing carcass conformation. We found that the behavior of the classifiers is different when they are dealing with a light or a standard carcass. Classifiers follow SEUROP rules more rigorously when they grade standard carcasses using attributes characterizing carcass profiles and muscular development. However, when they grade light carcasses, they include attributes characterizing body size or skeletal development. A reconsideration of the SEUROP classification system for light carcasses may be recommended to clarify and standardize this specific beef market in the European Union. In addition, since conformation of light and standard carcasses can be considered different traits, this could affect sire evaluation programs to improve carcass conformation scores from data from markets presenting a great variety of ages and weights of slaughtered animals.

  20. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  1. Genomic selection using beef commercial carcass phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D L; Roughsedge, T; Woolliams, J A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, an industry terminal breeding goal was used in a deterministic simulation, using selection index methodology, to predict genetic gain in a beef population modelled on the UK pedigree Limousin, when using genomic selection (GS) and incorporating phenotype information from novel commercial carcass traits. The effect of genotype-environment interaction was investigated by including the model variations of the genetic correlation between purebred and commercial cross-bred performance (ρX). Three genomic scenarios were considered: (1) genomic breeding values (GBV)+estimated breeding values (EBV) for existing selection traits; (2) GBV for three novel commercial carcass traits+EBV in existing traits; and (3) GBV for novel and existing traits plus EBV for existing traits. Each of the three scenarios was simulated for a range of training population (TP) sizes and with three values of ρX. Scenarios 2 and 3 predicted substantially higher percentage increases over current selection than Scenario 1. A TP of 2000 sires, each with 20 commercial progeny with carcass phenotypes, and assuming a ρX of 0.7, is predicted to increase gain by 40% over current selection in Scenario 3. The percentage increase in gain over current selection increased with decreasing ρX; however, the effect of varying ρX was reduced at high TP sizes for Scenarios 2 and 3. A further non-genomic scenario (4) was considered simulating a conventional population-wide progeny test using EBV only. With 20 commercial cross-bred progenies per sire, similar gain was predicted to Scenario 3 with TP=5000 and ρX=1.0. The range of increases in genetic gain predicted for terminal traits when using GS are of similar magnitude to those observed after the implementation of BLUP technology in the United Kingdom. It is concluded that implementation of GS in a terminal sire breeding goal, using purebred phenotypes alone, will be sub-optimal compared with the inclusion of novel commercial carcass phenotypes

  2. Thermogenesis in decomposing carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Mikac, Katarina M; Wallman, James F

    2013-09-10

    It is of fundamental importance in forensic entomology that the factors controlling carcass temperatures during decomposition are thoroughly understood. The thermal environment to which fly larvae are exposed is the primary influence on their growth rate, and hence affects any estimate of minimum time since death using such specimens in homicide investigations. To date, much of the entomological research on maggot masses has focused on their elevation of carcass temperatures, with very little focus on the bacteria associated with larval activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the heat associated with decay and the types of bacteria present during the decomposition of a carcass, both in the presence and in the absence of maggots. Three treatments were imposed: fresh, frozen and maggot-infested, each consisting of five replicate pig carcasses. Temperature measurements and bacterial swabs were taken from the gastro-intestinal region of each pig and temperatures and bacterial communities compared between treatments. All carcasses reached average maximum temperatures above 32 °C in a temperature controlled room set at 23 °C. Treatment had no statistically significant effect on the temperatures recorded in each carcass but did significantly affect the community structure of the bacteria. However, bacterial community structure varied across time. This study suggests that bacterial metabolism plays a significant role in carcass thermogenesis, and that maggot masses, while contributing to localised heating within the carcass, may have less of a role in elevating carcass temperatures than previously assumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-slaughter carcass evaluation in whiteheaded mutton sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of the subjective EUROP classification with the results of evaluation based on measurements and complete dissection shows that when evaluating conformation, it was not possible to determine precisely the tissue composition of the carcass. In turn, fatness evaluation may be informative on tissue contents in ...

  4. Color classification of veal carcasses: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Megen, R. van

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, veal carcasses are classified on color, conformation and fatness. In the past 20 years, major efforts have been put into the development of a reliable color classification system. Initially, the color of the musculus rectus abdominis was visually matched to a 10-point scale.

  5. RESULTS OF BEEF CARCASS GRADING IN SLOVENIA FROM 1997 TO 200

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    Nežika Petrič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass traits (carcass weight, conformation and fatness note and payment class were collected in the commercial slaughterhouses with automatic data collection for the last ten years. On the average more than 80 % of all graded bovine animals in Slovenia were taken into the study. The average carcass weight of calves increased by 20 kg, but was with 79 kg still very low. The carcass weight of young bulls, heifers and cows varied among different years, but no trend could be noticed, whereas carcass weight of old bulls decreased markedly (more than 50 kg. The carcass conformation decreased in all categories, in calves, young bulls and heifers by two thirds and in old bulls and cows by more than 0.9 of conformation class. The carcass fatness decreased in all categories too. The most pronounced decrease was noticed in the category of old bulls (0.6 class and the least in young bulls (0.2 class. Most of the above mentioned changes occurred after the year 2002 in the category of cows and after the year 2001 in all other categories. The main reasons for changes in conformation and fatness were probably the changes in cattle breed structure in Slovenia.

  6. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  7. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zimmy

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Abstract. In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed.

  8. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  9. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  10. Genetic parameters for dry matter, energy and protein intake, and their relationships with performance and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Hosono, M; Suzuki, K

    2009-02-01

    Genetic parameters for feed intake and performance traits of 514 bulls and carcass traits of 22 099 of their progeny, and the relationships of measures of feed intake with performance and carcass traits were estimated. Feed intake traits were dry matter intake (DMI), concentrate intake (CONI), roughage intake, ratio of roughage intake to DMI, metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and digestible crude protein intake (DCPI). Performance traits included daily gain, metabolic weight, live weight at the end of test, dry matter conversion ratio and residual feed intake. Progeny carcass traits were carcass weight, percentage of meat yield, rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous fat, marbling score, meat colour (MCS), fat colour (FCS) and meat quality grade. All the feed intake and performance traits were moderately heritable. The heritabilities for REA and MCS were moderate, and that for FCS was low, while those for the other carcass traits were high. Selection against DMI, CONI and DCPI would reduce excessive intake of feed, but would have undesirable effects on growth and most of the carcass traits. Selection against MEI would lead to improvements in feed efficiency and growth traits. Selection against DCPI would also improve feed efficiency; however, responses in growth traits would decrease. Results indicate that selection against MEI might be better than any other measures of feed intake to improve feed efficiency with simultaneous improvement in growth and most of the carcass traits.

  11. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  13. Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the performance of their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Song, Wentao; Sun, Yuecheng; Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Bi, Zhongpeng

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP. The results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. (colouration) in progeny of Poecilia reticulate (guppy)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is high demand for ornamental fishes with improve colouration. Colouration is sex specific in Poecilia reticulate (Guppy) and the colour variation within the wild and exotic breeds is at variance. The effect of parental sex and breed on colouration of progeny in Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) was studied. Two breeds of P.

  15. CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF CULL COWS SLAUGHTERED AT DISTINCT WEIGHTS AND DEGREE OF FATNESS – META-ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Da Silva Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of the carcass and meat characteristics of cull cows slaughtered at different weights and degree of fatness. The treatments were according to slaughter weight, (above 480.5 kg , Heavy, or below 480 kg, Light, of LW; and carcass degree of fatness (fat thickness between 6 and 10 mm, >6, or between 3 and 6 mm, <6. A completely random experimental design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used with two classes of slaughter weight and two classes of carcass degree of fatness. We evaluated papers about studies on cull cows carcass and meat, performed in Brazil between January 2000 and March 2013, available for access at SciELO and Capes search platforms. The papers were found through the combination of the following keywords: carcass, meat, bovine females, heifers and cows. The increase in cow’s slaughter weight did not affect hot carcass weight (252.3 versus 233.3 kg. There was less hot carcass yield (52.9 versus 56.9% and higher conformation (10.0 against 8.6 points. The highest degree of finishing positively influenced marbling (8.7 versus 5.4 points. The increase in slaughter weight produces better carcass conformation but does not affect meat quality; on the other hand, raising the finishing degree above 6mm changes the sensory characteristics of meat.

  16. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  17. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  18. Morphometry and carcass characteristics of goats submitted to grazing in the Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleny Braz Lobato Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate morphometric measures, carcass yields, absolute weights and yields of commercial cuts of carcass of kids with no defined breed. Eighteen castrated male goats, with average weight of 15 kg were used. The experimental period lasted 105 days. The experimental design was completely randomized; animals were allocated to three treatments: free grazing without supplementation; restricted grazing without supplementation and free grazing with supplementation. Animals were supplemented (1% of body weight with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus - indica, Mill and soybean meal (Glycine max. The feeding consisted of continuous grazing on caatinga. Supplemented animals had higher live slaughter weight and body score, and consequently higher morphometric measures in vivo and in carcasses. The supplementation provided carcasses with higher body weight and body score. For yields of carcass, there was no difference between treatments restricted grazing and grazing with supplementation; supplementation provided carcasses with higher yields. Supplemented animals had higher absolute weights for commercial cuts. Supplementation of grazing goats raised in the caatinga provides animals with higher body weight at slaughter, greater morphometric measures in vivo and in carcass and better body conformation. Therefore, for supplementation, the level used in this experiment is a good alternative in the creation of small ruminants during the dry period in the semi-arid region.

  19. The relationship between body dimensions of living pigs and their carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Green, D M; Fisher, A V; Carroll, S M; Schofield, C P; Whittemore, C T

    2005-06-01

    The performance of a visual image analysis (VIA) system was tested with regards to its potential to determine in vivo carcass composition and conformation, either alone, or in conjunction with other in vivo measures such as live weight and backfat depth. Pigs of both sexes of a commercial type were reared and slaughtered at weights ranging from 50 to 120 kg. Feeding was ad libitum on diets ranging from 0.14 to 0.19 kgkg(-1) crude protein content to produce animals of a range of body condition. Two analyses were carried out: the first analysis addressed the relationship between dimensionless carcass and VIA indices; the second analysis assessed the relationship between carcass composition and VIA body shape using detrended carcass and VIA data, which were produced by removal of allometric growth trends. A statistically significant relationship (Pmarketing and processing industries.

  20. Carcass quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis finished in silvopastoral system in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S. Peixoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on the quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carcasses of crossbred Murrah and Mediterranean, concentrate fed on traditional (corn/soybean or on agro-industrial residues (palm oil and coconut cakes was studied. The animals were sacrificed in a slaughterhouse, and physical and physical-chemical analyses in the carcasses were carried out after 24 hours, and instrumental color and texture analyses of the Longissimus dorsi were carried out 48 hours after cooling. The animals supplemented with palm oil cake had better carcass conformation and fat trim, and differences (P<0.05 in the percentage of fat in the carcass fat thickness and coverage were observed.

  1. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  2. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD ( 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P 0.05) between progeny postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. Therefore, results suggest 1) RFI measured during the postweaning growth phase is indicative of FE status in the finishing phase, 2) neither RFI nor sire ME(M) EPD negatively affected carcass or end-product quality, and 3) RFI and sire ME(M) EPD are not phenotypically associated.

  3. Providing supplemental milk to piglets preweaning improves the growth but not survival of gilt progeny compared with sow progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Y J; Collins, A M; Smits, R J; Thomson, P C; Holyoake, P K

    2012-12-01

    Gilt progeny have lighter weaning weights and greater postweaning medication and mortality rates compared with the progeny of older parity sows. Because weaning weight has been positively correlated with postweaning survival, this study aimed to determine whether the provision of supplemental milk preweaning could improve weaning weight and subsequent weights as well as postweaning survival of gilt progeny. The study was replicated in summer and winter as the effects of supplemental milk were expected to vary with season. The progeny of 80 gilts (parity 0) and 80 sows (parity 2 to 5) were allocated to both treatments: with or without supplemental milk in these 2 seasons with 5 sheds/season. Litter size was standardized (10 to 11 piglets) and each piglet was weighed at birth, d 21, weaning (4 wk), and 10 wk of age. Medications and mortalities were recorded both preweaning and postweaning. Pigs were housed within treatment groups postweaning, and ADFI and G:F were measured. Gilt progeny were 200 g lighter at birth in both replicates (P gilt and sow progeny by 800 g in summer (P gilts or sows (P > 0.05). Supplemental milk disappearance (the daily difference between the volume of milk provided and the residue left in the drinker) was greater in summer than winter (by 130 mL/piglet d(-1); P gilt progeny reached or exceeded that of nonsupplemented sow progeny. Gilt progeny had greater postweaning mortality (2.6%) and medication rates (6.2%) than sow progeny (1 and 2.2%, respectively; both P Gilt progeny also had less postweaning ADFI than sow progeny in winter (528 and 636 g, respectively; P 0.05). The hypothesis that supplemental milk provision did increase gilt progeny weaning weight was supported (especially in summer) but the supplementation had no effect on postweaning weights and survival. Efforts to improve gilt progeny postweaning growth and survival need to be aimed at improving health and immunity, not just weaning weight.

  4. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  5. Transportation Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  6. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    Keywords: Carcass, Dormer, meat yield, muscle composition, SAMM, sex. # Corresponding ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have ... This paper examines the effect of breed and sex on the body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of the ...

  7. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  8. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  9. Effects of Genetic and Non-genetic Factors on Body Weight and Carcass Related Traits in Two Strains of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtorabi E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on body weight and carcass traits of Japanese quails. Two strains of Japanese quail (150 wild quails and 150 white quails were used as base population. Four mating groups were used to produce progenies: wild male × wild female, white male × wild female, wild male × white female and white male × white female. Quails were weighed then slaughtered at 35 days of age. The carcass traits consisting carcass weight, breast meat weight, thigh meat weight, skin weight, and abdominal fat weight were recorded after slaughter and after removing feathers, internal organs, and digestive system. Based on these weights, the percentages of carcass, breast, thigh, skin, and abdominal fat were estimated. The effects of sex, hatch, and mating group on body and carcass composition traits were investigated. Sex had a significant effect on all traits (P < 0.01, with the exception of the thigh percentage. Moreover, female birds showed higher values for all traits. There were significant differences between hatches and mating groups and wild male × wild female offspring showed highest values of carcass weight, breast weight, thigh weight, skin weight and abdominal fat weight (P < 0.01. The heritability estimates for body and carcass related traits were moderate to high (0.22 to 0.66. The carcass percentage traits showed lower heritability, ranged from 0.22 to 0.33. Genetic correlations between body weight and carcass weight, skin weight, breast weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat weight were moderate to high (0.37 to 0.94. These results showed that selection for increasing body weight and decreasing abdominal fat will improve carcass related traits.

  10. Genetic parameters of Visual Image Analysis primal cut carcass traits of commercial prime beef slaughter animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P

    2017-10-01

    Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.

  11. Workers’ Conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

  12. Body traits, carcass characteristics and price of cull cows as affected by farm type, breed, age and calving to culling interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L; Sturaro, E; Bittante, G

    2017-04-01

    Beef production from cull cows is an additional source of income for dairy farms and greatly contributes to red meat production, but the sources of variation of live animal characteristics and the carcass traits of cull cows have rarely been examined. This study investigated the effects of the farm type, breed, age at slaughter (AGE) and calving to culling interval (Calv_Cull) on the body traits and carcass characteristics of dairy and dual-purpose cull cows. Data from 555 cull cows from 182 herds belonging to five farm types, characterised by a combination of housing and feeding systems, were recorded and analysed. Dairy breeds, such as Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss, and dual-purpose breeds (Simmental, Rendena) were included in the trait assessments. The day before slaughter, the cows were weighed and scored for body condition (BCS) and fleshiness, and then, their heart girth and wither height were measured. At the slaughterhouse, the carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), carcass conformation and fatness scores, carcass price per kg and carcass total value were obtained. On average, the cows were slaughtered at nearly 71±27 months of age, 285±187 days after the last calving; 615±95 kg BW; and provided a 257±51 kg CW. Nearly 50% of the cows fell within the BCS range of 2.75 to 3.50, and the carcasses were mostly graded in the lowest class of conformation and fatness scores. Cull cows from free-stall farms had a higher DP, carcass conformation score and price than those from traditional tie-stall farms. The breed influenced the AGE, live animal characteristics and carcass traits. Cows from dairy breeds were younger at slaughter, had a lower BCS and fleshiness, and greater body measurements, but a lower DP and carcass price than those from dual-purpose breeds, although differences between the breeds were found within both groups. The age of the cows at slaughter influenced the Calv_Cull and increased the BW, body measurements and CW, but not the

  13. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-10-02

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  14. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  15. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  16. Estimation of human dose to radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [Gifu Coll. of Medical Technology, Sekiichi, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the paper is the estimation of the effective dose due to radon progeny for Japanese population. The estimation was performed by a modified UNSCEAR equation. The equation was needed the radon concentration annual occupancy time and the tidal volume on Japanese people and the dose conversion coefficient are needed. Furthermore, not only these figures but also unattached fraction and aerosol distribution data obtained in Japan and the factor related to the Japanese living style were used in the calculation. We used following figures as representative value in Japan; radon concentration: 13(6 - 25) Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 6.7(3.5 - 13) Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors; the equilibrium factor: 0.45(0.35 - 0.57) indoors and 0.70(0.50 - 0.90) outdoors; the occupancy factor: 0.87 indoors, 0.09 outdoors and 0.04 in vehicle for male and 0.91 indoors, 0.06 outdoors and 0.03 in vehicle for female; the tidal volume: 7,000 (4,000 - 8,000) m{sup 3} for male, 6,200 (3,500 - 7,500) m{sup 3} for female. The effective doses due to radon progeny were estimated to be 0.45 mSv/y for male and 0.40 mSv/y for female, and the variance was -80 - +130%. These values were 1/2 - 1/3 as small as values shown by UNSCEAR 1993 Report and estimated by ICRP Publication 65. (author)

  17. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  18. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  19. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  20. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  1. Modelling radon progeny concentration variations in thermal spas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2007-02-01

    Radon and its short-lived progenies (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are well known radioactive indoor pollutants identified as the major radiation burden component of the thermal spa users. Monitoring of short-lived progeny concentration is of great importance for short-term dose estimations both for bathers and working personnel. A prediction model of the short-lived progeny concentration variations was developed and applied on published data of the thermal spas of Lesvos Island. The physical procedures involved were modeled in a set of differential equations describing radon progeny concentration variations on the basis of radon measurements. Published daughter data were fitted on model predictions adjusting non-measured parameters, e.g. attachment and deposition rate constants for attached and unattached progenies. Attachment rate constants were estimated between 50 and 200 h-1 while the deposition rate constants between 0.25 and 5 h-1 for attached progenies and 0.5 and 170 h-1 for the unattached ones. In addition, unattached 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi progenies were found to be shifted forward in respect to radon approximately 0.001 h, 0.05 h and 0.40 h respectively, while attached 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi progenies 0.05 h, 0.45 h and 0.65 h respectively.

  2. Carcass And Non-Carcass Characteristics Of Bunaji (White Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulls have significantly (P<0.05) heavier live weight, carcass weight, quantity of beef and hump muscles than cows. ... The total internal offal (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, trachea, stomach and intestines) are similar (P<0.05) between the bulls and cows and represented about 5.25±0.15 and 6 75±0.34% of the ...

  3. Multivariate approach of inter-relationships among growth, consumption and carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ulhôa Magnabosco

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the phenotypic inter-relationships between growth, feed intake and carcass traits in polled Nellore cattle, as well as to determine which bulls produced the most efficient progeny. The experiment was conducted in the feedlot of the Guaporé Pecuária (Livestock Company, OB Brand. The following traits were analyzed: initial live weight (ILW; final live weight (FLW; average daily gain (ADG; dry matter intake (DMI; gain:feed (G:F; residual feed intake (RFI; rib-eye area (REA; rump fat thickness (RF; backfat thickness at the 12th-13th rib (BF; weighted fat score (WF; and intramuscular fat percentage (IMF. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the inter-relationships between the studied traits. No significant phenotypic associations were observed between growth, carcass traits and residual feed intake, while the correlation between RFI and G:F was negative. Therefore, RFI may be used to select more nutritionally efficient animals without compromising growth or adult size. The selection of bulls with progeny showing low residual feed intake is recommended, as selection for low RFI tends to improve feed efficiency without compromising growth and development.

  4. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management... examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used throughout the... Impact Statement To examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used...

  5. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  6. RELATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SELFED AND OUTCROSSED PROGENY IN IMPATIENS CAPENSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Waller, Donald M

    1985-05-01

    This study compares survival and growth of progeny derived from chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers in Impatiens capensis, a forest annual. When progeny were grown in the field, CH seeds had significantly higher survival rates over winter (64% versus 56%), and the survival advantage of outcrossed progeny was not attributable to seed weight differences. No differences in seedling growth were detected. Greenhouse comparisons revealed no difference in seed survival but a 30% growth advantage to CH seedlings. We found no changes in developmental homeostasis of three leaf shape characters between inbred and outbred progeny, nor was there any difference in variability within CH and CL families. The outcrossing advantage observed in these experiments could not have been caused by avoidance of sib competition. Theory predicts that self-pollinated progenies may be more variable than outcrossed progenies if rare, recessive alleles are important contributors to genetic variances. Electrophoretic markers indicate that progeny derived from CH flowers are predominantly outcrossed (at least 54-97%). © 1985 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI GEN AROMA PADA PROGENI-PROGENI BACKCROSS ANTARA VARIETAS CIHERANG DENGAN PANDAN WANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarot Sasongko Hami Seno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted PCR has been considered as the most potential method for fragrant selection. RM223 is the only suitable marker to identify mutated badh2 gene of Pandan Wangi. This research applies RM223-assisted PCR in the introgression of fragrant gene (mutated badh2 of Pandan Wangi variety, to engineer non-transgenic fragrant variety with good agronomic traits as those of Ciherang. Gene introduction was carried out through site-directed crossing; Pandan Wangi was crossed and backcrossed to Ciherang until heterozygot BC5F1, followed by selfing to obtain homozygot BC5F2. RM223-assisted selection was conducted in each cross and backcross generation. RM223 was able to identify native, mutated and heterozygot badh2 of Ciherang, Pandan Wangi, and their cross/backcross progenies, respectively. Therefore, the introgression of mutated badh2 within progenies were observed, as well as the statues of badh2 gene (native/mutated and alleles (homozygot/heterozygot. Further backcross and selfing to obtain BC5F2 is in progress

  10. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  11. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey. ... indicate that supplementing growing turkey feed- containing 18%CP and 2800 Keal/kg ME with 0.05% methionine enhances productive performances, good carcass yield and production cost.

  12. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F-test. The British market requires more fat on beef carcass es than is required in the rest of Europe. In Germany they require as little as two millimeters of subcutaneous fat over the roasting joints on the carcasses. .... Butterfield ( 1963) has shown that there is little variation in muscle distribution in a wide range of beef ...

  13. Genotypic value in hybrid progenies of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gomes dos Santos Braz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genetic breeding of forage plants has increasingly contributed to the release of more productive plants. In this regard, evaluating the genotypic value is essential when aiming to rank genotypes based on the mean free of environmental factors. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the genotypic value of agronomic and nutritive value characters of three progenies of Panicum maximum. Hybrids were evaluated in a clonal test in an incomplete-randomized design with three treatments (progenies 1, 2, and 3 and two replications (clones. Six harvests were performed at 25cm from the ground level throughout one year. Progeny 2 provided better results for total and leaf dry mass yield, regrowth, and height, and lower incidence of leaf spot. Progenies 1 and 3 had a better response for qualitative characters such as higher crude protein and digestibility and lower lignin and fiber content. Hybrid progenies of P. maximum have forage characters of interest for breeding, and when using ‘Mombaça’ grass as parents, the progeny stands out for leaf production and resistance to leaf spot and for ‘Tanzania’ grass as parent has resulted in better forage quality.

  14. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  15. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  16. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  17. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were live weight, carcass weight, Carcass yields and the weights of breast, thigh-drumstick, wings, back, liver, gizzard, heart, tarsi, neck and head. It comes out from this study that in North chickens, except heart weight and carcass yields, slaughter weight was highly and positively correlated with hot carcass ...

  18. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  19. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and in vovo measured muscle and fat depth in Danish Texel and Shropshire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, Jan; Norberg, Elise; Berg, Peer

    2007-01-01

    .12 for Shropshire. Carcass conformation was highly heritable, 0.45 for Texel and 0.36 for Shropshire. The heritability for FAT was 0.11 for Texel and 0.19 for Shropshire. Genetic correlations between MD and FORM, and FD and FAT were positive and favourable. It was concluded that ultrasound measures on live animals......Genetic parameters for carcass traits and ultrasonic scanning measurements were estimated for Danish Texel and Shropshire, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data used in this study were collected from 1990 to 2005 by the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. A multivariate animal model...

