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Sample records for progenitor cells termed

  1. Fetal hepatic progenitors support long-term expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

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    Chou, Song; Flygare, Johan; Lodish, Harvey F

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a coculture system that establishes DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors as the authentic supportive cells for expansion of hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and progenitor cells. In 1-week cultures supplemented with serum and supportive cytokines, both cocultured DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors and their conditioned medium supported rapid expansion of hematopoietic progenitors and a small increase in HSC numbers. In 2- and 3-week cultures DLK(+) cells, but not their conditioned medium, continuously and significantly (>20-fold) expanded both hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Physical contact between HSCs and DLK(+) cells was crucial to maintaining this long-term expansion. Similar HSC expansion (approximately sevenfold) was achieved in cocultures using a serum-free, low cytokine- containing medium. In contrast, DLK(-) cells are incapable of expanding hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that hepatic progenitors are the principle supportive cells for HSC expansion in the fetal liver. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Culture of Self-renewing Pancreatic Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Jamie Trott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells have been proposed as an unlimited source of pancreatic β cells for studying and treating diabetes. However, the long, multi-step differentiation protocols used to generate functional β cells inevitably exhibit considerable variability, particularly when applied to pluripotent cells from diverse genetic backgrounds. We have developed culture conditions that support long-term self-renewal of human multipotent pancreatic progenitors, which are developmentally more proximal to the specialized cells of the adult pancreas. These cultured pancreatic progenitor (cPP cells express key pancreatic transcription factors, including PDX1 and SOX9, and exhibit transcriptomes closely related to their in vivo counterparts. Upon exposure to differentiation cues, cPP cells give rise to pancreatic endocrine, acinar, and ductal lineages, indicating multilineage potency. Furthermore, cPP cells generate insulin+ β-like cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that they offer a convenient alternative to pluripotent cells as a source of adult cell types for modeling pancreatic development and diabetes.

  3. Long term culture of genome-stable bipotent progenitor cells from adult human liver

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    Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; van, Boxtel Ruben; Hamer, Karien; Blokzijl, Francis; Verstegen, Monique MA; Ellis, Ewa; van, Wenum Martien; Fuchs, Sabine A; de, Ligt Joep; van, de Wetering Marc; Sasaki, Nobuo; Boers, Susanne J; Kemperman, Hans; de, Jonge Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro and can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. We now describe conditions allowing long-term expansion of adult bile duct-derived bipotent progenitor cells from human liver. The e...

  4. Feline Neural Progenitor Cells I: Long-Term Expansion under Defined Culture Conditions

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    Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cells (NPCs of feline origin (cNPCs have demonstrated utility in transplantation experiments, yet are difficult to grow in culture beyond the 1 month time frame. Here we use an enriched, serum-free base medium (Ultraculture and report the successful long-term propagation of these cells. Primary cultures were derived from fetal brain tissue and passaged in DMEM/F12-based or Ultraculture-based proliferation media, both in the presence of EGF + bFGF. Cells in standard DMEM/F12-based medium ceased to proliferate by 1-month, whereas the cells in the Ultraculture-based medium continued to grow for at least 5 months (end of study with no evidence of senescence. The Ultraculture-based cultures expressed lower levels of progenitor and lineage-associated markers under proliferation conditions but retained multipotency as evidenced by the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia following growth factor removal in the presence of FBS. Importantly, later passage cNPCs did not develop chromosomal aberrations.

  5. Long-term generation and expansion of human primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro.

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    Srour, E F; Brandt, J E; Briddell, R A; Grigsby, S; Leemhuis, T; Hoffman, R

    1993-02-01

    Although sustained production of committed human hematopoietic progenitor cells in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) is well documented, evidence for the generation and expansion of human primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (PHPC) in such cultures is lacking. For that purpose, we attempted to determine if the human high proliferative potential colony-forming cell (HPP-CFC), a primitive hematopoietic marrow progenitor cell, is capable of generation and expansion in vitro. To that effect, stromal cell-free LTBMC were initiated with CD34+ HLA-DR-CD15- rhodamine 123dull bone marrow cells and were maintained with repeated addition of c-kit ligand and a synthetic interleukin-3/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fusion protein. By day 21 of LTBMC, a greater than twofold increase in the number of assayable HPP-CFC was detected. Furthermore, the production of HPP-CFC in LTBMC continued for up to 4 weeks, resulting in a 5.5-fold increase in HPP-CFC numbers. Weekly phenotypic analyses of cells harvested from LTBMC showed that the number of CD34+ HLA-DR- cells increased from 10(4) on day 0 to 56 CD34+ HLA-DR- cells increased from 10(4) on day 0 to 56 x 10(4) by day 21. To examine further the nature of the in vitro HPP-CFC expansion, individual HPP-CFC colonies were serially cloned. Secondary cloning of individual, day 28 primary HPP-CFC indicated that 46% of these colonies formed an average of nine secondary colony-forming unit--granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM)--derived colonies, whereas 43% of primary HPP-CFC gave rise to between one and six secondary HPP-CFC colonies and 6 to 26 CFU-GM. These data show that CD34+ HLA-DR- CD15- rhodamine 123dull cells represent a fraction of human bone marrow highly enriched for HPP-CFC and that based on their regeneration and proliferative capacities, a hierarchy of HPP-CFC exists. Furthermore, these studies indicate that in the presence of appropriate cytokine stimulation, it is possible to expand the number of PHPC

  6. Long-term safety of human retinal progenitor cell transplantation in retinitis pigmentosa patients.

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    Liu, Yong; Chen, Shao Jun; Li, Shi Ying; Qu, Ling Hui; Meng, Xiao Hong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hai Wei; Liang, Zhi Qing; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2017-09-29

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a common genetic disease that causes retinal degeneration and blindness for which there is currently no curable treatment available. Vision preservation was observed in retinitis pigmentosa animal models after retinal stem cell transplantation. However, long-term safety studies and visual assessment have not been thoroughly tested in retinitis pigmentosa patients. In our pre-clinical study, purified human fetal-derived retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) were transplanted into the diseased retina of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model of retinal degeneration. Based on these results, we conducted a phase I clinical trial to establish the safety and tolerability of transplantation of RPCs in eight patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa. Patients were studied for 24 months. After RPC transplantation in RCS rats, we observed moderate recovery of vision and maintenance of the outer nuclear layer thickness. Most importantly, we did not find tumor formation or immune rejection. In the retinis pigmentosa patients given RPC injections, we also did not observe immunological rejection or tumorigenesis when immunosuppressive agents were not administered. We observed a significant improvement in visual acuity (P retinal sensitivity of pupillary responses in three of the eight patients between 2 and 6 months after the transplant, but this improvement did not appear by 12 months. Our study for the first time confirmed the long-term safety and feasibility of vision repair by stem cell therapy in patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. WHO Trial Registration, ChiCTR-TNRC-08000193 . Retrospectively registered on 5 December 2008.

  7. Long-term functional benefits of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitors embedded into a fibrin scaffold.

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    Bellamy, Valérie; Vanneaux, Valérie; Bel, Alain; Nemetalla, Hany; Emmanuelle Boitard, Solène; Farouz, Yohan; Joanne, Pierre; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Robidel, Estelle; Mandet, Chantal; Hagège, Albert; Bruneval, Patrick; Larghero, Jérôme; Agbulut, Onnik; Menasché, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac-committed cells and biomimetic scaffolds independently improve the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells. In this study we tested the long-term effects of their combination. Eighty immune-deficient rats underwent permanent coronary artery ligation. Five to 7 weeks later, those with an echocardiographically measured ejection fraction (EF) ≤55% were re-operated on and randomly allocated to receive a cell-free fibrin patch (n = 25), a fibrin patch loaded with 700,000 human embryonic stem cells (ESC) pre-treated to promote early cardiac differentiation (SSEA-1(+) progenitors [n = 30]), or to serve as sham-operated animals (n = 25). Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography at baseline and every month thereafter until 4 months. Hearts were then processed for assessment of fibrosis and angiogenesis and a 5-component heart failure score was constructed by integrating the absolute change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) between 4 months and baseline, and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based expression of natriuretic peptides A and B, myosin heavy chain 7 and periostin. All data were recorded and analyzed in a blinded manner. The cell-treated group consistently yielded better functional outcomes than the sham-operated group (p = 0.002 for EF; p = 0.01 for LVESV). Angiogenesis in the border zone was also significantly greater in the cell-fibrin group (p = 0.006), which yielded the lowest heart failure score (p = 0.04 vs sham). Engrafted progenitors were only detected shortly after transplantation; no grafted cells were identified after 4 months. There was no teratoma identified. A fibrin scaffold loaded with ESC-derived cardiac progenitors resulted in sustained improvement in contractility and attenuation of remodeling without sustained donor cell engraftment. A paracrine effect, possibly on innate reparative responses, is a possible mechanism for this enduring effect. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart

  8. Establishing long-term cultures with self-renewing acute myeloid leukemia stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gosliga, Djoke; Schepers, Hein; Rizo, Aleksandra; van der Kolk, Dorina; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Objective. With the emergence of the concept of the leukemia stem cell, assays to study them remain pivotal in understanding (leukemic) stem cell biology. Methods. We have cultured acute myeloid leukemia CD34(+) cells on bone marrow stroma. Long-term expansion was monitored and self-renewal was

  9. Cytokine-dependent long-term culture of highly enriched precursors of hematopoietic progenitor cells from human bone marrow.

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    Brandt, J; Srour, E F; van Besien, K; Briddell, R A; Hoffman, R

    1990-09-01

    Human marrow cells positive for the CD34 antigen but not expressing HLA-DR, CD15, or CD71 antigens were isolated. In a liquid culture system supplemented with 48-hourly additions of recombinant interleukins IL-1 alpha, IL-3, IL-6, or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), these cells were capable of sustaining in vitro hematopoiesis for up to eight weeks. The establishment of an adherent cell layer was never observed. Cultures containing no exogenous cytokine produced clonogenic cells for only 1 wk. IL-1 alpha and IL-6 were alone able to support hematopoiesis for 2 or 3 wk. Cells maintained with GM-CSF proliferated and contained assayable colony-forming cells for 3 or 4 wk, while maximal cellular expansion and generation of assayable progenitor cells occurred in the presence of IL-3 for 4-5 wk. When IL-3 was combined with IL-1 alpha or IL-6, hematopoiesis was sustained for 8 wks. Basophil numbers were markedly increased in the presence of IL-3. These studies indicate that marrow subpopulations can sustain hematopoiesis in vitro in the presence of repeated additions of cytokines. We conclude that a major function of marrow adherent cells in long-term cultures is that of providing cytokines which promote the proliferation and differentiation of primitive hematopoietic cells.

  10. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human mammary stem/progenitor cells in long term culture.

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    Devaveena Dey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells exhibit close resemblance to normal stem cells in phenotype as well as function. Hence, studying normal stem cell behavior is important in understanding cancer pathogenesis. It has recently been shown that human breast stem cells can be enriched in suspension cultures as mammospheres. However, little is known about the behavior of these cells in long-term cultures. Since extensive self-renewal potential is the hallmark of stem cells, we undertook a detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of human mammospheres over long-term passages. METHODOLOGY: Single cell suspensions derived from human breast 'organoids' were seeded in ultra low attachment plates in serum free media. Resulting primary mammospheres after a week (termed T1 mammospheres were subjected to passaging every 7th day leading to the generation of T2, T3, and T4 mammospheres. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that primary mammospheres contain a distinct side-population (SP that displays a CD24(low/CD44(low phenotype, but fails to generate mammospheres. Instead, the mammosphere-initiating potential rests within the CD44(high/CD24(low cells, in keeping with the phenotype of breast cancer-initiating cells. In serial sphere formation assays we find that even though primary (T1 mammospheres show telomerase activity and fourth passage T4 spheres contain label-retaining cells, they fail to initiate new mammospheres beyond T5. With increasing passages, mammospheres showed an increase in smaller sized spheres, reduction in proliferation potential and sphere forming efficiency, and increased differentiation towards the myoepithelial lineage. Significantly, staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity revealed a dramatic increase in the number of senescent cells with passage, which might in part explain the inability to continuously generate mammospheres in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the self-renewal potential of human breast stem cells is

  11. Short and long-term safety of lenograstim administration in healthy peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell donors: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M; Console, G; Dattola, A; Callea, I; Messina, G; Moscato, T; Massara, E; Irrera, G; Fedele, R; Gervasi, A; Bresolin, G; Iacopino, P

    2009-08-01

    Healthy donors (HDs) who were mobilized using lenograstim (LENO) and who were undergoing peripheral haematopoietic progenitor cell collection with apheresis (HPC-A) were enrolled in a surveillance protocol. In all, 184 HDs have been assessed with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 2-155). HDs received LENO at a median dose of 10 microg/kg (range 5-15). Bone pain was reported as the most frequent short-term adverse event (71.2%). Other commonly observed short-term symptoms included fatigue (19.0%), fever (5.4%), headache (27.7%), nausea (12.0%) and insomnia (22.3%). Spleen size increased in 4.3% of the donors. No vascular disorders or cardiac disease occurred. Long-term follow-up included monitoring of adverse events, neoplastic disease or other pathologies. Transit ischaemic attack occurred in one donor (39 months post-donation). One autoimmune event was reported at 28 months post-recombinant human granulocyte (rhG)-CSF (ankylosing spondylitis); one donor with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed secondary polyglobulia (50 months post-rhG-CSF). One donor was diagnosed with lung cancer at 19 months post-donation. No haematological disease was observed. In conclusion, the short-term safety appears to be verified, whereas, although the study identified no increased risks of malignancy among HDs who received rhG-CSF, long-term safety requires more complete data sets, especially a longer follow-up and a larger number of HDs.

  12. Long-term potentiation promotes proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

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    Taesup Cho

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity, promotes neurogenesis by facilitating proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We found that the induction of hippocampal LTP significantly facilitates proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of both endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the hippocampus in rats. These effects were eliminated by preventing LTP induction by pharmacological blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR via systemic application of the receptor antagonist, 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Moreover, using a NPC-neuron co-culture system, we were able to demonstrate that the LTP-promoted NPC neurogenesis is at least in part mediated by a LTP-increased neuronal release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its consequent activation of tropomysosin receptor kinase B (TrkB receptors on NSCs. Our results indicate that LTP promotes the neurogenesis of both endogenous and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the brain. The study suggests that pre-conditioning of the host brain receiving area with a LTP-inducing deep brain stimulation protocol prior to NSC transplantation may increase the likelihood of success of using NSC transplantation as an effective cell therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Long-term maintenance of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells by expression of BMI1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizo, Aleksandra; Dontje, Bert; Vellenga, Edo; de Haan, Gerald; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) gene BMI1 has been identified as one of the key epigenetic regulators of cell fates during different stages of development in multiple murine tissues. In a clinically relevant model, we demonstrate that enforced expression of BMI1 in cord blood CD34(+) cells results in

  14. Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, O.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have altered levels and function of (bone marrow-derived) vascular progenitor cells (endothelial progenitor cells-EPC, smooth muscle progenitor cells-SPC) which may contribute to their accelerated atherosclerosis. The results from clinical and experimental studies in this

  15. Mast cell progenitors: origin, development and migration to tissues.

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    Dahlin, Joakim S; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells in tissues are developed from mast cell progenitors emerging from the bone marrow in a process highly regulated by transcription factors. Through the advancement of the multicolor flow cytometry technique, the mast cell progenitor population in the mouse has been characterized in terms of surface markers. However, only cell populations with enriched mast cell capability have been described in human. In naïve mice, the peripheral tissues have a constitutive pool of mast cell progenitors. Upon infections in the gut and in allergic inflammation in the lung, the local mast cell progenitor numbers increase tremendously. This review focuses on the origin and development of mast cell progenitors. Furthermore, the evidences for cells and molecules that govern the migration of these cells in mice in vivo are described. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

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    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  17. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

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    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  18. Stable phenotype and function of immortalized Lin-Sca-1+ cardiac progenitor cells in long-term culture: a step closer to standardization.

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    Freire, Ana G; Nascimento, Diana S; Forte, Giancarlo; Valente, Mariana; Resende, Tatiana P; Pagliari, Stefania; Abreu, Cláudia; Carvalho, Isabel; Di Nardo, Paolo; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua

    2014-05-01

    Putative cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been identified in the myocardium and are regarded as promising candidates for cardiac cell-based therapies. Although two distinct populations of CPCs reached the clinical setting, more detailed studies are required to portray the optimal cell type and therapeutic setting to drive robust cell engraftment and cardiomyogenesis after injury. Owing to the scarcity of the CPCs and the need for reproducibility, the generation of faithful cellular models would facilitate this scrutiny. Here, we evaluate whether immortalized Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs (iCPC(Sca-1)) represent their native-cell counterpart, thereby constituting a robust in vitro model system for standardized investigation in the cardiac field. iCPC(Sca-1) were established in vitro as plastic adherent cells endowed with robust self-renewal capacity while preserving a stable phenotype in long-term culture. iCPC(Sca-1) differentiated into cardiomyocytic-, endothelial-, and smooth muscle-like cells when subjected to appropriate stimuli. The cell line consistently displayed features of Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs in vitro, as well as in vivo after intramyocardial delivery in the onset of myocardial infarction (MI). Transplanted iCPC(Sca-1) significantly attenuated the functional and anatomical alterations caused by MI while promoting neovascularization. iCPC(Sca-1) are further shown to engraft, establish functional connections, and differentiate in loco into cardiomyocyte- and vasculature-like cells. These data validate iCPC(Sca-1) as an in vitro model system for Lin(-)Sca-1(+) progenitors and for systematic dissection of mechanisms underlying CPC subsets engraftment/differentiation in vivo. Moreover, iCPC(Sca-1) can be regarded as a ready-to-use CPCs source for pre-clinical bioengineering studies toward the development of novel strategies for restoration of the damaged myocardium.

  19. Human CD34+ HLA-DR- bone marrow cells contain progenitor cells capable of self-renewal, multilineage differentiation, and long-term in vitro hematopoiesis.

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    Srour, E F; Brandt, J E; Briddell, R A; Leemhuis, T; van Besien, K; Hoffman, R

    1991-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells expressing CD34 but not HLA-DR were isolated by immunofluorescence flow cytometric cell sorting. These cells contained a hematopoietic cell (CFU-B1) capable of producing, in an in vitro semisolid culture system, blast-cell-containing colonies, which possessed the capacity for self-renewal and commitment to multipotential differentiation. In addition, CD34+ HLA-DR- marrow cells contained primitive megakaryocyte progenitor cells, the burst-forming unit-megakaryocyte (BFU-MK). A subset of CD34+ HLA-DR- marrow cells lacking the expression of CD15 and CD71 was obtained by flow cytometric cell sorting and was capable of sustaining in vitro hematopoiesis in suspension culture for up to 8 weeks in the absence of a preestablished adherent marrow cell layer. The combination of IL-3 + IL-1 alpha and IL-3 + IL-6 sustained proliferation of these cells for 8 weeks, induced maximal cellular expansion, and increased the numbers of assayable progenitor cells. These studies demonstrate that human CD34+ HLA-DR- marrow cells and their subsets contain primitive multipotential hematopoietic cells capable of self-renewal and of differentiation into multiple hematopoietic lineages.

  20. Neural progenitor cell proliferation in the hypothalamus is involved in acquired heat tolerance in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

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    Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was intraperitoneally injected daily for five consecutive days (50 mg/kg/day) after commencing heat exposure. The number of hypothalamic BrdU-immunopositive (BrdU+) cells in STHA and LTHA rats was determined immunohistochemically in brain samples and found to be significantly greater than those in respective CN groups. In LTHA rats, approximately 32.6% of BrdU+ cells in the preoptic area (POA) of the anterior hypothalamus were stained by GAD67, a GABAergic neuron marker, and 15.2% of BrdU+ cells were stained by the glutamate transporter, a glutamatergic neuron marker. In addition, 63.2% of BrdU+ cells in the POA were immunolabeled with c-Fos. Intracerebral administration of the mitosis inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside (AraC), interfered with the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and acquired heat tolerance in LTHA rats, whereas the selected ambient temperature was not changed. These results demonstrate that heat exposure generates heat responsive neurons in the POA, suggesting a pivotal role in autonomic thermoregulation in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

  1. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

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    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  2. Aging, progenitor cell exhaustion, and atherosclerosis.