  20. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  1. Productive performance, composition and carcass yield of lambs treated with zeranol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Cantón Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty weaned male hair lambs with average body live weight of 19.20 kg±2.18 kg (SD were used to evaluate the effect of zeranol on growth, composition and carcass yield. The animals were distributed into a completely randomized design with two treatments: no anabolics (control; and treatment with zeranol, using a subcutaneous dose of 10 mg/50 kg body live weight. Lambs received a diet with 15 g/100 g of crude protein and 2.8 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg dry matter for 84 days. At the end of experiment all animals were harvested and entire carcass and its parts (neck, shoulder, loin-rib, loin-skirt and leg were weighed to determine the composition of muscle and bone. Control animals had higher dry matter intake (1.01 vs 0.88 kg/d, average daily gain (198 vs 172 g/animal and total weight gain (12.9 vs 10.9 kg compared with those treated with zeranol. Zeranol group had higher muscle weight (1.76 vs 1.98 kg and less bone (0.86 vs 0.61 kg in leg section. The leg area represented about 16 kg/100 kg of the carcass weight for both treatments. No differences for other carcass traits were observed. Lambs treated with zeranol have better leg conformation because they develop more muscle mass, though their average feed intake and daily gain decrease.

  2. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  3. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  4. [Development of progeny after antenatal exposure to lithium oxybutyrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol'nikova, N M; Allakhverdiev, V D; Liubimov, B I

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on rats were made to study the effect of lithium hydroxybutyrate and to compare it with lithium carbonate effect on the development of the progeny after antenatal exposure to the drugs. It was established that the lithium salts under study did not produce any conclusive effect on the postnatal development of young rats. The activating component was discovered to be predominant in the action of lithium hydroxybutyrate, whereas the action of lithium carbonate was marked by the inhibitory component. As regards the effect on the development of the progeny, lithium hydroxybutyrate was less hazardous than lithium carbonate.

  5. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  6. Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    Although member states are obliged to transpose directives into domestic law in a conformable manner and receive considerable time for their transposition activities, we identify three levels of transposition outcomes for EU directives: conformable, partially conformable and non-conformable...... and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...

  7. Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... rent progenies of Bt transgenic rice crosses to conventional rice varieties was analyzed by Western dot blotting. The samples derived from GUS positive plants of. Bt transgenic rice crossed to conventional rice varieties were found to produce a higher level of toxin protein, but with greater range of variation.

  8. Selection of carioca common bean progenies resistant to white mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sérgio Batista Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A backcross breeding program between commercial common bean cultivars (VC3 and M20 and sources of resistance(Ex-Rico 23 and G122 was conducted with a view toward selecting carioca (beige with brown stripes progenies resistant to whitemold. Forty-eight progenies (27 F2:6 BC1 and 21 F1:5 BC2 were evaluated for yield, growth habit, grain type and pathogen responseby two methodologies for assessment (“straw test” and “oxalic acid”. The methods were effective in discriminating the progenies,showing differing results, for they may assess different resistance mechanisms. Thus, they should be used together. Simultaneousselection for yield, growth habit, grain type and white mold resistance proved to be viable. The most appropriate strategy was to uselower intensities of selection and prioritize traits such as resistance and grain type, which are essential for commercial acceptance.Two progenies proved their superiority for the breeding program for they combine the traits of resistance and favorable grain type.

  9. The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy grapes. L Sun, G Zhang, A Yan, H Xu. Abstract. The cross between different ploidy grape was one of the effective ways to obtain new seedless cultivars, in this study, through testing the changes of the ovule weight and observing its anatomical structure, the ...

  10. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  11. Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR, Southern blotting and Western dot blotting analysis confirmed that cry1Ab gene was transferred to the genome of conventional rice varieties and it was highly expressed in the different progenies of Bt rice crossed to conventional rice varieties. Among these lines, the highest Bt toxin protein content reached 2.88% of ...

  12. Thoron and thoron progeny measurements in German clay houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, S; Meisenberg, O; Feistenauer, P; Tschiersch, J

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, elevated thoron concentrations were found in houses built of unfired clay. In this study experiments were carried out in 17 traditional and modern clay houses in Germany to obtain an overview of indoor thoron in such houses. Long-term measurements over an 8-week period were performed using a newly developed Unattended Battery-Operated Progeny Measurement Device (UBPM) for measuring thoron progeny. This instrument uses a high-voltage electric field to precipitate radon and thoron progeny on nuclear track detectors. Additional active and passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were performed. The equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration was found to be between 2 and 10 Bq m(-3). Gas concentrations were found to be between 20 and 160 Bq m(-3) for radon and between 10 and 90 Bq m(-3) for thoron 20 cm from the wall. The thoron exposure contributes significantly to the inhalation dose of the dwellers (0.6-4 mSv a(-1)). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Body weight and carcass dressing as affected by sex class, breed type, muscle thickness, age and provenance of Venezuelan cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Huerta-Leidnez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets of 439 fed males (bulls and steers (MALES and 155 fed cattle (bulls, steers and heifers (MIXED chosen by their good finish and cutting-out potential were used to study variation in body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (DRESSING according to muscle thickness score (MUSCLING, breed-type, region of provenance (PROVENANCE, sex class, and age by dentition. Correlations between the dependent variables and carcass conformation were analyzed. In MALES, MUSCLING and PROVENANCE affected DRESSING (P<0.05, 1.4% in favor of cattle with thicker MUSCLING, and 1.6% in favor of cattle originated from the Andean region versus their Mid-Western region counterparts. Sex class (in MIXED, and PROVENANCE (in MALES, affected both BW and CW (P<0.01. In MIXED, an age exceeding 36 months, raised the CW (P<0.05. In MALES, MUSCLING was associated (P<0.01 with carcass conformation (r=0.53 and DRESSING (r=0.18. In MIXED, sex class  breed-type interaction tended to affect DRESSING (P=0.055 with the Zebu type surpassing the Dairy type in DRESSING (64% vs. 54%, respectively while bulls and steers performed different in DRESSING, depending on breed-type (P<0.06.

  14. Carcass traits of young bulls in dual-purpose cattle: genetic parameters and genetic correlations with veal calf, type and production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croué, I; Fouilloux, M N; Saintilan, R; Ducrocq, V

    2017-06-01

    The profitability of dual-purpose breeding farms can be increased through genetic improvement of carcass traits. To develop a genetic evaluation of carcass traits of young bulls, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated in three French dual-purpose breeds. Genetic correlations between these traits and veal calf, type and milk production traits were also estimated. Slaughter performances of 156 226 Montbeliarde, 160 361 Normande and 8691 Simmental young bulls were analyzed with a multitrait animal model. In the three breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (0.12 to 0.19±0.01 to 0.04) and carcass conformation (0.21 to 0.26±0.01 to 0.04) and slightly lower for age at slaughter (0.08 to 0.17±0.01 to 0.03). For all three breeds, genetic correlations between carcass weight and carcass conformation were moderate and favorable (0.30 to 0.52±0.03 to 0.13). They were strong and favorable (-0.49 to -0.71±0.05 to 0.15) between carcass weight and age at slaughter. Between age at slaughter and carcass conformation, they were low and unfavorable to moderate and favorable (-0.25 to 0.10±0.06 to 0.18). Heavier young bulls tend to be better conformed and slaughtered earlier. Genetic correlations between corresponding young bulls and veal production traits were moderate and favorable (0.32 to 0.70±0.03 to 0.09), implying that selecting sires for veal calf production leads to select sires producing better young bulls. Genetic correlations between young bull carcass weight and cow size were moderately favorable (0.22 to 0.45±0.04 to 0.10). Young bull carcass conformation had moderate and favorable genetic correlations (0.11 to 0.24±0.04 to 0.10) with cow width but moderate and unfavorable genetic correlations (-0.21 to -0.36±0.03 to 0.08) with cow height. Taller cows tended to produce heavier young bulls and thinner cows to produce less conformed ones. Genetic correlations between carcass traits of young bulls and cow muscularity traits were low to

  15. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used throughout the United States. This... (EIS) to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used... Doc No: 2013-31194] [[Page 79658

  16. Instructions for collection and shipment of avian and mammalian carcasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for collecting and shipping wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, and samples extracted from animals to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) to...

  17. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Carcass mass and fat content of the native chicken lines were less than in a ... Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations of minced carcass .... characteristics and consumer acceptability of meat from native chicken lines.

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  19. growth and carcass traits of oxen from four different breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mara LOS

    South African grading standards, and thus their price per kg relative to the younger ages. ... returns. Keywords: Growth, carcass traits, maturity type, steers, age, natural pasture, carcass classification, incisors ..... Table 3 Average live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage (± s.e.) of Simmentaler crossbred,.

  20. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section...

  1. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Abstract. Carcass classification is an essential part of efficient animal production, price fixing and meeting consumer demands. Carcass classification (or grading) is based on the description of carcasses by means of clearly defined characteristics that are of prime importance to the meat industry, retailers ...

  2. Genetic relationship between growth and carcass traits in Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between growth and carcass traits in South African Large White pigs were estimated. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were generated using a maternal effects model in ASREML. Data analysed were on 13 703 pigs from 28 herds tested between 1990 and 2007, and 4 128 carcasses ...

  3. Copepod carcasses as microbial hot spots for pelagic denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Larsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are exposed to a high non-predatory mortality and their decomposing carcasses act as microniches with intensified microbial activity. Sinking carcasses could thereby represent anoxic microenvironment sustaining anaerobic microbial pathways in otherwise oxic water columns. Using non-invasive....... The importance of carcass associated denitrification could be highly significant in O2 depleted environments such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ...

  4. Behavior of radon progeny in low frequency electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, K; Yamamoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Whether the electro-magnetic (EM) fields are carcinogenic or not still remains to be discussed from scientific point of view. Recently a possibility was pointed out that increased deposition of radon progeny in the EM-fields should enhance exposure dose to internal body. We investigated the behavior of charged sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn progeny and aerosols containing them by measuring the pattern and the magnitude of the deposition rate of decay products on both CR-39 track detectors and imaging plates under various conditions. We concluded that the attachment to wire cables should be increased mainly by electric component of low frequency EM-fields and possibly by electric field induced by strong changing magnetic ones.

  5. Prediction of genetic gains from selection in Arabica coffee progenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Baião de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gains from selection for yield were estimated in Arabica coffee progenies carrying rust-resistance genes. Theexperiment in augmented block design was installed in Três Pontas, state of Minas Gerais. Three blocks were established with sixplants per plot, spaced 3.50 x 0.90 m, in 96 regular (F2 progenies and two control treatments. The plant response to rust wasevaluated on a grade scale in 2008. Yield (bags per hectare was estimated in the growing seasons 2005 to 2008. Significantdifferences between treatments for yield were observed in all harvests, except 2005. The presence of genetic variability amongprogenies allowed significant gain from selection for yield. Under the experimental conditions of this study, selection for yield can beperformed in the first high-yield year, without major losses compared to genetic gain from selection for yield when based on the meanof four harvests.

  6. On conformally related -waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conformal transformations; conformal Killing vectors; -waves. Abstract. Brinkmann [1] has shown that conformally related distinct Ricci flat solutions are -waves. Brinkmann's result has been generalized to include the conformally invariant source terms. It has been shown that [4] if g i k and g ¯ i k ( = − 2 g i k , : a ...

  7. Selection of arabica coffee progenies tolerant to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Lara Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed

  8. Prevalence of salmonella following immersion chilling for matched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  9. Progeny Clustering: A Method to Identify Biological Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenyue W.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Slater, John H.; Qutub, Amina A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the optimal number of clusters is a major challenge in applying cluster analysis to any type of dataset, especially to biomedical datasets, which are high-dimensional and complex. Here, we introduce an improved method, Progeny Clustering, which is stability-based and exceptionally efficient in computing, to find the ideal number of clusters. The algorithm employs a novel Progeny Sampling method to reconstruct cluster identity, a co-occurrence probability matrix to assess the clustering stability, and a set of reference datasets to overcome inherent biases in the algorithm and data space. Our method was shown successful and robust when applied to two synthetic datasets (datasets of two-dimensions and ten-dimensions containing eight dimensions of pure noise), two standard biological datasets (the Iris dataset and Rat CNS dataset) and two biological datasets (a cell phenotype dataset and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reverse phase protein array (RPPA) dataset). Progeny Clustering outperformed some popular clustering evaluation methods in the ten-dimensional synthetic dataset as well as in the cell phenotype dataset, and it was the only method that successfully discovered clinically meaningful patient groupings in the AML RPPA dataset. PMID:26267476

  10. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  11. Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass: a tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Behr, Oliver; Brinkmann, Robert; Etterson, Matthew A.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Korner-Nievergelt, Pius; Roth, Tobias; Niermann, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for the R-package carcass. It starts with a short overview of common methods used to estimate mortality based on carcass searches. Then, it guides step by step through a simple example. First, the proportion of animals that fall into the search area is estimated. Second, carcass persistence time is estimated based on experimental data. Third, searcher efficiency is estimated. Fourth, these three estimated parameters are combined to obtain the probability that an animal killed is found by an observer. Finally, this probability is used together with the observed number of carcasses found to obtain an estimate for the total number of killed animals together with a credible interval.

  12. Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (Marb, respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp with the most significant evidence for linkage (p<10−5. Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

  13. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  14. Growth Response, Haematology and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty (180) unsexed day old broiler chicks of Cobb strain to investigate the effects of feeding diets supplemented with Petevaria alliacaea root meal (PRM) on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The broiler chicken were brooded together for 7 ...

  15. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  16. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain the performance, economics of production and carcass characteristics of broilers exposed to different levels of restricted feeding in a humid tropical environment. Four (4) dietary feed restriction treatments: T0- full or ad libitum fed - control, T75%, T50% and T25% of full or ad libitum ...

  17. Performance nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted using one hundred and eighty (180) day-old Hubbard broiler chicks to determine growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed replacement levels of rumen filtrate fermented shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) meal for groundnut meal. The chicks ...

  18. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  19. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Haematology of Grower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred seventy growing Japanese male quail birds were fed with parboiled (PB) and varying boiling time of African Breadfruit, ABF (Treculia africana) seed to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of the growing male quail fed the African Breadfruit seed. Six dietary ...

  20. Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of replacing maize with cocoa pod husk (CPH) in the diets of broilers on the performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of the birds. CPH was sun-dried, milled and incorporated in the diets at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% replacement levels for maize. There was a significant ...

  1. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare the bodyweight and body measurements, carcass composition, and characteristics of major visceral organs in male and female Pekin ducks. A total of 80 hybrid SM3 Heavy ducks were kept in a conventional building and fed complete commercial diets ad libitum. The male and female ...

  2. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of tiger nuts (Cypers esculentus) rejects on the growth performance, carcass weight and hematological parameters of weaner rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with Diets A being a commercial growers' mash as control diet; Diet B: 5% ...

  3. Effects of calpain genotypes on meat tenderness and carcass traits of Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Davis, M E

    2011-10-01

    Relationships of the calpain system with meat tenderness and carcass traits were examined for 94 purebred Angus bulls with genotypes of the calpain classified by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism) analysis. Designing of primers based on the calpain regulatory subunit (CAPNS) and u-calpian (CAPN1) genes. Bulls from 15 months of age were slaughtered, and carcass traits, including fat thickness (FAT); longissimus muscle area (LMA); percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH); hot carcass weight (HCW); marbling score (MAR); and quality grade (QUL), were analyzed. Measurements regarding meat tenderness involved activities of calpastatin (CAC), u-calpain (UAC), m-calpain (MAC), Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI). Statistical significances of the calpain genotypes accounted for variations in MAR and QUL at CAPNS locus, and both loci explained variations of UAC and MAC. Significant mean differences in genotypes of CAPNS locus were found for MAR (BB > AB > AA) and QUL (AB > BB > AA). UAC showed significant correlations with MAC, CAC, MFI, FAT, and MAR, and we found that MAC correlated with WBS, FAT, HCW, MAR, and QUL. Strong positive correlation detected between LMA and HCW, and MAR and QUL, and a negative correlation between MFI and MAR was estimated. From the result it may be possible to use the calpain genotypes classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to estimate UAC and MAC precisely regardless meat tenderness and to improve MAR and QUL of beef cattle.

  4. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  5. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE. Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations.

  6. Microbiological, Physicochemical, and Histological Analyses of Broiler Carcasses with Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Nery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Broiler carcasses presenting cachexia, as determined by the federal inspection agency, were submitted to microbiological, physicochemical, and histological analyses. Over a 2-month period, 278 carcasses from straight-run flocks of 43- to 48-d-old Cobb broilers from two different farms were condemned due to cachexia and subjected to gross examination in the final inspection sector. Out of the 278 carcasses, 131 did not present any gross signs of infection, and were submitted to microbiological analyses (n=83, physicochemical analyses (n=28, and viscera and muscle samples of 20 carcasses were evaluated by histology. The microbiological results of cachectic carcasses complied with the current legislation on the consumption of fresh poultry meat. Lower lipid and higher protein, moisture, and volatile matter contents, and higher pH (p<0.05 were determined in the cachectic than in the control carcasses from a same flock, but no ash content differences. All carcasses were negative for hydrogen sulfide. The histological analysis showed that65% of the cachectic carcasses did not have any muscle injury, 20% showed mild hyalinization and 15% moderate proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. The findings of this study indicate the importance of further technical and scientific studies on the utilization of cachectic broiler carcasses for the manufacture of edible products, rather than whole carcasses rendering, thereby preventing the resulting economic losses.

  7. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  8. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  9. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  10. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  11. GENETIC VARIABILITY IN YOUNG PROGENIES OF AÇAIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at studying the genetic variability in young progenies of açaizeiro population. The experiment wasinstalled in the physical base of Tomé-Açu of the Embrapa Eastern Amazônia, involving the study of 25 progenies of half sibdelineated in látice 5 x 5. The experiment consisted of two repetitions and five plants per plot. Plant height (AP and diameter (DFC,number of live leaves (NFV and tillers (NP were obtained twelve months after planting. The analyses of variance showed that,except plant height and number of leaves characteristics, it had significant differences 5 % of probability for diameter plant andnumber of tillers. Values estimated in the superior extremity of the interval of variation for the characteristic appraised point outpromising individuals to be selected for producing fruits, regarding diameter of the plant, due to the fact that these characters arecorrelated positively. The biggest estimates of genetic parameters had been gotten in relation to the characteristic number of tillers,followed by plant diameter.

  12. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H. [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  13. CARCASS COMPOSITION OF THE GIRAFFE GIRAT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of total mass iif the hodv com- ponents of adult girlffe are given in Table 3. Ctr aass co nlp o s i t i{' ) tl. 'fhe available data from dressed carcasses of adult giraff'e can. for cornparative purposes, only be cliscused in terms of fcrur ma1or coil]ponents; these are buttock foreleg. neck and a component referred.

  14. Room model with three modal distributions of attached 220Rn progeny and dose conversion factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N

    2007-01-01

    Jacobi parametric room model was extended to the three modal distribution of aerosols, and applied to (220)Rn progeny. The computer program was developed to calculate ratios of progeny activity concentrations in different modes to (220)Rn concentration. The ratios are relatively small and they are given as functions on ventilation rate. Dose conversion factor (DCF) for (220)Rn progeny was calculated as 4.5 mSv WLM(-1), which is smaller by over three times than that for (222)Rn progeny.

  15. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  16. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  17. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ripoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3 than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1. Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R- that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour.

  18. All eggs are not equal: the maternal environment affects progeny reproduction and developmental fate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Harvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal effects on progeny traits are common and these can profoundly alter progeny life history. Maternal effects can be adaptive, representing attempts to appropriately match offspring phenotype to the expected environment and are often mediated via trade-offs between progeny number and quality. Here we have investigated the effect of maternal food availability on progeny life history in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The maternal environment affects both reproductive traits and progeny development. Comparisons of the progeny of worms from high and low maternal food environments indicates that low maternal food availability reduces progeny reproduction in good environments, increases progeny reproduction in poor environments and decreases the likelihood that progeny will develop as dauer larvae. These analyses also indicate that the effects on progeny are not a simple consequence of changes in maternal body size, but are associated with an increase in the size of eggs produced by worms at low maternal food availabilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the maternal environment affects both progeny reproduction and development in C. elegans and therefore that all progeny are not equal. The observed effects are consistent with changes to egg provisioning, which are beneficial in harsh environments, and of changes to progeny development, which are beneficial in harsh environments and detrimental in benign environments. These changes in progeny life history suggest that mothers in poor quality environments may be producing larger eggs that are better suited to poor conditions.

  19. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1 and 3.5 (cohort 2 years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3, 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2, and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD P P A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

  20. Qualitative aspects of the carcass and meat of young steers Devon finished in tropical pasture, receiving different levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of young steers Devon, finished in tropical pasture (association of millet pasture - Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke and Alexander grass – Brachiaria plantaginea, receiving different levels of supplementation (0; 0,5% or 1,0% of body weight. The animals had an average initial weight of 300 kg and 15 months of age, and were slaughtered at an average weight of 353.0 kg. Supplementation with concentrate ration to the level of 1.0% of body weight (BW of animal provided carcasses with better quality (higher hot and cold carcass, and greater fat thickness, which resulted in lower cooling loss; carcasses more compact (less long, with better conformation and thicker cushion when compared to non-supplemented. Furthermore, animals fed only pasture, showed a lower percentage of carcasses forequarter (37.6 vs 38.9 e 38.8%, with a higher percentage of muscle (65.5 vs 59.6 e 59.5 %, which resulted in greater relative muscle tissue: bone and edible portion: bone than those supplemented. As the sensory and organoleptic qualities, it was found that meat from animals supplemented with up to 1.0% of body weight, showed greater losses to cooking (24.1 % vs 18.0 % and required greater force to shear the fiber (3.37 vs 2.05 (kgf/ cm3 compared to meat non-supplemented animals. However, the increased level of supplementation of 0.5% to 1.0% of BW improved palatability and reduced meat texture.

  1. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  2. Radon progeny deposition in track-detection diffusion chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Simeonov, G

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity dependence for cylindrical diffusion chambers that are used for radon track-detection measurements on the deposition fraction of radon progeny atoms has been theoretically studied (sensitivity is the ratio: area track density/integrated sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn activity concentration). Experimentally, the sensitivity values of both the metal- and plastic-made chambers were determined. Results indicate that the experimental sensitivity for metal chambers is in accordance with the theoretical model while a deviation of 15% is observed for plastic chambers. The uncertainty in the sensitivity values that is related to possible variations of the diffusion coefficient for sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po atoms was estimated to be less than 10%. (author)

  3. First detection of radon progeny recoil tracks by MIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.; Guillaudin, O.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Descombes, T.; Fourel, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Lebreton, L.; Maire, D.; Colas, P.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Busto, J.; Fouchez, D.; Brunner, J.; Tao, C.

    2017-06-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a μ-TPC project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection strategy is based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of nuclear recoil energy and 3D direction from the WIMP elastic scattering on target nuclei. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of NRs produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  4. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  5. Conformal Carroll groups

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G W; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Conformal extensions of Levy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labelled by an integer $k$. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to Conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by "Carrollian photons". Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related t...

  6. Genetic parameters and estimated genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic parameters and to estimate genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies. The experiments were carried out during three years, in a randomized block design, with six replicates and ten plants per plot, in three representative Hevea crop regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-two progenies were evaluated, from three to five years old, for rubber yield and annual girth growth. Genetic gain was estimated with the multi-effect index (MEI. Selection by progenies means provided greater estimated genetic gain than selection based on individuals, since heritability values of progeny means were greater than the ones of individual heritability, for both evaluated variables, in all the assessment years. The selection of the three best progenies for rubber yield provided a selection gain of 1.28 g per plant. The genetic gains estimated with MEI using data from early assessments (from 3 to 5-year-old were generally high for annual girth growth and rubber yield. The high genetic gains for annual girth growth in the first year of assessment indicate that progenies can be selected at the beginning of the breeding program. Population effective size was consistent with the three progenies selected, showing that they were not related and that the population genetic variability is ensured. Early selection with the genetic gains estimated by MEI can be made on rubber tree progenies.

  7. Cellulose content of tuber cell walls of progeny from a cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two transgenic potato lines, csr2-1 and csr4-8, containing two different antisense genes, csr2 and csr4, respectively, were crossed to investigate the possibility of achieving reduction in cellulose content in the tuber cell walls of the progeny. The progeny containing both transgenes (double csr2/csr4 transformant) exhibited ...

  8. Relation of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn between progenies of mate-tree and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Cava Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mate tea tree (Ilex Paraguariensis St. Hil. has considerable growth in acid a low fertility soils. The knowledge of soil and plant relation will contribute to genetic improvement programs, as highly capable progenies in nutrient acquisition may be selected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interference of provenance and, or progenies, in relations established among the extractable contents of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn, via Mehlich-1 (1:10; and EDTA (1%, with the corresponding contents in the mate tea tree leaves. In the experiment two provenances, Ivaí-PR and Barão de Cotegipe-RS, with five progenies each considered as treatments. The samples were distributed in four randomized blocks, totalizing 120 plant leaf samples, related to 120 soil samples of a Red Distrophic Latosol. The results were analyzed and fitted in regression equations. In Ivaí provenance Zn and Mn from the soil correlated with their contents in the leaves for progeny 04, for both extracts. For provenances 08 and 10, soil Mn via EDTA correlated with leaf Mn contents, while via Mehlich-1 only for progeny 10. In the provenance of Barão de Cotegipe, the correlations between soil and leaves for Zn, Fe and Cu occurred for the EDTA extract in the progenies 61, 65 and 69 respectively. For Mn and Cu, via Melich-1 the correlations occurred for progenies 53 and 69 respectively, and still for Cu, via EDTA, for progeny 53.