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    Rauscher, Frederick M; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Davis, Bryce H; Wang, Tao; Gregg, David; Ramaswami, Priya; Pippen, Anne M; Annex, Brian H; Dong, Chunming; Taylor, Doris A

    2003-07-29

    Atherosclerosis is largely attributed to chronic vascular injury, as occurs with excess cholesterol; however, the effect of concomitant vascular aging remains unexplained. We hypothesize that the effect of time in atherosclerosis progression is related to obsolescence of endogenous progenitor cells that normally repair and rejuvenate the arteries. Here we show that chronic treatment with bone marrow-derived progenitor cells from young nonatherosclerotic ApoE-/- mice prevents atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- recipients despite persistent hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, treatment with bone marrow cells from older ApoE-/- mice with atherosclerosis is much less effective. Cells with vascular progenitor potential are decreased in the bone marrow of aging ApoE-/- mice, but cells injected from donor mice engraft on recipient arteries in areas at risk for atherosclerotic injury. Our data indicate that progressive progenitor cell deficits may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  3. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

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    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  4. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    exploring alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for cell based therapy in diabetes. Since in vitro culture of islet β-cells demonstrates loss in insulin (Beattie et al. 1999), several attempts have been made to identify stem / progenitor cells capable of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells, which ...

  5. Dysfunctional Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and confers an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key early event in atherosclerosis is endothelial dysfunction. Numerous groups have reported endothelial dysfunction in MetS. However, the measurement of endothelial function is far from optimum. There has been much interest recently in a subtype of progenitor cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), that can circulate, proliferate, and dfferentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs can be characterized by the assessment of surface markers, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, VEGFR-2 (KDR). The CD34+KDR+ phenotype has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. MetS patients without diabetes or cardiovascular diseases have decreased EPC number and functionality as evidenced by decreased numbers of colony forming units, decreased adhesion and migration, and decreased tubule formation. Strategies that have been shown to upregulate and enhance EPC number and functionality include statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and peroxisome-proliferator-activating-receptor gamma agonists. Mechanisms by which they affect EPC number and functionality need to be studied. Thus, EPC number and/or functionality could emerge as novel cellular biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk in MetS. PMID:21941528

  6. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled Receptor 5 marks short-term hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during mouse embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Donghua; He, Xi C; Qian, Pengxu; Barker, Nick; Trainor, Paul A; Clevers, Hans; Liu, Huiwen; Li, Linheng

    2014-01-01

    Lgr5 is a marker for proliferating stem cells in adult intestine, stomach, and hair follicle. However, Lgr5 is not expressed in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Whether Lgr5 is expressed in the embryonic and fetal HSPCs that undergo rapid proliferation is unknown. Here we

  7. Low doses of oxygen ion irradiation cause long-term damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    Full Text Available During deep space missions, astronauts will be exposed to low doses of charged particle irradiation. The long-term health effects of these exposures are largely unknown. We previously showed that low doses of oxygen ion (16O irradiation induced acute damage to the hematopoietic system, including hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in a mouse model. However, the chronic effects of low dose 16O irradiation remain undefined. In the current study, we investigated the long-term effects of low dose 16O irradiation on the mouse hematopoietic system. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 0.05 Gy, 0.1 Gy, 0.25 Gy and 1.0 Gy whole body 16O (600 MeV/n irradiation. The effects of 16O irradiation on bone marrow (BM hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs were examined three months after the exposure. The results showed that the frequencies and numbers of BM HPCs and HSCs were significantly reduced in 0.1 Gy, 0.25 Gy and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice compared to 0.05 Gy irradiated and non-irradiated mice. Exposure of mice to low dose 16O irradiation also significantly reduced the clongenic function of BM HPCs determined by the colony-forming unit assay. The functional defect of irradiated HSCs was detected by cobblestone area-forming cell assay after exposure of mice to 0.1 Gy, 0.25 Gy and 1.0 Gy of 16O irradiation, while it was not seen at three months after 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy of γ-ray irradiation. These adverse effects of 16O irradiation on HSCs coincided with an increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, there were comparable levels of cellular apoptosis and DNA damage between irradiated and non-irradiated HPCs and HSCs. These data suggest that exposure to low doses of 16O irradiation induces long-term hematopoietic injury, primarily via increased ROS production in HSCs.

  8. Multipotent progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benjamin P J; Ferre, François C; Couty, Ludovic; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Gourven, Murielle; Naveau, Adrien; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine; Gogly, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    The gum has an exceptional capacity for healing. To examine the basis for this property and explore the potential of conferring it to organs with inferior healing capacity, we sought the presence of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue. Colony-forming units of fibroblast-enriched cells from gingival fibroblast cultures were assessed for expression of membrane markers of mesenchymal stem cells; capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocytes; and engraftment efficiency after in vivo transfer. On the basis of their ability to differentiate into several lineages, proliferate from single cells, induce calcium deposits, and secrete collagen in vivo after transfer on hydroxyapatite carriers, we suggest that this population represents gingival multipotent progenitor cells. The discovery of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue may help improve our understanding of how the wounded gum is capable of almost perfect healing and opens the prospect of cellular therapy for wound healing using readily available cells at limited risk to the patient.

  9. Mast cell progenitor trafficking and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from the hematopoietic progenitors found in bone marrow and spleen. Committed mast cell progenitors are rare in bone marrow suggesting they are rapidly released into the blood where they circulate and move out into the peripheral tissues. This migration is controlled in a tissue specific manner. Basal trafficking to the intestine requires expression of α4β7 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR2 by the mast cell progenitors and expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the intestinal endothelium; and is also controlled by dendritic cells expressing the transcriptional regulatory protein T-bet. None of these play a role in basal trafficking to the lung. With the induction of allergic inflammation in the lung, there is marked recruitment of committed mast cell progenitors to lung and these cells must express α4β7 and α4β1 integrins. Within the lung there is a requirement for expression of VCAM-1 on the endothelium that is regulated by CXCR2, also expressed on the endothelium. There is a further requirement for expression of the CCR2/CCL2 pathways for full recruitment of the mast cell progenitors to the antigen-inflamed lung.

  10. Activity-dependent long-term plasticity of afferent synapses on grafted stem/progenitor cell-derived neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Rogelius, Nina; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell-based cell replacement therapies aiming at restoring injured or diseased brain function ultimately rely on the capability of transplanted cells to promote functional recovery. The mechanisms by which stem cell-based therapies for neurological conditions can lead to functional recovery...

  11. STAT5 is required for long-term maintenance of normal and leukemic human stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Hein; van Gosliga, Djoke; Wierenga, Albertus T. J.; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo

    2007-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 fulfills a distinct role in the hematopoietic system, but its precise role in primitive human hematopoietic cells remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we performed STAT5 RNAi in sorted cord blood (CB) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) CD34(+) cells by lentiviral

  12. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  13. Cytokine-dependent long-term culture of highly enriched precursors of hematopoietic progenitor cells from human bone marrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, J.; Srour, E F; van Besien, K.; Briddell, R A; Hoffman, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human marrow cells positive for the CD34 antigen but not expressing HLA-DR, CD15, or CD71 antigens were isolated. In a liquid culture system supplemented with 48-hourly additions of recombinant interleukins IL-1 alpha, IL-3, IL-6, or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), these cells were capable of sustaining in vitro hematopoiesis for up to eight weeks. The establishment of an adherent cell layer was never observed. Cultures containing no exogenous cytokine produced clon...

  14. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  15. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  16. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Cindy Johanna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Postnatally, Endothelial Progenitor Cells are needed to maintain the integrity of the endothelium (re-endothelialization) and to augment wound healing or vascularize hypoxic areas (neovascularization). Complex networks of different signals and regulators have been identified to be involved in these

  17. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function Inversely Correlates With Long-term Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients: Association With the Attenuation of the Heme Oxygenase-Adiponectin Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Sharoni, Ram; Vanella, Luca; Puri, Nitin; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G.; Porat, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attenuated, both in number and functionality, in animal models of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This effect has subsequently been linked to the aggravation of long-term morbidity and mortality associated with such disorders. The objective was to examine EPC number and survival in chronic diabetic vs nondiabetic patients in conjunction with the examination of their redox, inflammatory, and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2 genes) status in serum and visceral fat. Methods Visceral adipose tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery was analyzed for Nrf2-dependent genes. Oxidative stress was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay (TBARS). Peripheral blood, collected 1 day prior to surgery, was evaluated for inflammatory cytokines and EPCs. Results When compared with controls (P < 0.05), results of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay were higher in diabetic patients. Although Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin-1 [Trx-1], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] qui-none oxidoreductase [NQO1], glutathione S-transferase [GST]) were upregulated, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and adiponectin protein expression were lower in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of bilirubin were lower (P < 0.005) while the levels of inflammatory cytokines were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.05). EPC levels and their colony forming units were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with reduced viability in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that in diabetic patients, there is an inadequate heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis response, which could compromise the compensatory antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects consequently contributing toward EPC dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22445099

  19. Comparison of the transcriptomes of long-term label-retaining-cells and control cells microdissected from mammary epithelium: An initial study to characterize potential stem/progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Kumar Choudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous molecular characterizations of mammary stem cells (MaSC have utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting or in vitro cultivation of cells from enzymatically dissociated tissue to enrich for MaSC. These approaches result in the loss of all histological information pertaining to the in vivo locale of MaSC and progenitor cells. Instead, we used laser microdissection to excise putative progenitor cells and control cells from their in situ locations in cryosections and characterized the molecular properties of these cells. MaSC/progenitor cells were identified based on their ability to retain bromodeoxyuridine for an extended period. Results: We isolated four categories of cells from mammary epithelium of female calves: bromodeoxyuridine label retaining epithelial cells (LREC from basal (LRECb and embedded layers (LRECe, and epithelial control cells from basal and embedded layers. Enriched expression of genes in LRECb were associated with stem cell attributes and identified WNT, TGF-β and MAPK pathways of self renewal and proliferation. Genes expressed in LRECe revealed retention of some stem-like properties along with up-regulation of differentiation factors. Conclusions: Our data suggest that LREC in the basal epithelial layer are enriched for MaSC, as these cells showed increased expression of genes that reflect stem cell attributes; whereas LREC in suprabasal epithelial layers are enriched for more committed progenitor cells, expressing some genes that are associated with stem cell attributes along with those indicative of cell differentiation. Our results support the use of DNA-label retention to identify MaSC and also provide a molecular profile and novel candidate markers for these cells. Insights into the biology of stem cells will be gained by confirmation and characterization of candidate MaSC markers identified in this study.

  20. Distinguishing Mast Cell Progenitors from Mature Mast Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Ding, Zhoujie; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-07-15

    Mast cells originate from the bone marrow and develop into c-kit(+) FcɛRI(+) cells. Both mast cell progenitors (MCp) and mature mast cells express these cell surface markers, and ways validated to distinguish between the two maturation forms with flow cytometry have been lacking. Here, we show that primary peritoneal MCp from naïve mice expressed high levels of integrin β7 and had a low side scatter (SSC) light profile; whereas mature mast cells expressed lower levels of integrin β7 and had a high SSC light profile. The maturation statuses of the cells were confirmed using three main strategies: (1) MCp, but not mature mast cells, were shown to be depleted by sublethal whole-body γ-irradiation. (2) The MCp were small and immature in terms of granule formation, whereas the mature mast cells were larger and had fully developed metachromatic granules. (3) The MCp had fewer transcripts of mast cell-specific proteases and the enzyme responsible for sulfation of heparin than mature mast cells. Moreover, isolated peritoneal MCp gave rise to mast cells when cultured in vitro. To summarize, we have defined MCp and mature mast cells in naïve mice by flow cytometry. Using this strategy, mast cell maturation can be studied in vivo.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cell biology in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Inderjeet; Syngle, Ashit; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to healthy controls (CD34(+) /CD133(+) : 0.027 ± 0.010% vs. 0.044 ± 0.011%, P < 0.001). EPC depletions were significantly associated with disease duration (r = -0.52, P = 0.01), BASDAI (r = -0.45, P = 0.04) and C-reactive protein (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cell depletion in AS patients. EPC depletions inversely correlate with disease duration, disease activity and inflammation, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. A robust vitronectin-derived peptide for the scalable long-term expansion and neuronal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Divya; Srinivasan, Gayathri Rajaram; Tsai, Yi-Huan; Kim, Hyun-Je; Cutts, Joshua; Petty, Francis; Merkley, Ryan; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Marsala, Martin; Brafman, David A

    2017-01-15

    Despite therapeutic advances, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders remain some of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Therefore, cell-based therapies to replace lost or damaged neurons and supporting cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are of great therapeutic interest. To that end, human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and their neuronal derivatives could provide the cellular 'raw material' needed for regenerative medicine therapies for a variety of CNS disorders. In addition, hNPCs derived from patient-specific hPSCs could be used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential drug candidates. However, the scientific and clinical application of hNPCs requires the development of robust, defined, and scalable substrates for their long-term expansion and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we rationally designed a vitronectin-derived peptide (VDP) that served as an adhesive growth substrate for the long-term expansion of several hNPC lines. Moreover, VDP-coated surfaces allowed for the directed neuronal differentiation of hNPC at levels similar to cells differentiated on traditional extracellular matrix protein-based substrates. Overall, the ability of VDP to support the long-term expansion and directed neuronal differentiation of hNPCs will significantly advance the future translational application of these cells in treating injuries, disorders, and diseases of the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo

    2017-02-22

    For many years, myocardial tissue has been considered terminally differentiated and, thus, incapable of regenerating. Recent studies have shown, instead, that cardiomyocytes, at least in part, are slowly substituted by new cells originating by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient. The protocol here reported describes how from auricles a population of multipotent, cardiogenic cells can be isolated, cultured, and differentiated. Further studies are needed to fully exploit this cell population, but, sampling auricles, it could be possible to treat cardiac patients using their own cells circumventing rejection or organ shortage limitations.

  4. Ovarian monocyte progenitor cells: phenotypic and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cherry J; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Haraguchi, Soichi; Lerner, Danika; Baldwin, Margi; El-Badri, Nagwa S

    2005-04-01

    Leukocytes of the macrophage lineage are abundant in the ovarian tissues and have an important function in both follicular development and regression of postovulatory follicles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that continuous production of macrophages in the ovarian stroma is maintained by a resident population of progenitors. We established a long-term culture of ovarian follicular stromal cells from BALB/c and green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP-TG) C57BL/6 mice. Nonadherent cells were collected and tested for hematopoietic function in vitro and in vivo. Histological and ultrastructural analyses revealed a homogenous population of monocyte-like rounded cells. Nonadherent cells continued to proliferate in culture for several months without senescence. When plated at very low density in methylcellulose, these cells formed colonies consisting of monocyte-like cells. Ovarian monocyte-like cells reacted with CD45, CD11b, CD11c, and Ly6-Gr-1 cell surface markers. A distinct CD45low population within these cells reacted with CD117 (C-kit) surface marker, suggestive of a primitive hematopoietic progenitor. Fifty thousand nonadherent cells failed to provide radioprotection to lethally irradiated mice and thus were not considered to be equivalent to pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Ovarian nonadherent stromal cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase but lacked embryonic cell antigens stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA-1) and Oct-4. We conclude that in the ovaries, a higher requirement for macrophages is provided by a resident stromal population of progenitors whose progeny is restricted to the production of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage.

  5. Cyclosporine decreases vascular progenitor cell numbers after cardiac transplantation and attenuates progenitor cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William R; Wang, Shaohua; Oi, Keiji; Bailey, Kent R; Tazelaar, Henry D; Caplice, Noel M; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2005-11-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the neointimal proliferation seen in cardiac allograft vasculopathy may in part derive from recipient progenitor cells. The effect of cyclosporine on these circulating progenitors in the setting of cardiac transplantation is currently unknown. Three surgical series were performed: sham operation alone, sham operation with immunosuppression, and heterotopic porcine cardiac transplantation with immunosuppression. The sham operation involved laparotomy and consecutive clamping of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Post-operative immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine at therapeutic levels (100-300 ng/ml) and 0.5 mg/kg methylprednisolone. Endothelial outgrowth colony numbers (EOC(CFU)) and smooth muscle outgrowth colony numbers (SOC(CFU)) were quantified weekly for 4 weeks post-operatively. A series of in vitro experiments were performed to determine the effect of cyclosporine on the differentiation, migration, and proliferation of EOCs and SOCs. In the sham alone series there were no changes to either EOC(CFU) or SOC(CFU). In the sham with immunosuppression and the transplant series, both EOC(CFU) and SOC(CFU) fell in the first 2 weeks (p Cyclosporine, even at a low dose, prevented differentiation, inhibited proliferation, and attenuated migration of both EOCs and SOCs. Immunosuppression in the setting of cardiac transplantation causes a profound reduction in circulating progenitor cells capable of differentiating into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This effect can in part be explained by the inhibitory effects of cyclosporine on progenitor growth and differentiation seen in this study.

  6. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing , meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...2. Keywords meniscus, meniscal cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing , meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 3. Overall Project Summary...Colonies will be compared for frequency and size. For colony forming assays, meniscus cells (P1) from 8wk old mice were seeded a density of 1000/25cm2

  7. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lavik, Erin B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs.......To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs....

  8. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-08

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct progenitor origin distinguishes a lineage of dendritic-like cells in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petvises, Sawang; O'Neill, Helen Christine

    2014-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) compartment comprises subsets of cells with distinct phenotypes. Previously this lab reported methodology for hematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells in vitro dependent on a murine splenic stromal cell line (5G3). Co-cultures of lineage-depleted bone marrow (Lin(-) BM) over 5G3 continuously produced a distinct population of dendritic-like "L-DC" for up to 35 days. Here the progenitor of L-DC is investigated in relation to known BM-derived hematopoietic progenitors. It is shown here that L-DC-like cells also derive from the CD150(+)Flt3(-) long-term reconstituting-hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and also from the Flt3(+) multipotential progenitor subset in BM. Lin(-) BM co-cultures also produce a transient population of cells resembling conventional (c) DC. Production of cDC-like cells is shown here to be transient and M-CSF dependent, and also appears following co-culture of described common dendritic progenitors or monocyte dendritic progenitors over 5G3. BM cells from C57BL/6-flt3L(tm1lmx) and C57BL/6-Csf2(tm1Ard) mice which lack cDC precursors and monocytes, are shown here to contain L-DC progenitors which can seed 5G3 co-cultures. L-DC are functionally distinct cells, in that they arise independently of M-CSF, and by direct differentiation from HSC.

  10. Raman spectroscopy for discrimination of neural progenitor cells and their lineages (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keren; Ong, William; Chew, Sing Yian; Liu, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Neurological diseases are one of the leading causes of adult disability and they are estimated to cause more deaths than cancer in the elderly population by 2040. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential in treating neurological diseases. However, before cell therapy can be widely adopted in the long term, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including the fundamental research about cellular development of neural progenitor cells. To facilitate the fundamental research of neural progenitor cells, many methods have been developed to identify neural progenitor cells. Although great progress has been made, there is still lack of an effective method to achieve fast, label-free and noninvasive differentiation of neural progenitor cells and their lineages. As a fast, label-free and noninvasive technique, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been conducted to characterize many types of stem cells including neural stem cells. However, to our best knowledge, it has not been studied for the discrimination of neural progenitor cells from specific lineages. Here we report the differentiation of neural progenitor cell from their lineages including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of system parameters during spectral acquisition on the quality of measured Raman spectra and the accuracy of classification using the spectra, which yield a set of optimal system parameters facilitating future studies.

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitors differentiate to cardiomyocytes and form biosynthetic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available The mammalian heart has little capacity to regenerate, and following injury the myocardium is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. Consequently, increased wall stress and workload on the remaining myocardium leads to chamber dilation, dysfunction, and heart failure. Cell-based therapy with an autologous, epigenetically reprogrammed, and cardiac-committed progenitor cell source could potentially reverse this process by replacing the damaged myocardium with functional tissue. However, it is unclear whether cardiac progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of attaining levels of structural and functional maturity comparable to that of terminally-fated cardiomyocytes. Here, we first describe the derivation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, which once differentiated allow for the enrichment of Nkx2-5(+ cardiac progenitors, and the cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein. We show that the cardiac progenitors are multipotent and capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac progenitor selection corresponds to cKit(+ cell enrichment, while cardiomyocyte cell-lineage commitment is concomitant with dual expression of either cKit/Flk1 or cKit/Sca-1. We proceed to show that the cardiac progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of forming electrically and mechanically coupled large-scale 2D cell cultures with mature electrophysiological properties. Finally, we examine the cell progenitors' ability to form electromechanically coherent macroscopic tissues, using a physiologically relevant 3D culture model and demonstrate that following long-term culture the cardiomyocytes align, and form robust electromechanical connections throughout the volume of the biosynthetic tissue construct. We conclude that the iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitors are a robust cell source for tissue engineering applications and a 3D culture platform for pharmacological

  12. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Margaret F; Tracy, Russell P; Parikh, Megha A; Hoffman, Eric A; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H M; Smith, Benjamin M; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema.

  14. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Uezumi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases.