  9. Live and carcass measurements of Nigerian dwarf sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practical advantages of being able to assess carcass composition from live measurements have long been realised as such findings could be used in breeding programmes especially in selection of mutton lambs. This study examined an array of live and carcass measurements from forty Nigerian Dwarf Sheep (NDS) ...

  10. Factors determining the carcass value of culled dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Stokvisch, P.E.; Korver, S.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 763 cows culled during the period September 1973–May 1982 on two experimental farms have been analysed. The carcass value of each individual cow was adjusted for seasonal fluctuations in price per kilogram carcass weight. The grade was assessed through in vivo scoring by experts of a

  11. Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight of chilled half carcass and primal cut as well as the proportions of primal cuts relative to chilled half carcass weight percentage cook yield, cooking loss, lean meat, bone as well as meat to bone ratio were determined. The results showed that leg cut had highest percentage weight of 40.11, followed by shoulder cut ...

  12. Econometric analysis of the determinants of broiler carcass weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate rationale behind the choice of feeding method in broiler management; identifying the variables that influence carcass weights of broilers as well as comparing the mean carcass weights of broilers raised under feed restriction and ad libitum in FUTO Farm, Owerri, Nigeria. Data were collected ...

  13. Growth, carcass and sensory traits of broiler chickens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 28-day feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered for carcass analysis and sensory traits (colour, appearance, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability). The data on growth, carcass and sensory traits were collected and analyzed using ANOVA and means separated using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result on ...

  14. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  15. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of feeding systems on carcass characteristics and ... conducted to link animal breed and production system to carcass quality from Mubende goats. ..... characteristics of intact male Mubende goats fed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum in.

  16. Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%. When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45 were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*, exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males, however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration.

  17. Carcass characteristics and qualitative attributes of pork from immunocastrated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Moi, Marta; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara Correia; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    2013-11-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration.

  18. Carcass and muscle yields of ostriches as influenced by genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass and muscle yields of ostriches as influenced by genotype. L C Hoffman, M M Brand, M Muller, S W Cloete. Abstract. Live, carcass, leg and muscle weight (kg) as well as dressing percentage were compared between South African Black (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) ostriches, purebred Zimbabwean Blue Neck ...

  19. Estimation of carcass composition and fat depots by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to establish prediction equations for subcutaneous adipocyte area and body and tail measurements to estimate carcass composition and fat depots of indigenous Akkaraman lambs. As a major carcass tissue, body fat depots play an important role in deciding the optimum slaughter weight and ...

  20. Fat quality of South African pigs with different carcass classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carcasses of South African pigs are classified into six groups (PORCUS) according to their calculated lean meat content and measured backfat thickness. Pigs with the highest lean meat content and lowest backfat thickness belong to the P group. Fat quality of backfat from 2107 pig carcasses, sampled within the ...

  1. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to establish non-genetic factors affecting growth and carcass traits in Large White and Landrace pigs. This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ...

  2. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication...

  3. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 381.77 Section 381.77 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... examination by the inspector, shall be held for further examination. The identity of each such carcass...

  4. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... examination by the inspector, shall be held for further examination. The identity of each such carcass...

  5. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four half carcasses of small East African goats (8 females 8 entire males and 8 castrated males) were jointed into seven joints namely: hind leg, chump, loin, rib, breast, neck and fore leg. These joints were further dissected into the separable components: muscle, bone and fat. The carcasses of these goats, were ...

  6. Carcass Characteristics of Boer x Malawi Crossbred Goats at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental patterns of carcass traits were studied in _ and 3/4 Boer x Malawi crossbred goats slaughtered at 30, 35 and 40 kg live weights. Empty body, hot and cold carclass weights, and head proportions differed among the three slaughter groups. There were no significant differences in carcass and total internal ...

  7. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Growth, carcass and meat characteristics of Karayaka growing rams fed sugar beet pulp, partially substituting for grass hay as forage. Meat Sci. 70, 7-14. Ozluturk,A., Tuzemen, N., Yanar, M., Esenbuga, N. & Dursun, E., 2004. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, ...

  8. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... In addition to the accelerated glycolysis caused by electrical stimulation to lower the. pH of carcasses after slaughter, stress before or at slaughter could also play a part in lowering the pH and stimulating proteolysis and gluconeogenesis by the secretion of corticosteroid hormones. Carcasses from ...

  9. Developmental differences in carcass, meat quality and muscle fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was an important factor in the variation of carcass, meat quality traits and characteristics of muscle fibres. The main differences between the breeds at the same age were LEA, BF, IMF and ash contents, and fast glycolytic MyHC-IIb in the mRNA level. Keywords: Breeds, Lantang, age, muscle fibres, carcass, meat quality ...

  10. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .restriction endonuclease assay on carcass characteristics of commer- cial cfossbred pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci.12,973. SATHER, A.P., JONES, S.D.M. & ROBERTSON, W., 1989. The effect of genotype on predicted lean yield in heavy pig carcasses using the. Henessey Grading Probe, the Destron PG-100 and the Fat-O-Meter.

  11. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scalding at 60"C (shower) and mechanical removal of hair) were adhered to and initial carcass measurements were ... then chilled for 24 h at 2"C whereafter cold carcass mass was determined. Factory specifications and ... may be of little or no benefit to the producer since no signifrcant differences were observed in either ...

  12. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the dissimilar diets fed. Highly significant correlation coefficients u,ere obtained br:tween body water content and the content of es- sential amino acids in the carcass. Carcass arnino acid analysis couid the'refore, under set conditions, be calculated from the body water content by using predetermined regression equations.

  13. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs housed in sawdust fermentative pigstiesThis study determined the effect of space allowance on performance, carcass grade and physiological variables of pigs reared in sawdust fermentative pigsties. A total of 699 crossbred (Landrace ...

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was ENFP = 0.02) was detected for marbling score at centimorgan (cM) 54 on chromosome 2. Suggestive QTL were detected for fat yield at 50 cM, for retail product yield at 53 cM, and for USDA yield grade at 63 cM on chromosome 1, for marbling score at 56 cM, for retail product yield at 70 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 79 cM on chromosome 3, for marbling score at 44 cM, for hot carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  15. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... by the probability that at least one pig contributing to the pool was seropositive, the log-transformed number of seropositive pigs delivered to the abattoir on the same day and weekday. No other factors were found to be significant (P>0.05). Large reductions in the number of seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter......The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...

  16. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  17. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  18. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal alpha-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  19. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  20. The impact of high level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological impact of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10 fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated pre-chill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine treate...

  1. OZONE DECONTAMINATION OF CHILLED POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a strong oxidant and disinfecting agent. The bactericidal effects of ozone have been documented on a wide range of organisms, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the effect of treatment with gaseous ozone on microbial contamination (Total Aerobic Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Microrganism Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Total and Fecal Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and sensory characteristics of poultry carcasses were investigated. N.50 carcasses were divided into two parts. The first batch was used as control and stored in a coolroom at 0-1°C; the second one was kept in another cool room, with the same dimensions and at the same temperature, provided with an ozone generator, working for 60 minutes every 4 hours in order to reach an ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm. Significative differences were found between the control batch and the treated one for Total Aerobic Counts (at 32° and 20°C and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella arizonae, Campylobacter fetus spp fetus and Listeria monocytogenes were sometimes found in both batches. Acceptable sensory qualities were observed until day 14 and 20 after slaughter for the control and the treated batch, respectively.

  2. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  3. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  4. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  5. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  6. Inference of genetic diversity in popcorn S3 progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Ribeiro, R M; Ramos, H C C; Boechat, M S B; Santos, J S; Mafra, G S; Kamphorst, S H; de Lima, V J; Vivas, M; de Souza Filho, G A

    2016-05-09

    Molecular markers are a useful tool for identification of complementary heterotic groups in breeding programs aimed at the production of superior hybrids, particularly for crops such as popcorn in which heterotic groups are not well-defined. The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 genotypes of tropical popcorn to identify possible heterotic groups for the development of superior hybrids. Four genotypes of high genetic value were studied: hybrid IAC 125, strain P2, and varieties UENF 14 and BRS Angela. In addition, 43 endogamous S3 progenies obtained from variety UENF 14 were used. Twenty-five polymorphic SSR-EST markers were analyzed. A genetic distance matrix was obtained and the following molecular diversity parameters were estimated: number of alleles, number of effective alleles, polymorphism information content (PIC), observed and expected heterozygosities, Shannon diversity index, and coefficient of inbreeding. We found a moderate PIC and high diversity index, indicating that the studied population presents both good discriminatory ability and high informativeness for the utilized markers. The dendrogram built based on the dissimilarity matrix indicated six distinct groups. Our findings demonstrate the genetic diversity among the evaluated genotypes and provide evidence for heterotic groups in popcorn. Furthermore, the functional genetic diversity indicates that there are informative genetic markers for popcorn.

  7. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  8. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  9. Development of a Spectrophotometric System to Detect White Striping Physiopathy in Whole Chicken Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffano-Schiffo, Maria Victoria; Castro-Giraldez, Marta; Colom, Ricardo J.; Fito, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high intensification of poultry production in recent years, white chicken breast striping is one of the most frequently seen myopathies. The aim of this research was to develop a spectrophotometry-based sensor to detect white striping physiopathy in chicken breast meat in whole chicken carcasses with skin. Experiments were carried out using normal and white striping breasts. In order to understand the mechanism involved in this physiopathy, the different tissues that conform each breast were analyzed. Permittivity in radiofrequency (40 Hz to 1 MHz) was measured using two different sensors; a sensor with two flat plates to analyze the whole breast with skin (NB or WSB), and a two needles with blunt-ended sensor to analyze the different surface tissues of the skinless breast. In the microwave range (500 MHz to 20 GHz), permittivity was measured as just was described for the two needles with blunt-ended sensor. Moreover, fatty acids composition was determined by calorimetry techniques from −40 °C to 50 °C at 5 °C/min after previously freeze-drying the samples, and pH, microstructure by Cryo-SEM and binocular loupe structure were also analyzed. The results showed that the white striping physiopathy consists of the partial breakdown of the pectoral muscle causing an increase in fatty acids, reducing the quality of the meat. It was possible to detect white striping physiopathy in chicken carcasses with skin using spectrophotometry of radiofrequency spectra. PMID:28471378

  10. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  11. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, K G; Kloss, C; Lyles, J; Felderhoff, J; Fedynich, A M; Henke, S E; Roberson, J A

    2000-07-01

    Survival of Trichomonas gallinae was examined in white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica) carcasses to assess whether birds that have been dead up to 8 hr can be sampled reliably for this protozoan. Carcasses of 100 T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves were separated into four groups of 25 birds, representing 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr post mortem sampling intervals and placed into an environmental chamber maintained at 27 C and 75% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae were isolated in 96, 100, 100, and 92% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. The experiment was repeated with another 100 carcasses of T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves placed in the environmental chamber, this time maintained at 27 C and 40% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae occurred in 96, 100, 96, and 100% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. Across both trials, the overall ability to detect positive birds from sampling carcasses up to 8 hrs post mortem was 97%. An a posteriori experiment was conducted in which 23 and 18 carcasses from the second trial were maintained in the environmental chamber at 27 C and 40% relative humidity and resampled at 24 and 48 hr post mortem, respectively. Live trichomonads were isolated from 91 and 44% of the carcasses at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Results suggest live T. gallinae can be obtained from dove carcasses reliably up to 8 hr and possibly up to 24 hr after host death. The ability for T. gallinae to survive within this time interval can aid wildlife personnel in monitoring this protozoan at hunter check stations or obtaining samples from recently killed birds.

  12. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  13. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Grunberg, G; Rathsman, J; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges; Rathsman, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factoriallyincreasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increaseis not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations betweenobservables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infraredfixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion we study the effect of thelarge-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients.We find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing.However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalonintegral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect theconformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients willindeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previousobservations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specificobservables. We further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with theskeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. Th...

  14. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges

    2001-01-01

    The large-order behaviour of QCD is dominated by renormalons. On the other hand renormalons do not occur in conformal theories, such as the one describing the infrared fixed-point of QCD at small beta_0 (the Banks--Zaks limit). Since the fixed-point has a perturbative realization, all-order perturbative relations exist between the conformal coefficients, which are renormalon-free, and the standard perturbative coefficients, which contain renormalons. Therefore, an explicit cancellation of renormalons should occur in these relations. The absence of renormalons in the conformal limit can thus be seen as a constraint on the structure of the QCD perturbative expansion. We show that the conformal constraint is non-trivial: a generic model for the large-order behaviour violates it. We also analyse a specific example, based on a renormalon-type integral over the two-loop running-coupling, where the required cancellation does occur.

  15. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  16. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  17. Group Size and Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews theory and research on the relationship between group size and conformity and presents a meta-analysis of 125 Asch-type conformity studies. It questions the assumption of a single function made in formal models of social influence and proposes instead that the function will vary depending on which social influence process predominates. It is argued that normative influence is lik...

  18. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  19. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  1. Genetic analysis of slaughter and carcass quality traits in crossbred rabbits coming from a diallel cross of four maternal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to estimate the genetic group effects and the crossbreeding genetic parameters of slaughter and carcass traits using data on the rabbits that were progeny of does coming from a full diallel cross between 4 maternal lines (A, V, H and LP mated to bucks of the paternal line R. The rabbits of the 16 genetic groups, corresponding to the type of does of the diallel cross, were distributed in 4 Spanish farms and 1 genetic group (V line was present in all farms in order to connect records among them and to be used as reference group. Crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson’s model. 1896 rabbits were measured for slaughter traits and 950 for carcass traits. The A and LP lines had the lowest values for dressing percentage (–1.71 and –1.98 compared with H line and –1.49 and –1.75 with the V line, respectively. The A line was the heaviest for commercial carcass weight. No relevant differences were observed between the crossbred groups for all traits. Regarding the reciprocal effects, there were significant differences in favour of A line as sire line in the crossbred AV. Regarding the combination of direct and maternal effects, the A line showed significantly higher values for cold carcass weight (133 g., 71 g. and 142 g. compared to the H, LP and V lines. For the same parameter the H line showed significantly higher averages on dressing percentages than A and LP lines, 1.44 and 2.13%, respectively. Line A also showed, in general, better direct- maternal effects than the V line. Grand-maternal effects were less important than direct-maternal ones. The estimates of maternal heterosis were, in general, negative, which could be a consequence of the positive heterosis for litter size. However, despite this relationship between growth and litter traits, it has not been common to find negative maternal heterosis in growth traits. A diminution of dressing percentage was detected in

  2. Production of wide hybrids and backcross progenies between Diplotaxis erucoides and crop brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, P; Prakash, S; Shivanna, K R

    1995-03-01

    Intergeneric hybrids were produced between D. erucoides (♀), a wild species, and four cultivated species of Brassica, B. campestris, B. juncea, B. napus and B. oleracea, through embryo rescue. The hybrid nature of these plants was confirmed through morphological and cytological studies. Backcross pollinations with the pollen of the respective cultivars yielded BC progenies in the hybrids D. erucoides x B. juncea and D. erucoides x B. napus but not in D. erucoides x B. campestris and D. erucoides x B. oleracea. The hybrid D. erucoides x B. campestris was also used as a bridge species and crossed with B. juncea to raise the hybrid and backcross progenies. F2 progenies were more amenable than f1 hybrids for raising backcross progenies. Although D. erucoides is considered to be a close relative of B. campestris and B. oleracea, incompatibility barriers of this species with different cultivars do not reflect this relationship.

  3. [Genetic polymorphism of clones and their seed progeny in the scotch pine clone plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Demkovich, A E

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation at 12 allozyme loci (10 of them being polymorphic ones) has been studied in the archive-clone plantation of 23 Pinus sylvestris plus-trees and their seed progeny in the south-east of Ukraine. More than a half of clones had 4-8 heterozygous loci, whereas their seed progeny was marked by a lower variation than maternal trees. Seed progeny was obtained at a high outcrossing rate (t(m) = 95%). The clone progeny was characterized by a high percentage of abnormal allele segregation in megagametophytes. There was also a high frequency of significant deviation in distribution of seed embryo genotypes from the theoretically expected one according to the Hardy-Weinberg law.

  4. Molecular marker analysis of F1 progenies and their parents for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular marker analysis of F1 progenies and their parents for carotenoids inheritance in African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). DN Njoku, VE Gracen, SK Offei, IK Asante, EY Danquah, CN Egesi, E Okogbenin ...

  5. Assessment of radon equilibrium factor from distribution parameters of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Marro, Leonora

    2011-11-01

    In Canada, a radon and radon progeny survey was carried out in the 1970s in 19 cities. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only large survey of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements up to the present time. However, the survey was carried out for the purpose of establishing geographic variation of radon and radon progeny; therefore, radon equilibrium factors, F, were not assessed at that time. From the summary results of this large simultaneous radon and radon progeny survey, the characteristics of radon equilibrium factor were assessed. The average F factor assessed from this survey in 12,576 houses is 0.54. The current assessment may indicate that the typical F value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) could lead to a downward bias in the estimation of radon doses to the lung.

  6. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. The hESC line Envy expresses high levels of GFP in all differentiated progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Magdaline; Dottori, Mirella; Ng, Elizabeth; Hawes, Susan M; Sourris, Koula; Jamshidi, Pegah; Pera, Martin F; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G

    2005-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been advanced as a potential source of cells for use in cell replacement therapies. The ability to identify hESCs and their differentiated progeny readily in transplantation experiments will facilitate the analysis of hESC potential and function in vivo. We have generated a hESC line designated 'Envy', in which robust levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) are expressed in stem cells and all differentiated progeny.

  8. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Effects of exposing Drosophila melanogaster parents to ethanol on expression of vestigial in their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, J T; Niemann, M M

    1985-03-01

    When parental Drosophila melanogaster were chronically exposed at 28 degrees C or 24 degrees C to ethanol during their larval and pupal stages of development, their progeny, produced when parents were 5-16-day-old adults, showed modified expression of vestigial alleles in heterozygous and homozygous combinations. Parental alcohol effects were dependent on parental rearing temperature. We conclude that parental environment (alcohol, temperature) causes heritable but transitory changes in progeny phenotype that are elicited by exposure of germ cells to alcohol.

  10. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  11. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  12. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  13. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Jagadeesan, L.; Lallu, K.R.

    Dead copepods (carcasses) are widespread in aquatic systems, but their scientific quantification is rare due to the difficulty in discriminating them from live ones. In this paper, we hypothesized that due to large spatial and temporal changes...

  14. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... hind-limb length and maximum hind limb width. Tissue ... yield high quantities of meat (Mahgoub et al., 2012). Traits such as ... supplementation improves both composition and carcass quality of goats. ... Panicum maximum.

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) meal diets. HF Defang, A Teguia, J Awah-Ndukum, A Kenfack, F Ngoula, F Metuge ...

  16. CARCASS MARKET VALUE OF FATTENER GILTS AND PRIMIPAROUS GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena BIEGNIEWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study comprised 60 crossbred gilts F1 (PLW x PL, 30 fattener gilts (A and 30 littermate primiparous gilts (B. The fattening was conducted in standard condition from 30 to 108 kg body weight. The primiparous gilts were mated at second oestrus. During pregnancy and lactation period they were reared in standard condition adopted for pregnant and lactating sows. Fattener sows as well as primiparous sows were slaughtered after end of the experiment. Market carcass value was estimated on carcass jointing basis. It was assumed that market value is a function of percentage share of main parts in carcass and their unitary price (PLN/kg. Market carcass value of fattener sows and primiparous sows counted on 100 kg was comparable.

  17. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  18. Avian Mortality Study : Carcass Searches : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains data sheets found in a three-ring binder at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge relating to the carcass searches performed on...

  19. Prediction of direct and indirect genetic gains and genotypic correlations in rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters, genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and direct and indirect genetic gains among and within rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis progenies. The experiment was set up at the Municipality of Jaú, SP, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, with 22 treatments (progenies, 6 replicates, and 10 plants per plot at a spacing of 3x3 m. Three‑year‑old progenies were assessed for girth, rubber yield, and bark thickness by direct and indirect gains and genotypic correlations. The number of latex vessel rings showed the best correlations, correlating positively and significantly with girth and bark thickness. Selection gains among progenies were greater than within progeny for all the variables analyzed. Total gains obtained were high, especially for girth increase and rubber yield, which were 93.38 and 105.95%, respectively. Young progeny selection can maximize the expected genetic gains, reducing the rubber tree selection cycle.

  20. [Evaluation of Reproductive Health of Chickens and Their Progeny at a Chronic Effect of 131I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarkov, V A

    2015-01-01

    A reproductive health of hens exposed to 131I in a 30-day period with daily quantities ranging from 0.11 to 4.6 MBq/kg and 6 progenies of their offspring was evaluated. We determined that 131I did not change significantly the reproductive potential of hens if administered at a dose of 0.11 MBq, while it raised at 1.1 MBq, progressively decreased after a short-time increase at 2.1 MBq and was inhabited up to its irreversible extinction at 4.6 MBq. Irrespective of the isotope quantity administered, a decline occurred in the birth rate of the progeny where hens dominated in the sex composition. The reproductive potential (i.e., laying capacity) of the offspring of three chicken progenies that had been administered 131I at 0.11 MBq/kg, progenies 3 and 5 that had been administered 1.1 MBq/kg and progeny 1 affected with 2.1 MBq/kg increased, while for chicken progenies 1, 2, 4 and 6 that had been given 131I at 1.1. MBq/kg the reproductive capacity was within the normal range or decreased.

  1. Meiotic behavior in apomictic Brachiaria ruziziensis × B. brizantha (Poaceae progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Aparecida Fuzinatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids combining desirable traits from divergent parents are the main objective of some Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa P. Beauv. breeding programs. There is great interest in the development of apomictic hybrid cultivars that combine desirable genes such as resistance to spittlebugs, high nutritive value, and tolerance to acid soils. Microsporogenesis of six apomictic progenies resulting from a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36 cross between B. ruziziensis × B. brizantha was evaluated under light microscopy. Genetic recombination, ensured by multivalent chromosome association and crossing-over at prophase occurred in low frequency among progenies, and in one, recombination was almost nonexistent. The percentage of meiocytes with meiotic abnormalities among progenies ranged from 16.6 % to 85.6 %. Besides an observed irregular chromosome segregation typical of polyploid hybrids in these five progenies, putative meiotic mutations characterized as desynapsis and divergent spindle organization occurred in three progenies. These anomalies caused frequent fractionation of the genome into several microspores of different sizes. In Brachiaria, new cultivars must be apomictic to fix the genotype. However, Brachiaria is a pseudogamous apomict, and viable gametes are necessary to produce viable seeds. Considering meiotic behavior, only two progenies are promising for advancement in the breeding program.

  2. Cytogenetic changes in the liver of progeny of irradiated male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropacova, K.; Slovinska, L.; Misurova, E. [P.J. Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-06-01

    The transgenerational transmission of radiation damage of rat genom was studied on the basis of cytogenetic changes in somatic cells (hepatocytes). It was found, that the irradiation of rat males with dose of 3 Gy of gamma radiation caused latent cytogenetic damage to the liver, which was expressed during the course of an induced proliferation of hepatocytes (by partial hepatectomy) by lower proliferative activity and a high frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In the progeny of irradiated males (in the F{sub 1} generation), the radiation damage to DNA was manifested by similar changes, i.e. by lower proliferation activity and increase in ''spontaneous'' chromosomal aberration occurrence in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Irradiating the progeny of irradiated males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 3 Gy+3 Gy) caused slighter changes in compared with irradiating the progeny of non-irradiated control males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 0 Gy+3 Gy), which suggests some kind of adaptive response, which was also found in other experimental systems and parameters. An analogous course of RNA and DNA quantitative changes in the liver of the F{sub 0} and F{sub 1} generations of rats confirms the partial transmission of radiation damage of genom to the progeny. (author)

  3. Effect of pollination mode on progeny of Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense: Implications for conservation and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V. Armando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense, a perennial grass native to Africa, is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions with potential to be used as forage in tropical and semi-arid regions around the world. Our objective was to understand how the pollination mode affects viable seed production and further survival of the progeny. We evaluated self- and open-pollinated progenies from different accessions by measuring the seed production of the parents and their germination performance, germination rate and seedling survival. Parents and progeny were also fingerprinted with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR. Progeny produced through open-pollination resulted in significantly more filled seeds and superior seedling survival than self-pollination. These results indicate that accessions studied here rely heavily on cross-pollination, whereas the contribution of self-pollinated offspring to the population is likely to be low. SSR profiles showed that, on average, 85% of the progeny (arising from cross-pollination possessed paternal specific markers and 100% of them were genetically different from the maternal genotype. All plants examined had 4x = 36 chromosomes. Overall, our findings indicate that var. makarikariense is able to generate highly polymorphic progeny through segregation and recombination. This study provides reference information for the formulation of appropriate strategies for pasture germplasm management, conservation and development of breeding programs. 

  4. Accuracy of prediction of percentage lean meat and authorization of carcass measurement instruments: adverse effects of incorrect sampling of carcasses in pig classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Walstra, P.; Olsen, E.; Daumas, G.

    2003-01-01

    Classification of pig carcasses in the European Community is based on the lean meat percentage of the carcass. The lean meat percentage is predicted from instrumental carcass measurements, such as fat and muscle depth measurements, obtained in the slaughter-line. The prediction formula employed is

  5. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  6. Sire line of pigs affects weaning weight, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, L; Van Beirendonck, S; Bulens, A; Van Thielen, J; Driessen, B

    2016-10-01

    Today, early weaning is more frequently applied by the modern pig breeder to obtain more litters per year. In addition, more and more European pig breeders apply a batch management system, which allows weaning to occur at fixed time points but entails that the offspring are treated at the litter level and not as individuals. Both evolutions might result in weaning lightweight piglets, which can cause, e.g., growth retardation of the offspring. Hence, the objective of this research was to improve the weaning weight of piglets of the same age by breeding with a highly conformed sire line. Therefore, a total of 23 sows were inseminated, 10 sows with semen of a well-conformed sire line (sire line B) and 13 sows with semen of a less conformed boar (sire line A). In total, 299 offspring were observed to monitor behavior, growth performance, and carcass characteristics. Subsequently, linear mixed models were developed to analyze the growth performance and carcass characteristics wherein only variables classified as significant ( weaning weight could be accomplished by breeding with semen of sire line B. This could be due to the significant ( piglet was significantly lower if a bigger litter size was recorded. When considering behavior, it was observed that piglets that did not seclude themselves from the litter had a significantly greater daily weight gain from birth to weaning compared to piglets that showed signs of isolation from the litter. A significantly greater daily gain from birth to slaughter was established for piglets with a greater birth weight. Also, results indicate that barrows had a significantly greater daily growth from weaning to slaughter than gilts. To conclude, this research determines that breeding with highly conformed sire lines does not improve the weaning weight of the offspring and thus cannot serve as a solution for early weaning. However, more research is required by performing more experiments with a greater number of boars and sows to

  7. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  8. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch, E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: wipark@kias.re.kr, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysong@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the δN formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  9. THE USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO PREDICT CARCASS COMPOSITION IN KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cadavez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyse the use of ultrasounds to predict carcass composition in kids. Twenty kids from Serrana Portuguese local breed with a mean live weight of 12.6 ± 2.99 kg were scanned by ultrasonography to determine longissimus muscle depth (LD, subcutaneous fat thickness (SF between the 12th and 13th vertebrae (D12, 1st and 2nd (L1 and 3rd and 4th (L3 lumbar vertebra and breast bone tissue thickness at 1st (BT1, 2nd (BT2, 3rd (S3 and 4th (BT4 sternebrae. Lambs were slaughtered after 24-h fasting and carcasses were cooled at 4 ºC for 24 hours. Carcass left side was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat and bone and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with some muscles. Tissues measurements plus hot carcass weight were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. Models developed 96.7% of muscle, 64.6% of subcutaneous fat, 95.0% of intermuscular fat, and 85.0% of bone weight variation, respectively. Ultrasound measurements were admitted in the models, improving the determination coefficient (R2 and reducing the residual standard deviation. The HCW and tissues measurements taken by ultrasounds in live kids can be used to develop models to predict carcass composition at slaughter-house level.

  10. EQUATIONS FOR LEAN SHARE ESTIMATION IN SWINE CARCASSES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kušec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed on 144 pig carcasses selected on the basis of backfat measures obtained by “ZP”- method. There was no stratification according to the carcass weight. One day after slaughter the carcasses were dissected by to EU reference method. The lean share was calculated by equation prescribed by European regulation (Commission Regulation No 3127/94 and estimated by six equations. The first one (MP1 is prescribed by current Croatian regulation (N.N. 119/1999 and the other five were developed on the basis of original data obtained by the experiment. The meat percentage estimated by equation MP1 differed statistically (p<0.01 from mean meat percentage obtained by EU referent method; the current formula significantly overestimates the meatiness of pig carcasses from Croatian population. Original measures of fat and muscle measured for “ZP”- method were used as independent variables in equation MP6. In order to improve the accuracy of estimation, transformed variables were used in equations MP2-MP5. Additional measure of warm carcass weight (T was included as an independent variable to equations MP4 and MP5 but this did not improve their accuracy. Equation MP2 to MP5 satisfy the statistical criterion requested by EU regulations. The equation MP2 and MP5 can be recommended for lean share estimation in pig carcasses of Croatian pig population.

  11. Hot Conformal Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...... show that the reduced free energy changes sign, at the second, fifth and sixth order in the coupling, when decreasing the number of flavors from the upper end of the conformal window. If the change in sign is interpreted as signal of an instability of the system then we infer a critical number...... of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i...

  12. Improvement in genetic characteristics and oil yield of selected soybean progenies from octuple crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawaki Osvaldo Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate 44 soybean octuple crosses in the F4:3[8] and F5:3[8] generations in order to select progenies superior for seed oil yield (OY and other important agronomic characteristics. Octuple crosses were hybridized in a chain mating system. In one group, crosses were carried out for three generations with the adapted x exotic parents until octuple crosses with 75% adapted genes and 25% exotic genes were obtained. In a second group, hybridization of adapted x adapted parents originated crosses with 100% adapted genes. During the growing season 1994/95, the progenies F4:3[8] were evaluated by using the augmented block design. The progenies F5:3[8] were evaluated during the growing season 1995/96 in three experiments using augmented block design without repetition. The octuple crosses gave origin to superior progenies for all the characters studied. In the C22 cross, OY values were 707 kg/ha. The estimates of heritability in relation to the crosses average resulted in the following mean, minimum and maximum values, respectively: number of days to maturity (52.35%, 3.71%, 84.23%; agronomic value (26.69%, 1.62%, 61.28% and grain yield (29.28%, 1.52%, 61.06%. The observed genetic gains for grain yield in the early, intermediate and late F5:3[8] progenies were superior to the expected genetic gains and the observed genetic gains for OY were more expressive in the early and late F5:[8] progenies. The genetic variability remaining in the selected progenies of some crosses suggests that further genetic gains for grain yield and OY might be possible with advanced selection cycles.

  13. Genetic potential of common bean progenies selected for crude fiber content obtained through different breeding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, V A P; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S; Bassinello, P Z; Melo, L C

    2015-05-29

    Gastrointestinal health is of great importance due to the increasing consumption of functional foods, especially those concern-ing diets rich in fiber content. The common bean has been valorized as a nutritious food due to its appreciable fiber content and the fact that it is consumed in many countries. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the genetic potential of common bean progenies of the carioca group, developed through different breeding methods, for crude fiber content. The progenies originated through hybridization of two advanced strains, CNFC 7812 and CNFC 7829, up to the F7 generation using three breeding methods: bulk-population, bulk within F2 families, and single seed descent. Fifteen F8 progenies were evaluated in each method, as well as two check cultivars and both parents, us-ing a 7 x 7 simple lattice design, with experimental plots comprised of two 4-m long rows. Field trials were conducted in eleven environments encompassing four Brazilian states and three different sowing times during 2009 and 2010. Estimates of genetic parameters indicate differences among the breeding methods, which seem to be related to the different processes for sampling the advanced progenies inherent to each method, given that the trait in question is not subject to natural selection. Variability amongst progenies occurred within the three breeding methods and there was also a significant effect of environment on the progeny for all methods. Progenies developed by bulk-population attained the highest estimates of genetic parameters, had less interaction with the environment, and greater variability.

  14. Inhalation dose due to radon, thoron, and progenies in dwellings of a hill station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, R

    2017-02-01

    The general public spends a major portion of their time in an indoor environment and hence receives a considerable amount of radiation. Knowledge about indoor radiation is important in order to arrive at the actual effective dose received by residents. The indoor radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations observed in the present study were found to vary with seasons of a given year. The highest and lowest indoor average radon, thoron, and progeny levels were observed during winter and summer seasons, respectively. The concentrations of indoor radon, thoron, and progenies were found to vary with the type of houses. The highest (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and progeny concentrations were observed in mud houses and the lowest values were recorded in wooden houses. The indoor (222)Rn concentration correlated well with concentration of its grandparent (238)U in underlying soil with a correlation coefficient of 0.87. The correlation between indoor (220)Rn and (232)Th in the underlying soil was found to be 0.64. The estimated effective doses received by the general public in the present study due to indoor radon and thoron were 1.49 ± 0.49 and 1.30 ± 0.53 mSv/year, respectively. The annual effective doses due to radon and thoron progenies were estimated as 0.76 ± 0.27 and 0.47 ± 0.23 mSv/year, respectively. The contributions from (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and corresponding progenies to the annual effective doses received were 37, 32, 19, and 12%, respectively. The general public living in the study area receives an inhalation dose of 4.02 mSv/year due to indoor radon, thoron, and progenies, which were found to be less than the action limit of ICRP 2009.

  15. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongzhou; Hu, Mei; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Guangdong; Zhang, Qingqin; Zhang, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues’ normally pairing. PMID:25950431

  16. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou An

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing.

  17. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argimiro Daza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gender (entire males vs females on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in carcass and carcass fatness degree were higher in females than in males. Instrumental colour variables of muscle were not affected by gender at days 1, 3, 7 and 9 of refrigerated storage. In muscle, the L*, a*, b*, chroma, oxymyoglobine and oxymyoglobine/metmyoglobine ratio values observed 9 days after slaughter were lower than those at days 1 and 3 after slaughter. Intramuscular fat percentage of Longissimus thoracis muscle was higher in females than in males. Gender had no effect on α-tocopherol content in intramuscular fat (IMF from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The omental and IMF of females had lower C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions than those from the males. In IMF C16:1, C18:1 n-9 and Σ MUFA proportions were greater in females than in males. The IMF percentage in Longissimus thoracis affected significantly to its fatty acid composition.

  18. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Lallu, K R

    2015-10-01

    Dead copepods (carcasses) are widespread in aquatic systems, but their scientific quantification is rare due to the difficulty in discriminating them from live ones. In this paper, we hypothesized that due to large spatial and temporal changes in hydrography in the Cochin backwaters, the percentage of copepod carcasses in the system could also change significantly on a spatial and temporal scale. In order to understand this aspect, we quantified the live and dead copepods in the Cochin backwaters under different hydrographical settings based on live and mortal staining technique. The most prominent temporal hydrographical feature during the study period was the large decline in salinity across the system, which was more pronounced downstream (15-20 units) and was caused by the large freshwater influx associated with the southwest monsoon. During the entire sampling period, copepod carcasses were pervasive all over the study area with large spatial and temporal variations in their percentage contribution (2.5-35.8 %) to the total community abundance. During all sampling, carcasses concentrated more in the downstream region, with maximum turbidity (16.5-35.8 %), than in the upstream region (2.5-14.5 %). The percentage of carcasses was the highest during the onset of the southwest monsoon (av. 23.64 ± 8.09 %), followed by the pre-southwest monsoon (av. 13.59 ± 6.72 %) and southwest monsoon (av. 8.75 ± 4.14 %). During the onset of the southwest monsoon, copepod carcasses in the downstream were contributed by ∼80 % high saline and ∼15 % low saline species, indicating a salinity shock-induced mortality. On the other hand, the cumulative effect of the long residence time of the Cochin backwaters and high partial predation rate of carnivores contributed to the high abundance of carcasses during the pre-monsoon.

  19. Measurement of the deposited activity of the short-lived radon progeny in the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzu, G.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Schuler, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Div. for Radiation Protection and Waste Management

    1998-12-31

    Volunteers were exposed in the radon chamber at Paul Scherrer Institut to an atmosphere enriched with highly unattached radon progeny. The deposited radon progeny activity in the respiratory tract of the volunteers was determined using a low level in-vivo counter. The detector arrangement and its calibration for the measurement of deposited radon progeny activity is described and the results for a mouth and a nose breathing volunteer are presented. For the nose breathing volunteer 55% of the deposited radon progeny activity was located in the head and the remaining 45% in the chest whereas for the mouth breathing volunteer 25% was located in the head and the remaining 75% in the chest. A mean clearance half-life for the deposited radon progeny from the respiratory tract of (2{+-}1) h was obtained from the analyses of the temporal behaviour of the deposited radon progeny activity in the head. (orig.)

  20. Galilean conformal and superconformal symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukierski, J., E-mail: lukier@ift.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Firstly we discuss briefly three different algebras named as nonrelativistic (NR) conformal: Schroedinger, Galilean conformal, and infinite algebra of local NR conformal isometries. Further we shall consider in some detail Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) obtained in the limit c{yields}{infinity} from relativistic conformal algebraO(d+1, 2) (d-number of space dimensions). Two different contraction limits providing GCA and some recently considered realizations will be briefly discussed. Finally by considering NR contraction of D = 4 superconformal algebra the Galilei conformal superalgebra (GCSA) is obtained, in the formulation using complexWeyl supercharges.

  1. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  2. Glucosinolates in Self-crossed Progenies of Monosomic Cabbage Alien Addition Lines in Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Aixia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species have been reported to possess cancer preventive activity due to glucosinolates (GLS and their derived properties. Many studies on GLS have focused on Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. However, information on GLS in progeny between Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata remains limited. In this study, eight GLS were detected in the self-crossed progenies of monosomic cabbage alien addition lines in Chinese cabbage (Chinese cabbage – cabbage MAALs and parental Chinese cabbage, and nine GLS were detected in the parental cabbage. The variation of GLS content ranges was greater in the progeny than in the parental Chinese cabbage. The nine GLS identified were subjected to PCA to evaluate the differences among progeny and parents. Eight progeny samples had a comprehensive principal component score closer to or greater than that of cabbage, and four of them exhibited glucoraphanin (GRA and total GLS contents greater than that of Chinese cabbage with the relative content of total indolic GLS was greater than 50%. These results offered new opportunity to improve GLS-containing of Chinese cabbage using genes from cabbage.

  3. Carcass and meat traits, and non-carcass components of lambs fed ration containing increasing levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rozanski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits, and the non-carcass components of crossbred Dorper lambs fed diets with increasing levels of urea (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of dry matter – DM. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (urea inclusion levels and six replicates per treatment. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 56 days and slaughtered at 37.9 ± 5.1 kg of body weight (BW. The weight and yield of carcass before and after cooling were not influenced by urea levels, with average values of 16.9 kg and 44.6% for cold carcass weight and yield. Urea levels did not affect the morphometric measurements, the fat deposition on the carcass, the weight of carcass cuts and the weight of non-carcass components. There was a quadratic effect of urea levels on the loin yield, which may achieve maximum value of 11.31% with the inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the feed. The pH and the color coordinates L* (brightness, a* (red intensity and C* (saturation of the meat also showed quadratic response to the urea levels, where in the minimum value of 5.53 for pH, maximum value of 48.67 for L* and minimum values of 14.04 and 16.21 for a* and C* may be obtained by including 0.53 to 0.70% DM urea in the ration. The inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the ration is recommended to obtain maximum yield of loin and meat with attractive characteristics to the consumer, which is characterized by high red intensity and brightness. If consumers have preference for lamb meat with a more intense red color, the inclusion of 1.5% DM urea should be considered in the ration formulation.

  4. Relationships among measures of growth performance and efficiency with carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and pancreatic digestive enzymes in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, C J; Montanholi, Y R; Wang, Y J; Miller, S P; Mandell, I B; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2009-04-01

    Ninety-three crossbred steer calves (BW+/-SD=385+/-50 kg) were used (n=48 steers in yr 1, n=45 steers in yr 2) to examine the relationship among carcass traits, lean, bone, and fat proportions, visceral tissue weights, and pancreatic digestive enzyme activity with DMI, ADG, G:F, and residual feed intake. Calves were progeny from crossbred dams predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding and were sired by Angus, Simmental, crossbred (predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding), Charolais, or Piedmontese bulls. Steers were fed a high-moisture corn-based diet for an average of 112 d. Partial correlation analysis accounting for year, pen within year, week of slaughter within year, and sire breed was conducted. Gain:feed was negatively correlated (P Residual feed intake (P=0.008; g/kg of BW; r=0.34) and backfat-corrected residual feed intake (P=0.005; r=0.29) were positively correlated with trim and kidney fat weight proportion. Gain:feed was negatively correlated (Pfeed was negatively correlated (P feed was negatively correlated (P0.10) between performance measures and the pancreatic proportional content of alpha-amylase and trypsin activity (units/kg of BW). These data indicate that carcass fatness traits and changes in the proportional weight of total viscera may be negatively associated with G:F and that visceral fat weight proportion and trim and kidney fat weight proportion may be important factors influencing this relationship.

  5. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kummer, Justine A; Nordell, Cameron J; Berry, Taylor M; Collins, Colina V; Tse, Casandra R.L; Bayne, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    .... Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies...

  6. Behavior of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny`s concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor {sup 222}Rn levels; the dependence of indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration; and the dependence of {sup 222}Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  7. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.

  8. Dynamical spacetimes in conformal gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongsheng Zhang; Yi Zhang; Xin-Zhou Li

    2017-01-01

    The conformal gravity remarkably boosts our prehension of gravity theories. We find a series of dynamical solutions in the W2-conformal gravity, including generalized Schwarzschild–Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (GSFRW...

  9. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  10. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  11. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  13. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of cattle...

  14. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  15. Novel deboning method of chilled broiler carcasses (prior to evisceration) and its effect on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During traditional poultry processing, the two main sources of contamination of the broiler carcasses are (1) microorganisms on the exterior of the carcasses, that results in skin surface contamination and (2) microorganisms from the gastrointestinal contents of the carcass and subsequent cross cont...

  16. Effects of pasture on carcass composition in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuliotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The trial was performed to investigate on the effects of different periods of grass pasture in fattening Cinta Senese pigs; growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied. Control group was reared in paddock and fed concentrate, while experimental group grazed on grass pasture with an integration of 1.4 kg/pig/d of concentrate. Initial live weight was not different between the two groups and individual weights were periodically recorded. Animals were slaughtered from 36 to 160 days from the trial beginning. Carcass weight, body measures, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24 were recorded. After 24 hours of refrigeration, each carcass was dissected into lean, fat and bone cuts. Results didn’t show differences between the two groups, revealing that Cinta Senese pigs can profitably utilize pasture on grass even in fattening period.

  17. Conformal block study and bounding OPE in conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Yvernay, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, the re-emergence of conformal bootstrap as a numerical tool to solve conformal field theory allowed more precise estimation of several presumed conformal field theory among which we could cite the 3D Ising model. This work intends to provide insight on conformal blocks which are elementary objects in the conformal bootstrap approach. These are considered in Euclidian space where we study fields of all equal dimension. This study allows us to improve bounds derived in \\cite{OPEconv}.

  18. Polymer Conformation under Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Bollas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conformation of polymer chains under confinement is investigated in intercalated polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide/sodium montmorillonite, PEO/Na+-MMT, hybrids were prepared utilizing melt intercalation with compositions where the polymer chains are mostly within the ~1 nm galleries of the inorganic material. The polymer chains are completely amorphous in all compositions even at temperatures where the bulk polymer is highly crystalline. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR is utilized to investigate the conformation of the polymer chains over a broad range of temperatures from below to much higher than the bulk polymer melting temperature. A systematic increase of the gauche conformation relatively to the trans is found with decreasing polymer content both for the C–C and the C–O bonds that exist along the PEO backbone indicating that the severe confinement and the proximity to the inorganic surfaces results in a more disordered state of the polymer.

  19. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  20. A family business: stem cell progeny join the niche to regulate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Fuchs, Elaine

    2012-01-23

    Stem cell niches, the discrete microenvironments in which the stem cells reside, play a dominant part in regulating stem cell activity and behaviours. Recent studies suggest that committed stem cell progeny become indispensable components of the niche in a wide range of stem cell systems. These unexpected niche inhabitants provide versatile feedback signals to their stem cell parents. Together with other heterologous cell types that constitute the niche, they contribute to the dynamics of the microenvironment. As progeny are often located in close proximity to stem cell niches, similar feedback regulations may be the underlying principles shared by different stem cell systems.

  1. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and

  2. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  3. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Decaudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days were considered (n = 19,866, the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir. Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P < 0.01. A relatively small number of variables was available in the actual database to study the relevant risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation associated with or without diseases at the farm of origin. This derives partly from the fact that traceability at the abattoir in France is done per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in

  4. Conformal Janus on Euclidean sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, Dongsu [Physics Department, University of Seoul,Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences,Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Gustavsson, Andreas [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Rey, Soo-Jong [School of Physics & Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics,Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Sciences, Sichuan University,Chengdu 610064 P.R. (China); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences,Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-07

    We interpret Janus as an interface in a conformal field theory and study its properties. The Janus is created by an exactly marginal operator and we study its effect on the interface conformal field theory on the Janus. We do this by utilizing the AdS/CFT correspondence. We compute the interface free energy both from leading correction to the Euclidean action in the dual gravity description and from conformal perturbation theory in the conformal field theory. We find that the two results agree each other and that the interface free energy scales precisely as expected from the conformal invariance of the Janus interface.

  5. Cosmological Perturbations in Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2011-01-01

    We present the first steps needed for an analysis of the perturbations that occur in the cosmology associated with the conformal gravity theory. We discuss the implications of conformal invariance for perturbative coordinate gauge choices, and show that in the conformal theory the trace of the metric fluctuation kinematically decouples from the first-order gravitational fluctuation equations. We determine the equations that describe first-order metric fluctuations around the illustrative conformally flat de Sitter background. Via a conformal transformation we show that such fluctuations can be constructed from fluctuations around a flat background, even though the fluctuations themselves are associated with a perturbative geometry that is not itself conformal to flat. We extend the analysis to fluctuations around other cosmologically relevant backgrounds, such as the conformally-flat Robertson-Walker background, and find tensor fluctuations that grow far more rapidly than those that occur in the analogous sta...

  6. WIZARD: AI in conformational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Daniel P.; Leach, Andrew R.; Prout, Keith

    1987-04-01

    A program which utilizes the techniques of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems to solve problems in the area of Conformational Analysis is described. The program searches conformational space in a systematic fashion, based on the technique known as heuristic state-space search. The program proceeds by recognizing conformational units, assigning one or more conformational templates to each unit, and joining them to form conformational suggestions. These suggestions are criticized to discover logical inconsistencies, and any resulting stresses are resolved. The resulting conformational suggestions are sometimes accurate enough for immediate use, or may be further refined by a numerical program. The latter combination is shown to be quite efficient compared to purely numerical conformational search techniques.

  7. Growth and Crown Vigor of 25 Year-Old Shortleaf Pine Progenies on a Littleleaf Disease Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; John L. Ruehle; Roger P. Belanger; Donald H. Marx; W. Craig Bryan

    1994-01-01

    On a littleleaf disease site in South Carolina, most of the control-pollinated progeny of shrotleaf pines that appeared to be reesistant to the disease outperformed a check seedlot through age 25. Rankings of progeny based on volume changed little between ages 17 and 25.

  8. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  9. Performance and carcass quality of forage-fed steers as an alternative to concentrate-based beef production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance and carcass quality of Parda de Montaña cattle under different management systems to find alternatives to concentrate feed indoor beef production. Treatments were: i Control, with 8 bulls (216±34.3 kg initial weight; 282±45.6 days fed concentrate and straw ad libitum during winter housing period until reaching 500 kg; ii G-supp, with 8 steers (204±31.2 kg initial weight; 271±47.5 days fed a total mixed ration (TMR (50% alfalfa hay, 10% straw, 40% corn ad libitum during winter housing period (from mid-April steers rotationally grazed on a mountain meadow supplemented with 1.8 kg dry matter corn/d until reaching 500 kg; iii TMR, with 8 steers (200±42.5 kg initial weight; 261±39.0 days managed as G-supp steers until mid-July, when they were housed and fed TMR ad libitum until reaching 500 kg. Control bulls had 45% greater weight gain than TMR and G-supp steers during housing period (P<0.001. In the finishing period, TMR had 31% greater weight gain than steers finished on pasture (P<0.01. At slaughter, Controls were 97-127 days younger than others (P<0.001. Steers finished on TMR had worse conformed carcasses, greater fat and fewer edible meat proportions than G-supp and Control (P<0.01. Total cost of TMR and Gsupp was greater than Control, with a similar income for G-supp and Control. TMR steers were paid less because of their worse carcass quality. Hence, finishing of steers on pasture with a supplement can be a feasible alternative to fattening bulls on concentrates, depending on the relative availability and price of feedstuff.

  10. QTL analysis of the genetic architecture determining resistance to fire blight in an apple progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica). In order to analyse the genetic determinism of resistance to fire blight in apple, a quantitative trait analysis (QTL) approach was used. A F1 progeny of 164

  11. Response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny recurrent selection for ... African Crop Science Journal ... This led to grain yield of 1,047 from 611 kg ha-1 in Lam population and 943 from 693 kg ha-1 in Omoda population.