  15. Functional endothelial progenitor cells from cryopreserved umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Dreyzin, Alexandra; Aamodt, Kristie; Dudley, Andrew C.; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is recognized as an enriched source of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with potential therapeutic value. Because cryopreservation is the only reliable method for long-term storage of UCB cells, the clinical application of EPCs depends on our ability to acquire them from cryopreserved samples; however, the feasibility of doing so remains unclear. In this study we demonstrate that EPCs can be isolated from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs). The number of outgrowth EPC colonies that emerged in culture from cryopreserved samples was similar to that obtained from fresh UCB. Furthermore, EPCs obtained from cryopreserved MNCs were phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from freshly isolated ones, including the ability to form blood vessels in vivo. Our results eliminate the necessity of performing cell isolation procedures ahead of future clinical needs and suggest that EPCs derived from cryopreserved UCB may be suitable for EPC-related therapies. PMID:20887663

  16. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiece, I; Briddell, R

    2001-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells have the potential for providing benefit in a variety of clinical settings. These include cells for support of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, as a target for replacement gene therapy, and as a source of cells for immunotherapy. The limitation to many of these applications has been the total absolute number of defined target cells. Therefore many investigators have explored methods to culture hematopoietic cells in vitro to increase the numbers of these cells. Studies attempting to expand hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells in vitro have become possible over the past decade due to the availability of recombinant growth factors and cell selection technologies. To date, no studies have demonstrated convincing data on the expansion of true stem cells, and so the focus of this review is the expansion of committed progenitor cells and mature cells. A number of clinical studies have been preformed using a variety of culture conditions, and several studies are currently in progress that explore the use of ex vivo expanded cells. These studies will be discussed in this review. There are evolving data that suggest that there are real clinical benefits associated with the use of the expanded cells; however, we are still at the early stages of understanding how to optimally culture different cell populations. The next decade should determine what culture conditions and what cell populations are needed for a range of clinical applications.

  17. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  18. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  19. Rod progenitor cells in the mature zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ann C; Scholz, Tamera; Fadool, James M

    2008-01-01

    The zebrafish is an excellent model organism in which to study the retina's response to photoreceptor degeneration and/or acute injury. While much has been learned about the retinal stem and progenitor cells that mediate the damage response, several questions remain that cannot be addressed by acute models of injury. The development of genetic models, such as the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, should further efforts to understand the nature of the signals that promote rod progenitor proliferation and differentiation following photoreceptor loss. This in turn may help to refine future approaches in higher vertebrates aimed at enhancing retinal progenitor cell activity for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Commitment of decidual haematopoietic progenitor cells in first trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, Laszlo; Miko, Eva; Meggyes, Matyas; Barakonyi, Aliz; Farkas, Balint; Varnagy, Akos; Bodis, Jozsef; Lynch, Lydia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM  The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotype and commitment of decidual haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in healthy pregnant women and in women with early miscarriage. METHOD OF STUDY  Peripheral blood and decidual tissue from healthy and pathological pregnant women were examined for HPCs and lymphoid progenitors using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS  Compared with peripheral blood, we found a significant increase in decidual HPCs in both healthy pregnant women and women with spontaneous abortion. T/NK, natural killer (NK), gamma-delta and NKT cell progenitors were identified in all peripheral blood and decidual samples. In pathologic pregnant women, the ratios of decidual T/NK and NK cell progenitors were significantly increased compared with healthy pregnant controls. CONCLUSION  We demonstrated decidual cells with haematopoietic progenitor cell phenotype in human decidua. Increased levels of NK progenitors in the decidua of women with early spontaneous abortion suggest a dysregulation of this pathway that may contribute to pregnancy failure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Further phenotypic characterization and isolation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells using a monoclonal antibody to the c-kit receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddell, R A; Broudy, V C; Bruno, E; Brandt, J E; Srour, E F; Hoffman, R

    1992-06-15

    A mouse antihuman monoclonal IgG2a antibody, termed stem cell receptor-1 (SR-1), specific for a determinant of the c-kit ligand receptor (KR), was used as an immunologic probe to analyze KR expression by human bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Monoclonal antibodies to CD34 and HLA-DR were used in a multicolor staining protocol in conjunction with SR-1 to further define the phenotypes of various classes of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Expression of KR (SR-1+) on hematopoietic progenitor cells identified subpopulations of cells expressing CD34 (CD34+). While one-half of the CD34- and HLA-DR-expressing cells (CD34+ HLA-DR+) expressed the KR (SR-1+), one-third of the CD34+ cells that lacked HLA-DR expression (CD34+ HLA-DR-) were SR-1+. The CD34+ HLA-DR+ SR-1+ cell population contained the vast majority of the more differentiated progenitor cells, including the colony-forming unit (CFU) granulocyte-macrophage; burst-forming unit-erythrocyte; CFU-granulocyte, erythrocyte, macrophage, megakaryocyte; and the CFU-megakaryocyte. The overall progenitor cell cloning efficiency of this subpopulation was greater than 31%. By contrast, the CD34+ HLA-DR- SR-1+ cell population contained fewer of these more differentiated progenitor cells but exclusively contained the more primitive progenitor cells, the BFU-megakaryocyte, high proliferative potential-colony-forming cell, and long-term bone marrow culture-initiating cell. The overall progenitor cell cloning efficiency of this subpopulation was greater than 7%. Both the CD34+ HLA-DR- and CD34+ HLA-DR+ cell subpopulations lacking KR expression contained few assayable hematopoietic progenitor cells. Long-term bone marrow cultures initiated with CD34+ HLA-DR- SR-1+ but not CD34+ HLA-DR- SR-1- cells, which were repeatedly supplemented with c-kit ligand (KL) and interleukin-3, generated assayable progenitor cells of at least 2 lineages for 10 weeks. These experiments demonstrate the expression of the KR throughout the

  2. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well......, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages....

  3. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease.

  4. CXCR4 expression in prostate cancer progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dubrovska

    Full Text Available Tumor progenitor cells represent a population of drug-resistant cells that can survive conventional chemotherapy and lead to tumor relapse. However, little is known of the role of tumor progenitors in prostate cancer metastasis. The studies reported herein show that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, a key regulator of tumor dissemination, plays a role in the maintenance of prostate cancer stem-like cells. The CXCL4/CXCR12 pathway is activated in the CD44(+/CD133(+ prostate progenitor population and affects differentiation potential, cell adhesion, clonal growth and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, prostate tumor xenograft studies in mice showed that a combination of the CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100, which targets prostate cancer stem-like cells, and the conventional chemotherapeutic drug Taxotere, which targets the bulk tumor, is significantly more effective in eradicating tumors as compared to monotherapy.

  5. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

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    Wang Q

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Wang,1,* Qi Wu,2,* Jing Feng,3,4 Xin Sun5 1The Second Respiratory Department of the First People's Hospital of Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 3Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Department of Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods: We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion: Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has

  7. Cellular therapy after spinal cord injury using neural progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury are explored. Particularly, the potential of adult derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) grafts to function as a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration was investigated. It was found that syngenic

  8. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  9. Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells: a short history of nearly everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Patrick; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2012-08-01

    The high occurrence of cardiac disease in the Western world has driven clinicians and cardiovascular biologists to look for alternative strategies to treat patients. A challenging approach is the use of stem cells to repair the heart, in itself an inspiring thought. In the past 10 years, stem cells from different sources have been under intense investigation and, as a result, a multitude of studies have been published on the identification, isolation, and characterization, of cardiovascular progenitor cells and repair in different animal models. However, relatively few cardiovascular progenitor populations have been identified in human hearts, including, but not limited to, cardiosphere-derived cells, cKit+ human cardiac stem cells , Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors, and, in our lab, cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs). Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of the past findings and present challenges for future therapeutic potential of CMPCs. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2010-12-15

    The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of temporal identity regulation in mouse retinal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Pierre; Cayouette, Michel

    2015-01-01

    While much progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the transcription factor codes controlling how neural progenitor cells generate the various glial and neuronal cell types in a particular spatial domain, much less is known about how these progenitors alter their output over time. In the past years, work in the developing mouse retina has provided evidence that a transcriptional cascade similar to the one used in Drosophila neuroblasts might control progenitor temporal identity in vertebrates. The zinc finger transcription factor Ikzf1 (Ikaros), an ortholog of Drosophila hunchback, was reported to confer early temporal identity in retinal progenitors and, more recently, the ortholog of Drosophila castor, Casz1, was found to function as a mid/late temporal identity factor that is negatively regulated by Ikzf1. The molecular mechanisms by which these temporal identity factors function in retinal progenitors, however, remain unknown. Here we briefly review previous work on the vertebrate temporal identity factors in the retina, and propose a model by which they might operate.

  12. Cell cycle regulation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sha; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The highly regulated process of blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets and their progenies, which differ in self-renewal and differentiation potential. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that cell cycle is tightly controlled by the complex interplay between extrinsic cues and intrinsic regulatory pathways involved in HSC self-renewal and differentiation. Deregulation of these cellular programs may transform HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-initiating stem cells, and can result in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia. While previous studies have shown roles for some cell cycle regulators and related signaling pathways in HSCs and HPCs, a more complete picture regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in HSCs or HPCs is lacking. Based on accumulated studies in this field, the present review introduces the basic components of the cell cycle machinery and discusses their major cellular networks that regulate the dormancy and cell cycle progression of HSCs. Knowledge on this topic would help researchers and clinicians to better understand the pathogenesis of relevant blood disorders and to develop new strategies for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs.

  13. Clinical trials using autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood-derived progenitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tendera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the current data concerning the results of major clinical trials using bone marrow-derived and peripheral blood-derived stem/progenitor cells in treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. In all major trials (TOPCARE-AMI, BOOST, the primary outcome measure was increase in left ventricular systolic function (LVEF and left ventricle remodeling. The most consistent finding is the significant increase in LVEF. Some trials suggest also reduction of left ventricular remodeling. Although the absolute LVEF increase is small (6-9%, it may substantially contribute to the improvement of global LV contractility. None of the studies in AMI patients treated with intracoronary infusion of progenitor cells revealed excess risk of arrythmia, restenosis or other adverse effects attributable to the therapy. The exact mechanism of improved myocardial contractile function remains unknown, however, there are several possible explanations: therapeutic angiogenesis improving the blood supply to the infarct border zone, paracrine modulation of myocardial fibrosis and remodeling (e.g. inhibition of myocyte apoptosis and transdifferentiation of stem/progenitor cells into functional cardiomyocytes. No study showed the superiority of the particular subpopulation of autologous progenitor cells in terms of left ventricular function improvement in AMI. In fact, most of the clinical trials used the whole population of mononuclear bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, peripheral blood derived progenitor cells (endothelial progenitors.

  14. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Simon N; van Os, Ronald P; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have added significantly to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. Such models suggest that changes in the interaction between the HSPC and the hematopoietic microenvironmental 'niche' (cellular and extracellular components)

  15. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238868,SRX238870 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127409,SRX127394,SRX127396,SRX127407,SRX127383,SRX127381 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX802060,SRX109471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX109471,SRX802060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315277,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX109471,SRX802060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127409,SRX127407,SRX127394,SRX127396,SRX127383,SRX127381 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127394,SRX127409,SRX127396,SRX127407,SRX127381,SRX127383 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progen...itor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progen...itor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua DENG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara cells, variant Clara cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced krt5+ cells in bronchioles, type II alveolar cells and type II alveolar progenitor cells in alveoli. The research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were mainly focused on lung injury models, lineage-tracing experiments, three dimensional culture, transplantation, chronic labeled cells and single-cell transcriptome analysis. Lastly, the potential relationship between lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and lung cancer as well as lung cancer stem cell-targeted drug development were briefly reviewed.

  14. [Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minhua; Li, Jinhua; Gan, Ye; Chen, Ping

    2017-02-20

    Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara cells, variant Clara cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced krt5+ cells in bronchioles, type II alveolar cells and type II alveolar progenitor cells in alveoli. The research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were mainly focused on lung injury models, lineage-tracing experiments, three dimensional culture, transplantation, chronic labeled cells and single-cell transcriptome analysis. Lastly, the potential relationship between lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and lung cancer as well as lung cancer stem cell-targeted drug development were briefly reviewed.

  15. Human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche containing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells throughout development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Catherine; Bollerot, Karine; Mendes, Sandra; Haak, Esther; Crisan, Mihaela; Cerisoli, Francesco; Lauw, Ivoune; Kaimakis, Polynikis; Jorna, Ruud; Vermeulen, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; van der Linden, Reinier; Imanirad, Parisa; Verstegen, Monique; Nawaz-Yousaf, Humaira; Papazian, Natalie; Steegers, Eric; Cupedo, Tom; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are responsible for the life-long production of the blood system and are pivotal cells in hematologic transplantation therapies. During mouse and human development, the first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Subsequent to this emergence, HSCs are found in other anatomical sites of the mouse conceptus. While the mouse placenta contains abundant HSCs at midgestation, little is known concerning whether HSCs or hematopoietic progenitors are present and supported in the human placenta during development. In this study we show, over a range of developmental times including term, that the human placenta contains hematopoietic progenitors and HSCs. Moreover, stromal cell lines generated from human placenta at several developmental time points are pericyte-like cells and support human hematopoiesis. Immunostaining of placenta sections during development localizes hematopoietic cells in close contact with pericytes/perivascular cells. Thus, the human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche throughout development. PMID:19796619

  16. Prostate progenitor cells proliferate in response to castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Shi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Androgen-deprivation is a mainstay of therapy for advanced prostate cancer but tumor regression is usually incomplete and temporary because of androgen-independent cells in the tumor. It has been speculated that these tumor cells resemble the stem/progenitor cells of the normal prostate. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of slow-cycling progenitor cells in the adult mouse prostate to castration. Proliferating cells in the E16 urogenital sinus were pulse labeled by BrdU administration or by doxycycline-controlled labeling of the histone-H2B GFP mouse. A small population of labeled epithelial cells in the adult prostate localized at the junction of the prostatic ducts and urethra. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS showed that GFP label-retaining cells were enriched for cells co-expressing stem cell markers Sca-1, CD133, CD44 and CD117 (4- marker cells; 60-fold enrichment. FACS showed, additionally, that 4-marker cells were androgen receptor positive. Castration induced proliferation and dispersal of E16 labeled cells into more distal ductal segments. When naïve adult mice were administered BrdU daily for 2 weeks after castration, 16% of 4-marker cells exhibited BrdU label in contrast to only 6% of all epithelial cells (P < 0.01. In sham-castrated controls less than 4% of 4-marker cells were BrdU labeled (P < 0.01. The unexpected and admittedly counter-intuitive finding that castration induced progenitor cell proliferation suggests that androgen deprivation therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer could not only exert pleiotrophic effects on tumor sub-populations but may induce inadvertent expansion of tumor stem cells.

  17. Focus on biological identity of endothelial progenitors cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, V; Flore, R; Santoro, L; De Matteis, G; Giupponi, B; Li Puma, D D; Santoliquido, A

    2015-11-01

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) were discovered by Asahara et al in 1997 and defined as bone marrow CD34+/KDR+ cells endowed with angiogenic potentialities in vitro and in vivo. The most likely assumption is that EPCs consist of several cell subpopulations with functions targeted at accomplishing the post-natal neovascularization process in a synergic and complementary fashion. Indeed, the subsequent identification of numerous and differentiated hematic populations, characterized by the capacity to develop an endothelial phenotype, has posed a number of questions as to the real identity of EPCs. This concept does not represent a sterile speculation but rather it suggests important implications for the future practice of stem cell therapy. The aim of this report was to explore through a critical analysis the two main experimental methodologies, in vitro culture and flow cytometry, applied to EPCs, followed by a brief revaluation of the endothelial progenitors employing a globally functional approach.

  18. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rossella; Felice, Francesca; Feriani, Roberto; Balbarini, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute substantially to preservation of a structurally and functionally intact endothelium. EPCs home in to the sites of endothelial injury and ischemia, where they proliferate, differentiate and integrate into the endothelial layer or exert a paracrine function by producing vascular growth factors. This review will focus on successful lifestyle interventions that aim to maintain vascular health through beneficial actions on cell populations with vasculogenic potential. The results of the studies proving the role of healthy lifestyle are particularly emphasized.

  19. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  4. Derivation and characterization of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Zhao

    Full Text Available The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were generated by activating FGF and BMP pathways and were then purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting using a newly identified surface marker, N-cadherin. After co-culture with STO feeder cells, these purified hepatic endoderm cells yielded hepatic progenitor colonies, which possessed the proliferation potential to be cultured for an extended period of more than 100 days. With extensive expansion, they co-expressed the hepatic marker AFP and the biliary lineage marker KRT7 and maintained bipotential differentiation capacity. They were able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which expressed ALB and AAT, and into cholangiocyte-like cells, which formed duct-like cyst structures, expressed KRT19 and KRT7, and acquired epithelial polarity. In conclusion, this is the first report of the generation of proliferative and bipotential hepatic progenitor cells from hES cells. These hES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells could be effectively used as an in vitro model for studying the mechanisms of hepatic stem/progenitor cell origin, self-renewal and differentiation.

  5. Isoform-specific potentiation of stem and progenitor cell engraftment by AML1/RUNX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Tsuzuki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo.The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo.These data demonstrate that the "a" isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of leukaemia and also in cord blood

  6. CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in the dental stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohama-Tamaki, Tamaki; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Shibata, Shunichi; Obara, Nobuko; Irie, Kazuharu; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi; Nagasawa, Takashi; Aoki, Kazunari; Caliari, Steven R; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-12-01

    Dental stem cells are located at the proximal ends of rodent incisors. These stem cells reside in the dental epithelial stem cell niche, termed the apical bud. We focused on identifying critical features of a chemotactic signal in the niche. Here, we report that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in dental stem cell niche cells. We report cells in the apical bud express CXCR4 mRNA at high levels while expression is restricted in the basal epithelium (BE) and transit-amplifying (TA) cell regions. Furthermore, the CXCL12 ligand is present in mesenchymal cells adjacent to the apical bud. We then performed gain- and loss-of-function analyses to better elucidate the role of CXCR4 and CXCL12. CXCR4-deficient mice contain epithelial cell aggregates, while cell proliferation in mutant incisors was also significantly reduced. We demonstrate in vitro that dental epithelial cells migrate toward sources of CXCL12, whereas knocking down CXCR4 impaired motility and resulted in formation of dense cell colonies. These results suggest that CXCR4 expression may be critical for activation of enamel progenitor cell division and that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling may control movement of epithelial progenitors from the dental stem cell niche.

  7. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used.

  8. Endothelial progenitor cells in vascular health: focus on lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Conraads, Viviane M

    2010-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, which is considered the functional equivalent of a disrupted balance between endothelial injury and repair, precedes overt atherosclerosis by many years. Although this phenomenon is part of the normal aging process, prevention of early and progressive endothelial dysfunction has become an important therapeutic target. Evidence has accumulated to show that endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), contribute substantially to preservation of a structurally and functionally intact endothelium. There has been considerable progress in our understanding of the various cell types that were in the past all covered by the term "EPC." EPC home to sites of endothelial injury and ischemia, where they proliferate, differentiate and integrate into the endothelial layer or exert a paracrine function by producing vascular growth factors. Although more emphasis has been put on the pharmacological approach of endothelial dysfunction, the effect of a healthy lifestyle, via mobilization and functional improvement of EPC, is increasingly recognized. This review will focus on successful lifestyle interventions that aim to maintain vascular health through beneficial actions on cell populations with vasculogenic potential ("EPC"). The role of physical activity and dietary recommendations, which are considered essential elements of a healthy lifestyle, will be particularly emphasized. A thorough understanding of the physiology of endothelial benefits, derived from such interventions, may help to implement these measures on top of classical drug therapy, but also provides a solid basis for primary prevention. The effects of additional elements of a comprehensive lifestyle advice, such as smoking cessation, weight and stress reduction, also comprise a modulation of EPC function and circulating numbers and are therefore included in this review as well. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pediatric Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohamad; Elsayh, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Hassan, Gamal Mohamad; Abdou, Madleen Adel A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in pediatric patients with sepsis and correlating it with the severity of the disease and its outcome. The study included 19 children with sepsis, 26 with complicated sepsis, and 30 healthy controls. The patients were investigated within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit admission together with flow cytometric detection of CECs and CEPs. The levels of both CECs and CEPs were significantly higher in patient with sepsis and complicated sepsis than the controls. The levels of CECs were higher in patients with complicated sepsis, whereas the levels of CEPs were lower in patients with complicated sepsis. Comparing the survival and nonsurvival septic patients, the levels of CEPs were significantly higher in the survival than in nonsurvival patients, whereas the levels of CECs were significantly lower in the survival than in nonsurvival patients. Serum albumin was higher in survival than in nonsurvival patients. Estimation of CECs and CEPs and their correlation with other parameters such as serum albumen could add important information regarding prognosis in septic pediatric patients.