  12. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  13. Past as Prologue: Educational Psychology's Legacy and Progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2018-01-01

    On the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association, the legacies and progenies of the discipline of educational psychology are explored. To capture those legacies, transformational and influential contributions by educational psychologists to schools and society are described as key themes. Those themes entail: the…

  14. Oleoresin characteristics of progeny of loblolly pines that escaped attack by southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; L.L. Ingram; G.D.L. Boyd; L.H. Lott

    2002-01-01

    Oleoresin characteristics of first-generation (F1) progeny of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that escaped mortality from the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), despite heavy mortality of neighbors, were evaluated and compared to trees from a general (i.e., trees...

  15. Immunological surveillance in a pseudorabies quarantined herd using gilts and their progeny as sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P P; Sacks, J M; Yang, P C; Pirtle, E C; Erickson, G A; Beran, G W

    1989-01-01

    Specific pathogen free gilts and their progeny were evaluated to use as sentinels in a pseudorabies virus (PRV) infected herd by immunologically monitoring for PRV seroconversions. Time intervals targeted were pre- and post-PRV vaccinations, herd exposure, and farrowing to finishing. Post-PRV vaccinations, gilts showed low PRV lymphocyte stimulation and humoral responses. Following herd exposure, control gilts PRV seroconverted and PRV vaccinated gilts increased (2 to 4 times) in virus neutralization (VN) titers. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the progeny from a control gilt were PRV seropositive at finishing. Progeny from PRV vaccinated gilts were depleted of passive immunity by week 7, and were seronegative until week 9. At finishing 47% (14/30) of them were PRV seropositive indicating exposure to PRV. The VN test was not sensitive enough to detect weak positive serums, noted as positives by latex agglutination (LA) test, ELISA, and Western blots. The gilts and progeny detected PRV, respectively, in the herd housing quarters and in the farrow to finish facilities. A strategy for future sentinel experimental surveillances using primarily the LA test is proposed.

  16. Inherent Variation Among Slash Pine Progenies at the Ida Cason Callaway Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Barber

    1964-01-01

    Reported here in detail is information obtained from two open-pollinated progeny tests of slash pine at the Ida Cason Callaway Foundation, Pine Mountain, Georgia. Because of the small amount of similar data available to tree improvement workers, it was decided to include as much information as possible, even though some of it is too limited for statistical analyses...

  17. Right of Progeny and Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first main objective of Maqasid I Shari`ah is the completion of human’s necessity; in which protection of progeny (nasl is the foremostpurpose. The preservation of lineage is greatly emphasized by the Islamic Shariah and the Cairo declaration of human rights in Islam also supported the protection of lineage in Islam. All the articles of CDHRI covered the five basic human rights mentioned in Maqasid I Shariah. The research is focused on delineating the concept of protection of lineage as one of the main objective of Shariah and it is supported by evidences from Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam along with Quranic verses and traditions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W. The aspects covered in the paper range from discussion of right of progeny as well as equal rights of progeny for male and female; rights of children with the hierarchy of their rights from the stage of fetus, having proper nursing, caring, education and a healthy beginning of life. The comparative analysis based on arguments of Shariah and the CDHRI proves that it is the basic objective of Shariah to protect all fundamental rights and right of progeny has the foremost significance in it.

  18. Parental partners effects on progenies characteristics on hybridization within the Larix genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, J.; Frydl, J. [Forestry and Game Management Research Inst., Jiloviste (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    Larch progenies of maternal clone No. 52-4-11 (Larix decidua Mill.) combined with the series of paternal clones of the same species and further of the Larix leptolepis Gord. and L. gmelini (Rupr.) Ledeb. species were evaluated on three research plots with larch (Larix sp.). Growth in height and thickness as well as stem forming were monitored at the age of 11 and 22 years. There was found out a significant share of variance falling on the action of mother, hence the existence of extra-nuclear heredity can be anticipated, particularly in interspecific hybrids. Comparing with the control in interspecific hybrids mostly luxuriant growth is displayed. On one of the studied plots there was found out the assumed growth depression in the quantitative characters of progenies originated from self-pollination. Some results of the research can be used as an auxiliary criterion in the selection of progenies and trees within the progenies for the establishment of seed orchards to produce hybrid seed of F2 generation. 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Prediction of lung cells oncogenic transformation for induced radon progeny alpha particles using sugarscape cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Samaneh; Maleknasr, Niaz; Setayeshi, Saeed; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Alpha particle irradiation from radon progeny is one of the major natural sources of effective dose in the public population. Oncogenic transformation is a biological effectiveness of radon progeny alpha particle hits. The biological effects which has caused by exposure to radon, were the main result of a complex series of physical, chemical, biological and physiological interactions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for radon-induced carcinogenesis have not been clear yet. Various biological models, including cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenesis effects of radon progeny alpha particles. In this paper, sugars cape cellular automata have been presented for computational study of complex biological effect of radon progeny alpha particles in lung bronchial airways. The model has included mechanism of DNA damage, which has been induced alpha particles hits, and then formation of transformation in the lung cells. Biomarkers were an objective measure or evaluation of normal or abnormal biological processes. In the model, the metabolism rate of infected cell has been induced alpha particles traversals, as a biomarker, has been followed to reach oncogenic transformation. The model results have successfully validated in comparison with "in vitro oncogenic transformation data" for C3H 10T1/2 cells. This model has provided an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes, at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis, involving human cells. It has become well known that simulation could be used to investigate complex biomedical systems, in situations where traditional methodologies were difficult or too costly to employ.

  20. Assessing the Potential Oleoresin Yields of Slash Pine Progenies at Juvenile Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Squillace; Charles R. Gansel

    1968-01-01

    The potential oleoresin yields of slash pine progenies can be assessed at juvenile ages, 7 to 8 years earlier than with previous methods. Seeds are sown in peat pots, outplanted shortly after germination at a spacing of 14 by 3 feet, and given intensive cultural treatment. At 26 years from seed, when the trees average about 9 feet tall, their potential yields are...

  1. Dietary manipulation of the sow milk does not influence the lipid absorption capacity of the progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pierzynowski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets containing 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to lactating sows in order to investigate the lipid absorption capacity of their progeny in terms of pancreatic enzyme activity, hormonal regulation, and bile salt...

  2. Replication of mycoplasmavirus MVL51 III identification of a progeny viral DNA-protein intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, J.; Maniloff, J.

    1976-01-01

    Intracellular replication of the non-lytic single stranded circular DNA mycoplasmavirus MVL51 has been shown to involve three DNA intermediates: RFI, RFII and SSI. Growth in Eagle's basal medium, rather than richer tryptose medium, has allowed the identification of an intermediate between nascent progeny chromosomes (SSI) and mature virus. This intermediate is a protein associated form of SSI.

  3. Conformance and Deviance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how large Danish companies are responding to new governmental regulation which requires them to report on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The paper is based on an analysis of 142 company annual reports required by the new Danish regulation regarding CSR reporting, plus ...... in CSR reporting practices. Finally, it is argued that non-conformance with the new regulatory requirements is not solely about conscious resistance but may also be caused by, for example, lack of awareness, resource limitations, misinterpretations, and practical difficulties....

  4. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  5. The effect of high-level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenfeld, L N; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological effect of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10-fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated prechill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine-treated carcasses were subjected to a 1-min drench in 500 mL of a 500 mg/kg chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite). Water-drenched carcasses were treated the same way except water was used in place of chlorinated water drench. Control carcasses were not drenched. All carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 450 mL of buffered peptone water, from which 50 mL of the rinsate was removed for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli, and total coliforms (TC). The entire carcass was then incubated 24 h at 37°C (whole carcass enrichment, WCE) for recovery of Salmonella. Levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were lower by 0.6 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.8 for E. coli, and 0.9 for TC when carcasses were drenched with water compared with undrenched control levels. Similarly, the levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were further lower by 1.0 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.5 for E. coli, and 0.5 for TC, when carcasses were drenched with 500 mg/kg of chlorine compared with water. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella among the treatments (29% positive for control, 26% positive for water, 38% positive for chlorinated). These results indicate that drenching eviscerated carcasses with water or chlorinated water at 500 mg/kg significantly, but minimally, reduces the numbers of APC, E. coli, and TC bacteria recovered compared with undrenched carcasses. However, neither drenching carcasses with water or high chlorine had an effect on the prevalence of Salmonella that remain with the carcass as determined by WCE. The results of this study confirms the importance of maintaining and replenishing free chlorine for

  6. Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Zhang, Mingming; Ye, Runqing; Ma, Yun; Lei, Chuzhao

    2017-12-01

    Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C > T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P PIC pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. The production and microbiological status of skin-on sheep carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alan; Wilkin, Carol-Ann; Purnell, Graham

    2007-12-01

    There is a demand by certain ethnic consumer groups in the United Kingdom for skin-on, singed carcasses, primarily from older sheep, but their production is illegal under current EU legislation. The aim of this study was to devise a protocol to produce carcasses having the desired 'smoked' colour and odour and an acceptable microbiology. A successful result could form the basis of a case to revise the legislation. Three key steps in the selected procedure were carcass singeing using specially designed gas burner equipment, pressure washing to clean the carcass and then evisceration. It was shown that a second heat application, termed 'toasting', if applied after evisceration, significantly (Ptoasting was the final step, following carcass splitting and inspection. Carcasses produced in this way had significantly (P<0.001) lower Enterobacteriaceae and TVC counts before chilling than conventionally dressed sheep carcasses produced in the same abattoir.

  8. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  9. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  10. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  11. Comparative carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products on the carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults. Sixty indigenous poults were brooded and fed broiler starter feed for the first 4 weeks of life. At the end of 4 weeks, forty-eight poults were randomly selected and distributed into four ...

  12. performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    density and L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. .... treatment were frozen immediately at ~4 °C. The meat was separated manually from the bone and then homogenized using a ..... activated protein kinase in muscle during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 270 ...

  13. Growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers on acidified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of acidifer in a blood meal based diet on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. One hundred and eighty un-sexed 4-week old broiler chicks raised on a common starter diet were randomly distributed into four experimental diets of 3 replicates and ...

  14. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the 56 days feeding trial, three animals per treatment were slaughtered after being starved for 16 hours and evaluated for carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) higher in YS/NF compared to other treatments.

  15. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Methodology and results: 260 indigenous chickens of which 52 ...

  16. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of feeding systems on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was used to randomly allocate 60 castrates, 30 purebred Mubende and 30 Mubende x Boer, aged 9 - 12 months, to three feeding ...

  17. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian goat breeds, the Afar, Central Highland (CHG) and Long-eared Somali (LES) were evaluated using three grainless diets varying in concentrate:roughage ratios (diet 1 was 50:50, diet 2, 65:35 and diet 3, 80:20) under feedlot conditions. The roughage was native grass ...

  18. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mdenli

    linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass characteristics, serum lipid variables and histopathological properties in ... cancer models such as chemically induced skin, stomach, colorectal cancer and mammary tumorigenesis. (Aro et al. ... The treated feed was left overnight at room temperature for the solvent to evaporate and was then.

  19. Microbial Biofilm and Bacterial Contamination on Pig Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to emphasize the presence of biofilm on meat surfaces using epifluorescences microscopy and establishing the microbial contamination level by classical microbiological methods. The research was performed in a pork slaughterhouse. The presence of microbial biofilm and the level of contamination were performed on surfaces from pig carcasses and cut pieces. Clusters of microorganisms included in a biofilm matrix were found on the surface of carcasses on sternal region, coast region, coccigian region and on surfaces of cut pieces: chop, front of thighs. Microbial biofilm was present on carcasses and cut pieces at least 3 days length, in regions with high humidity and microbial contamination level ranged of 102- 103 cfu/ cm2. The microbial load of the surfaces was assessed using the following microbiological indicators: total viable count (TVC, the number of enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genus. The level of carcasses contamination ranged on average from 1.3 x 10 cfu/ cm2 (neck to 2.6 x 103 cfu/cm2 (front of pulp. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was 60%, with a low level of contamination (less than 1 cfu/ cm2. Germs of the Pseudomonas genus were absent in all the analyzed samples.

  20. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lena Bosman

    #Non-conditioned – slaughtered within three months of purchase; Conditioned - slaughtered between six and 10 months of purchase or birth. ...... Effects of castration on growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality in Damascus goats. Anim. Prod. 24, 387-391. Mason, I.L., 1981. Breeds. In: Goat Production.

  1. Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation of a roughage diet with sources of protein and energy in South African Mutton Merino lambs. ... Die invloed van katoensaadoliekoekmeel (KOK) teen peile van 0, 100 of 200 g/d in kombinasie met heel mielies teen 0, 100 of 200 g/d as byvoeding tot 'n dieet ...

  2. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were suited for high chevon yield because they were heavy, had a high lean and low fat content, and losses during dressing and chilling were reduced by improved nutrition. Goats between 2 - 6 teeth yielded heavy carcasses that were comparable to goats in the 8-teeth ...

  3. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ...

  4. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  5. Glucuronidase activity of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Perin,Luana Martins; Yamazi,Anderson Keizo; Moraes,Paula Mendonça; Cossi,Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Pinto,Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Nero,Luís Augusto

    2010-01-01

    To identify Escherichia coli through the production of β-D-glucuronidase (GUD), 622 suspect cultures were isolated from chicken carcasses and plated in PetrifilmTM EC. Of these cultures, only 44 (7.1%) failed to produce GUD. This result indicates the usefulness of GUD production for estimating E. coli populations in chicken.

  6. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of two levels of rumen undegradable nitrogen (7 and 10 g UDN/kg DM) fed with two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS/ kg DM) supplementation to rations of karadi lambs on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Sixteen individual Karadi male ...

  7. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  8. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  9. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cold carcass mass and rib barrel than those slaughtered I3, I4,, BM and SM. The goats slaughtered at I3 had the highest dressing percentage and goats slaughtered at BM had the lowest dressing percentage (DP). For external noncarcass components, the proportion of the head did not change but it was the feet proportion ...

  10. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyze the effects of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on the performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. Three hundred and sixty oneday- old Abor Aerec broilers were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, adding genetically modified (GM) ...

  11. Performance and carcass values of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  12. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two natural proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes on growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails. Four hundred (10 day-old) quails were randomly allotted to dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 20 chicks per treatment and the birds were fed ad libitum for 28 ...

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  14. The effects of docking on performance and carcass characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of tail docking at birth on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fat-tailed male Karakas lambs were investigated. A total of 23 Karakas single-born male lambs was used in this study. Nine were docked at one day of age using rubber elastrator rings and the rest was left intact. After weaning, the lambs ...

  15. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    affected by dietary supplement of rumen undegradable ... Live weight gain was not significantly affected by levels of UDN and NS supplementation. Slaughter body weight, hot and cold carcass weights and killing out proportion were not significantly affected by both ... together with dietary protein which escapes degradation.

  16. Effects of feed refreshing frequency on growth and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    were fed individually. At the onset of each refreshing period the lambs were offered fresh feed ad libitum. Daily feed intakes, weekly live weights and carcass characteristics ... Conventionally, feeding units using ad libitum systems use feed troughs that contain sufficient feed to meet ..... Effect of grass or concentrate feeding.

  17. Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino acids by chickens. A.J. Saunders, J.P.H. Wessels, R.M. Gous. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ...

  18. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  19. Growth Response and Carcass Traits of Birds Fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Response and Carcass Traits of Birds Fed Diets Containing Three Differently Processed Discarded Vegetable-Bovine Blood-Rumen Content Mixtures. ... Data were subjected to Completely Randomized Design in a 3 x 3 factorial experimental layout. At the starter phase, results showed that birds fed P1 and P3 had ...

  20. Major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Carcass; Condemnation; ELFORA; Fasciolosis; Hydatid cyst; Or- gan; Ethiopia. Introduction. The Ethiopian livestock sector was contributing considerable portion to the economy of the country, and still it is promising in the economic development of the country. There are about 52.13 million heads of cattle in the ...

  1. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...

  2. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Abstract. The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old.

  3. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  4. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... space allowance for maximizing the growth performance and stabilizing immune response of pigs in sawdust fermentative ... performed to investigate the optimal stocking density for maximizing growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs. Materials and Methods ... barrows and gilts in a pen.

  5. Genetic variation of calsarcin-1 gene and association with carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ficial selection, migration, and genetic drift and that the artificial selection had put little pressure on this gene locus. Hence, the artificial selection must be strength-. Yang et al. 2715 ened in the process of the improvement for Chinese cattle. Effect of the CS-1 genotypes on carcass traits. Allele frequencies of ...

  6. Short communication: Effect of breed on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbred and 16 ...

  7. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... Abstract. A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda ...

  8. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Matebele goats were slaughtered at different state of permanent incisors eruption 1st pair (I1 )(237records), 2nd pair (I2 )(312 records), 3rd pair (I3 )(237records), 4th pair (I4)(232 ), Broken Mouth (BM)(214) and Smooth Mouth. (SM)(218) over a period of 15 years (1989- 2004) and analysed for carcass performance.

  9. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4361148

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 77. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic evaluation. A. Arakawa. 1#. , H. Iwaisaki. 1 and K. Anada. 2. 1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Division of Applied Biosciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. 2 Wagyu ...

  10. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bekezela

    This study showed the importance of adjusting for fixed effects when performing genetic evaluations in the two pig populations. Keywords: Carcass traits, growth traits, environmental effects, Large White, Landrace, swine. # Corresponding author: Bekezela.Dube@nwu.ac.za. Introduction. The value of a meat animal is ...

  11. Genetic estimation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... observed when maternal genetic effects and permanent environmental maternal effects were accounted for in the model. A simple animal model with direct additive genetic effect as the only random effect other than the residuals was the best model for genetic evaluation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele goat.

  12. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  13. Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels in diets of 2600kcal/kg metabolisable energy content on the performance and carcass characteristics of cockerel finishers. The experimental diets A, B, C, D and E contained CP levels of 140, 160, 180, : 200 and 220g/kg and they were ...

  14. Effects Of Varying Levels Of Dietary Protein On The Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits aged 9-10 weeks and weighing 0.72-0.99 kg were used to examine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on carcass characteristics of rabbits. They were divided into four groups and allotted to four dietary treatments A, B, C and D formulated with 10, 13, 16 and 20 % crude protein ...

  15. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  16. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Body weight and carcass traits were under intensive selection for more .... All previous muscles and organs were also calculated as ..... Sel. Evol. J. 38: 85-97. Liu X, Li H, Wang S, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang Q, Li N, Wang Y, Zhang H.

  17. Aspects of the serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding alkaline treated date pits (TDP) on serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic characteristics were investigated in 396 commercial broiler chicks of the Hybro strain. The values of glucose, albumin, protein, calcium, pH and GPT and GOT showed no significance difference when compared ...

  18. Effects of initial fattening age on carcass characteristics and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-XP

    2017-02-16

    Feb 16, 2017 ... Livestock and beef production have gradually declined in Turkey as a result of several factors such as reducing the number of livestock, obtaining meat from slaughtered dairy cows, and lower carcass weights. Yet population growth has led to increased demand for meat products (Demirbas & Tosun, 2005;.

  19. Performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 96, four weeks old broiler birds of Anak strain were subjected to 42 days feeding trial at the poultry unit of Imo State Polytechnic Teaching and Research Farm, Umuagwo in Ohaji/Egbema LGA of Imo State, Nigeria to determine the effect of sun-dried cattle plasma (SDCP) on their performance and carcass ...

  20. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  1. The effects of whole cottonseed feeding on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal morphology of Zandi lambs. M. Absalan1, A. Afzalzade1, M. Mirzaee2, S.D. Sharifi1, M. Khorvash2. & M. Kazemi-Benchenari3#. 1 Department of Animal Science, Abureyhan College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 2 Centre of ...

  2. Effects of initial fattening age on carcass characteristics and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of initial fattening age on carcass and meat quality of Simmental bulls imported from Austria to Turkey. These animals were allocated to two initial ages of fattening groups, namely young (n = 74) and old group (n = 61) at 5.5 and 7.5 months old, respectively. After reaching ...

  3. Comparison of carcass yield and meat composition of three classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken. Twenty one (21) birds in total consisting of 7 birds each of broilers, cockerel and spent hens were purchased from a reputable farm in Aiyepe, Ogun State. Birds were acclimatized for two weeks under similar ...

  4. Bodyweight Change and CarcassYield Performance of Somali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bodyweight Change and CarcassYield Performance of Somali Goats Fed with Groundnut Pod Hulls and a Mixture of Wheat Branand Mustard Seed Cake. ... Better dressing percentage was obtained (P<0.01) in supplemented and UTGNPH group on empty and slaughter BW basis. The result of this experiment demonstrated ...

  5. Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed High Fibre Sunflower Seed Cake Diets. ... 05) differences were in liveweight, plucked and dressing percentages at the starter and finisher phases. Reduction in abdominal fat deposition was obtained at the starter and finisher phases while gizzard weights ...

  6. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  7. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  8. Growth response, sexual development, carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intratesticularly administered zinc tannate (ZT) on growth performance, sexual development, slaughter, carcass and meat quality characteristics of young bull calves (-225 kg, 7 months old) were investigated. Comparisons were made across a three (treatments: ZT animals, intact bulls and burdizzo-castrated.

  9. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  10. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga (Ghana Sanga), a crossbreed between WASH and Zebu (Plate3).

  11. Carcass and Slaughter Traits of Weanling Pigs Fed Graded Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing pigs were used to assess the slaughter and carcass characteristics, organs and primal cut yields when fed diets supplemented with processed leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). A 63-day feeding trial was conducted with commercially available male ...

  12. Carcass, organ and pathological characteristics of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each diet was fed to a group of six pigs. Results indicated that carcass weight and backfat thickness decreased as level of CPM in the diets increased. Heart, Kidney, Liver and Spleen weights (expressed as percentage of body weight) were significantly higher at the 30 percent level of CPM inclusion. Likewise, Kidney of ...

  13. Effects of Single Leafy Spices on Growth and Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to evaluate the effects of dietary spice supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and organ weights of broilers. One hundred and sixty (160) two-week old broilers of Anak 2000 commercial strain were randomly assigned to four groups with four replicates per treatment.

  14. Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted over 90 days feeding and 7 days digestibility trials at Enda Selassie ATVET College to assess the effect of supplementation on feed utilization and carcass characteristics in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw based feeding of Tigray rams. The rams were arranged in a randomized complete block design ...

  15. Supergravitational conformal Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-08-01

    The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios

  16. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaudin, Pierre-Yves; Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days) were considered (n = 19,866), the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir). Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR) = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34)], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78)]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in this study should soon be alleviated by using the meat inspection information system software for collecting livestock meat inspection data. Implemented recently by the French ministry of agriculture, this new tool should allow for broader perspectives in swine surveillance.

  17. Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Brat, Kristián; Červenka, Rostislav; Kuta, Jan; Mikeš, Ondřej; Komárek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    More than 400 seal mummies and skeletons are now mapped in the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Decomposing carcasses represent a rare source of both organic matter and associated elements for the soil. Owing to their high trophic position, seals are known to carry a significant mercury body burden. This work focuses on the extent of the mercury input from seal carcasses and shows that such carcasses represent locally significant sources of mercury and methylmercury for the environment. Mercury contents in soil samples from the surrounding areas were determined using a single-purpose AAS mercury analyzer. For the determination of methylmercury, an ultra-sensitive isotopic dilution HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used. In the soils lying directly under seal carcasses, mercury contents were higher, with levels reaching almost 40 μg/kg dry weight of which methylmercury formed up to 2.8 % of the total. The spatial distribution implies rather slow vertical transport to the lower soil layers instead of a horizontal spread. For comparison, the background level of mercury in soils of the investigated area was found to be 8 μg/kg dry weight, with methylmercury accounting for less than 0.1 %. Apart from the direct mercury input, an enhanced level of nutrients in the vicinity of carcasses enables the growth of lichens and mosses with accumulative ability with respect to metals. The enhanced capacity of soil to retain mercury is also anticipated due to the high content of total organic carbon (from 1.6 to 7.5 %). According to the results, seal remains represent a clear source of mercury in the observed area.

  18. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  19. Conformal Methods in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-07-01

    List of symbols; Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Geometric Tools: 2. Differential Geometry; 3. Spacetime spinors; 4. Space spinors; 5. Conformal Geometry; Part II. General Relativity and Conformal Geometry: 6. Conformal extensions of exact solutions; 7. Asymptotic simplicity; 8. The conformal Einstein field equations; 9. Matter models; 10. Asymptotics; Part III. Methods of PDE Theory: 11. The conformal constraint equations; 12. Methods of the theory of hyperbolic differential equations; 13. Hyperbolic reductions; 14. Causality and the Cauchy problem in General Relativity; Part IV. Applications: 15. De Sitter-like spacetimes; 16. Minkowski-like spacetimes; 17. Anti-de Sitter-like spacetimes; 18. Characteristic problems for the conformal field equations; 19. Static solutions; 20. Spatial infinity; 21. Perspectives; References; Index.

  20. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... free of Exotic Newcastle disease (END): Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, Fiji... of Agriculture at the port of arrival, the carcasses or parts or products thereof have a thoroughly...

  1. Tracing conformational changes in proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Haspel, Nurit; Moll, Mark; Baker, Matthew L; Chiu, Wah; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Many proteins undergo extensive conformational changes as part of their functionality. Tracing these changes is important for understanding the way these proteins function. Traditional biophysics-based conformational search methods require a large number of calculations and are hard to apply to large-scale conformational motions. Results In this work we investigate the application of a robotics-inspired method, using backbone and limited side chain representation and a coarse grain...