  10. Transplantation of Airway Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Future for Cell-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moumita; Ahmad, Shama; White, Carl W; Reynolds, Susan D

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to cure disease through replacement of malfunctioning cells. Although the tissue stem cell (TSC) is thought to be the optimal therapeutic cell, transplantation of TSC/progenitor cell mixtures has saved lives. We previously purified the mouse tracheobronchial epithelial TSCs and reported that in vitro amplification generated numerous TSCs. However, these cultures also contained TSC-derived progenitor cells and TSC repurification by flow cytometry compromised TSC self-renewal. These limitations prompted us to determine if a TSC/progenitor cell mixture would repopulate the injured airway epithelium. We developed a cell transplantation protocol and demonstrate that transplanted mouse and human tracheobronchial epithelial TSC/progenitor cell mixtures are 20-25% of airway epithelial cells, actively contribute to epithelial repair, and persist for at least 43 days. At 2 weeks after transplantation, TSCs/progenitor cells differentiated into the three major epithelial cell types: basal, secretory, and ciliated. We conclude that cell therapy that uses adult tracheobronchial TSCs/progenitor cells is an effective therapeutic option.

  11. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Paiva, Artur; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cell count and endothelial activation in a pediatric population with obesity. Observational and transversal study, including 120 children and adolescents with primary obesity of both sexes, aged 6-17 years, who were recruited at this Cardiovascular Risk Clinic. The control group was made up of 41 children and adolescents with normal body mass index. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, E-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine and circulating progenitor endothelial cell count. Insulin resistance was correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ρ=0.340; p=0.003), which was directly, but weakly correlated to E-selectin (ρ=0.252; p=0.046). High sensitivity C-reactive protein was not found to be correlated to markers of endothelial activation. Systolic blood pressure was directly correlated to body mass index (ρ=0.471; p<0.001) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (ρ=0.230; p=0.012), and inversely correlated to adiponectin (ρ=-0.331; p<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ρ=-0.319; p<0.001). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count was directly, but weakly correlated, to body mass index (r=0.211; p=0.016), leptin (ρ=0.245; p=0.006), triglyceride levels (r=0.241; p=0.031), and E-selectin (ρ=0.297; p=0.004). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count is elevated in obese children and adolescents with evidence of endothelial activation, suggesting that, during infancy, endothelial repairing mechanisms are present in the context of endothelial activation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Culture conditions have an impact on the maturation of traceable, transplantable mouse embryonic stem cell-derived otic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Nesrine; Fontbonne, Arnaud; Watabe, Isabelle; Tonetto, Alain; Brezun, Jean Michel; Feron, François; Zine, Azel

    2017-09-01

    The generation of replacement inner ear hair cells (HCs) remains a challenge and stem cell therapy holds the potential for developing therapeutic solutions to hearing and balance disorders. Recent developments have made significant strides in producing mouse otic progenitors using cell culture techniques to initiate HC differentiation. However, no consensus has been reached as to efficiency and therefore current methods remain unsatisfactory. In order to address these issues, we compare the generation of otic and HC progenitors from embryonic stem (ES) cells in two cell culture systems: suspension vs. adherent conditions. In the present study, an ES cell line derived from an Atoh1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse was used to track the generation of otic progenitors, initial HCs and to compare these two differentiation systems. We used a two-step short-term differentiation method involving an induction period of 5 days during which ES cells were cultured in the presence of Wnt/transforming growth factor TGF-β inhibitors and insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 to suppress mesoderm and reinforce presumptive ectoderm and otic lineages. The generated embryoid bodies were then differentiated in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for an additional 5 days using either suspension or adherent culture methods. Upon completion of differentiation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunostaining monitored the expression of otic/HC progenitor lineage markers. The results indicate that cells differentiated in suspension cultures produced cells expressing otic progenitor/HC markers at a higher efficiency compared with the production of these cell types within adherent cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a fraction of these cells can incorporate into ototoxin-injured mouse postnatal cochlea explants and express MYO7A after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  13. The role of stem cell factor in mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiece, I K; Briddell, R A; Yan, X Q; Hartley, C A; Gringeri, A; Foote, M A; Andrews, R G

    1994-11-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a hematopoietic growth factor which acts on both primitive and mature progenitors cells. In animals, high doses of SCF alone stimulate increases in cells of multiple lineages and mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). Phase I studies of rhSCF have demonstrated dose related side effects which are consistent with mast cell activation. Based upon in vitro synergy between SCF and G-CSF we have demonstrated the potential of low doses of SCF to synergize with G-CSF to give enhanced mobilization of PBPC. These PBPC have increased potential for both short and long term engraftment in lethally irradiated mice and lead to more rapid recovery of platelets. On going Phase I/II studies with rhSCF plus rhG-CSF for mobilization of PBPC, demonstrated similar increases in PBPC compared to rhG-CSF alone. These data suggest a clinical role of rhSCF in combination with rhG-CSF for optimal mobilization of PBPC.

  14. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  16. Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deng,Minhua; Li, Jinhua; Gan, Ye; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara ce...

  17. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... has ensued; understanding the natural history of the targeted disease; defining the optimal cell phenotype for each disorder; achieving safe and scalable cellular compositions; designing age-appropriate controlled clinical trials; and for autologous therapy of genetic disorders, achieving the safe...

  18. Isolation and characterization of stromal progenitor cells from ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chih-Ming

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least one-third of epithelial ovarian cancers are associated with the development of ascites containing heterogeneous cell populations, including tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. The components of ascites and their effects on the tumor cell microenvironment remain poorly understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize stromal progenitor cells from the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOA. Methods Seventeen ascitic fluid samples and 7 fresh tissue samples were collected from 16 patients with EOA. The ascites samples were then cultured in vitro in varying conditions. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to isolate and characterize 2 cell populations with different morphologies (epithelial type and mesenchymal type deriving from the ascites samples. The in vitro cell culture model was established using conditional culture medium. Results The doubling times of the epithelial type and mesenchymal type cells were 36 h and 48 h, respectively, indicating faster growth of the epithelial type cells compared to the mesenchymal type cells. Cultured in vitro, these ascitic cells displayed the potential for self-renewal and long-term proliferation, and expressed the typical cancer stem/progenitor cell markers CD44high, CD24low, and AC133+. These cells also demonstrated high BMP-2, BMP4, TGF-β, Rex-1, and AC133 early gene expression, and expressed EGFR, integrin α2β1, CD146, and Flt-4, which are highly associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. The epithelial type cells demonstrated higher cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression than the mesenchymal type cells. The mesenchymal type cells, in contrast, demonstrated higher AC133, CD73, CD105, CD117, EGFR, integrin α2β1, and CD146 surface marker expression than the epithelial type cells. Conclusion The established culture system provides an in vitro model for the selection of drugs that target cancer

  19. Isolation and characterization of stromal progenitor cells from ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Ming; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Hsiao, Chih-Chiang; Chien, Tsai-Yen; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2012-02-14

    At least one-third of epithelial ovarian cancers are associated with the development of ascites containing heterogeneous cell populations, including tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. The components of ascites and their effects on the tumor cell microenvironment remain poorly understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize stromal progenitor cells from the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOA). Seventeen ascitic fluid samples and 7 fresh tissue samples were collected from 16 patients with EOA. The ascites samples were then cultured in vitro in varying conditions. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to isolate and characterize 2 cell populations with different morphologies (epithelial type and mesenchymal type) deriving from the ascites samples. The in vitro cell culture model was established using conditional culture medium. The doubling times of the epithelial type and mesenchymal type cells were 36 h and 48 h, respectively, indicating faster growth of the epithelial type cells compared to the mesenchymal type cells. Cultured in vitro, these ascitic cells displayed the potential for self-renewal and long-term proliferation, and expressed the typical cancer stem/progenitor cell markers CD44(high), CD24(low), and AC133(+). These cells also demonstrated high BMP-2, BMP4, TGF-β, Rex-1, and AC133 early gene expression, and expressed EGFR, integrin α2β1, CD146, and Flt-4, which are highly associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. The epithelial type cells demonstrated higher cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression than the mesenchymal type cells. The mesenchymal type cells, in contrast, demonstrated higher AC133, CD73, CD105, CD117, EGFR, integrin α2β1, and CD146 surface marker expression than the epithelial type cells. The established culture system provides an in vitro model for the selection of drugs that target cancer-associated stromal progenitor cells, and for the development of ovarian

  20. The role of Zic family zinc finger transcription factors in the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Yui [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Division of Orthoptics, Teikyo University School of Medical Care and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Baba, Yukihiro [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Sumiko, E-mail: sumiko@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zic transcription factors expressed early retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zics sustain proliferation activity of retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Zic in retinal progenitors perturbed rod differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fate determination to rod photoreceptor was not affected. -- Abstract: Members of the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play critical roles in a variety of developmental processes. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found that Zics are strongly expressed in SSEA-1-positive early retinal progenitors in the peripheral region of the mouse retina. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using mRNA from the retina at various developmental stages showed that Zic1 and Zic2 are expressed in the embryonic retina and then gradually disappear during retinal development. Zic3 is also expressed in the embryonic retina; its expression level slightly decreases but it is expressed until adulthood. We overexpressed Zic1, Zic2, or Zic3 in retinal progenitors at embryonic day 17.5 and cultured the retina as explants for 2 weeks. The number of rod photoreceptors was fewer than in the control, but no other cell types showed significant differences between control and Zic overexpressing cells. The proliferation activity of normal retinal progenitors decreased after 5 days in culture, as observed in normal in vivo developmental processes. However, Zic expressing retinal cells continued to proliferate at days 5 and 7, suggesting that Zics sustain the proliferation activities of retinal progenitor cells. Since the effects of Zic1, 2, and 3 are indistinguishable in terms of differentiation and proliferation of retinal progenitors, the redundant function of Zics in retinal development is suggested.

  1. Identification of Novel Human NK Cell Progenitor Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sathe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the pathways and regulation of human haematopoiesis, in particular, lymphopoiesis, is vital to manipulation of these processes for therapeutic purposes. However, although haematopoiesis has been extensively characterised in mice, translation of these findings to human biology remains rudimentary. Here, we describe the isolation of three progenitor subsets from human foetal bone marrow that represent differential stages of commitment to the natural killer (NK cell lineage based on IL-15 responsiveness. We identify CD7 as a marker of IL-15 responsive progenitors in human bone marrow and find that this expression is maintained throughout commitment and maturation. Within the CD7+ fraction, we focussed on the lineage potential of three subsets based on CD127 and CD117 expression and observed restricted lymphoid and biased NK cell potential amongst subsets. We further demonstrate the presence of subsets similar in both phenotype and function in umbilical cord blood and the bone marrow of humanised mice, validating these as appropriate sources of progenitors for the investigation of human haematopoiesis. Overall, we describe several stages in the process of lymphopoiesis that will form the basis of investigating the regulators of this process in humans.

  2. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

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    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  3. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  4. Downregulation of ETS rescues diabetes-induced reduction of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hartmut Seeger

    Full Text Available Transplantation of vasculogenic progenitor cells (VPC improves neovascularization after ischemia. However, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus show a reduced VPC number and impaired functional activity. Previously, we demonstrated that p38 kinase inhibition prevents the negative effects of glucose on VPC number by increasing proliferation and differentiation towards the endothelial lineage in vitro. Moreover, the functional capacity of progenitor cells is reduced in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome including type 2 diabetes (Lepr(db in vivo.The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying signalling mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we performed DNA-protein binding arrays in the bone marrow of mice with metabolic syndrome, in blood-derived progenitor cells of diabetic patients as well as in VPC ex vivo treated with high levels of glucose. The transcriptional activation of ETS transcription factors was increased in all samples analyzed. Downregulation of ETS1 expression by siRNA abrogated the reduction of VPC number induced by high-glucose treatment. In addition, we observed a concomitant suppression of the non-endothelial ETS-target genes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and CD115 upon short term lentiviral delivery of ETS-specific shRNAs. Long term inhibition of ETS expression by lentiviral infection increased the number of cells with the endothelial markers CD144 and CD105.These data demonstrate that diabetes leads to dysregulated activation of ETS, which blocks the functional activity of progenitor cells and their commitment towards the endothelial cell lineage.

  5. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  6. Gene Profiling of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Astrocyte Progenitors Following Spinal Cord Engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet-Phillips, Amanda M.; Roybon, Laurent; Gross, Sarah K.; Tuteja, Alisha; Donnelly, Christopher J.; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Ko, Myungsung; Sherman, Alex; Eggan, Kevin; Henderson, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represents an exciting advancement with promise for stem cell transplantation therapies as well as for neurological disease modeling. Based on the emerging roles for astrocytes in neurological disorders, we investigated whether hiPSC-derived astrocyte progenitors could be engrafted to the rodent spinal cord and how the characteristics of these cells changed between in vitro culture and after transplantation to the in vivo spinal cord environment. Our results show that human embryonic stem cell- and hiPSC-derived astrocyte progenitors survive long-term after spinal cord engraftment and differentiate to astrocytes in vivo with few cells from other lineages present. Gene profiling of the transplanted cells demonstrates the astrocyte progenitors continue to mature in vivo and upregulate a variety of astrocyte-specific genes. Given this mature astrocyte gene profile, this work highlights hiPSCs as a tool to investigate disease-related astrocyte biology using in vivo disease modeling with significant implications for human neurological diseases currently lacking animal models. PMID:24604284

  7. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

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    Skardelly, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Skardelly@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Kamprad, Manja [Institute of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meixensberger, Juergen [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Milosevic, Javorina [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  8. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...... mononuclear infiltration in the choroid with graft rejection occurring over 2-5 weeks. Serum analysis confirmed that mice and pigs are discordant species; however, a cell-mediated acute mechanism appears to be responsible, rather than an antibody-mediated rejection....

  9. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  10. Biology of the Adult Hepatic Progenitor Cell: “Ghosts in the Machine”

    OpenAIRE

    Darwiche, Houda; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews some of the basic biological principles governing adult progenitor cells of the liver and the mechanisms by which they operate. If scientists were better able to understand the conditions that govern stem cell mechanics in the liver, it may be possible to apply that understanding in a clinical setting for use in the treatment or cure of human pathologies. This chapter gives a basic introduction to hepatic progenitor cell biology and explores what is known about progenitor...

  11. Stromal Cells Act as Guardians for Endothelial Progenitors by Reducing Their Immunogenicity After Co-Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Naima; Stolk, Meaghan; Rudeck, Juliane; Strunk, Dirk; Schallmoser, Katharina; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Seifert, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Regeneration of injured tissues requires effective therapeutic strategies supporting vasculogenesis. The lack of instantly available autologous cell sources and immunogenicity of allogeneic endothelial (progenitor) cells limits clinical progress. Based on the immunosuppressive potency of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs), we investigated whether crosstalk between endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) and MSCs during vasculogenesis could lower allogeneic T cell responses against ECFCs allowing long-term engraftment in vivo. Immunodeficient mice received subcutaneous grafts containing human ECFCs alone, or pairs of human ECFCs/MSCs from the same umbilical cord (UC) to study vasculogenesis in the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In vitro, cell surface marker changes due to interferon gamma (IFNγ) stimulation during ECFC/MSC coculture were determined and further effects on allostimulated T cell proliferation and cytotoxic lysis were measured. IFNγ-induced HLA-DR expression on ECFCs and MSCs, but both cell types had significantly less HLA-DR in cocultures. ECFC-induced T cell proliferation was abolished after MSC coculture as a result of HLA-DR downregulation and indolamin-2,3-dioxygenase activation. Additionally, allospecific CD8 + T cell-mediated lysis of ECFCs was reduced in cocultures. ECFC/MSC coapplication in immunodeficient mice not only promoted the generation of improved blood vessel architecture after 6 weeks, but also reduced intragraft immune cell infiltration and endothelial HLA-DR expression following PBMC reconstitution. Crosstalk between UC-derived ECFCs and MSCs after combined transplantation can lower the risk of ECFC rejection, thus enabling their coapplication for therapeutic vasculogenesis. Stem Cells 2017;35:1233-1245. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute coronary syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wojakowski

    2005-12-01

    cells. The maximum number of stem cells was found early in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (<12 hours with subsequent decrease through the 7-day follow-up and with concomitant changes in the levels of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response and stem cell recruitment. Moreover, peak expression of cardiac muscle and endothelial markers occurred at the same time as the most significant increase in CD34/CXCR4+ stem cell number. The SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis seems particularly important in stem/muscle progenitor cell homing, chemotaxis, engraftment and retention in ischaemic myocardium. The significance of autologous stem cells mobilization in terms of cardiac salvage and regeneration needs to be proved in humans but it seems to be a reparative mechanism triggered early in the course of acute coronary syndromes.

  13. [Collection of hematopoietic progenitor cells from healthy donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Ines; Cepulić, Branka Golubić; Mazić, Sanja

    2009-06-01

    for apheresis may be accomplished by use of apheresis needle in antecubital vein. Placement of a double-lumen central apheresis catheter is rarely required in healthy donors. Citrate is the most commonly used anticoagulant for apheresis. One to three leukapheresis procedures are required to collect adequate graft. There is an interindividual variation in progenitor cell mobilization among healthy donors, with a subset of donors that do not exhibit effective CD34+ cell mobilization. Donor age and G-CSF schedule are the factors that significantly affect PBPC mobilization and collection in healthy donors. Procedures for mobilization and collection of PBPC from healthy donors are generally well tolerated. Common adverse reactions of G-CSF application include bone pain, myalgia, headache and fatigue. Beside these mild side effects, moderate to life-threatening complications are sporadically observed. Spontaneous splenic rupture, acute lung injury, acute iritis, severe pyogenic infections, and anaphylactoid reactions were reported in healthy donors after G-CSF administration. Adverse effects of apheresis for PBPC collection are the same as for other apheresis procedure and include complications related to venous access and citrate toxicity. Leukapheresis typically results in a lower platelet count, an effect that is exacerbated by the use of G-CSF, which has been documented to cause mild, reversible thrombocytopenia. Fewer side effects were noted in pediatric donors compared to adult donors. PBPC collection in pediatric donors is safe and desired PBPC yields are easily achieved. Theoretical concerns exist about the potentially increasing long-term risk of leukemia after G-CSF administration in healthy donors. Recently, a report of AML developing in a 62-year-old female donor 14 months after G-CSF-primed PBPC donation has been published. Whether G-CSF therapy contributed to the development of this cancer is unknown, but future studies should carefully follow the donors and

  14. Architectural and functional heterogeneity of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Virginie; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Delette, Caroline; Rousseau, Alice; Guermouche, Hélène; Lefevre, Carine; Bondu, Sabrina; Diop, M'boyba; Cheok, Meyling; Chapuis, Nicolas; Legros, Laurence; Raynaud, Sophie; Willems, Lise; Bouscary, Didier; Lauret, Evelyne; Bernard, Olivier A; Kosmider, Olivier; Pflumio, Françoise; Fontenay, Michaela

    2017-01-26

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders in which recurrent mutations define clonal hematopoiesis. The origin of the phenotypic diversity of non-del(5q) MDS remains unclear. Here, we investigated the clonal architecture of the CD34+CD38- hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment and interrogated dominant clones for MDS-initiating cells. We found that clones mainly accumulate mutations in a linear succession with retention of a dominant subclone. The clone detected in the long-term culture-initiating cell compartment that reconstitutes short-term human hematopoiesis in xenotransplantation models is usually the dominant clone, which gives rise to the myeloid and to a lesser extent to the lymphoid lineage. The pattern of mutations may differ between common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), granulomonocytic progenitors (GMPs), and megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors (MEPs). Rare STAG2 mutations can amplify at the level of GMPs, from which it may drive the transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We report that major truncating BCOR gene mutation affecting HSPC and CMP was beneath the threshold of detection in GMP or MEP. Consistently, BCOR knock-down (KD) in normal CD34+ progenitors modifies their granulocytic and erythroid differentiation. Clonal architecture of the HSPC compartment and mutations selected during differentiation contribute to the phenotypic heterogeneity of MDS. Defining the hierarchy of driver mutations provides insights into the process of transformation and may guide the search for novel therapeutic strategies. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Transplantation of mouse fetal liver cells for analyzing the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn Orri; Stull, Steven W; Keller, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate through progenitor cell stages into all types of mature blood cells. Gene-targeting studies in mice have demonstrated that many genes are essential for the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. For definitively analyzing the function of these cells, transplantation studies have to be performed. In this chapter, we describe methods to isolate and transplant fetal liver cells as well as how to analyze donor cell reconstitution. This protocol is tailored toward mouse models where embryonic lethality precludes analysis of adult hematopoiesis or where it is suspected that the function of fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is compromised.

  16. Microtubules CLASP to Adherens Junctions in epidermal progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahbazi, Marta N; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    and cellular compartments are still not completely understood. Here, we comment on our recent findings showing that the MT plus-end binding protein CLASP2 interacts with the AJ component p120-catenin (p120) specifically in progenitor epidermal cells. Absence of either protein leads to alterations in MT...... of epithelial tissues. We hypothesize the existence of adaptation mechanisms that regulate the formation and stability of AJs in different cellular contexts to allow the dynamic behavior of these complexes during tissue homeostasis and remodeling....