  2. Carcass and meat quality of finished and non-finished Limousin heifers from alpine livestock systems differing in altitudinal origin of the forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnat, Isabelle D M; Kreuzer, Michael; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Leiber, Florian; Berard, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the alpine origin of the forage and of finishing on carcass and beef quality were quantified by modelling different alpine livestock system alternatives. Thirty-five Limousin heifers, initially weighing 383 ± 45 kg, were fed fresh grass at 400 or 2000 m above sea level, or a 1:1 mixture of alpine grass and lowland grass hay at 2000 m. After 9 weeks, the six heaviest and oldest animals per group were slaughtered. The remaining animals were finished for 8 weeks on a silage-concentrate diet in the lowlands to similar age and body weight as the first slaughtered group. Carcass and meat quality (M. longissimus thoracis) were assessed in various respects. The average daily gains achieved were of about 600 g/d and similar between forage-type groups. Dressing percentage was 53.5% in the alpine and 57.2% in the lowland group. Carcass conformation and fat cover scores did not differ between forage-type groups. The meat from the alpine groups had greater ultimate pH and smaller redness, yellowness and protein contents. Still, these differences were of minor practical relevance. There was no forage-type effect on water-holding capacity and shear force of the meat. The alpine systems enhanced the proportion of α-linolenic acid in intramuscular fat and decreased the levels of some volatile compounds in perirenal fat. Finishing resulted in compensatory growth, especially in the animals previously fed lowland grass. There was a trend for the finished compared with the non-finished groups towards greater carcass fat cover and intramuscular fat content. Additionally, ultimate pH was smaller and cooking loss was greater with than without finishing. Meat colour differences were also observed. Shear force was not affected by finishing. The finished animals had a smaller α-linolenic acid proportion in the intramuscular fat. In conclusion, the forage type had small effects on carcass and meat quality. Finishing did not substantially improve carcass and meat quality. The

  3. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable ef...

  4. Reflections on conformal spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungrok; Kravchuk, Petr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Caltech,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Caltech,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-04-29

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ{sub 0} of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ{sub 0} as well as for large Δ{sub 0}. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  5. Conformal (In)Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yoonbai; Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-01-01

    The current accelerating expansion of the Universe is explained either by dark energy or by modified gravity theories. Both of them can explain exactly the same background evolution of the Universe, however this degeneracy may be broken when the observation of large scale structure formation is taken into account. Two observables are parameterized by the so-called dark energy equation of state, ω and the growth index parameter, γ. From these observed parameters, one may reconstruct the model parameters of the so-called scalar-tensor gravity theory, one of the modified gravity theories. Especially, the scalar-tensor gravity theory is described both in Jordan frame and in Einstein frame. If cosmological observations are interpreted in one frame, then all of the observables should also be interpreted in that frame. This explicitly shows conformal inequality of cosmological observables.

  6. Conformal (InEquality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Young-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current accelerating expansion of the Universe is explained either by dark energy or by modified gravity theories. Both of them can explain exactly the same background evolution of the Universe, however this degeneracy may be broken when the observation of large scale structure formation is taken into account. Two observables are parameterized by the so-called dark energy equation of state, ω and the growth index parameter, γ. From these observed parameters, one may reconstruct the model parameters of the so-called scalar-tensor gravity theory, one of the modified gravity theories. Especially, the scalar-tensor gravity theory is described both in Jordan frame and in Einstein frame. If cosmological observations are interpreted in one frame, then all of the observables should also be interpreted in that frame. This explicitly shows conformal inequality of cosmological observables.

  7. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  8. Carcass mass can influence rate of decomposition and release of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen into gravesoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicka, Ashley; Johnson, Reyna; Bushing, Jennifer; Higley, Leon G; Carter, David O

    2011-06-15

    To investigate the use of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) in gravesoil to estimate early postmortem interval (PMI), we conducted an experiment to decompose swine (Sus scrofa) carcasses of contrasting mass (∼1 kg, ∼20 kg, ∼40 kg, ∼50 kg). Carcasses were placed on the soil surface during June 2007 to monitor mass loss and the concentration of gravesoil NRN over an interval of 15 days. Carcasses of a mass ≤ 20 kg decomposed more rapidly than larger carcasses. However, 1 kg carcasses were associated with a slower release of NRN into gravesoil but a greater concentration of NRN per kg carcass (NRN(C)). We conclude that carcass mass can affect the rate of decomposition and release of NRN into gravesoil, which reflects an interaction between carcass volume and blow fly colonization. Furthermore, we conclude that neonatal carcasses require a different equation than larger carcasses when using gravesoil chemistry to estimate PMI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of three sampling methods for the microbiological analysis of broiler carcasses after immersion chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombelli, Audecir; Cavani, Ricardo; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Countries have different official programs and implement different sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella on poultry carcasses. In Brazil, a 25-g sample of skin and muscle excision (SME) from the wings, neck, and pericloacal parts is used; in the European Union (EU), a 25-g sample of neck skin (NSE) is used; and, in the United States, the whole carcass is rinsed with 400 ml of diluent (WCR). In the present study, these methods were evaluated to compare Salmonella occurrence and counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and total viable count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria) using different carcasses from the same flock and also using different analytical units taken from the same carcass. Eighty flocks, with four broiler carcasses from each, were included in this study; three broilers were sampled according to protocols from Brazil, the EU, and the United States, and the last one by all three methods. SME, NSE, and WCR provided equivalent results (P > 0.05) for Salmonella detection on broiler carcasses when using different carcasses from the same flock and when using the same carcass. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. For the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms, WRC provided higher counts than SME or NSE (P < 0.05), when using both the same or different carcasses. Therefore, it is possible to directly compare Salmonella results in poultry carcasses when using the methods recommended by the legislative bodies of Brazil, the United States, and the EU. However, WCR provides the best results for hygiene indicator microorganisms.

  10. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Effect of external or internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on prechilled broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D

    2007-06-01

    During processing, fecal material may contact broiler carcasses externally or internally. A study was conducted to determine the effect of external vs. internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 trials, 12 carcasses just prior to evisceration were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed on a shackle line, and eviscerated with commercial equipment in a pilot scale processing plant. Also, approximately 20 intestinal tracts were collected from the processing plant; then cecal contents were collected and pooled. One gram of cecal content was placed on the exterior breast skin (external), inside the carcass cavity (internal), or not applied (control). All carcasses were held 10 min, then placed on the shackle line and passed through a commercial inside-outside bird washer set at 552 kPa, 5 s dwell time, using approximately 189 L per min of tap water at ambient temperature. After a 1-min drip, whole carcass rinses were conducted on each carcass, and coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter counts were determined and reported as log cfu/mL of rinse. External carcass contamination resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) coliform, E. coli, and Campylobacter numbers than internal contamination (5.0 vs. 4.5, 4.9 vs. 4.2, and 3.6 vs. 2.6, respectively). Control carcass counts were significantly lower than external or internal carcass contamination counts for coliforms (3.7), E. coli (3.6), and Campylobacter (2.2). External contamination resulted in higher numbers of bacteria after carcass washing, but carcasses with internal contamination still have higher numbers of bacteria after washing than carcasses without applied contamination.

  12. Characteristics of carcass and of non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate corn or sorghum diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets finished in the feedlot with high-concentrate corn or sorghum grain-based diets. Thirty-two animals were finished, comprising 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (two teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two sheep categories × two grains. For the variables final live weight, live weight at slaughter, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, carcass compactness index, subjective color, loin-eye area, fasting losses, external organs, internal organs, and for the weights, in kilograms, of neck, shoulder, ribs, and leg, there was a significant difference between categories. In the variables studied for the high-concentrate diets, significant differences were found for the ribs, expressed in relative values. Lambs have much higher fasting losses, a greater proportion of internal organs, and lighter-colored meat compared with hoggets. Hot and cold carcass yields, meat subjective color, and percentage of ribs are higher in feedlot-finished lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate sorghum-based diets compared with those fed corn-based diets.

  13. Effect of complete feed starch banana weevil pea stone on the beans goats system in vivo against carcass weight and carcass part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aswandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the value of benefits in favor of complete feed production performance and carcass weight of any part of the carcass part-goat nuts. The design used in this study. Random Draft Complete. The material used in this study of 12 male goats Nuts averaging initial body weight (15.58 ± 2.601 kg with a CV: 16.69%, age 10-15 months. At the end of the study 12 goats to know the weight of nuts cut carcass and parts of the carcass. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 on carcass weight produced goat nuts. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 against the weight of all the parts ice nuts goat carcass neck, shoulder, breast, leg chump on, ribs, loin, fore shank and the weight of the flank. CF0 and CF3 treatment effects did not provide a very real difference to the weight of carcass parts, but the weight of the carcass are treated CF3 higher than the CF0. This is in line with the expressed [Keywords—  banana weevil stone, complete feed  goat bean

  14. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  15. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  16. Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on Veal Hides and Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Hinkley, Susanne; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared with E. coli O157:H7-positive samples collected from veal trimmings than from products produced from other cattle slaughter classes. Therefore samples were collected from hides and preevisceration carcasses at five veal processors to assess E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC contamination during bob veal and formula-fed veal dressing procedures. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was measured by culture isolation and found to be on 20.3% of hides and 6.7% of carcasses. In contrast, a non-O157 EHEC molecular screening assay identified 90.3% of hides and 68.2% of carcasses as positive. Only carcass samples were taken forward to culture confirmation and 38.7% yielded one or more non-O157 EHEC isolates. The recovery of an EHEC varied by plant and sample collection date; values ranged from 2.1 to 87.8% among plants and from 4.2 to 64.2% within the same plant. Three plants were resampled after changes were made to sanitary dressing procedures. Between the two collection times at the three plants, hide-to-carcass transfer of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC was significantly reduced. All adulterant EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were isolated from veal carcasses as well as four other potentially pathogenic serogroups (O5, O84, O118, and O177). Bob veal was found to have a greater culture prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and greater positive molecular screens for non-O157 EHEC than formula-fed veal (P EHEC was not different (P > 0.05) between the two types of calves. EHEC-O26, -O111, and -O121 were found more often in bob veal (P EHEC-O103 was found more often in formula-fed veal (P < 0.05).

  17. Effect of body mass and clothing on decomposition of pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Konwerski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Szafałowicz, Michał

    2014-11-01

    Carcass mass and carcass clothing are factors of potential high forensic importance. In casework, corpses differ in mass and kind or extent of clothing; hence, a question arises whether methods for post-mortem interval estimation should take these differences into account. Unfortunately, effects of carcass mass and clothing on specific processes in decomposition and related entomological phenomena are unclear. In this article, simultaneous effects of these factors are analysed. The experiment followed a complete factorial block design with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed). Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into three blocks, which were separated in time. Generally, carcass mass revealed significant and frequently large effects in almost all analyses, whereas carcass clothing had only minor influence on some phenomena related to the advanced decay. Carcass mass differently affected particular gross processes in decomposition. Putrefaction was more efficient in larger carcasses, which manifested itself through earlier onset and longer duration of bloating. On the other hand, active decay was less efficient in these carcasses, with relatively low average rate, resulting in slower mass loss and later onset of advanced decay. The average rate of active decay showed a significant, logarithmic increase with an increase in carcass mass, but only in these carcasses on which active decay was driven solely by larval blowflies. If a blowfly-driven active decay was followed by active decay driven by larval Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was regularly found in medium/large and large carcasses, the average rate showed only a slight and insignificant increase with an increase in carcass mass. These results indicate that lower efficiency of active decay in larger carcasses is a consequence

  18. Visual body-scores selection and its influence on body size and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Pedrosa, V B; Silva, S L; Gomes, R C; Cucco, D C; Santana, M H A; Campos, J H A; Barbosa, V N; Castro, F S F; Novais, F J; Oliveira, E C M

    2015-12-01

    Genetic parameters, genetic trends, and genetic progress of carcass traits were estimated for 12,447 Nellore individuals from different Brazilian herds. The following carcass traits were analyzed: visual body scores of conformation (CONF), precocity (PREC), and muscularity (MUSC); rump width (RW) and rump length (RL), body size (frame); and ultrasound evaluation of ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Heritability estimates (± SE) for CONF, PREC, and MUSC were 0.23 ± 0.02, 0.33 ± 0.03, and 0.31 ± 0.02, respectively. The heritability estimates (± SE) for RW, RL, and frame were 0.25 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04, and 0.31 ± 0.03, respectively. Ultrasound of the REA, BFT, and RFT presented mean heritability estimates (± SE) of 0.38 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.04, and 0.47 ± 0.04, respectively. The visual body score of CONF had high genetic correlations with RW, RL, and frame (0.74 ± 0.09, 0.82 ± 0.08, and 0.83 ± 0.04, respectively), indicating a high association of CONF with the measurements related to body structure. The REA had no correlation with BFT and RFT (-0.09 ± 0.04 and -0.03 ± 0.04, respectively) and showed only a moderate genetic correlation with MUSC (0.39 ± 0.05). The BFT and RFT had moderate genetic correlations with PREC (0.36 ± 0.07 and 0.29 ± 0.07, respectively) and no correlation with frame (-0.02 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.05, respectively), suggesting that selection for frame had no effect on the subcutaneous fat content of the carcass. Low genetic trends and low genetic progress were obtained for REA (0.026 cm, 0.02%), BFT (0.0031 mm, 0.05%), and RFT (0.0013 mm, 0.02%), with no significant values of genetic progress detected throughout the studied period. The CONF, PREC, and MUSC presented high genetic trends (0.030 points, 0.030 points, and 0.029 points, respectively) and high genetic progress (0.60%, 0.56%, and 0.59%, respectively), indicating a significant genetic progress for these traits throughout the evaluated

  19. Recent advancements in conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert J.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing.

  20. Solvent Induced Conformational Kinetics (SICK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Leffert; Kommandeur, Jan

    1970-01-01

    Specific conformations of molecules may be induced by the solvent when a large free volume is associated with the oonformational change. The conformational energy barrier is then a property of the solvent, rather than of the molecule. Such effects are reported for several substituted

  1. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  2. Ethanol Consumption by Wistar Rat Dams Affects Selenium Bioavailability and Antioxidant Balance in Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Carreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption affects maternal nutrition, the mothers’ antioxidant balance and the future health of their progeny. Selenium (Se is a trace element cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx. We will study the effect of ethanol on Se bioavailability in dams and in their progeny. We have used three experimental groups of dams: control, chronic ethanol and pair-fed; and three groups of pups. Se levels were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum and hepatic GPx activity was determined by spectrometry. We have concluded that ethanol decreased Se retention in dams, affecting their tissue Se deposits and those of their offspring, while also compromising their progeny’s weight and oxidation balance. These effects of ethanol are caused by a reduction in Se intake and a direct alcohol-generated oxidation action.

  3. Selection of coffee progenies for resistance to nematode Meloidogyne paranaensis in infested area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lima Salgado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select Coffea arabica progenies for resistance to M. paranaensis in an infested coffee growing area using Henderson’s mixed model methodology. Forty-one genotypes were selected at the Coffee Active Germplasm Bank of Minas Gerais, and evaluated in regard to stem diameter, number of plagiotropic branches, reaction to the nematode, and yield per plant. There was genetic variability among the genotypes studied for all the traits evaluated, and among the populations studied for yield and reaction to the nematode, indicating possibilities for obtaining genetic gains through selection in this population. There was high rate of genotypic association between all the traits studied. Coffee plants of Timor Hybrid UFV408-01 population, and F3 progenies derived from crossing Catuaí Vermelho and Amphillo MR 2161 were the most promising in the area infested by M. paranaensis.

  4. Behavior of 222Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny's concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn levels; the dependence of indoor 222Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor 222Rn concentration; and the dependence of 222Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  5. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( gilts, but there were no differences ( ≥ 0.08) in variability for any

  6. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  7. DNA alterations detected in the progeny of paternally irradiated Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y; Shimada, A; Shima, A

    1995-01-01

    A nonmammalian test system for germ-cell mutagenesis has been developed by using the Japanese medaka fish. We describe a system for detecting DNA alterations in F1 progeny descended from the gamma-irradiated male medaka that uses an arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction and fingerprinting. A combination of these two methods has some advantages for screening changes in genomic DNA of individual progeny because this detection system can (i) screen for mutational events before embryos with dominant lethal mutations are eliminated during development and (ii) detect DNA changes in the progeny of irradiated males without functional selection and bias, such as resistance to chemicals. DNA alterations are detected as changes in patterns (i.e., band loss and/or band gain) of DNA fingerprints of progeny descended from males whose spermatozoa or spermatids were gamma-irradiated (4.75 or 9.50 Gy). We determined the frequency of gamma-irradiation-induced band loss in arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction fingerprints of DNA from severely malformed embryos with dominant lethal mutations and hatched viable embryos. The frequency of band loss in both dominant lethal embryos and hatched viable embryos increased with increasing gamma-ray dose, although more so in the former. We detected a new band in the fingerprints as a heritable DNA alteration but not a viability- or phenotype-affecting DNA alteration in two viable mutants recovered after gamma-irradiation experiments. A cloned amplified fragment of the new band contained a repeated sequence of p(ATGT)n. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7816843

  8. Early flowering and seed production in a yellow birch progeny test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1976-01-01

    Trees in a yellow birch progeny test began to bear seed when 7 years old and the proportion of fruiting trees increased in the following 2 years. Male catkins were produced at age 8 and the number of trees with males increased greatly the following years. Although there is much variation between and within families in earliness of flowering and in number of flowers and...

  9. Comparison of expected and actual progeny growth differences in crossbred calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrt, Garry Sonn

    1987-01-01

    The growth performance of Angus-Polled Hereford F1 calves was compared to the expected progeny differences (EPD) estimated by the American Polled Hereford Association to evaluate the usefulness of EPD estimates for improving commercial beef production. Polled Hereford sires were selected from the high accuracy sires listed in the American Polled Hereford Association's sire summary. Four types of sires were used: 1) Sires with high yearling weight and high maternal EPD's; ...

  10. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  11. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ekanem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condi

  12. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  13. Optimum Skin Blending Method for Quantifying Poultry Carcass Bacteria 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, John S.; Miller, Byron F.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum blending fluids and blending times for use in quantifying bacteria on poultry carcass skin by the skin “blending” method were determined. Butterfield's buffered-phosphate diluent, physiological saline solution (0.85% NaCl), peptone water (0.1% peptone), and deionized water, each at four different skin blending times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, were compared. The comparison was based on relative numbers of bacteria per cm2 of skin, enumerated by each combination on turkey carcasses. Peptone water and physiological saline solution each yielded significantly (P diluent or deionized water. There were no significant differences among the four skin blending times and no significant interaction effect between the two factors tested. PMID:4917460

  14. Analysis of radon and thoron progeny measurements based on air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajic, J M; Nikezic, D

    2015-02-01

    Measuring of radon and thoron progeny concentrations in air, based on air filtration, was analysed in order to assess the reliability of the method. Changes of radon and thoron progeny activities on the filter during and after air sampling were investigated. Simulation experiments were performed involving realistic measuring parameters. The sensitivity of results (radon and thoron concentrations in air) to the variations of alpha counting in three and five intervals was studied. The concentration of (218)Po showed up to be the most sensitive to these changes, as was expected because of its short half-life. The well-known method for measuring of progeny concentrations based on air filtration is rather unreliable and obtaining unrealistic or incorrect results appears to be quite possible. A simple method for quick estimation of radon potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), based on measurements of alpha activity in a saturation regime, was proposed. Thoron PAEC can be determined from the saturation activity on the filter, through beta or alpha measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  16. Polyphenol variability in the fruits and juices of a cider apple progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Cindy F; Childebrand, Nicolas; Marnet, Nathalie; Lebail, Gildas; Dupuis, Fabrice; Laurens, François; Guilet, David; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Polyphenols have a favourable antioxidant potential on human health, suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also linked to the quality of apple juices and ciders since they are predominantly responsible for astringency, bitterness and colour. Major phenolic compounds were quantified by liquid chromatography in fruits and juices from a cider apple progeny harvested for 3 years. The total content of procyanidins and their average degree of polymerisation (DPn) were also determined in fruits by phloroglucinolysis. Variability and extraction yield of these compounds were determined. The variability observed in the progeny was representative of the variability observed in many cider apple varieties. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the most extractable group, with an average extraction yield of 67%, whereas flavonols and anthocyanins were the least. This study is the first to introduce variability and extraction yields of the main phenolic compounds in both fruits and juices of a cider apple progeny. This dataset will be used for an upcoming QTL mapping study, an original approach that has never been undertaken for cider apple. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  18. Reduction of radon progeny concentration in ordinary room due to a mixing fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Sextro, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out at the Indoor Air Quality Research House (IAQRH) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, to study the effect on the radon progeny of operating a mixing fan. At the beginning of every experiment, about 15 kBq.m/sup -3/ of radon was injected into a 36 m/sup 3/ ordinary room. Measurements were conducted with three different aerosol particle concentrations of about 10/sup 2/, 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 5/ per cm/sup 3/. Real-time measurements of radon and progeny concentrations, particles and environmental parameters, were made throughout the experiments. Measurements of plated out activity on the surfaces of internal walls of the room and fan blades were measured directly by filter papers and CR-39 nuclear track detectors placed on the surfaces. The ratio of plated out activity to the total progeny activity in the room varied from 17% to 84%, in inverse relation to the particle concentrations. More than 99% of the plateout activity was found on walls and less than 1% on the fan blades. (author).

  19. Reduction of radon progeny concentration in ordinary room due to a mixing fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sextro, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out at the Indoor Air Quality Research House (IAQRH) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, to study the effect of operating a mixing fan on the radon progeny. In every experiment, about 15 KBq.m{sup -3} of radon was injected into a 36 m3 ordinary room. Measurements were conducted with three different aerosol particle concentrations of about 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5} per cm3. Real-time measurements of radon and progeny concentrations, particles, and environmental parameters were made throughout the experiments. Measurements of plate-out activity on the surfaces of internal walls of the room were measured directly by filter papers and CR-39 nuclear track detectors, while on fan blades CR-39 detectors were used. The ratio of plated-out activity to the total progeny activity in the room varied from 17% to 84%. More than 99% of the plated-out activity was found on walls and less than 1% on fan blades. (author).

  20. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  1. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  2. The behavior of maize hybrids generated from contrasting progenies regarding the use of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of maize hybrids synthesized from contrasting genotypes with regard to the use of nitrogen that were selected for their performance in topcrosses. Sixty-seven S0:1 progenies derived from the germplasm bank of Ufla were evaluated in topcross combinations with two testers  at two nitrogen levels. The six progenies with the greatest tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen (RT and the five with the least tolerance and responsiveness (RnTn were selected and, were, afterwards, crossed in a complete diallel, for a total of 55 hybrid combinations. The following genetic parameters were estimated: genetic variance among the hybrids (σ^2G, broad sense heritability in the mean of the hybrids, and selective accuracy (r^2gg. It was observed that the genetic parameters were greater in the environments with available nitrogen and that the early selection by performance in topcrosses of progenies tolerant to low N levels may not be made with high intensity. The hybrids tolerant to low N levels were obtained by crossing contrasting parents.

  3. Genetic variation of phytochemical compounds in progenies of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil contains phytochemical compounds capable of preventing a number of healthproblems. Knowledge on the genetic contribution to the variability in these compounds can help to obtain mate progenies withhigher levels thereof in breeding programs. The composition of triterpene saponins, methylxanthines, chlorogenic acid andthe antioxidant activity of eight mate progenies were evaluated. Significant differences among progenies were verified incontents of triterpene saponins (0.003-0.080%, caffeine (0.226-1.377%, theobromine (0.176-0.831%, and chlorogenicacid (1.344-2.031% and in antioxidant activity (31.251-51.406%. The contents of theobromine were found to be negativelycorrelated with saponins and caffeine, and caffeine with chlorogenic acid, while theobromine was positively correlated withchlorogenic acid. The heritability values for saponins (75.09%, caffeine (75.19%, theobromine (66.87%, chlorogenic acid(52.86% and antioxidant activity (67.75% indicate the possibility of genetic gain in selection for these traits.

  4. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA......Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...

  5. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  6. Imaging of conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Josef [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-13

    Control of intramolecular conformational change in a small number of molecules or even a single one by an application of an outside electric field defined by potentials on nearby metal or dielectric surfaces has potential applications in both 3-D and 2-D nanotechnology. Specifically, the synthesis, characterization, and understanding of designed solids with controlled built-in internal rotational motion of a dipole promises a new class of materials with intrinsic dielectric, ferroelectric, optical and optoelectronic properties not found in nature. Controlled rotational motion is of great interest due to its expected utility in phenomena as diverse as transport, current flow in molecular junctions, diffusion in microfluidic channels, and rotary motion in molecular machines. A direct time-resolved observation of the dynamics of motion on ps or ns time scale in a single molecule would be highly interesting but is also very difficult and has yet to be accomplished. Much can be learned from an easier but still challenging comparison of directly observed initial and final orientational states of a single molecule, which is the basis of this project. The project also impacts the understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and single-molecule spectroscopic detection, as well as the synthesis of solid-state materials with tailored properties from designed precursors.

  7. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  8. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  9. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, ...

  10. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial experiment. Twenty four ...

  11. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial ...

  12. Carcass yield, meat quality and internal organs of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary effect of different levels of black pepper (BP) on carcass yield, meat quality, meat pH and internal organs of broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were formulated such that diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 % BP respectively. The inclusion ...

  13. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in diets. ... Similarly, the weight of liver (40.35-57.05g), lungs (10.22-11.24g), heart (2.95-4.10g), kidney (8.30-10.70g), kidney fat (11.10-12.65g), small intestine (81.25-99.80g), large intestine ...

  14. Chemical composition of carcass sawdust residue as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monsters was respektiewelik soos volg: vog: 56.4 en 55.0Vo (f = 0.137); vet: 2l .2 en 23.17o (y' = 0.923): proteien: ... (Reid et al., 1955; Hansard, 1961; Berg & Butterfield, 1976,. Kock & Preston, 1979; Fuller et a1.,1990). ... the f at and moisture content of the carcasses support the results, obtained on cattle and pigs, that the ...

  15. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were conducted at 3 US locations (California, Idaho, and Texas) to determine the effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride and duration of zilpaterol feeding on carcass composition and beef palatability. At each site, 160 steers and 160 heifers were stratified within sex by initial BW (study d -1) and assigned randomly within BW strata to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (4 blocks/treatment for each sex). The 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (20- or 40-d duration of zilpaterol feeding) factorial. When included in the diet, zilpaterol was supplemented at 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). Each pen consisted of 10 animals. After slaughter 2 carcasses per pen (n=64 per trial site) were selected. The entire right side of the selected carcasses was collected for dissection and chemical analysis of the soft tissue. Additionally, the left strip loin was collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determinations and aged to 28 d postmortem. Sensory analysis was conducted on the Idaho trial site samples only. All data were pooled for analyses. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass muscle deposition (P0.11) by the zilpaterol treatment. In heifer carcasses, carcass moisture percentage was increased (P=0.04) and bone percentage was decreased (P=0.02), whereas in steer carcasses, carcass moisture and bone percentage were not affected (P>0.10). In heifer carcasses, carcass ash percentage was not affected (P=0.61) by zilpaterol, whereas in steer carcasses, carcass ash percentage tended (P=0.07) to be increased. The protein-to-bone ratio was increased (Pcomposition primarily through protein deposition. However, zilpaterol treatment can adversely affect tenderness and other palatability traits.

  16. The Establish of the Coliforms/cm2 on the Area of Cattle Carcass Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Tibulca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coliforms present in 1 cm2 of carcass surface shows the degree of contamination during slaughtering as well as the hygienic condition of the air, the slaughtering hall, the equipment getting in contact with the carcasses, of the utensils, operators’ work equipment, of the operators’ hygiene. The indicator is determined by inoculating microorganisms from the carcasses surface in nutritional and selective environments, followed by their placing under heat control and counting of the microorganisms.

  17. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan; Akhmad Zaenal Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. ...

  18. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  19. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  20. Microbiological quality of broiler carcasses during slaughter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Svobodová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination of poultry carcasses can be influenced by many factors during transport and slaughtering. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of four processing steps (plucking, evisceration, washing and chilling on the total viable counts (TVC, counts of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. incidence on broiler carcasses. A total of 160 broiler carcasses originating from one farm were collected during one year period at a Czech slaughterhouse and examined. Both TVC and E. coli counts decreased during processing from 4.6 log cfu/cm2 and 3.5 log cfu/cm2 to 3.7 log cfu/cm2 and 1.8 log cfu/cm2, respectively, with a major impact of washing on TVC and washing and chilling on E. coli decrease (P Salmonella spp. (6 strains and Listeria spp. (12 strains, none of L. monocytogenes were found sporadically in all processing steps followed. However, a decreasing trend was observed in Salmonella counts and Listeria spp. incidence during the processing. Thus, this study brings new valuable information on the dynamics of microflora during modern poultry processing.

  1. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  2. Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and slaughterhouses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejab, Saira Banu Mohamed; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard; Patchanee, Prapas

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.

  3. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  4. Particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist Route "Liczyrzepa" Mine in Kowary Adit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszczuk, Katarzyna; Skubacz, Krystian

    2018-01-01

    Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, in cooperation with Central Mining Institute performed measurements of radon concentration in air, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), particle size distribution of the radon progeny and ambient aerosols in the Underground Tourist-Educational Route "Liczyrzepa" Mine in Kowary Adit. A research study was developed to investigate the appropriate dose conversion factors for short-lived radon progeny. The particle size distribution of radon progeny was determined using Radon Progeny Particle Size Spectrometer (RPPSS). The device allows to receive the distribution of PAEC in the particle size range from 0.6 nm to 2494 nm, based on their activity measured on 8 stages composed of impaction plates or diffusion screens. The measurements of the ambient airborne particle size distribution were performed in the range from a few nanometres to about 20 micrometres using Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) spectrometer and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer (SMPS).

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus BKRF4 Gene Product Is Required for Efficient Progeny Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, H M Abdullah Al; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki

    2017-09-13

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly B cells. EBV has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. To combat EBV-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV lytic replication cycle is also important. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic gene, BKRF4. Using our anti-BKRF4 antibody, we revealed that the BKRF4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle with late kinetics. To characterize the role of BKRF4, we constructed BKRF4-knockout mutants using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. While disruption of the BKRF4 gene had almost no effect on viral protein expression and DNA synthesis, it significantly decreased progeny virion levels in HEK293 and Akata cells. Furthermore, we show that BKRF4 is involved not only in production of progeny virions but also in increasing the infectivity of the virus particles. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that BKRF4 interacted with a virion protein, BGLF2. We showed that the C-terminal region of BKRF4 was critical for this interaction and for efficient progeny production. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BKRF4 partially colocalized with BGLF2 in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Finally, we showed that BKRF4 is a phosphorylated, possible tegument protein and that the EBV protein kinase BGLF4 may be important for this phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that BKRF4 is involved in the production of infectious virions.IMPORTANCE While the latent genes of EBV have been studied extensively, the lytic genes are less well characterized. This study focused on one such lytic gene, BKRF4, which is conserved only among gammaherpesviruses (ORF45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or murine herpesvirus-68). After preparing the BKRF4 knockout virus using B95-8 EBV-BAC, we demonstrated that the BKRF4 gene was involved in infectious progeny

  6. Real-time ultrasound to predict rabbit carcass composition and volume of longissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano José Cruz da Rocha e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time ultrasonography (RTU was used to measure the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM volume in vivo and to predict the carcass composition of rabbits. For this, 63 New Zealand White × Californian rabbits with 2093±63 g live weight were used. Animals were scanned between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae using an RTU equipment with a 7.5 MHz probe. Measurements of LM volume were obtianed both in vivo and on carcass. Regression equations were used for the prediction of carcass composition and LM volume using the LM volume measured obtained with RTU (LMVU as independent variable. Carcass meat, bone and total dissectible fat weights represented 780, 164 and 56 g/kg of the reference carcass weight, respectively. Regression equations showed a strong relationship between LMVU and the correspondent volume in carcass. Furthermore, LMVU was also useful in predicting the amounts of carcass tissues. It is possible to predict LM volume in the carcass using the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU. The amount of carcass tissues can be predicted by the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU.

  7. Periphyton response to increased light and salmon carcass introduction in northern California streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, H.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.; Cummins, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton response to riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition in coastal streams of northern California was evaluated in a manipulative field experiment. The experiment followed a split-plot design, with streams as whole plots and two 100-m reaches in each of 6 streams as subplots. At the subplot level, riparian hardwoods were removed from one reach in each stream. At the whole-plot level, carcasses were added to both open- and closed-canopy reaches of 3 of the streams. Thus, treatments consisted of reaches with open or closed canopies, in the presence and absence of carcasses. Nutrient limitation of the periphyton was assessed in 2 streams (1 with carcasses and 1 without carcasses) using nutrient-diffusing clay saucers (N-enriched, P-enriched, N+P-enriched, or unenriched control) incubated in open- and closed-canopy reaches in the streams. Canopy and carcass treatments did not affect gross primary productivity or periphyton biomass on natural substrates. The periphyton assemblage consisted primarily of diatoms in all reaches on all dates. N amendment of agar in nutrient-diffusing, clay saucers and canopy removal increased biofilm ash-free dry mass on the saucers, but carcass introduction did not. Failure of periphyton to respond to carcass addition may have reflected overriding light limitation, inadequate within-stream retention of carcass nutrients, and/or limitations of the study design.

  8. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  9. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM. Mise

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433 which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180 in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45. The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059. The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019, but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755. The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies.

  10. Locally conformal symplectic manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izu Vaisman

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally conformal symplectic (l. c. s. manifold is a pair (M2n,Ω where M2n(n>1 is a connected differentiable manifold, and Ω a nondegenerate 2-form on M such that M=⋃αUα (Uα- open subsets. Ω/Uα=eσαΩα, σα:Uα→ℝ, dΩα=0. Equivalently, dΩ=ω∧Ω for some closed 1-form ω. L. c. s. manifolds can be seen as generalized phase spaces of Hamiltonian dynamical systems since the form of the Hamilton equations is, in fact, preserved by homothetic canonical transformations. The paper discusses first Hamiltonian vector fields, and infinitesimal automorphisms (i. a. on l. c. s. manifolds. If (M,Ω has an i. a. X such that ω(X≠0, we say that M is of the first kind and Ω assumes the particular form Ω=dθ−ω∧θ. Such an M is a 2-contact manifold with the structure forms (ω,θ, and it has a vertical 2-dimensional foliation V. If V is regular, we can give a fibration theorem which shows that M is a T2-principal bundle over a symplectic manifold. Particularly, V is regular for some homogeneous l. c. s, manifolds, and this leads to a general construction of compact homogeneous l. c. s, manifolds. Various related geometric results, including reductivity theorems for Lie algebras of i. a. are also given. Most of the proofs are adaptations of corresponding proofs in symplectic and contact geometry. The paper ends with an Appendix which states an analogous fibration theorem in Riemannian geometry.

  11. Carcass and meat quality in light lambs from different fat classes in the EU carcass classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo, C.; Alfonso, M.J.; A. Sánchez(); Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety commercial lamb carcasses were analysed according to the four different fat classes in the light lamb European classiffication system. Shoulder fat increased 3%, muscle decreased 2% and bone decreased 1% for each class increase. No signifficant differences were found among fat classes regarding pH, WHC, cooking losses, juiciness, myoglobin content, meat colour measured immediately after cutting (L*, a*, b*), odour intensity or flavour quality. Some differences were found in colour e...

  12. Development of a new thoron progeny detector based on SSNTD and the collection by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, L; Tschiersch, J; Meisenberg, O; Wielunski, M; Li, J L; Shang, B

    2011-05-01

    The importance of (220)Rn (thoron) progeny for human exposure has been widely recognised in the past decades. Since no stable equilibrium factor was found between indoor thoron and its progeny, and the concentration of thoron progeny varies with time, it is necessary to develop detectors for long-term measurement that directly sample and detect thoron progeny. However, power supply of this kind of detectors has always been a problem. In this study, a set of device that is suitable for long-term measurement is introduced. A high-voltage electric field was formed for the collection of charged aerosols attached by (222)Rn (radon) and thoron progenies on solid-state nuclear track detector. Impact from radon progeny could be eliminated with a shield of Al foil of appropriate thickness. Tests were made both in an experimental house and in a thoron chamber in Helmholtz Zentrum München to determine the parameters and to verify the universality under different conditions.

  13. The effect of yield components on grain yield in different progeny types of an F3 maize population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Slaviša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of S1 and HS progenies obtained from an F3 maize population. Those two progeny groups were created in 2004, and field trials were carried out in the period 2005-2006 at three locations near Aleksinac, Leskovac, and Kruševac, in RCB design. After genotypic correlation coefficients were calculated, they were used to calculate path coefficients and multiple determination coefficients. Analysis of path coefficients showed significant direct effects of the all studied traits in both S1 and HS progeny types. In S1 progenies indirect effects were significant for the all paths, except for percent of stalk and root lodged plants through 1000 grain mass, 1000 grain mass through percent of stalk and root lodged plants, and for 1000 grain mass through number of grain rows. The strongest direct effect on grain yield in HS progenies was shown by percent of stalk and root lodged plants (0.68**, while number of grains per row gave the strongest negative direct effect on grain yield (-0.97**. Multiple determination coefficients were significant for the most of independent variables' combinations in both progeny types. Numerous combinations composed of just few traits showed joint effects almost equal to the one showed by all seven independent variables.

  14. Variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. progeny from the Tisovik Reserve expressed in needle traits and chloroplast microsatellite DNA

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    Pawlaczyk Ewa M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeny from nineteen family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. from the Tisovik Reserve growing in an experimental plot were analyzed based on 4 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci and 12 morphological and anatomical needle traits. The Tisovik Reserve is located in Białowieża Primeval Forest, 120 km north of the natural range limit of this species, and embraces a small and isolated natural population of silver fir. The aim of this study was to determine genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of phenotypic variation showed that the traits which differed most among individuals were the needle width and the distance from resin canals to vascular bundle. Those traits, which differed most between the progeny lines, were the number of endodermic cells around the vascular bund and the weight of hypodermic cells. In Tisovik progeny, we detected 107 different haplotypes. In progeny lines, we detected more haplotypes than in maternal trees, and most haplotypes did not exist in maternal trees. This may be the result of pollen influx from other silver fir stands. Progeny from Tisovik showed a higher level of variability in comparison with maternal trees.

  15. Comparison of patterns of decomposition in a hanging carcass and a carcass in contact with soil in a xerophytic habitat on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, O A; deCarvalho, L M; Goff, M L

    2000-11-01

    Decomposition studies were conducted to determine differences in rates and patterns of decomposition of carcasses hanging and exposed on the surface of the soil. These studies were conducted between 17 October and 17 December 1997 inside of Diamond Head Crater on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The animal model was the domestic pig. Sus scrofa. The rate of biomass removal from the hanging carcass was significantly slower than that observed for the control carcass during the bloat and decay stages of decomposition. Internal temperatures for the control carcass were elevated above the ambient air temperatures during the earlier stages of decomposition (bloated and decay), while those recorded for the hanging carcass approximated the ambient air temperatures. There was a greater diversity of arthropod species recorded and numbers of individuals observed were higher for the control carcass. A significant site of arthropod activity was observed on the surface of the soil immediately under the hanging carcass and this became the primary site of arthropod activity as decomposition progressed.

  16. Genotype by environment interaction for carcass traits and intramuscular fat content in heavy Iberian pigs fattened in two different free-range systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. García Casco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.

  17. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  18. Some Progress in Conformal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Yung A. Chang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.

  19. Steady states in conformal theories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.

  20. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  1. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  2. Insect succession on pig carcasses using different exposure time - A preliminary study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zufeng; Tao, Luyang

    2017-11-01

    The exposure time of carcasses in insect succession studies are generally not consistent and more than 40% studies start in the morning. How such an arrangement affects the succession of insects is worth evaluating. In this study, six piglet carcasses (15-17 kg) were exposed at 6 time points during the day: 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, 23:00, 03:00 and 07:00 on July 20th-July 21st 2006 in Guangzhou, China to investigate the potential effects of the time of day of carcass exposure on body decomposition and insect succession, and also to provide fundamental data on insect succession in summer for this area. The results showed that there were negligible differences in the decay process among the carcasses. We found the carcasses synchronized their decay stage after entering the bloated stage on July 21st. All 6 carcasses entered the remains stage on August 3rd (approximately 14 d after carcass placement). The carcasses yielded 30 species of arthropods, representing 3 orders and 12 families, and no obvious differences were found in species composition between the carcasses. However, we found that there were significant differences in the arrival and colonization of Calliphoridae. We found two batches of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae with significant differences in body length and instar on the carcasses placed at the site at 11:00, 15:00 and 19:00. By contrast, there was only one batch of C. megacephala larvae having similar body length and instar on the carcasses placed at the site at 23:00, 03:00 and 07:00. These observations have potential use for estimating the postmortem interval in forensic entomology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Falsification of Mannheim's conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Youngsub

    2013-01-01

    We show that Mannheim's conformal gravity, whose potential has a term proportional to $1/r$ and another term proportional to $r$, doesn't reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, it seems falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work haven't found any deviations from Newton's theory. Moreover, when Mannheim used his potential to fit the galaxy rotation curve, he used the Newtonian formula to calculate the effects of the term proportional to $1/r$, not the conformal gravity one. So, he lacked consistency. After all, he would not have been able to use the conformal gravity one either since it deviates so much from the Newtonian one, which the conformal gravity one should reduce to. We also give a couple of other similar reasons why Mannheim's conformal gravity is wrong. For example, the gravitational potential of conformal gravity doesn't reduce to the Newtonian one even in ...

  4. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the

  5. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  6. Effect of indoor-generated airborne particles on radon progeny dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trassierra, C. Vargas [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Stabile, L., E-mail: l.stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Cardellini, F.; Morawska, L. [National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI-ENEA), Rome (Italy); Buonanno, G. [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of the interaction between particles and radon progeny dynamics. • Measurements of particles emitted by different indoor sources. • Tests performed in a controlled radon chamber. • Particle size strongly influences the radon progeny dynamics. • Particle surface area concentration is the key parameter of the radon-particle interaction. - Abstract: In order to investigate the interaction between radon progeny and particles, an experimental campaign was carried out in a radon chamber at the Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, quantifying the amount of attached and unattached radon daughters present in air, as well as the equilibrium factor in the presence of particles generated through indoor sources. A fixed radon concentration was maintained, while particles were generated using incense sticks, mosquito coils and gas combustion. Aerosols were characterized in terms of particle concentrations and size distributions. Simultaneously, radon concentration and attached/unattached potential alpha energy concentration in the air were continuously monitored by two different devices, based on alpha spectroscopy techniques. The presence of particles was found to affect the attached fraction of radon decay products, in such a way that the particles acted as a sink for radionuclides. In terms of sources which emit large particles (e.g. incense, mosquito coils), which greatly increase particle surface area concentrations, the Equilibrium Factor was found to double with respect to the background level before particle generation sessions. On the contrary, the radon decay product dynamics were not influenced by gas combustion processes, mainly due to the small surface area of the particles emitted.

  7. Segregation and Heritability of Male Sterility in Populations Derived from Progeny of Satsuma Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shingo; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kita, Masayuki; Hamada, Hiroko; Shimizu, Tokurou

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility derived from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) has been used in Japanese citrus breeding programs to obtain seedless cultivars, which is a desirable trait for consumers. Male sterility has often been evaluated by anther development or pollen fertility; however, the inheritance and heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of inheritance and broad-sense heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma. Initially, we evaluated the total number of pollen grains per anther and apparent pollen fertility, as indicated by lactophenol blue staining, in 15 citrus cultivars and selections to understand the male sterility of Satsuma. The results indicated that male sterility was primarily caused by decreased number of pollen grains per anther in progeny of Satsuma. We also evaluated these traits in three F1 populations (hyuganatsu × 'Okitsu No. 56', 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara'), of which the parents are derived from Satsuma. Individuals in these populations showed strong segregation for number of pollen grains per anther. The apparent fertility of pollen also showed segregation but was almost constant at 70%-90%. The estimated broad-sense heritability for the number of pollen grains per anther was as high as 0.898 in the 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' populations. These results indicated that the number of pollen grains per anther primarily determined male sterility among progeny of Satsuma, and this trait was inherited by the progeny. Development of DNA markers closely linked to male sterility using the F1 populations of 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' is expected to contribute to the breeding of novel seedless citrus cultivars.

  8. Segregation and Heritability of Male Sterility in Populations Derived from Progeny of Satsuma Mandarin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Goto

    Full Text Available Male sterility derived from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu has been used in Japanese citrus breeding programs to obtain seedless cultivars, which is a desirable trait for consumers. Male sterility has often been evaluated by anther development or pollen fertility; however, the inheritance and heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of inheritance and broad-sense heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma. Initially, we evaluated the total number of pollen grains per anther and apparent pollen fertility, as indicated by lactophenol blue staining, in 15 citrus cultivars and selections to understand the male sterility of Satsuma. The results indicated that male sterility was primarily caused by decreased number of pollen grains per anther in progeny of Satsuma. We also evaluated these traits in three F1 populations (hyuganatsu × 'Okitsu No. 56', 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara', of which the parents are derived from Satsuma. Individuals in these populations showed strong segregation for number of pollen grains per anther. The apparent fertility of pollen also showed segregation but was almost constant at 70%-90%. The estimated broad-sense heritability for the number of pollen grains per anther was as high as 0.898 in the 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' populations. These results indicated that the number of pollen grains per anther primarily determined male sterility among progeny of Satsuma, and this trait was inherited by the progeny. Development of DNA markers closely linked to male sterility using the F1 populations of 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' is expected to contribute to the breeding of novel seedless citrus cultivars.

  9. Dual-color Herpesvirus Capsids Discriminate Inoculum from Progeny and Reveal Axonal Transport Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Julian; Yaffe, Zachary A; Vershinin, Michael; Enquist, Lynn W

    2016-08-31

    Alpha herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), are neuroinvasive dsDNA viruses that establish life-long latency in peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons of their native hosts. Following reactivation, the infection can spread back to the initial mucosal site of infection or, in rare cases, to the central nervous system with usually serious outcomes. During entry and egress, viral capsids depend on microtubule-based molecular motors for efficient and fast transport. In axons of PNS neurons, cytoplasmic dynein provides force for retrograde movements towards the soma, and kinesins move cargo in the opposite, anterograde direction. The dynamic properties of virus particles in cells can be imaged by fluorescent protein fusions to the small capsid protein VP26, which are incorporated into capsids. However, single-color fluorescent protein tags fail to distinguish virus inoculum from progeny. Therefore, we established a dual-color system by growing a recombinant PRV expressing a red fluorescent VP26 fusion (PRV180) on a stable cell line expressing a green VP26 fusion (PK15-mNG-VP26). The resulting dual-color virus preparation (PRV180G) contains capsids tagged with both red and green fluorescent proteins, and 97% of particles contain detectable levels of mNG-VP26. After replication in neuronal cells, all PRV180G progeny exclusively contain mRFP-VP26 tagged capsids. We used PRV180G for an analysis of axonal capsid transport dynamics in PNS neurons. Fast dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, single particle tracking and motility analyses reveal robust, bidirectional capsid motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin during entry, whereas egressing progeny particles are exclusively transported by kinesins. Alpha herpesviruses are neuroinvasive viruses that infect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of infected hosts as an integral part of their life cycle. Establishment of a quiescent or latent infection

  10. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls. Since then a continuous program is in operation at Govt. Livestock Farms and expanded to 27 field sub-centers involving private farmers in four districts Okara, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Pakpattan. Since the initiation of this program in 1980’s, about 174 bulls have been put under progeny testing program and 137 bulls were evaluated by Daughter-Dam Comparison, out of which sixty eight buffalo bulls contributed positively in milk production of daughters. It is worth mentioning here that milk production of registered buffalo was recorded on monthly intervals in the field along with other necessary reproduction data required to compute the different traits of economic importance.Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls

  11. Development of a Progeny Marker for Steelhead; A Thesis submitted to Oregon State University.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippentower, Gene E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if strontium chloride could be used to create a trans-generational otolith mark in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I completed two strontium injection trials and a survey of juvenile steelhead from various steelhead hatcheries. The two trials measured Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths in response to injections and the survey measured the natural variation in Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths of juvenile hatchery steelhead in response to the natural variation. In 2003, adult female Wallowa River, Oregon O. mykiss, were captured at the hatchery and evenly divided between a control group and two treatment groups. These females received an intraperitoneal injection of 1cc/500 g of body weight of a physiologically isotonic solution (0.9% saline) containing concentrations of 0 (control), 1000, or 5000 parts per million (ppm) of strontium chloride hexahydrate (SrCl2* 6H2O). Females were housed in a single outdoor tank until spawned artificially, and a distinct external tag identified each female within each treatment group. In 2004, female steelhead were captured throughout the duration of the adult returns to the Umatilla River basin and injected with 0, 1000, 5000, or 20,000-ppm strontium. In both trials, progeny of fish treated with strontium had significantly higher Sr:Ca ratios in the primordial region of their otoliths as measured using an electron wavelength dispersive microprobe. There was no difference in fertilization rates of eggs and survival rates of fry among treatment groups. Progeny from treated mothers were on average larger than progeny of untreated mothers. The Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths collected from various populations of steelhead were greater than the control values measured in both injections studies. This study suggests that the marking technique works and the utility for such a technique could be used for empirical observations in determining the relative fitness of progeny of adult hatchery origin fish

  12. Effect of finisher diets treated with organic acids on carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate, arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Diets were both ... Result from the carcass evaluation showed that dressed carcass, breast, thigh, wing and drumstick of OA treated groups were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the control.