  17. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  18. Development and application of human adult stem or progenitor cell organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Schutgens, Frans; Verhaar, Marianne C; Clevers, Hans

    Adult stem or progenitor cell organoids are 3D adult-organ-derived epithelial structures that contain self-renewing and organ-specific stem or progenitor cells as well as differentiated cells. This organoid culture system was first established in murine intestine and subsequently developed for

  19. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  20. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

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    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  1. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  2. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  3. Small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors increase neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Mix, Eilhard; Frahm, Jana; Glass, Anne; Müller, Jana; Schmitt, Oliver; Schmöle, Anne-Caroline; Klemm, Kristin; Ortinau, Stefanie; Hübner, Rayk; Frech, Moritz J; Wree, Andreas; Rolfs, Arndt

    2011-01-13

    Human neural progenitor cells provide a source for cell replacement therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, there is great interest in mechanisms and tools to direct the fate of multipotent progenitor cells during their differentiation to increase the yield of a desired cell type. We tested small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) for their functionality and their influence on neurogenesis using the human neural progenitor cell line ReNcell VM. Here we report the enhancement of neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells by treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors. We tested different small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 i.e. LiCl, sodium-valproate, kenpaullone, indirubin-3-monoxime and SB-216763 for their ability to inhibit GSK-3 in human neural progenitor cells. The highest in situ GSK-3 inhibitory effect of the drugs was found for kenpaullone and SB-216763. Accordingly, kenpaullone and SB-216763 were the only drugs tested in this study to stimulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is antagonized by GSK-3. Analysis of human neural progenitor differentiation revealed an augmentation of neurogenesis by SB-216763 and kenpaullone, without changing cell cycle exit or cell survival. Small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 enhance neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells and may be used to direct the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells in therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda LoGuidice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in

  5. Electrically Induced Calcium Handling in Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs. It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking. We have identified a novel property of CPCs to respond to electrical stimulation by initiating intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We used confocal microscopy and intracellular calcium imaging to determine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ca2+ signal and the key proteins involved in this process using pharmacological inhibition and confocal Ca2+ imaging. Our results provide valuable insights into mechanisms to enhance the therapeutic potential in stem cells and further our understanding of human CPC physiology.

  6. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...... inflammatory cells in the choroid near the transplantation site. Large choroidal infiltrates were evident at 2-5 weeks. Serum from naive and RPC-xenografted pigs contained significant levels of preformed IgG and IgM antibodies against murine antigens. Xenogeneic RPCs transplanted to the porcine SRS induced...... mononuclear infiltration in the choroid with graft rejection occurring over 2-5 weeks. Serum analysis confirmed that mice and pigs are discordant species; however, a cell-mediated acute mechanism appears to be responsible, rather than an antibody-mediated rejection....

  7. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  8. Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Kirby, Tyler J; Kosmac, Kate; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-05

    Satellite cells, the predominant stem cell population in adult skeletal muscle, are activated in response to hypertrophic stimuli and give rise to myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds myofibers. This ECM is composed largely of collagens secreted by interstitial fibrogenic cells, which influence satellite cell activity and muscle repair during hypertrophy and aging. Here we show that MPCs interact with interstitial fibrogenic cells to ensure proper ECM deposition and optimal muscle remodeling in response to hypertrophic stimuli. MPC-dependent ECM remodeling during the first week of a growth stimulus is sufficient to ensure long-term myofiber hypertrophy. MPCs secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which represses Rrbp1, a master regulator of collagen biosynthesis, in fibrogenic cells to prevent excessive ECM deposition. These findings provide insights into how skeletal stem and progenitor cells interact with other cell types to actively regulate their extracellular environments for tissue maintenance and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of Induced Progenitor-like Cells from Mature Epithelial Cells Using Interrupted Reprogramming

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    Li Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A suitable source of progenitor cells is required to attenuate disease or affect cure. We present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to generate “induced progenitor-like (iPL cells” using carefully timed expression of induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc; OSKM from non-proliferative Club cells. Interrupted reprogramming allowed controlled expansion yet preservation of lineage commitment. Under clonogenic conditions, iPL cells expanded and functioned as a bronchiolar progenitor-like population to generate mature Club cells, mucin-producing goblet cells, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-expressing ciliated epithelium. In vivo, iPL cells can repopulate CFTR-deficient epithelium. This interrupted reprogramming process could be metronomically applied to achieve controlled progenitor-like proliferation. By carefully controlling the duration of expression of OSKM, iPL cells do not become pluripotent, and they maintain their memory of origin and retain their ability to efficiently return to their original phenotype. A generic technique to produce highly specified populations may have significant implications for regenerative medicine. : In this article Waddell, Nagy, and colleagues present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to produce highly specified functional “induced progenitor-like cells” from mature quiescent cells. They propose that careful control of the duration of transient expression of iPSC reprogramming factors (OSKM allows controlled expansion yet preservation of parental lineage without traversing the pluripotent state. Keywords: generation of induced progenitor-like cells

  10. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  11. Development of Advanced Dressings for the Delivery of Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Giles T S; Mills, Stuart J; Vandenpoel, Liesbeth; Pinxteren, Jef; Ting, Anthony; Short, Robert D; Cowin, Allison J; Michelmore, Andrew; Smith, Louise E

    2017-02-01

    Culture surfaces that substantially reduce the degree of cell manipulation in the delivery of cell sheets to patients are described. These surfaces support the attachment, culture, and delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC). It was essential that the processes of attachment/detachment to the surface did not affect cell phenotype nor the function of the cultured cells. Both acid-based and amine-based surface coatings were generated from acrylic acid, propanoic acid, diaminopropane, and heptylamine precursors, respectively. While both functional groups supported cell attachment/detachment, amine coated surfaces gave optimal performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that at a primary amine to carbon surface ratio of between 0.01 and 0.02, greater than 90% of attached cells were effectively transferred to a model wound bed. A dependence on primary amine concentration has not previously been reported. After 48 h of culture on the optimized amine surface, PCR, functional, and viability assays showed that MAPC retained their stem cell phenotype, full metabolic activity, and biological function. Consequently, in a proof of concept experiment, it was shown that this amine surface when coated onto a surgical dressing provides an effective and simple technology for the delivery of MAPC to murine dorsal excisional wounds, with MAPC delivery verified histologically. By optimizing for cell delivery using a combination of in vitro and in vivo techniques, we developed an effective surface for the delivery of MAPC in a clinically relevant format.

  12. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  13. Yap controls stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse postnatal epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverdam, Annemiek; Claxton, Christina; Zhang, Xiaomeng; James, Gregory; Harvey, Kieran F; Key, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Tissue renewal is an ongoing process in the epithelium of the skin. We have begun to examine the genetic mechanisms that control stem/progenitor cell activation in the postnatal epidermis. The conserved Hippo pathway regulates stem cell turnover in arthropods through to vertebrates. Here we show that its downstream effector, yes-associated protein (YAP), is active in the stem/progenitor cells of the postnatal epidermis. Overexpression of a C-terminally truncated YAP mutant in the basal epidermis of transgenic mice caused marked expansion of epidermal stem/progenitor cell populations. Our data suggest that the C-terminus of YAP controls the balance between stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the postnatal interfollicular epidermis. We conclude that YAP functions as a molecular switch of stem/progenitor cell activation in the epidermis. Moreover, our results highlight YAP as a possible therapeutic target for diseases such as skin cancer, psoriasis, and epidermolysis bullosa.

  14. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  16. Modified mRNA directs the fate of heart progenitor cells and induces vascular regeneration after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Lior; Lui, Kathy O.; von Gise, Alexander; Ma, Qing; Ebina, Wataru; Ptaszek, Leon M.; Später, Daniela; Xu, Huansheng; Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Gorbatov, Rostic; Sena, Brena; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Briscoe, David M.; Li, Ronald A.; Wagers, Amy J.; Rossi, Derrick J.; Pu, William T.; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    In a cell-free approach to regenerative therapeutics, transient application of paracrine factors in vivo could be used to alter the behavior and fate of progenitor cells to achieve sustained clinical benefits. Here we show that intramyocardial injection of synthetic modified RNA (modRNA) encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) resulted in the expansion and directed differentiation of endogenous heart progenitors in a murine myocardial infarction model. VEGF-A modRNA markedly improved heart function and enhanced long-term survival of recipients. This improvement was in part due to mobilization of epicardial progenitor cells and redirection of their differentiation toward cardiovascular cell types. Direct in vivo comparison with DNA vectors, and temporal control with VEGF inhibitors, documented the markedly increased efficacy of pulse-like delivery of VEGF-A. Our results suggest that modRNA is a versatile approach for expressing paracrine factors as cell fate switches to control progenitor cell fate and thereby enhance long term organ repair. PMID:24013197

  17. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, C.J.; Casas-Selves, M.; Kim, J.; Zaberezhnyy, V.; Aghili, L.; Daniel, A.E.; Jimenez, L.; Azam, T.; McNamee, E.N.; Clambey, E.T.; Klawitter, J.; Serkova, N.J.; Tan, A.C.; Dinarello, C.A.; DeGregori, J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed

  18. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  19. Interleukin-1 regulates Hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia); M. Peeters (Marian); E. Haak (Esther); K. van der Horn (Karin); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are

  20. Effects of hematopoietic growth factors on purified bone marrow progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bot (Freek)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells and in-vitro culture to examine the following questions: 1. The effects of recombinant lL-3 and GM-CSF on proliferation and differentiation of enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells have not been clearly defined: - how do IL~3

  1. Osteopontin neutralisation abrogates the liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J D; Swiderska-Syn, M; Dollé, L; Reid, D; Eksteen, B; Claridge, L; Briones-Orta, M A; Shetty, S; Oo, Y H; Riva, A; Chokshi, S; Papa, S; Mi, Z; Kuo, P C; Williams, R; Canbay, A; Adams, D H; Diehl, A M; van Grunsven, L A; Choi, S S; Syn, W K

    2015-07-01

    Chronic liver injury triggers a progenitor cell repair response, and liver fibrosis occurs when repair becomes deregulated. Previously, we reported that reactivation of the hedgehog pathway promotes fibrogenic liver repair. Osteopontin (OPN) is a hedgehog-target, and a cytokine that is highly upregulated in fibrotic tissues, and regulates stem-cell fate. Thus, we hypothesised that OPN may modulate liver progenitor cell response, and thereby, modulate fibrotic outcomes. We further evaluated the impact of OPN-neutralisation on murine liver fibrosis. Liver progenitors (603B and bipotential mouse oval liver) were treated with OPN-neutralising aptamers in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, to determine if (and how) OPN modulates liver progenitor function. Effects of OPN-neutralisation (using OPN-aptamers or OPN-neutralising antibodies) on liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis were assessed in three models of liver fibrosis (carbon tetrachloride, methionine-choline deficient diet, 3,5,-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet) by quantitative real time (qRT) PCR, Sirius-Red staining, hydroxyproline assay, and semiquantitative double-immunohistochemistry. Finally, OPN expression and liver progenitor response were corroborated in liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic liver disease. OPN is overexpressed by liver progenitors in humans and mice. In cultured progenitors, OPN enhances viability and wound healing by modulating TGF-β signalling. In vivo, OPN-neutralisation attenuates the liver progenitor cell response, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in Sox9+ cells, and abrogates liver fibrogenesis. OPN upregulation during liver injury is a conserved repair response, and influences liver progenitor cell function. OPN-neutralisation abrogates the liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis in mouse models of liver fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  2. Osteopontin Neutralization Abrogates the Liver Progenitor Cell Response and Fibrogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J; Swiderska-Syn, M; Dollé, L; Reid, D; Eksteen, B; Claridge, L; Briones-Orta, MA; Shetty, S; Oo, YH; Riva, A; Chokshi, S; Papa, S; Mi, Z; Kuo, PC; Williams, R; Canbay, A; Adams, DH; Diehl, AM; van Grunsven, LA; Choi, SS; Syn, WK

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic liver injury triggers a progenitor-cell repair-response, and liver fibrosis occurs when repair becomes de-regulated. Previously, we reported that reactivation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes fibrogenic liver-repair. Osteopontin (OPN) is a Hh-target, and a cytokine that is highly upregulated in fibrotic tissues, and regulates stem-cell fate. Thus, we hypothesized that OPN may modulate liver progenitor-cell response, and thereby, modulate fibrotic outcomes. We further evaluated the impact of OPN-neutralization on murine liver fibrosis. Methods Liver progenitors (603B and BMOL) were treated with OPN-neutralizing aptamers in the presence or absence of TGF–β, to determine if (and how) OPN modulates liver progenitor function. Effects of OPN-neutralization (using OPN-aptamers or OPN-neutralizing antibodies) on liver progenitor-cell response and fibrogenesis were assessed in three models of liver fibrosis (carbon tetrachloride, methionine-choline deficient diet, 3, 5,-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet) by qRTPCR, Sirius-Red staining, hydroxyproline assay, and semi-quantitative double-immunohistochemistry. Finally, OPN expression and liver progenitor response were corroborated in liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic liver disease. Results OPN is over-expressed by liver progenitors in humans and mice. In cultured progenitors, OPN enhances viability and wound-healing by modulating TGF-β signaling. In vivo, OPN-neutralization attenuates the liver progenitor-cell response, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in Sox9+ cells, and abrogates liver fibrogenesis. Conclusions OPN upregulation during liver injury is a conserved repair-response, and influences liver progenitor-cell function. OPN-neutralization abrogates the liver progenitor-cell response and fibrogenesis in mouse models of liver fibrosis. PMID:24902765

  3. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  4. Quercetin inhibits adipogenesis of muscle progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Funakoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors capable of contributing to myogenesis to maintain adult muscle mass and function. Several experiments have demonstrated that muscle satellite cells can differentiate into adipocytes in vitro, supporting the mesenchymal differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, muscle satellite cells may be a source of ectopic muscle adipocytes, explaining the lipid accumulation often observed in aged skeletal muscle (sarcopenia and in muscles of patients` with diabetes. Quercetin, a polyphenol, is one of the most abundant flavonoids distributed in edible plants, such as onions and apples, and possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro with primary cells from rat limbs by culture in the presence of quercetin under adipogenic conditions. Morphological observations, Oil Red-O staining results, triglyceride content analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that quercetin was capable of inhibiting the adipogenic induction of muscle satellite cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner by suppressing the transcript levels of adipogenic markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and fatty acid binding protein 4. Our results suggested that quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro by suppressing the transcription of adipogenic markers.

  5. Viral-mediated gene transfer to mouse primary neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie M; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Sauter, Sybille L; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells may provide for cell replacement or gene delivery vehicles in neurodegen-erative disease therapies. The expression of therapeutic proteins by neural progenitors would be enhanced by viral-mediated gene transfer, but the effects of several common recombinant viruses on primary progenitor cell populations have not been tested. To address this issue, we cultured cells from embryonic day 16-18 mouse brain in serum-free medium containing epidermal growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor, and investigated how transduction with recombinant viral vectors affected maintenance and differentiation properties of progenitor cells. Neurosphere cultures were incubated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), adeno-associated virus (AAV) or ade-noviral (Ad) constructs expressing either beta-galactosidase or enhanced green fluorescent protein at low multiplicity of infection. Nestin-positive neurospheres were regenerated after incubation of single progenitor cells with FIV, indicating that FIV-mediated gene transfer did not inhibit progenitor cell self-renewal. In contrast, adenovirus induced differentiation into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. The AAV serotypes tested did not effectively transduce progenitor cells. FIV-transduced progenitors retained the potential for differentiation into neurons and glia in vitro, and when transplanted into the striatum of normal adult C57BL/6 mice differentiated into glia, or remained undifferentiated. In the presence of tumor cells, FIV-transduced progenitors migrated significantly from the injection site. Our results suggest that FIV-based vectors can transduce progenitor cell populations in vitro, with maintenance of their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types or to respond to injury within the central nervous system. These results hold promise for the use of genetically manipulated stem cells for CNS therapies.

  6. Leukemic cells create bone marrow niches that disrupt the behavior of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmone, Angela; Amorim, Maria; Pontier, Andrea L; Wang, Sheng; Jablonski, Elizabeth; Sipkins, Dorothy A

    2008-12-19

    The host tissue microenvironment influences malignant cell proliferation and metastasis, but little is known about how tumor-induced changes in the microenvironment affect benign cellular ecosystems. Applying dynamic in vivo imaging to a mouse model, we show that leukemic cell growth disrupts normal hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) bone marrow niches and creates abnormal microenvironments that sequester transplanted human CD34+ (HPC-enriched) cells. CD34+ cells in leukemic mice declined in number over time and failed to mobilize into the peripheral circulation in response to cytokine stimulation. Neutralization of stem cell factor (SCF) secreted by leukemic cells inhibited CD34+ cell migration into malignant niches, normalized CD34+ cell numbers, and restored CD34+ cell mobilization in leukemic mice. These data suggest that the tumor microenvironment causes HPC dysfunction by usurping normal HPC niches and that therapeutic inhibition of HPC interaction with tumor niches may help maintain normal progenitor cell function in the setting of malignancy.

  7. Collection of peripheral hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihenescikova, V Rimajova; Mistrik, M; Martinka, J; Zwiewka, M; Bizikova, I; Batorova, A

    2015-01-01

    Several variables possibly affecting collection of peripheral hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (PBSC) were evaluated: type of apheresis machine (Amicus version 2.5, Baxter vs Cobe Spectra version 7.0, Terumo BCT), venous access (peripheral vein vs central venous catheter, i.g. CVC), and apheresis regimen (standard vs large volume leukapheresis, i.g. SVL vs LVL) with the objective to increase collection efficacy at the site. Peripheral blood represents the currently preferred source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) for transplantation. Data regarding 169 collection procedures performed in healthy donors and patients between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Clinics of Haematology and Transfusiology in St Cyril and Method Hospital in Bratislava (Slovakia) were analysed. With Cobe Spectra apheresis machine it was possible to process larger blood volumes per procedure with higher CD34+ cell collection efficiency (p = 0.0229) and lower RBC contamination of the harvest than with Amicus (p = 0.0116). On the other hand, Amicus helped to limit PLT contamination of the harvest (p < 0.0001), thus minimizing post-procedural decrease in patient´s PLT count. The highest detected advantage of CVC usage was higher flow rate of procedure, thus processing larger blood volumes per unit of time. Interesting finding was the tendency to lower harvest PLT contamination (p = 0.054). When LVL was performed, significantly higher HSCs yields were collected, even in "poor mobilizers" when the pre-run parameters were low. Management of PBSC collection requires a particular approach in each subject. Institutionally and individually optimized collection may help to improve the transplantation outcome and decrease the financial costs (Tab. 8, Ref. 15).

  8. Isolation and expansion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells by growth factor defined serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takayuki; Takayama, Kazuo; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Liu, Yu-Jung; Yanagihara, Kana; Suga, Mika; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Furue, Miho K

    2017-03-15

    Limited growth potential, narrow ranges of sources, and difference in variability and functions from batch to batch of primary hepatocytes cause a problem for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity during drug development. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells in vitro are expected as a tool for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Several studies have already reported efficient methods for differentiating hPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells, however its differentiation process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, cost-intensive, and unstable. In order to solve this problem, expansion culture for hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, including hepatic stem cells and hepatoblasts which can self-renewal and differentiate into hepatocytes should be valuable as a source of hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms of the expansion of hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells are not yet fully understood. In this study, to isolate hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, we tried to develop serum-free growth factor defined culture conditions using defined components. Our culture conditions were able to isolate and grow hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells through hepatoblast-like cells. We have confirmed that the hepatocyte-like cells prepared by our methods were able to increase gene expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes upon encountering rifampicin, phenobarbital, or omeprazole. The isolation and expansion of hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in defined culture conditions should have advantages in terms of detecting accurate effects of exogenous factors on hepatic lineage differentiation, understanding mechanisms underlying self-renewal ability of hepatic progenitor cells, and stably supplying functional hepatic cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial progenitor cells in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Ramunni, Alfonso; De Luca, Concetta; Brescia, Paola; Dambra, Porzia; De Tullio, Giacomina; Vacca, Angelo; Quaranta, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a unique subtype of circulating cells with properties similar to those of embryonal angioblasts. They have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs are reduced in patients with vascular risk factors due to a decreased mobilization, an increased consumption at the site of damage or a reduced half-life. The results of this study confirm the existence of an endothelial dysfunction in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and support the vascular involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of EPCs in patients affected by SSHL. Twenty-one patients affected by SSHL were evaluated. The number of EPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells. Circulating levels of EPCs were significantly lower in SSHL patients compared with controls. In particular, CD34+KDR+ cells and CD34+CD133+KDR+ cells were significantly reduced (p < 0.05).

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  11. Transient activation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by IFNγ during acute bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Katherine C; Jones, Maura; Martin, Olga; Winslow, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    How hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respond to inflammatory signals during infections is not well understood. Our studies have used a murine model of ehrlichiosis, an emerging tick-born disease, to address how infection impacts hematopoietic function. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia muris, results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, similar to what is observed in human ehrlichiosis patients. In the mouse, infection promotes myelopoiesis, a process that is critically dependent on interferon gamma (IFNγ) signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that E. muris infection also drives the transient proliferation and expansion of bone marrow Lin-negative Sca-1(+) cKit(+) (LSK) cells, a population of progenitor cells that contains HSCs. Expansion of the LSK population in the bone marrow was associated with a loss of dormant, long-term repopulating HSCs, reduced engraftment, and a bias towards myeloid lineage differentiation within that population. The reduced engraftment and myeloid bias of the infection-induced LSK cells was transient, and was most pronounced on day 8 post-infection. The infection-induced changes were accompanied by an expansion of more differentiated multipotent progenitor cells, and required IFNγ signaling. Thus, in response to inflammatory signals elicited during acute infection, HSCs can undergo a rapid, IFNγ-dependent, transient shift from dormancy to activity, ostensibly, to provide the host with additional or better-armed innate cells for host defense. Similar changes in hematopoietic function likely underlie many different infections of public health importance.

  12. Transient activation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by IFNγ during acute bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C MacNamara

    Full Text Available How hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs respond to inflammatory signals during infections is not well understood. Our studies have used a murine model of ehrlichiosis, an emerging tick-born disease, to address how infection impacts hematopoietic function. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia muris, results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, similar to what is observed in human ehrlichiosis patients. In the mouse, infection promotes myelopoiesis, a process that is critically dependent on interferon gamma (IFNγ signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that E. muris infection also drives the transient proliferation and expansion of bone marrow Lin-negative Sca-1(+ cKit(+ (LSK cells, a population of progenitor cells that contains HSCs. Expansion of the LSK population in the bone marrow was associated with a loss of dormant, long-term repopulating HSCs, reduced engraftment, and a bias towards myeloid lineage differentiation within that population. The reduced engraftment and myeloid bias of the infection-induced LSK cells was transient, and was most pronounced on day 8 post-infection. The infection-induced changes were accompanied by an expansion of more differentiated multipotent progenitor cells, and required IFNγ signaling. Thus, in response to inflammatory signals elicited during acute infection, HSCs can undergo a rapid, IFNγ-dependent, transient shift from dormancy to activity, ostensibly, to provide the host with additional or better-armed innate cells for host defense. Similar changes in hematopoietic function likely underlie many different infections of public health importance.

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  9. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. Circulating Progenitor Cell Response to Exercise in Wheelchair Racing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiro, Grace M; Edwards, Thomas; Barfield, J P; Beals, Joseph W; Broad, Elizabeth M; Motl, Robert W; Burd, Nicholas A; Pilutti, Lara A; De Lisio, Michael

    2017-08-11

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood that participate in tissue repair. CPC mobilization has been well characterized in able-bodied persons, but has not been previously investigated in wheelchair racing athletes. The purpose of this study was to characterize CPC and CPC sub-population mobilization in elite wheelchair racing athletes in response to acute, upper-extremity aerobic exercise to determine if CPC responses are similar to ambulatory populations. Eight participants (3 female; age=27.5±4.0 years; supine height=162.5±18.6cm; weight=53.5±10.9kg, VO2peak=2.4±0.62 L/min; years post injury=21.5±6.2 years) completed a 25 km time trial on a road course. Blood sampling occurred before (Pre) and immediately post (Post) exercise for quantification of CPCs (CD34), HSPCs (CD34/CD45), HSCs (CD34/CD45/CD38), CD34 adipose tissue-derived (AT)-MSCs (CD45/CD34/CD105/CD31), CD34 bone marrow-derived (BM)-MSCs (CD45/CD34/CD105/CD31), and EPCs (CD45/CD34/VEGFR2) via flow cytometry. Blood lactate was measured Pre- and Post-trial as an indicator of exercise intensity. CPC concentration increased 5.7 fold post-exercise (P=0.10). HSPCs, HSCs, EPCs, and both MSC populations were not increased post exercise. Baseline HSPCs were significantly positively correlated to absolute VO2peak (Rho = 0.71, Pracing athletes is related to cardiorespiratory fitness and responses to exercise are positively related to exercise intensity.

  11. Cardiac progenitor-cell derived exosomes as cell-free therapeutic for cardiac repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, E. A.; Goumans, Marie-Jose; Sluijter, J. P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as potential therapy to improve cardiac repair and prevent damage in cardiac diseases. CPCs are a promising cell source for cardiac therapy as they can generate all cardiovascular lineages in vitro and in vivo. Originating from the heart itself, CPCs may

  12. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  13. Ex vivo virotherapy with myxoma virus does not impair hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Nancy Y; Bais, Swarna; Chan, Winnie M; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Rahman, Masmudur M; Moreb, Jan S; Rosenau, Emma H; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    Relapsing disease is a major challenge after hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. Myxoma virus (MYXV) is an oncolytic virus that can target and eliminate contaminating cancer cells from auto-transplant grafts. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of MYXV on normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and define the optimal treatment conditions for ex vivo virotherapy. Bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (mPBSCs) from patients with hematologic malignancies were treated with MYXV at various time, temperature and incubation media conditions. Treated BM cells from healthy normal donors were evaluated using flow cytometry for MYXV infection, long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay and colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. MYXV initiated infection in up to 45% of antigen-presenting monocytes, B cells and natural killer cells; however, these infections were uniformly aborted in >95% of all cells. Fresh graft sources showed higher levels of MYXV infection initiation than cryopreserved specimens, but in all cases less than 10% of CD34(+) cells could be infected after ex vivo MYXV treatment. MYXV did not impair LTC-IC colony numbers compared with mock treatment. CFC colony types and numbers were also not impaired by MYXV treatment. MYXV incubation time, temperature or culture media did not significantly change the percentage of infected cells, LTC-IC colony formation or CFC colony formation. Human hematopoietic cells are non-permissive for MYXV. Human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were not infected and thus unaffected by MYXV ex vivo treatment. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low immunogenicity of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Go; Ozaki, Masahiro; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kawabata, Soya; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Rei; Ookubo, Toshiki; Yastake, Kaori; Matsubayashi, Kohei; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-10-11

    Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord. In contrast, an allogeneic transplantation into subcutaneous tissue was rejected in all mice, and allogeneic cells transplanted into intact and injured spinal cords survived for 3 months in approximately 20% of mice. In addition, cell survival was increased after co-treatment with an immunosuppressive agent. Thus, the immunogenicity and post-transplantation immunological dynamics of iPSC-NSPCs resemble those of fetus-NSPCs.

  15. Concise review: chemical approaches for modulating lineage-specific stem cells and progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Mingliang; Laurent, Timothy; Xie, Min; Ding, Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Generation and manipulation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and/or in vivo are critical for the development of stem cell-based clinical therapeutics. Lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells have many advantageous qualities, including being able to efficiently engraft and differentiate into desirable cell types in vivo after transplantation, and they are much less tumorigenic than pluripotent cells. Generation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells can be achieved by directed differentiation from pluripotent stem cells or lineage conversion from easily obtained somatic cells. Small molecules can be very helpful in these processes since they offer several important benefits. For example, the risk of tumorigenesis is greatly reduced when small molecules are used to replace integrated transcription factors, which are widely used in cell fate conversion. Furthermore, small molecules are relatively easy to apply, optimize, and manufacture, and they can more readily be developed into conventional pharmaceuticals. Alternatively, small molecules can be used to expand or selectively control the differentiation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells for desirable therapeutics purposes in vitro or in vivo. Here we summarize recent progress in the use of small molecules for the expansion and generation of desirable lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and for selectively controlling cell fate of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vivo, thereby facilitating stem cell-based clinical applications.

  16. Repopulation of the fibrotic/cirrhotic rat liver by transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells and mature hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovchev, Mladen I.; Xue, Yuhua; Shafritz, David A.; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Considerable progress has been made in developing anti-fibrotic agents and other strategies to treat liver fibrosis; however, significant long-term restoration of functional liver mass has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we investigated whether transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells can effectively repopulate the liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Methods Stem/progenitor cells derived from fetal livers or mature hepatocytes from DPPIV+ F344 rats were transplanted into DPPIV− rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis; rats were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 months later. Liver tissues were analyzed by histochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Results After chronic TAA administration, DPPIV− F344 rats exhibited progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and severe hepatocyte damage. Besides stellate cell activation, increased numbers of stem/progenitor cells (Dlk-1+, AFP+, CD133+, Sox-9+, FoxJ1+) were observed. In conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH), transplanted stem/progenitor cells engrafted, proliferated competitively compared to host hepatocytes, differentiated into hepatocytic and biliary epithelial cells, and generated new liver mass with extensive long-term liver repopulation (40.8 ± 10.3%). Remarkably, more than 20% liver repopulation was achieved in the absence of PH, associated with reduced fibrogenic activity (e.g., expression of α-SMA, PDGFRβ, desmin, vimentin, TIMP1) and fibrosis (reduced collagen). Furthermore, hepatocytes can also replace liver mass with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, but to a lesser extent than FLSPCs. Conclusions This study is a Proof of Principle demonstration that transplanted epithelial stem/progenitor cells can restore injured parenchyma in a liver environment with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. PMID:23840008

  17. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Micha; Tang, Chad; Ardehali, Reza; Rinkevich, Yuval; Seita, Jun; Lee, Andrew S; Mosley, Adriane R; Weissman, Irving L; Soen, Yoav

    2012-05-27

    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

  19. Isolation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors by Cell Sorting for Successful Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN+ cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN+ cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN+ cells in a NURR1+ cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application.

  20. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing

    2008-01-01

    . Rat ED14 FLSPC are alpha-fetoprotein(+)/cytokeratin-19(+) or alpha-fetoprotein(+)/cytokeratin-19(-) and contain all of the normal liver repopulation capacity found in fetal liver. Hematopoietic stem cells, a major component in crude fetal liver cell preparations that engraft in other organs......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previously, we showed high-level, long-term liver replacement after transplantation of unfractionated embryonic day (ED) 14 fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPC). However, for clinical applications, it will be essential to transplant highly enriched cells, while maintaining...... and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  1. Quality assurance and good manufacturing practices for processing hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J

    1995-12-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell processing is now only a part of somatic cell and gene therapy. As these new therapies become used increasingly, it is essential that the new products used to treat patients be as safe and effective as possible. Although progenitor cell processing is still an evolving activity, it is appropriate to introduce standardization and product and process control into the routine laboratory activities. Initial suggestions for quality assurance and good manufacturing practices to accomplish this are presented here. These will need to be modified as experience is gained with progenitor, somatic cell, and gene therapy.

  2. Interleukin 17 inhibits progenitor cells in rheumatoid arthritis cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schminke, Boris; Trautmann, Sandra; Mai, Burkhard; Miosge, Nicolai; Blaschke, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are known to exert immunomodulatory effects in inflammatory diseases. Immuneregulatory cells lead to progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukins (ILs) are the main players. Here, we studied progenitor cells from RA cartilage (RA-CPCs) that are positive for IL-17 receptors to determinate the effects of inflammation on their chondrogenic potenial. IL-17A/F reduced the chondrogenic potential of these cells via the upregulation of RUNX2 protein and enhanced IL-6 protein and MMP3 mRNA levels. Blocking antibodies against IL-17 positively influenced their repair potential. Furthermore, treating the RA-CPCs with the anti-human IL-17 antibody secukinumab or the anti-TNF-α antibody adalimumab reduced the proinflammatory IL-6 protein level and positively influenced the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 protein. Additionally, adalimumab and secukinumab in particular reduced RUNX2 protein to promote chondrogenesis. The amelioration of inflammation, particularly via IL-17 antagonism, might be a new therapeutic approach for enhancing intrinsic cartilage repair mechanisms in RA patients. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

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    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  4. A Transcriptomic Signature of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells

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    Adam M. Passman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver progenitor cells (LPCs can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies. A transcriptomic meta-analysis of over 400 microarrays was undertaken to compare LPC lines against datasets of muscle and embryonic stem cell lines, embryonic and developed liver (DL, and HCC. Three gene clusters distinguishing LPCs from other liver cell types were identified. Pathways overrepresented in these clusters denote the proliferative nature of LPCs and their association with HCC. Our analysis also revealed 26 novel markers, LPC markers, including Mcm2 and Ltbp3, and eight known LPC markers, including M2pk and Ncam. These markers specified the presence of LPCs in pathological liver tissue by qPCR and correlated with LPC abundance determined using immunohistochemistry. These results showcase the value of global transcript profiling to identify pathways and markers that may be used to detect LPCs in injured or diseased liver.

  5. Wnt5a regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells of the periodontium.

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    Xiang, Lusai; Chen, Mo; He, Ling; Cai, Bin; Du, Yu; Zhang, Xinchun; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Chenglin; Mao, Jeremy J; Ling, Junqi

    2014-12-15

    Dental follicle gives rise to one or several tissues of the periodontium including the periodontal ligament, cementum and/or alveolar bone. Whether Wnt5a is expressed in the postnatal periodontium or regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells is unknown. Dental follicle stem/progenitor cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (p1) to p11 from rat mandibular first molars. Immunolocalization mapped Wnt5a expression in the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and the developing ameloblast and odontoblast layers. Mononucleated and adherent cells were isolated from p7 dental follicle. Wnt5a was overexpressed in dental follicle stem/progenitor cells to study their proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and migration behavior, with subpopulations of native dental follicle stem/progenitor cells as controls, using real-time PCR (Taqman), Lenti-viral transfection, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Wnt5a was expressed consistently in p1 to p11 rat peridontium. Native, p7 dental follicle stem/progenitor cells had modest ability to mineralize in the tested 14 days. Even in chemically defined osteogenesis medium, dental follicle stem/progenitor cells only showed modest mineralization. Upon addition of 300 ng/mL Wnt5a protein in osteogenesis medium, dental follicle stem/progenitor cells displayed mineralization that was still unremarkable. Chemically induced or Wnt5a-induced mineralization of dental follicle cells only occurred sparsely. Combination of Wnt5a with 100 ng/mL BMP2 finally prompted dental follicle stem/progenitor cells to produce robust mineralization with elevated expression of Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, collagen 1α1 and osteocalcin. Thus, native dental follicle stem/progenitor cells or some of their fractions may be somewhat modest in mineralization. Strikingly, Wnt5a protein significantly augmented RANKL ligand, suggesting putative regulatory roles of dental follicle stem/progenitor cells for the monocyte/osteoclast lineage and potential

  6. Seeding neural progenitor cells on silicon-based neural probes.

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    Azemi, Erdrin; Gobbel, Glenn T; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-09-01

    Chronically implanted neural electrode arrays have the potential to be used as neural prostheses in patients with various neurological disorders. While these electrodes perform well in acute recordings, they often fail to function reliably in clinically relevant chronic settings because of glial encapsulation and the loss of neurons. Surface modification of these implants may provide a means of improving their biocompatibility and integration within host brain tissue. The authors proposed a method of improving the brain-implant interface by seeding the implant's surface with a layer of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine subependyma. Neural progenitor cells may reduce the foreign body reaction by presenting a tissue-friendly surface and repair implant-induced injury and inflammation by releasing neurotrophic factors. In this study, the authors evaluated the growth and differentiation of NPCs on laminin-immobilized probe surfaces and explored the potential impact on transplant survival of these cells. Laminin protein was successfully immobilized on the silicon surface via covalent binding using silane chemistry. The growth, adhesion, and differentiation of NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) on laminin-modified silicon surfaces were characterized in vitro by using immunocytochemical techniques. Shear forces were applied to NPC cultures in growth medium to evaluate their shearing properties. In addition, neural probes seeded with GFP-labeled NPCs cultured in growth medium for 14 days were implanted in murine cortex. The authors assessed the adhesion properties of these cells during implantation conditions. Moreover, the tissue response around NPC-seeded implants was observed after 1 and 7 days postimplantation. Significantly improved NPC attachment and growth was found on the laminin-immobilized surface compared with an unmodified control before and after shear force application. The NPCs grown on the laminin-immobilized surface

  7. Classification and Functional Characterization of Vasa Vasorum-Associated Perivascular Progenitor Cells in Human Aorta

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    Marie Billaud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the microcirculation, pericytes are believed to function as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. We hypothesized that the vasa vasorum harbor progenitor cells within the adventitia of human aorta. Pericytes, endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell subpopulations were detected among freshly isolated adventitial cells using flow cytometry. Purified cultured pericytes were enriched for the MSC markers CD105 and CD73 and depleted of the endothelial markers von Willebrand factor and CD31. Cultured pericytes were capable of smooth muscle lineage progression including inducible expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, and α-smooth muscle actin, and adopted a spindle shape. Pericytes formed spheroids when cultured on Matrigel substrates and peripherally localized with branching endothelial cells in vitro. Our results indicate that the vasa vasorum form a progenitor cell niche distinct from other previously described progenitor populations in human adventitia. These findings could have important implications for understanding the complex pathophysiology of human aortic disease.

  8. Progenitor cells in liver regeneration: molecular responses controlling their activation and expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Jelnes, Peter; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2005-01-01

    on hepatic progenitor cells have focused on their origin and phenotypic characterization, recent attention has focused on the influence of the hepatic microenvironment on their activation and proliferation. This microenvironment comprises the extracellular matrix, epithelial and non-epithelial resident liver......, including hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and stromal cells. However, if the regenerative capacity of mature cells is impaired by liver-damaging agents, hepatic progenitor cells are activated and expand into the liver parenchyma. Upon transit amplification, the progenitor cells may generate new hepatocytes...... and biliary cells to restore liver homeostasis. In recent years, hepatic progenitor cells have been the subject of increasing interest due to their therapeutic potential in numerous liver diseases as alternative or supportive/complementary tools to liver transplantation. While the first investigations...

  9. Effective Mobilization of Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells but Not Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Therapy

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    Monika Zbucka-Kretowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, murine hematopoietic progenitor stem cells (HSCs and very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs were demonstrated to express receptors for sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH. This raised the question of whether FSH therapy at clinically applied doses can mobilize stem/progenitor cells in humans. Here we assessed frequencies of VSELs (referred to as Lin−CD235a−CD45−CD133+ cells, HSPCs (referred to as Lin−CD235a−CD45+CD133+ cells, and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, identified as CD34+CD144+, CD34+CD133+, and CD34+CD309+CD133+ cells in fifteen female patients subjected to the FSH therapy. We demonstrated that FSH therapy resulted in statistically significant enhancement in peripheral blood (PB number of both VSELs and HSPCs. In contrast, the pattern of responses of EPCs delineated by different cell phenotypes was not uniform and we did not observe any significant changes in EPC numbers following hormone therapy. Our data indicate that FSH therapy mobilizes VSELs and HSPCs into peripheral blood that on one hand supports their developmental origin from germ lineage, and on the other hand FSH can become a promising candidate tool for mobilizing HSCs and stem cells with VSEL phenotype in clinical settings.

  10. Oct4+ stem/progenitor swine lung epithelial cells are targets for influenza virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Mahesh; Goyal, Sagar M; Saif, Yehia M

    2012-06-01

    We isolated stem/progenitor epithelial cells from the lungs of 4- to 6-week-old pigs. The epithelial progenitor colony cells were surrounded by mesenchymal stromal cells. The progenitor epithelial colony cells expressed stem cell markers such as octamer binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), as well as the epithelial markers pancytokeratin, cytokeratin-18, and occludin, but not mesenchymal (CD44, CD29, and CD90) and hematopoietic (CD45) markers. The colony cells had extensive self-renewal potential and had the capacity to undergo differentiation to alveolar type I- and type II-like pneumocytes. Additionally, these cells expressed sialic acid receptors and supported the active replication of influenza virus, which was accompanied by cell lysis. The lysis of progenitor epithelial cells by influenza virus may cause a marked reduction in the potential of progenitor cells for self renewal and for their ability to differentiate into specialized cells of the lung. These observations suggest the possible involvement of lung stem/progenitor cells in influenza virus infection.