  13. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  14. Response of nutrients, biofilm, and benthic insects to salmon carcass addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon M. Claeson; Judith L. Li; Jana E. Compton; Peter A. Bisson

    2006-01-01

    Salmon carcass addition to streams is expected to increase stream productivity at multiple trophic levels. This study examined stream nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon), epilithic biofilm (ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll a), leaf-litter decomposition, and macroinvertebrate (density and biomass) responses to carcass addition in three headwater streams of...

  15. 9 CFR 310.18 - Contamination of carcasses, organs, or other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination of carcasses, organs, or... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.18 Contamination of carcasses... prevent contamination with fecal material, urine, bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter; however, if...

  16. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L*

  17. Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, C.; Selva, N.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Skarpe, C.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Andersen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ungulate carcasses can have important effects on the surrounding soil and vegetation. The impact of six carcasses of European bison (Bison bonasus) was investigated for the first time in a natural temperate forest (Bialeowieza, Poland) by measuring soil and plant nutrient concentrations along a

  18. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  19. Control of Taenia saginata by post-mortem examination of carcasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Meat inspection insensitively revealed cysticerci in 12 carcasses in each group compared with 24 and 23 carcasses revealed by total dissection in natural and artificial infestations, respectively. Sites of oncosphere invasion showed great variations with the two groups of cattle. In the predilection sites, most cysticerci ...

  20. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  1. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    In carcass production for flexible pipe systems roll formed profiles are wound around a mandrel forming an interlocking, flexible structure able to withstand collapse from outside water pressure or mechanical crushing. Carcass is often produced in lengths of several kilometres, which implies...

  2. ltnear carcass measurements as indicators of body fat content in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t ). Determination of DM, nitrogen and ether extract. A "Wolfking" carcass grinder was used to grind the one side of a carcass 5 times in succession using 2 sieves, one with 12 mm holes and the other with 5 mm holes. The ground portions were ...

  3. 9 CFR 310.3 - Carcasses and parts in certain instances to be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts in certain instances to be retained. 310.3 Section 310.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... retained by the Program employee at the time of inspection. The identity of every such retained carcass...

  4. Sampling method and location affect recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, the first to determine whether numbers of recovered bacteria differed due to sampling method used or due to location on carcass sampled (breast or leg quarters) and the second to determine if numbers of bacteria differed between the front (ventral) and back (dorsal) side of the carcass. In both experiments, eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant just before the final inside-outside bird washer. In experiment 1, carcasses (3 in each of 4 replicate trials) were separated into leg quarters and breast quarters (n = 48) and either rinsed or ground and stomached for microbiological sampling. In experiment 2, for 3 replicate trials of 4 carcasses each, necks, wings, and legs were manually removed; the remaining trunks were cut through the sides to produce front (ventral) and back (dorsal) halves (n = 24); and then rinsed. For both experiments, coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated. In experiment 1, significantly higher numbers (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered by rinsing than by grinding from both breast and leg quarters. Leg quarters were found to have higher bacterial numbers than breasts from grind samples, but no quarter differences were found for rinse samples. In experiment 2, higher (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered from the dorsal carcass half compared with the ventral half. Bacterial counts of broiler carcasses are affected by both the sampling method used and by carcass location sampled.

  5. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  6. The use of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, Vasco A. P.; Henningsen, Arne

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs of two different breeds were included in our analysis. The lambs were slaughtered and their hot carcass weight was obtained. After cooling for 24 hours, the subcutaneous fat...

  7. Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass and meat quality of Boer goats and unimproved indigenous goats of South Africa, under delayed chilling conditions. Ten goats per breed were used for the study. The goats were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedures. The dressed carcasses were held at ...

  8. Quantitative trait loci associated with chemical composition of the chicken carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Zanella, E L; Klein, C; Pinto, L F B; Moura, A S A M T; Ruy, D C; Baron, E E; Ambo, M; Campos, R L R; Boschiero, C; Burt, D W; Coutinho, L L

    2012-10-01

    Major objectives of the poultry industry are to increase meat production and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly abdominal fat. Information on growth performance and carcass composition are important for the selection of leaner meat chickens. To enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture underlying the chemical composition of chicken carcasses, an F(2) population developed from a broiler × layer cross was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting protein, fat, water and ash contents in chicken carcasses. Two genetic models were applied in the QTL analysis: the line-cross and the half-sib models, both using the regression interval mapping method. Six significant and five suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis, and four significant and six suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of eleven QTL were mapped for fat (ether extract), five for protein, four for ash and one for water contents in the carcass using both analyses. No study to date has reported QTL for carcass chemical composition in chickens. Some QTL mapped here for carcass fat content match, as expected, QTL regions previously associated with abdominal fat in the same or in different populations, and novel QTL for protein, ash and water contents in the carcass are presented here. The results described here also reinforce the need for fine mapping and to perform multi-trait analyses to better understand the genetic architecture of these traits. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  10. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Grower Pigs. ... (MCV) values with the groups on SBH diets. The heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight were all significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary levels of SBH.

  11. An evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on Turkey carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J M; Nde, C W; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of rinse, excision, and swab methods for the microbiological analysis of prechill turkey carcasses was investigated. Aerobic plate counts from a 50-cm2 area of the breast sampled by excision and by swabbing were compared. Escherichia coli and Salmonella recoveries were determined from turkeys sampled by a carcass rinse (CR), a modified rinse with the carcass supported in a swing (MCR), a two-site swab of 50 cm2 at the back and thigh (2S), a one-site swab of 50 cm2 beneath the wing (1S), a whole-carcass swab of the inner and outer carcass surface (WS), and excision of 25 g of neck skin tissue (NE). The effect of diluent volume (25, 50, and 100 ml) on E. coli counts from swab samples was also assessed. The aerobic plate count from breast tissue sampled by excision was greater than that by swabbing (P diluent (P diluent, E. coli recoveries by the MCR, 2S, 1S, and WS methods were similar. For swabs stomached in 50 ml of diluent, Salmonella recoveries by the WS and MCR methods were higher than those by the 2S and 1S methods. Excision was more effective than swabbing for obtaining total bacterial counts from reduced turkey carcass areas. Whole-carcass sampling by rinsing or swabbing is necessary for optimum Salmonella recovery. Sampling a reduced area of the carcass is sufficient for E. coli analysis.

  12. To conform or not to conform: spontaneous conformity diminishes the sensitivity to monetary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Sun, Sai

    2013-01-01

    When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad.

  13. To conform or not to conform: spontaneous conformity diminishes the sensitivity to monetary outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Yu

    Full Text Available When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN, an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad.

  14. Burying beetles regulate the microbiome of carcasses and use it to transmit a core microbiota to their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu P; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-07-27

    Necrophagous beetles utilize carrion, a highly nutritious resource that is susceptible to intense microbial competition, by treating it with antimicrobial anal and oral secretions. However, how this regulates the carcass microbiota remains unclear. Here, we show that carcasses prepared by the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides undergo significant changes in their microbial communities subsequent to their burial and "preparation." Prepared carcasses hosted a microbial community that was more similar to that of beetles' anal and oral secretions than to the native carcass community or the surrounding soil, indicating that the beetles regulated the carcass microbiota. A core microbial community (Xanthomonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Yarrowia yeasts) was transmitted by the beetles to the larvae via the anal and oral secretions and the carcass surface. These core taxa proliferated on the carcass, indicating a growth conducive environment for these microbes when associated with beetles. However, total bacterial loads were higher on decomposing carcasses without beetles than on beetle-prepared carcasses, indicating that the beetles and/or their associated symbionts suppress the growth of competing microbes. Thus, apart from being a nutritional resource, the carcass provides a medium for vertical transmission of a tightly regulated symbiotic microbiota, whose activity on the carcass and in the larval gut may involve carcass preservation as well as digestion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conformal Window and Correlation Functions in Lattice Conformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    We discuss various aspects of Conformal Field Theories on the Lattice. We investigate the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation. First we make a brief review of our previous works on the phase structure of lattice gauge theories in terms of the gauge coupling constant and the quark mass. We thereby clarify the reason why we conjecture that the conformal window is 7 = 1 exhibit the characteristics of the conformal function with IR cutoff, an exponential damping with power correction. Investigating our numerical data by a new method, the "micro-analysis" of propagators, we observe that our data are consistent with the picture that the Nf=7 case and the Nf=2 at T ~ 2Tc case are close to the meson unparticle model. On the other hand, the Nf=16 case and the Nf=2 at T= 10^2 ~10^5 Tc cases are close to the fermion unparticle model.

  16. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Heber; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Ioana Bălan; Diana Marin; Gabriela Ivaşcu; Călin Popovici

    2010-01-01

    Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight) is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementar...

  17. Developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality and organs in the Jinhua pig and Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z-G; Wang, L-J; Xu, Z-R; Huang, J-F; Wang, Y-R

    2009-03-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality characteristics and organ weight in pigs of different breeds. Six pigs (sex balance) of each breed were slaughtered at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat and skin; additionally, organ weight and meat quality parameters were observed. Carcasses of the Jinhua pig were lighter (P IMF) percentage (P experiment. These results indicated that developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality parameters and organ weight displayed breed differences. Jinhua pigs were fatter than Landrace but the former had better quality characteristics in the meat.

  18. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.

  19. Effect of Carcass Size on Feeding Modes of Larvae of Nicrophorus quadripunctatus Kraatz (Coleoptera: Silphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Kishida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the parental care of burying beetles of Nicrophorus, the role of males has not been clearly elucidated. To test our hypothesis that the investment in resource manipulation by males influences the feeding of larvae by males, we investigated parental efforts of N. quadripunctatus. On the small carcasses, the time spent on resource manipulation by males was short, and the males left the carcasses without feeding the larvae (maternal feeding. On the large carcasses, the males spent a long time on resource manipulation, and the male participated in the feeding of larvae (biparental feeding. This suggests that one of the reproductive roles of males in the absence of predators and/or competitors is resource manipulation, and the paternal efforts change depending on carcass size. A longer time spent on resource manipulation by males may be a trigger for the males to participate in the feeding of larvae on large carcasses.

  20. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...

  1. CED: a conformational epitope database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen epitopes provide valuable information useful for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Recently, more and more databases focusing on different types of epitopes have become available. Conformational epitopes are an important form of epitope formed by residues that are sequentially discontinuous but close together in three-dimensional space. These epitopes have implicit structural information, making them attractive for both theoretical and applied biomedical research. However, most existing databases focus on linear rather than conformational epitopes. Description We describe CED, a special database of well defined conformational epitopes. CED provides a collection of conformational epitopes and related information including the residue make up and location of the epitope, the immunological property of the epitope, the source antigen and corresponding antibody of the epitope. All entries in this database are manually curated from articles published in peer review journals. The database can be browsed or searched through a user-friendly web interface. Most epitopes in CED can also be viewed interactively in the context of their 3D structures. In addition, the entries are also hyperlinked to various databases such as Swiss-Prot, PDB, KEGG and PubMed, providing wide background information. Conclusion A conformational epitope database called CED has been developed as an information resource for investigators involved in both theoretical and applied immunology research. It complements other existing specialised epitope databases. The database is freely available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~ced

  2. A systematic review of studies on Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Lisa; Belluco, Simone; Roccato, Anna; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-08-17

    European legislation has defined as process hygiene criteria for the main livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs) the monitoring of aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae. Detected values above the defined criteria require an improvement in slaughter hygiene and the review of process control. The main source of microbiological contamination of beef carcasses along the slaughterline is of fecal origin, therefore Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae seem to be the most suitable indicators to assess the hygienic status of the slaughter process. Although microbiological criteria addressing indicator bacteria have been in place in industrialized countries for several years, scattered information still exists on factors affecting their counts on beef carcasses along the slaughterline. Therefore, a systematic literature review, covering the period 2000-2012, was conducted to gather information concerning: 1) counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses linked to different stages of the slaughterline; 2) factors influencing presence/counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses; and 3) the relationship between indicator bacteria (E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae) counts and visual fecal contamination of beef carcasses. According to the 41 retrieved papers the following conclusions were drawn. A decrease of the indicator bacteria counts was recorded after sequential decontamination treatments, such as pasteurization and hot water washing. Slaughterhouse characteristics influenced bacterial load of beef carcasses, although it was difficult to assess which factors (i.e., slaughterhouse throughput, design of the plant, surveillance system in place) had the greatest effect. Finally, carcasses from fecal contaminated animals had higher bacterial loads than those from clean animals. Therefore, the development of a visual classification system of the level of dirtiness of carcasses and the application of effective treatments on

  3. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcass removal by scavengers has been identified as one of the largest biases in estimating bird mortality from anthropogenic sources. Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies. We placed a bird carcass and time-lapse camera at 44 houses in Edmonton, Alberta. In total, 166 7-day trials were conducted throughout 2015. Time-to-event (survival analysis was used to identify covariates that affected removal. The carcass removal rate was determined for use in estimating the number of birds killed from bird-window collisions at houses in Alberta. In total, 67.5% of carcasses were removed. The date the carcass was placed, the year the house was built, and the level of development within 50 m of the house were the covariates that had the largest effect on carcass removal. In calculating our removal rate, the number of detected carcasses in the first 24 hours was adjusted by 1.47 to account for removal by scavengers. Previously collected citizen science data were used to create an estimate of 957,440 bird deaths each year in Alberta as a result of bird-window collisions with houses. This number is based on the most detailed bird-window collision study at houses to date and a carcass removal study conducted in the same area. Similar localized studies across Canada will need to be completed to reduce the biases that exist with the previous bird-window collision mortality estimate for houses in Canada.

  4. Impact of Co-Culturing with Fractionated Carbon-Ion-Irradiated Cancer Cells on Bystander Normal Cells and Their Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; Liu, Cuihua; Konishi, Teruaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biological effects of fractionated doses versus a single dose of high-LET carbon ions in bystander normal cells, and determine the effect on their progeny using the layered tissue co-culture system. Briefly, confluent human glioblastoma (T98G) cells received a single dose of 6 Gy or three daily doses of 2 Gy carbon ions, which were then seeded on top of an insert with bystander normal skin fibroblasts (NB1RGB) growing underneath. Cells were co-cultured for 6 h or allowed to grow for 20 population doublings, then harvested and assayed for different end points. A single dose of carbon ions resulted in less damage in bystander normal NB1RGB cells than the fractionated doses. In contrast, the progeny of bystander NB1RGB cells co-cultured with T98G cells exposed to fractionated doses showed less damage than progeny from bystander cells co-cultured with single dose glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of gap junction communication demonstrated its involvement in the stressful effects in bystander cells and their progeny. These results indicate that dose fractionation reduced the late effect of carbon-ion exposure in the progeny of bystander cells compared to the effect in the initial bystander cells.

  5. Experimental alternatives for evaluation of progenies and clones in eucalyptus breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elaine Aparecida de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using augmented block designs and spatial analysis methods for early stage selection in eucalyptus breeding programs was tested. A total of 113 half-sib progenies of Eucalyptus urophylla and eight clones were evaluated in an 11 x 11 triple lattice experiment at two locations: Posto da Mata (Bahia, Brazil and São Mateus (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four checks were randomly allocated within each block. Plots consisted of 15 m long rows containing 6 plants spaced 3 m apart. The girth at breast height (cm/plant was evaluated at 19 and 26 months of age. Variance analyses were performed according to the following methods: lattice design, randomized complete block design, augmented block design, Papadakis method, moving means method, and check plots. Comparisons among different methods were based on the magnitude of experimental errors and precision of the estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters. General results indicated that augmented block design is useful to evaluate progenies and clones in early selection in eucalyptus breeding programs using moderate and low selection intensities. However, this design is not suitable for estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters due to its low precision. Check plots, nearest neighbour, Papadakis (1937, and moving means methods were efficient in removing the heterogeneity within blocks. These efficiencies were compared to that in lattice analysis for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters.

  6. Genetic trends in the expected progeny difference of the asymptotic weight of Nelore females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía del Valle Garnero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on weight covering the full life cycle of Zebu cattle, and there is no entire growth description or mean growth pattern for animals belonging to this breed. In order to provide such data, 1,158 Nelore females born between 1985 and 1995 were weighed 14,563 times from birth to full growth maturity, in ten herds spread over seven Brazilian states. The Von Bertalanffy, Brody, logistic and Gompertz non-linear models were used to obtain the asymptotic weights (A and the maturation rates (K. The (covariance and breeding value components for A and K were obtained by using the multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood method under the animal model. Genetic trends were calculated in function of the mean expected progeny differences (EPD for the trait (A or K divided by the number of animals according to their year of birth. The genetic trends of the expected progeny difference with reference to the date of birth of the cows were, on average, -6.5g y-1 for A and 2.0g y-1 for K, close to zero as confirmed by the low (0.0023 to 0.003 coefficient of regression values. The curve parameters are recommended as a selection criterion to reach precocity and avoid adult weight increase in the female herd.

  7. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  8. Inheritance of fruit colour in normal and irradiated progenies of brinjal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopimony, R.; George, M.K.; Gopinathan Nair, V. (College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala (India))

    1980-12-01

    The inheritance of fruit colour in brinjal (Solanum melongena) was studied by analysing the progeny belonging to the F/sub 1/M/sub 2/, F/sub 1/M/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/M/sub 2/ generations, resulting from a cross between the varieties insanum and purple giant, followed by gamma irradiation. The F/sub 2/ phenotypic frequencies fitted very well with the dihybrid ratio indicating that the fruit colour is governed by two independently inherited genes. Three colour mutants, namely, purple, mottled green and white were induced in the F/sub 1/M/sub 1/ generation by the irradiation. The appearance of these mutants is explained due to independent mutations at either or both of the two goenetic loci. The colour pattern in the F/sub 2/M/sub 2/ progenies derived from the F/sub 1/M/sub 1/ mutants substantiates the two gene mechanism for the inheritance of fruit colour. The genotypes for the different colour types in the F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/ and F/sub 1/M/sub 1/ mutants have been indicated and discussed.

  9. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  10. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are required for the production of infectious human cytomegalovirus progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with ¹³C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.

  11. Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Matti

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...

  12. Logarithmic exotic conformal Galilean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Malte, E-mail: Malte.henkel@univ-lorraine.fr [Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour (CNRS UMR 7198), Université de Lorraine Nancy, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Hosseiny, Ali, E-mail: al_hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhani, Shahin, E-mail: rouhani@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11165-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Logarithmic representations of the conformal Galilean algebra (CGA) and the Exotic Conformal Galilean algebra (ECGA) are constructed. This can be achieved by non-decomposable representations of the scaling dimensions or the rapidity indices, specific to conformal Galilean algebras. Logarithmic representations of the non-exotic CGA lead to the expected constraints on scaling dimensions and rapidities and also on the logarithmic contributions in the co-variant two-point functions. On the other hand, the ECGA admits several distinct situations which are distinguished by different sets of constraints and distinct scaling forms of the two-point functions. Two distinct realisations for the spatial rotations are identified as well. This is the first concrete example of a reducible, but non-decomposable representation, without logarithmic terms. Such cases had been anticipated before.

  13. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  14. Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Saijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to

  15. Carcass yield and proximate composition of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus

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    Athos Alexandre Cesnik Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated five classes of weight of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus seeking to define the ideal slaughter weight for the species. We used 79 bullfrogs, distributed in a completely randomized design (class 1 251 g (n = 14, which were euthanized, weighted and gutted. For the carcass yield, we weighed the clean torso, thighs, liver, skin and head. The clean torso was subjected to chemical composition analysis. The carcass yield was, on average, 49% with no difference between weight classes (p > 0.05. The yield of posterior thighs was significantly higher for the lower weight class, which also presented higher percentage of paws (28.37 ± 0.63 and 9.33 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05. The percentages of visceral fat and skin showed a progressive increase along with the weight of the animals; the class with individuals weighing 201-250 grams showed the higher values (p < 0.05. The chemical composition indicated that individuals above 251 grams showed lower values of ether extract and higher values of crude protein (0.99 ± 0.14and 15.80 ± 0.64, respectively (p < 0.05. So, it is recommended the slaughter of bullfrogs weighing more than 201 grams, because of better yield and meat quality.

  16. Genetic associations between daily BW gain and live fleshiness of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfatti, V; Albera, A; Carnier, P

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genetic relationships between beef traits of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits (MQ) of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle. Phenotypes for daily gain (DG) and live fleshiness traits (width at withers: WW; shoulder muscularity: SM; loin width: LW; loin thickness: LT; thigh muscularity: TM; thigh profile: TP) and thinness of the shin bone (BT) were available for 3,109 and 2,183 performance-tested young bulls, respectively. Carcass daily gain (CDG), carcass conformation (SEUS), pH at 24 h (pH24h) and 8 d after slaughter (pH8d), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (HA), saturation index (SI), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF) were assessed for 1,208 commercial intact males. (Co) variance components were estimated in a set of twelve 9-traits analyses using REML and linear animal models including all performance-test traits and 1 carcass or MQ trait at a time. Heritabilities ± SE of beef traits ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (LW) to 0.47 ± 0.01 (DG), whereas those of carcass traits and MQ from 0.06 ± 0.03 (CL) to 0.63 ± 0.04 (HA). The genetic correlation (rg) between DG and CDG was 0.75 ± 0.10, indicating that DG, as measured at the test station, is a good indicator of the carcass gain achieved by commercial animals under farms conditions. Daily BW gain of station-tested bulls correlated positively with color traits (from 0.11 ± 0.12 to 0.54 ± 0.09), ph8d (rg ± SE = 0.31 ± 0.11), DL (rg ± SE = 0.29 ± 0.17), and CL (rg ± SE = 0.27 ± 0.18). Live fleshiness of station-tested bulls exhibited genetic correlations with MQ of commercial animals that were positive for L* and b* (from 0.13 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.14) and negative for pH (from -0.27 ± 0.15 to -0.57 ± 0.11), CL (from -0.16 ± 0.23 to -0.43 ± 0.22), and SF (TM: rg ± SE = -0.31 ± 0.15; TP: rg ± SE = -0.41 ± 0.17). The thinness of the shin bone correlated unfavorably with CDG (rg ± SE

  17. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-03-20

    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  18. Avaliaçao da produçao de resina em progenies de Pinus elliottii em idade juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Jason Gonçalves de

    2013-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: estudar o potencial de produção de resina em progenies de Pinus elliottii na idade juvenil, correlacionar a produção de resina das progenies com parâmetros dendrométricos, estabelecer o número de avaliações necessárias para a melhor estimativa do potencial produtivo das progenies, comparar as variações da produção de resina com as condições climáticas, estimar os parâmetros genéticos relativos a produção de resina e, determinar a melhor metodologia e materia...

  19. Effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Li, Bao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. Lysiphlebus ambiguus (Aphidiidae, Hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including Aphis fabae. In this study, A. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitism. L. ambiguus launched significantly more attacks on symbiotic L(2) (the second instar), aposymbiotic L(3) (the third instar) and L(4) (the forth instar) hosts than on the corresponding hosts at the same age. L. ambiguus also parasitized more L(1) aphids compared with adults irrespective of whether the aphid was asymbiotic or not. Pupa mortality rate of parasitoid progeny was significantly lower from aposymbiotic hosts than from the corresponding symbiotics at all stages. Female-biased parasitoid progeny was produced from aposymbiotic aphids without respect to host ages, but female progeny increased linearly with host ages at parasitism from symbiotic aphids. Body size of parasitoid progeny increased linearly with host instars at parasitism in symbiotic aphids but did not significantly change across host instars in aposymbiotic aphids. The offspring parasitoids turned out to be generally large in body size from attacking aposymbiotic aphids compared with the symbiotics. Development time of egg-to-adult of parasitoid progeny decreased with host instars in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids but was generally much longer in aposymbiotic aphids than in symbiotic aphids. Our study suggests that age or body size of host aphids may not be the only cue exercised by L. ambiguus to evaluate host quality and that offspring parasitoids may be able to compensate for the nutrition stress associated with disruption of primary endosymbiotc bacteria in aposymbiotic aphids.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND POLLEN FLOW IN PROGENIES OF Qualea grandiflora Mart., A TYPICAL SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

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    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the reproductive system and the pollen dispersion pattern of Qualea grandiflora progenies. This is a typical species from the Brazilian Cerrado about which there are not too many studies from the genetics point of view. The study was conducted in an area of 2.2 hectares located in the Conservation Unit managed by the Forest Institute of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Assis State Forest. Total genomic DNA of 300 seeds from 25 plants (12 seeds from each plant was extracted and amplified using specific primers to obtain microsatellite markers. Results showed that selfing is frequent among adults and progenies, and the species reproduces by outcrossing between related and unrelated individuals (0.913. The single-locus outcrossing rate was 0.632, which indicates that mating between unrelated individuals is more frequent than between related plants. The selfing rate was low (0.087, that is, the species is allogamous and self-fertilization is reduced. About 35% of the plants in the progenies were full-sibs, and about 57%, half-sibs. Besides, about 8% of the progenies were selfing siblings. The genetic differentiation coefficient within progenies was 0.139, whereas the fixation rate was about 27%. The estimate of the effective size revealed that the genetic representativeness of descent was lower than expected in random mating progenies: The analyzed samples corresponded to only 13.2 individuals of an ideal panmictic population. In environmental recovery programs, seeds, preferably from different fruits, should be collected from 95 trees to preserve the genetic diversity of the species.