  11. Influence of rat progenitor neurogenic cells supernatant on glioma 101.8 cells in vitro

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    Liubich L. D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of the rat progenitor neurogenic cells supernatant (RPNS on the transplantable rat malignant brain glioma cells (strain 101.8 under conditions of cultivation. Methods. Primary cultures were obtained from glioma 101.8 fragments (n = 12 and intact brain of newborn rats (n = 9. RPNS was received from neurogenic cell suspensions of fetal rat brain on 8–11th (E8-11 and 12–16th (E12-16 days of gestation. Results: RPNS (E8-11 as well as RPNS (E12-16 showed a cytotoxic effect on the glioma 101.8 cells in short-term cultures, the level of which was dose-dependent and intensified with increasing duration of incubation. RPNS (E12-16 had a more pronounced cytotoxic action on the cells of glioma 101.8 compared with RPNS (E8-11. The cytotoxic index (CI of RPNS (E12-16 on the glioma 101.8 cells was significantly higher than CI determined in cell suspensions of normal rat brain (CI was (91.99 ± 2.37 % and (22.9 ± 4.97 % respectively over 48 h incubation with RPNS. After RPNS (E8-11 influence on the glioma 101.8 primary cultures the signs of dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed: the thinning of growth areas, appearance of dystrophic and necrobiotic changes in tumor cells and decreasing of a mitotic index. These features were strengthened under the RPNS (E12-16 influence. Conclusions. Fetal RPNS showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on the cultivated glioma 101.8 cells, which were intensified with the increasing of rat brain gestational age and lengthening of the incubation duration. A prerequisite for such effects is likely the NPC ability to produce the substances with antitumor activity.

  12. Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Derived From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induce Histologic Changes in Injured Urethral Sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Wen, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Wei, Yi; Wani, Prachi; Green, Morgaine; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Ramamurthi, Anand; Pera, Renee Reijo; Chen, Bertha

    2016-12-01

    : Data suggest that myoblasts from various sources, including bone marrow, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, can restore muscle function in patients with urinary incontinence. Animal data have indicated that these progenitor cells exert mostly a paracrine effect on the native tissues rather than cell regeneration. Limited knowledge is available on the in vivo effect of human stem cells or muscle progenitors on injured muscles. We examined in vivo integration of smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). pSMCs were derived from a human embryonic stem cell line (H9-ESCs) and two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. pSMCs were injected periurethrally into urethral injury rat models (2 × 10(6) cells per rat) or intramuscularly into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Histologic and quantitative image analysis revealed that the urethras in pSMC-treated rats contained abundant elastic fibers and thicker muscle layers compared with the control rats. Western blot confirmed increased elastin/collagen III content in the urethra and bladder of the H9-pSMC-treated rats compared with controls. iPSC-pSMC treatment also showed similar trends in elastin and collagen III. Human elastin gene expression was not detectable in rodent tissues, suggesting that the extracellular matrix synthesis resulted from the native rodent tissues rather than from the implanted human cells. Immunofluorescence staining and in vivo bioluminescence imaging confirmed long-term engraftment of pSMCs into the host urethra and the persistence of the smooth muscle phenotype. Taken together, the data suggest that hPSC-derived pSMCs facilitate restoration of urethral sphincter function by direct smooth muscle cell regeneration and by inducing native tissue elastin/collagen III remodeling. The present study provides evidence that a pure population of human smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (human

  13. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

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    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  14. Alantolactone selectively ablates acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells

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    Yahui Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are largely attributed to leukemia stem cells (LSCs which are difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and responsible for relapse. Thus, new therapeutic strategies which could selectively target LSCs in clinical leukemia treatment and avoid drug resistance are urgently needed. However, only a few small molecules have been reported to show anti-LSCs activity. Methods The aim of the present study was to identify alantolactone as novel agent that can ablate acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells from AML patient specimens and evaluate the anticancer activity of alantolactone in vitro and in vivo. Results The present study is the first to demonstrate that alantolactone, a prominent eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, could specifically ablate LSCs from AML patient specimens. Furthermore, in comparison to the conventional chemotherapy drug, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, alantolactone showed superior effects of leukemia cytotoxicity while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Alantolactone induced apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner by suppression of NF-kB and its downstream target proteins. DMA-alantolactone, a water-soluble prodrug of alantolactone, could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Based on these results, we propose that alantolactone may represent a novel LSCs-targeted therapy and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones offer a new scaffold for drug discovery towards anti-LSCs agents.

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development

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    M.T. Abd El Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1. EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  16. Impact of Lipid Nutrition on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Nobuyuki Sakayori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural system originates from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs. Embryonic NSPCs first proliferate to increase their numbers and then produce neurons and glial cells that compose the complex neural circuits in the brain. New neurons are continually produced even after birth from adult NSPCs in the inner wall of the lateral ventricle and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These adult-born neurons are involved in various brain functions, including olfaction-related functions, learning and memory, pattern separation, and mood control. NSPCs are regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Diet is one of such important extrinsic factors. Of dietary nutrients, lipids are important because they constitute the cell membrane, are a source of energy, and function as signaling molecules. Metabolites of some lipids can be strong lipid mediators that also regulate various biological activities. Recent findings have revealed that lipids are important regulators of both embryonic and adult NSPCs. We and other groups have shown that lipid signals including fat, fatty acids, their metabolites and intracellular carriers, cholesterol, and vitamins affect proliferation and differentiation of embryonic and adult NSPCs. A better understanding of the NSPCs regulation by lipids may provide important insight into the neural development and brain function.

  17. Bmp signaling maintains a mesoderm progenitor cell state in the mouse tailbud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Shafer, Maxwell E R; Bareke, Eric; Tremblay, Mathieu; Majewski, Jacek; Bouchard, Maxime

    2017-08-15

    Caudal somites are generated from a pool of progenitor cells located in the tailbud region. These progenitor cells form the presomitic mesoderm that gradually differentiates into somites under the action of the segmentation clock. The signals responsible for tailbud mesoderm progenitor pool maintenance during axial elongation are still elusive. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is sufficient to activate the entire mesoderm progenitor gene signature in primary cultures of caudal mesoderm cells. Bmp signaling acts through the key regulatory genes brachyury (T) and Nkx1-2 and contributes to the activation of several other regulators of the mesoderm progenitor gene network. In the absence of Bmp signaling, tailbud mesoderm progenitor cells acquire aberrant gene expression signatures of the heart, blood, muscle and skeletal embryonic lineages. Treatment of embryos with the Bmp inhibitor noggin confirmed the requirement for Bmp signaling for normal T expression and the prevention of abnormal lineage marker activation. Together, these results identify Bmp signaling as a non-cell-autonomous signal necessary for mesoderm progenitor cell homeostasis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Umbilical Cord Blood Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Are Decreased in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, Diane L; Black, Claudine P; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Winn, Virginia D; Baker, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Mothers with PE are known to develop endothelial dysfunction, but its effect on infants has been understudied, as newborns are often asymptomatic. Recent studies indicate that infants born from preeclamptic pregnancies develop endothelial dysfunction including higher blood pressure during childhood and an increased risk of stroke later in life. We hypothesize that PE reduces the number and function of fetal angiogenic progenitor cells and may contribute to this increased risk. We quantified 2 distinct types of angiogenic progenitors, pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), from the umbilical cord blood of preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive controls. Pro-angiogenic and nonangiogenic CPCs were enumerated via flow cytometry and ECFCs by cell culture. Additionally, we studied the growth, migration, and tube formation of ECFCs from PE and gestational age-matched normotensive control pregnancies. We found that PE resulted in decreased cord blood pro-angiogenic CPCs and ECFCs. Nonangiogenic CPCs were also decreased. Preeclamptic ECFCs demonstrated decreased growth and migration but formed tube-like structures in vitro similar to controls. Our results suggest that the preeclamptic environment alters the number and function of angiogenic progenitor cells and may increase the risk of later vascular disease.

  19. Pharmacologically active microcarriers for endothelial progenitor cell support and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilli, Claudia; Karam, Jean-Pierre; Paccosi, Sara; Muscari, Claudio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Parenti, Astrid

    2012-08-01

    The regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapies is limited due to poor cell viability and minimal retention following application. Neovascularization can be improved by means of scaffolds supporting EPCs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human early EPCs (eEPCs) could be efficiently cultured on pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made with poly(d,l-lactic-coglycolic acid) and coated with adhesion/extracellular matrix molecules. They may serve as a support for stem cells and may be used as cell carriers providing a controlled delivery of active protein such as the angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). eEPC adhesion to fibronectin-coated PAMs (FN-PAMs) was assessed by means of microscopic evaluation and by means of Alamar blue assay. Phospho ERK(1/2) and PARP-1 expression was measured by means of Western blot to assess the survival effects of FN-PAMs releasing VEGF-A (FN-VEGF-PAMs). The Alamar blue assay or a modified Boyden chamber assay was employed to assess proliferative or migratory capacity, respectively. Our data indicate that eEPCs were able to adhere to empty FN-PAMs within a few hours. FN-VEGF-PAMs increased the ability of eEPCs to adhere to them and strongly supported endothelial-like phenotype and cell survival. Moreover, the release of VEGF-A by FN-PAMs stimulated in vitro HUVEC migration and proliferation. These data strongly support the use of PAMs for supporting eEPC growth and survival and for stimulating resident mature human endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct progenitor origin distinguishes a lineage of dendritic-like cells in spleen

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    Sawang ePetvises

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dendritic cell (DC compartment comprises subsets of cells with distinct phenotypes. Previously this lab reported methodology for hematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells in vitro dependent on a murine splenic stromal cell line (5G3. Co-cultures of lineage-depleted bone marrow (Lin- BM over 5G3 continuously produced a distinct population of dendritic-like ‘L-DC’ for up to 35 days. Here the progenitor of L-DC is investigated in relation to known BM-derived hematopoietic progenitors. It is shown here that L-DC-like cells also derive from the CD150+Flt3- longterm reconstituting-hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, and also from the Flt3+ multipotential progenitor subset in BM. Lin- BM co-cultures also produce a transient population of cells resembling conventional (c DC. Production of cDC-like cells is shown here to be transient and M-CSF dependent, and also appears following co-culture of described common dendritic progenitors or monocyte dendritic progenitors over 5G3. BM cells from C57BL/6-flt3Ltm1lmx and C57BL/6-Csf2tm1Ard mice which lack cDC precursors and monocytes, are shown here to contain L-DC progenitors which can seed 5G3 co-cultures. L-DC are functionally distinct cells, in that they arise independently of M-CSF, and by direct differentiation from HSC.

  1. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

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    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  2. Integrin-associated protein promotes neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

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    Kazuhiko Fujimura

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs proliferate and differentiate depending on their intrinsic properties and local environment. During the development of the mammalian nervous system, NSPCs generate neurons and glia sequentially. However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the timing of switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. In this study, we established a culture system in which the neurogenic potential of NSPCs is decreased in a time-dependent manner, so that short-term-cultured NSPCs differentiate into more neurons compared with long-term-cultured NSPCs. We found that short-term-cultured NSPCs express high levels of integrin-associated protein form 2 (IAP2; so-called CD47 mRNA using differential display analysis. Moreover, IAP2 overexpression in NSPCs induced neuronal differentiation of NSPCs. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which IAP2 induces neuronal differentiation of NSPCs.

  3. The interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche exhibits an unique microheterogeneous composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2013-06-28

    Repair of parenchyma by stem/progenitor cells is seen as a possible alternative to cure acute and chronic renal failure in future. To learn about this therapeutic purpose, the formation of nephrons during organ growth is under focus of present research. This process is triggered by numerous morphogenetic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Recent data demonstrate that an astonishingly wide interstitial interface separates both types of stem/progenitor cells probably controlling coordinated cell-to-cell communication. Since conventional fixation by glutaraldehyde (GA) does not declare in transmission electron microscopy the spatial separation, improved contrasting procedures were applied. As a consequence, the embryonic cortex of neonatal rabbit kidneys was fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To obtain a comparable view to the renal stem/progenitor cell niche, the specimens had to be orientated along the cortico-medullary axis of lining collecting ducts. Analysis of tissue samples fixed with GA, in combination with cupromeronic blue, demonstrates demasked extracellular matrix. Numerous braces of proteoglycans cover, as well, the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells as projections of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells crossing the interstitial interface. Fixation with GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid illustrates strands of extracellular matrix that originate from the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells and line through the interstitial interface. Thus, for the first time, improved contrasting techniques make it possible to analyze in detail a microheterogeneous composition of the interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

  4. The Interstitial Interface within the Renal Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche Exhibits an Unique Microheterogeneous Composition

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    Will W. Minuth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parenchyma by stem/progenitor cells is seen as a possible alternative to cure acute and chronic renal failure in future. To learn about this therapeutic purpose, the formation of nephrons during organ growth is under focus of present research. This process is triggered by numerous morphogenetic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Recent data demonstrate that an astonishingly wide interstitial interface separates both types of stem/progenitor cells probably controlling coordinated cell-to-cell communication. Since conventional fixation by glutaraldehyde (GA does not declare in transmission electron microscopy the spatial separation, improved contrasting procedures were applied. As a consequence, the embryonic cortex of neonatal rabbit kidneys was fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To obtain a comparable view to the renal stem/progenitor cell niche, the specimens had to be orientated along the cortico-medullary axis of lining collecting ducts. Analysis of tissue samples fixed with GA, in combination with cupromeronic blue, demonstrates demasked extracellular matrix. Numerous braces of proteoglycans cover, as well, the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells as projections of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells crossing the interstitial interface. Fixation with GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid illustrates strands of extracellular matrix that originate from the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells and line through the interstitial interface. Thus, for the first time, improved contrasting techniques make it possible to analyze in detail a microheterogeneous composition of the interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells and hypertension: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengyuan; Xia, Wenhao; Chen, Cong; Robinson, Eric A; Tao, Jun

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a group of cells that play important roles in angiogenesis and the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity, has led to considerable improvements in our understanding of the circulatory system and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular homoeostasis. Despite lingering disputes over where EPCs actually originate and how they facilitate angiogenesis, extensive research in the past decade has brought about significant advancements in this field of research, establishing EPCs as an essential element in the pathogenesis of various diseases. EPC and hypertensive disorders, especially essential hypertension (EH, also known as primary hypertension), represent one of the most appealing branches in this area of research. Chronic hypertension remains a major threat to public health, and the exact pathologic mechanisms of EH have never been fully elucidated. Is there a relationship between EPC and hypertension? If so, what is the nature of such relationship-is it mediated by blood pressure alterations, or other factors that lie in between? How can our current knowledge about EPCs be utilized to advance the prevention and clinical management of hypertension? In this review, we set out to answer these questions by summarizing the current concepts about EPC pathophysiology in the context of hypertension, while attempting to point out directions for future research on this subject. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells as a therapeutic option in intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pías-Peleteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is the most severe cerebrovascular disease, which represents a leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. However, therapeutic options are limited, so is mandatory to investigate repairing processes after stroke in order to develop new therapeutic strategies able to promote brain repair processes. Therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis hold promise to improve outcome of ICH patients. In this regard, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have recently been suggested to be a marker of vascular risk and endothelial function. Moreover, EPC levels have been associated with good neurological and functional outcome as well as reduced residual hematoma volume in ICH patients. Finally, experimental and clinical studies indicate that EPC might mediate endothelial cell regeneration and neovascularization. Therefore, EPC-based therapy could be an excellent therapeutic option in ICH. In this mini-review, we discuss the present status of knowledge about the possible therapeutic role of EPCs in ICH, molecular mechanisms, and the future perspectives and strategies for their use in clinical practice.

  7. The WTX Tumor Suppressor Regulates Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Fate Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Akhavanfard, Sara; Coffman, Erik J.; Cook, Edward B.; Stoykova, Svetlana; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Schoonmaker, Jesse A.; Burger, Alexa; Kim, Woo Jae; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland; Haber, Daniel A.; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY WTX is an X-linked tumor suppressor targeted by somatic mutations in Wilms tumor, a pediatric kidney cancer, and by germline inactivation in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis, a bone overgrowth syndrome. Here, we show that Wtx deletion in mice causes neonatal lethality, somatic overgrowth, and malformation of multiple mesenchyme-derived tissues, including bone, fat, kidney, heart, and spleen. Inactivation of Wtx at different developmental stages and in primary mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) reveals that bone mass increase and adipose tissue deficiency are due to altered lineage fate decisions coupled with delayed terminal differentiation. Specification defects in MPCs result from aberrant β-catenin activation, whereas alternative pathways contribute to the subsequently delayed differentiation of lineage-restricted cells. Thus, Wtx is a regulator of MPC commitment and differentiation with stage-specific functions in inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, the constellation of anomalies in Wtx null mice suggests that this tumor suppressor broadly regulates MPCs in multiple tissues. PMID:21571217

  8. CD34+ circulating progenitor cells after different training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, O; Balague, N; Aragones, D; Blasi, J; Alamo, J M; Corral, L; Javierre, C; Miguel, M; Viscor, G; Ventura, J L

    2015-04-01

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) are bone marrow-derived cells that are mobilized into the circulation. While exercise is a powerful mediator of hematopoiesis, CPC levels increase, and reports of their activation after different types of exercise are contradictory. Moreover, few studies have compared the possible effects of different training programs on CPC concentrations. 43 physically active healthy male subjects (age 22±2.4 years) were assigned to 4 different training groups: aerobic, resistance, mixed and control. Except for the control group, all participants trained for 6 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected through an antecubital vein, and CPC CD34(+) was analyzed on different days: pre-training, post-training, and 3 weeks after finishing the training period. While no significant differences in CPC were observed either within or between the different training groups, there was a tendency towards higher values post-training and large intra- and intergroup dispersion. We detected an inverse linear relationship between pre-training values and % of CPC changes post-training (pdifferent training groups, or after 3 weeks of follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  10. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  11. Endothelial progenitor cells display clonal restriction in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Kezhi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In multiple myeloma (MM, increased neoangiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and disease progression. Increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neoangiogenesis in MM, and, importantly, covary with disease activity and response to treatment. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for increased EPC levels and neoangiogenic function in MM, we investigated whether these cells were clonal by determining X-chromosome inactivation (XCI patterns in female patients by a human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA. In addition, EPCs and bone marrow cells were studied for the presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH gene rearrangement, which indicates clonality in B cells; thus, its presence in EPCs would indicate a close genetic link between tumor cells in MM and endothelial cells that provide tumor neovascularization. Methods A total of twenty-three consecutive patients who had not received chemotherapy were studied. Screening in 18 patients found that 11 displayed allelic AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and these patients were further studied for XCI patterns in EPCs and hair root cells by HUMARA. In 2 patients whose EPCs were clonal by HUMARA, and in an additional 5 new patients, EPCs were studied for IGH gene rearrangement using PCR with family-specific primers for IGH variable genes (VH. Results In 11 patients, analysis of EPCs by HUMARA revealed significant skewing (≥ 77% expression of a single allele in 64% (n = 7. In 4 of these patients, XCI skewing was extreme (≥ 90% expression of a single allele. In contrast, XCI in hair root cells was random. Furthermore, PCR amplification with VH primers resulted in amplification of the same product in EPCs and bone marrow cells in 71% (n = 5 of 7 patients, while no IGH rearrangement was found in EPCs from healthy controls. In addition, in patients with XCI skewing in EPCs, advanced age was associated with poorer clinical status

  12. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes.

  13. Mobilization of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: General Principles and Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonig, Halvard; Papayannopoulou, Thalla

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization can be achieved by a variety of bone marrow niche modifications, although efficient mobilization requires simultaneous expansion of the stem/progenitor cell pool and niche modification. Many of the mechanisms involved in G-CSF-induced mobilization have been described. With regard to mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, challenges for the future include the analysis of genetic factors responsible for the great variability in mobilization responses, and the identification of predictors of mobilization efficiency, as well as the development of mobilizing schemes for poor mobilizers. Moreover, improved regimens for enhanced or even preferential mobilization of nonhematopoietic stem/progenitor cell types, and their therapeutic potential for endogenous tissue repair will be questions to be vigorously pursued in the near future. PMID:22890918

  14. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn......% of breast cancers arise in TDLUs and more than 90% are also cytokeratin 19-positive, we suggest that this cell population contains a breast-cancer progenitor.......The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value...... of knowing the cellular origin of individual tumours is clear and should aid in designing effective therapies. To do this, however, we need strategies aimed at defining the nature of stem and progenitor cell populations in the normal breast. In this review, we will discuss our technical approach...

  15. Diabetes irreversibly depletes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cell subpopulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Januszyk, Michael; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P; Vial, Ivan N; Maan, Zeshaan N; Rennert, Robert C; Duscher, Dominik; Thangarajah, Hariharan; Longaker, Michael T; Butte, Atul J; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs) that have previously been shown to be important for new blood vessel formation and demonstrate significant deficits in the context of diabetes...

  16. Cross talk with hematopoietic cells regulates the endothelial progenitor cell differentiation of CD34 positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Mo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Jung, Seok-Yun; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kang, Song-Hwa; Yoo, So-Young; Hong, Jong-Kyu; Park, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Sun-Jin; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Asahara, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular regeneration, the specific interactions between EPCs and hematopoietic cells remain unclear. In EPC colony forming assays, we first demonstrated that the formation of EPC colonies was drastically increased in the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells, and determined the optimal concentrations of CD34+ cells and CD34- cells for spindle-shaped EPC differentiation. Functionally, the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells resulted in a significant enhancement of adhesion, tube formation, and migration capacity compared with culture of CD34+ cells alone. Furthermore, blood flow recovery and capillary formation were remarkably increased by the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells in a murine hind-limb ischemia model. To elucidate further the role of hematopoietic cells in EPC differentiation, we isolated different populations of hematopoietic cells. T lymphocytes (CD3+) markedly accelerated the early EPC status of CD34+ cells, while macrophages (CD11b+) or megakaryocytes (CD41+) specifically promoted large EPC colonies. Our results suggest that specific populations of hematopoietic cells play a role in the EPC differentiation of CD34+ cells, a finding that may aid in the development of a novel cell therapy strategy to overcome the quantitative and qualitative limitations of EPC therapy.

  17. Knockdown of HPRT for Selection of Genetically Modified Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rashmi; Baturin, Dmitry; Fosmire, Susan; Freed, Brian; Porter, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The inability to obtain sufficient numbers of transduced cells remains a limitation in gene therapy. One strategy to address this limitation is in vivo pharmacologic selection of transduced cells. We have previously shown that knockdown of HPRT using lentiviral delivered shRNA facilitates efficient selection of transduced murine hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) using 6-thioguanine (6TG). Herein, we now extend these studies to human HPC. We tested multiple shRNA constructs in human derived cell lines and identified the optimal shRNA sequence for knockdown of HPRT and 6TG resistance. We then tested this vector in human umbilical cord blood derived HPC in vitro and in NOD/SCID recipients. Knockdown of HPRT effectively provided resistance to 6TG in vitro. 6TG treatment of mice resulted in increased percentages of transduced human CD45+ cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen in particular, in both myeloid and lymphoid compartments. 6TG treatment of secondary recipients resulted in higher percentages of transduced human cells in the bone marrow, confirming selection from the progeny of long-term repopulating HPCs. However, the extent of selection of cells in the bone marrow at the doses of 6TG tested and the toxicity of higher doses, suggest that this strategy may be limited to selection of more committed progenitor cells. Together, these data suggest that human HPC can be programmed to be resistant to purine analogs, but that HPRT knockdown/6TG-based selection may not be robust enough for in vivo selection. PMID:23555045

  18. Knockdown of HPRT for selection of genetically modified human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Choudhary

    Full Text Available The inability to obtain sufficient numbers of transduced cells remains a limitation in gene therapy. One strategy to address this limitation is in vivo pharmacologic selection of transduced cells. We have previously shown that knockdown of HPRT using lentiviral delivered shRNA facilitates efficient selection of transduced murine hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC using 6-thioguanine (6TG. Herein, we now extend these studies to human HPC. We tested multiple shRNA constructs in human derived cell lines and identified the optimal shRNA sequence for knockdown of HPRT and 6TG resistance. We then tested this vector in human umbilical cord blood derived HPC in vitro and in NOD/SCID recipients. Knockdown of HPRT effectively provided resistance to 6TG in vitro. 6TG treatment of mice resulted in increased percentages of transduced human CD45(+ cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen in particular, in both myeloid and lymphoid compartments. 6TG treatment of secondary recipients resulted in higher percentages of transduced human cells in the bone marrow, confirming selection from the progeny of long-term repopulating HPCs. However, the extent of selection of cells in the bone marrow at the doses of 6TG tested and the toxicity of higher doses, suggest that this strategy may be limited to selection of more committed progenitor cells. Together, these data suggest that human HPC can be programmed to be resistant to purine analogs, but that HPRT knockdown/6TG-based selection may not be robust enough for in vivo selection.

  19. Fibroblast progenitor cells are recruited into the myocardium prior to the development of myocardial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopel, Mryanda; Falkenham, Alec; Oxner, Adam; Ma, Irene; Lee, Timothy D G; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2012-04-01

    Using an established model of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis after angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, our aim was to characterize the early cellular element involved in the development of myocardial fibrosis in detail. Male Lewis rats were infused with saline or AngII (0.7 mg/kg per day) for up to seven days. Collagen deposition and cellular infiltration were identified by histology stains. Infiltrating cells were grown in vitro and examined by flow cytometry and immunostaining. Chemokine expression was measured using qRT-PCR. AngII infusion resulted in multifocal myocardial cellular infiltration (peak at three days) that preceded collagen deposition. Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 transcripts peaked after one day of AngII exposure. Using a triple-labelling technique, the infiltrating cells were found to express markers of leucocyte (ED1(+)), mesenchymal [α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)(+)] and haematopeotic progenitor cells (CD133(+)) suggesting a fibroblast progenitor phenotype. In vitro, ED1(+)/SMA(+)/CD133(+) cells were isolated and grown from AngII-exposed animals. Comparatively few cells were cultured from untreated control hearts, and they were found to be ED1(-)/SMA(+)/CD133(-). We provide evidence that myocardial ECM deposition is preceded by infiltration into the myocardium by cells that express a combination of haematopoietic (ED1, CD133) and mesenchymal (SMA) cell markers, which is a characteristic of the phenotype of fibroblast precursor cells, termed fibrocytes. This suggests that fibrocytes rather than (as is often presumed) leucocytes may have effector functions in the initiation of myocardial fibrosis. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  1. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on “VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide” and “competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2” mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics.

  2. Whole-Somite Rotation Generates Muscle Progenitor Cell Compartments in the Developing Zebrafish Embryo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollway, Georgina E; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Berger, Silke; Cole, Nicholas J; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    ... to the progenitors for skeletal muscle of the axis (the myotome) and to progenitors at limb levels, which are precursors of the appendicular muscles. The dermomyotome is also the source of resident adult skeletal muscle stem cells, the satellite cells ( Christ and Ordahl, 1995; Gros et al., 2005; Relaix et al., 2005; Kassar-Duchossoy et al., 2005; Schien...

  3. Wnt5a regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells of the periodontium

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Lusai; Chen, Mo; He, Ling; Cai, Bin; Du, Yu; Zhang, Xinchun; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Chenglin; Mao, Jeremy J.; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental follicle gives rise to one or several tissues of the periodontium including the periodontal ligament, cementum and/or alveolar bone. Whether Wnt5a is expressed in the postnatal periodontium or regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells is unknown. Methods Dental follicle stem/progenitor cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (p1) to p11 from rat mandibular first molars. Immunolocalization mapped Wnt5a expression in the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and the de...

  4. Characteristic of c-Kit+ progenitor cells in explanted human hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszczak, Sybilla; Czapla, Justyna; Jarosz-Biej, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Cichoń, Tomasz; Smolarczyk, Ryszard; Kobusińska, Magdalena; Gajda, Karolina; Wilczek, Piotr; Śliwka, Joanna; Zembala, Michał; Zembala, Marian; Szala, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    According to literature data, self-renewing, multipotent, and clonogenic cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells occur within human myocardium. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize c-Kit+ progenitor cells from explanted human hearts. Experimental material was obtained from 19 adult and 7 pediatric patients. Successful isolation and culture was achieved for 95 samples (84.1 %) derived from five different regions of the heart: right and left ventricles, atrium, intraventricular septum,...

  5. Profibrotic potential of Prominin-1+ epithelial progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüscher Thomas F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis loss of alveolar epithelium induces inflammation of the pulmonary tissue followed by accumulation of pathogenic myofibroblasts leading eventually to respiratory failures. In animal models inflammatory and resident cells have been demonstrated to contribute to pulmonary fibrosis. Regenerative potential of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary stem and progenitor cells raised the hope for successful treatment option against pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, we addressed the contribution of lung microenvironment and prominin-1+ bone marrow-derived epithelial progenitor cells in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Prominin-1+ bone marrow-derived epithelial progenitors were expanded from adult mouse lungs and differentiated in vitro by cytokines and growth factors. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Prominin-1+ progenitors were administered intratracheally at different time points after bleomycin challenge. Green fluorescence protein-expressing cells were used for cell tracking. Cell phenotypes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Prominin-1+ cells expanded from healthy lung represent common progenitors of alveolar type II epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, and macrophages. Administration of prominin-1+ cells 2 hours after bleomycin instillation protects from pulmonary fibrosis, and some of progenitors differentiate into alveolar type II epithelial cells. In contrast, prominin-1+ cells administered at day 7 or 14 lose their protective effects and differentiate into myofibroblasts and macrophages. Bleomycin challenge enhances accumulation of bone marrow-derived prominin-1+ cells within inflamed lung. In contrast to prominin-1+ cells from healthy lung, prominin-1+ precursors isolated from inflamed organ lack regenerative

  6. Enrichment of oral mucosa and skin keratinocyte progenitor/stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of human oral mucosa/skin keratinocytes progenitor/stem cells is clinically important to regenerate epithelial tissues for the treatment of oral mucosa/skin defects. Researchers have attempted to isolate a keratinocyte progenitor/stem cell population using cell markers, rapid adherence to collagen type IV, and other methods. In this regard, one of the specific characteristics of keratinocyte progenitor/stem cells is that these cells have a smaller diameter than differentiated cells. This chapter describes methods used in our laboratory to set up primary human oral mucosa and skin keratinocytes in a chemically defined culture system devoid of animal derived products. We utilized the cells in a FDA-approved human clinical trial that involved the intraoral grafting of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent to increase keratinized tissue around teeth. We also provide two protocols on how to sort keratinocytes using physical criterion, cell size, using a cell sorter and a serial filtration system.

  7. Distinct tissue formation by heterogeneous printing of osteo- and endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E; Wijnberg, Hans M; Dhert, Wouter J A; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    The organ- or tissue-printing approach, based on layered deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, is a new technique in regenerative medicine suitable to investigate whether mimicking the anatomical organization of cells, matrix, and bioactive molecules is necessary for obtaining or improving functional engineered tissues. Currently, data on performance of multicellular printed constructs in vivo are limited. In this study we illustrate the ability of the system to print intricate porous constructs containing two different cell types--endothelial progenitors and multipotent stromal cells--and show that these grafts retain heterogeneous cell organization after subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice. We demonstrate that cell differentiation leading to the expected tissue formation occurs at the site of the deposited progenitor cell type. While perfused blood vessels are formed in the endothelial progenitor cell-laden part of the constructs, bone formation is taking place in the multipotent stromal cell-laden part of the printed grafts.

  8. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear supporting cells (SCs have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein–protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  9. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

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    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  10. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal stromal cell derived Osteoblasts Promote the Expansion of Hematopoietic Progenitors through Beta-Catenin and Notch Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, Matthew; Boisjoli, Gavin; Jahan, Suria; Hovey, Owen; Doxtator, Emily; Abu-Khader, Ahmad; Pasha, Roya; Pineault, Nicolas

    2017-10-19

    Coculture of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with primary stromal cells from HSC niches supports the maintenance and expansion of HSC and progenitors ex vivo. However, a major drawback is the availability of primary human samples for research and clinical applications. We investigated the use of in vitro derived osteoblasts as a new source of feeder cells and characterized the molecular pathways that mediate their growth promoting activities. First, we compared the growth and differentiation modulating activities of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-derived osteoblasts (M-OST) to that of their undifferentiated precursor on umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitors. Feeder-free cultures were also included as baseline control. Cell growth and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors were significantly enhanced by both feeder cell types. However, progenitor cell growth was considerably greater with M-OST. Coculture also promoted the maintenance of immature CD34+ progenitor subsets and modulated in a positive fashion the expression of several homing-related cell surface receptors, in a feeder-specific fashion. Serial transplantation experiments revealed that M-OST coculture supported the maintenance of long-term lympho-myeloid reconstituting HSC that provided engraftment levels generally superior to that from MSC cocultures. Mechanistically, we found that coculture with M-OST was associated with enhanced -catenin (-Cat) activity in UCB cells and that abrogation of -Cat/TCF activity blunted the growth promoting activity of the M-OST coculture. Conversely, Notch inhibition reduced UCB cell expansion but to a much lesser extent. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that M-OST are excellent feeder cells for HSC and progenitors, and identify key molecular pathways responsible for the growth enhancing activities of osteoblasts on UCB progenitors.

  11. Comparison of culture media for ex vivo cultivation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Renata Ruoco; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Martins, Caio Marques; Covre, Joyce Luciana; Sobrinho, Juliana Aparecida; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Myhailov; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Belfort, Rubens; Nishi, Mauro; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three culture media for growth, proliferation, differentiation, and viability of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Limbal epithelial progenitor cell cultures were established from ten human corneal rims and grew on plastic wells in three culture media: supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), and Epilife. The performance of culturing limbal epithelial progenitor cells in each medium was evaluated according to the following parameters: growth area of epithelial migration; immunocytochemistry for adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette member 2 (ABCG2), p63, Ki67, cytokeratin 3 (CK3), and vimentin (VMT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CK3, ABCG2, and p63, and cell viability using Hoechst staining. Limbal epithelial progenitor cells cultivated in SHEM showed a tendency to faster migration, compared to KSFM and Epilife. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferated cells in the SHEM had lower expression for markers related to progenitor epithelial cells (ABCG2) and putative progenitor cells (p63), and a higher percentage of positive cells for differentiated epithelium (CK3) when compared to KSFM and Epilife. In PCR analysis, ABCG2 expression was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM. Expression of p63 was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM and KSFM. However, CK3 expression was statistically lower for KSFM compared to SHEM. Based on our findings, we concluded that cells cultured in KSFM and Epilife media presented a higher percentage of limbal epithelial progenitor cells, compared to SHEM.

  12. Biology of the adult hepatic progenitor cell: "ghosts in the machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Houda; Petersen, Bryon E

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews some of the basic biological principles governing adult progenitor cells of the liver and the mechanisms by which they operate. If scientists were better able to understand the conditions that govern stem cell mechanics in the liver, it may be possible to apply that understanding in a clinical setting for use in the treatment or cure of human pathologies. This chapter gives a basic introduction to hepatic progenitor cell biology and explores what is known about progenitor cell-mediated liver regeneration. We also discuss the putative stem cell niche in the liver, as well as the signaling pathways involved in stem cell regulation. Finally, the isolation and clinical application of stem cells to human diseases is reviewed, along with the current thoughts on the relationship between stem cells and cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultivation of Human Bone-Like Tissue from Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Osteogenic Progenitors in Perfusion Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent an unlimited source of skeletal tissue progenitors for studies of bone biology, pathogenesis, and the development of new approaches for bone reconstruction and therapies. In order to construct in vitro models of bone tissue development and to grow functional, clinical-size bone substitutes for transplantation, cell cultivation in three-dimensional environments composed of porous osteoconductive scaffolds and dynamic culture systems—bioreactors—has been studied. Here, we describe a stepwise procedure for the induction of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (collectively termed PSCs) into mesenchymal-like progenitors, and their subsequent cultivation on decellularized bovine bone scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, to support the development of viable, stable bone-like tissue in defined geometries. PMID:24281874

  14. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Bouyer, J; Shumsky, J S; Haas, C; Fischer, I

    2016-04-21

    Previous studies demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) transplanted into a subacute contusion injury improve motor, sensory, and bladder function. In this study we tested whether transplanted NPCs can also improve functional recovery after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) alone or in combination with the reduction of glial scar and neurotrophic support. Adult rats received a T10 moderate contusion. Thirteen weeks after the injury they were divided into four groups and received either: 1. Medium (control), 2. NPC transplants, 3. NPC+lentivirus vector expressing chondroitinase, or 4. NPC+lentivirus vectors expressing chondroitinase and neurotrophic factors. During the 8 weeks post-transplantation the animals were tested for functional recovery and eventually analyzed by anatomical and immunohistochemical assays. The behavioral tests for motor and sensory function were performed before and after injury, and weekly after transplantation, with some animals also tested for bladder function at the end of the experiment. Transplant survival in the chronic injury model was variable and showed NPCs at the injury site in 60% of the animals in all transplantation groups. The NPC transplants comprised less than 40% of the injury site, without significant anatomical or histological differences among the groups. All groups also showed similar patterns of functional deficits and recovery in the 12 weeks after injury and in the 8 weeks after transplantation using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating score, the grid test, and the Von Frey test for mechanical allodynia. A notable exception was group 4 (NPC together with chondroitinase and neurotrophins), which showed a significant improvement in bladder function. This study underscores the therapeutic challenges facing transplantation strategies in a chronic SCI in which even the inclusion of treatments designed to reduce scarring and increase neurotrophic support produce only modest functional improvements. Further

  15. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Differences of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells in the Biological Response to TNF-α Treatment

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    Elisabetta Straface

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs, isolated as cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs, represent promising candidates for cardiac regenerative therapy. CDCs can be expanded in vitro manyfolds without losing their differentiation potential, reaching numbers that are appropriate for clinical applications. Since mechanisms of successful CDC survival and engraftment in the damaged myocardium are still critical and unresolved issues, we aimed at deciphering possible key factors capable of bolstering CDC function. In particular, the response and the phenotype of CDCs exposed to low concentrations of the multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, known to be capable of activating cell survival pathways, have been investigated. Furthermore, differential biological responses of CDCs from male and female donors, in terms of cell cycle progression and cell spreading, have also been assessed. The results obtained indicate that (i the intracellular signaling activated in our experimental conditions is most likely due to the prosurvival and proliferative signaling of TNF-α receptor 2 and that (ii cells from female patients appear more responsive to TNF-α treatment in terms of cell cycle progression and migration ability. In conclusion, the present report highlights the hypothesis that TNF-stimulated CDCs isolated from females may represent a promising candidate for cardiac regenerative therapy applications.

  17. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yoav; Soudry, Alissa; Levi, Amos; Talmor-Barkan, Yeela; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Singer, Joel; Kornowski, Ran; Lev, Eli I

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function. To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes. Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8%) and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs), their viability (measured by MTT assay), KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture. In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0) vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9), p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93) vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62), p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46) vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39), p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers. In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  18. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Hammer

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function.To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes.Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8% and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs, their viability (measured by MTT assay, KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture.In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0 vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9, p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93 vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62, p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46 vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39, p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers.In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  19. Lineage tracing of resident tendon progenitor cells during growth and natural healing.

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    Nathaniel A Dyment

    Full Text Available Unlike during embryogenesis, the identity of tissue resident progenitor cells that contribute to postnatal tendon growth and natural healing is poorly characterized. Therefore, we utilized 1 an inducible Cre driven by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMACreERT2, that identifies mesenchymal progenitors, 2 a constitutively active Cre driven by growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5Cre, a critical regulator of joint condensation, in combination with 3 an Ai9 Cre reporter to permanently label SMA9 and GDF5-9 populations and their progeny. In growing mice, SMA9+ cells were found in peritendinous structures and scleraxis-positive (ScxGFP+ cells within the tendon midsubstance and myotendinous junction. The progenitors within the tendon midsubstance were transiently labeled as they displayed a 4-fold expansion from day 2 to day 21 but reduced to baseline levels by day 70. SMA9+ cells were not found within tendon entheses or ligaments in the knee, suggesting a different origin. In contrast to the SMA9 population, GDF5-9+ cells extended from the bone through the enthesis and into a portion of the tendon midsubstance. GDF5-9+ cells were also found throughout the length of the ligaments, indicating a significant variation in the progenitors that contribute to tendons and ligaments. Following tendon injury, SMA9+ paratenon cells were the main contributors to the healing response. SMA9+ cells extended over the defect space at 1 week and differentiated into ScxGFP+ cells at 2 weeks, which coincided with increased collagen signal in the paratenon bridge. Thus, SMA9-labeled cells represent a unique progenitor source that contributes to the tendon midsubstance, paratenon, and myotendinous junction during growth and natural healing, while GDF5 progenitors contribute to tendon enthesis and ligament development. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the expansion and differentiation of these progenitors may prove crucial to improving future repair strategies.

  20. Heterogeneity in SDF-1 expression defines the vasculogenic potential of adult cardiac progenitor cells.

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    Claudia O Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The adult myocardium has been reported to harbor several classes of multipotent progenitor cells (CPCs with tri-lineage differentiation potential. It is not clear whether c-kit+CPCs represent a uniform precursor population or a more complex mixture of cell types.To characterize and understand vasculogenic heterogeneity within c-kit+presumptive cardiac progenitor cell populations.c-kit+, sca-1+ CPCs obtained from adult mouse left ventricle expressed stem cell-associated genes, including Oct-4 and Myc, and were self-renewing, pluripotent and clonogenic. Detailed single cell clonal analysis of 17 clones revealed that most (14/17 exhibited trilineage differentiation potential. However, striking morphological differences were observed among clones that were heritable and stable in long-term culture. 3 major groups were identified: round (7/17, flat or spindle-shaped (5/17 and stellate (5/17. Stellate morphology was predictive of vasculogenic differentiation in Matrigel. Genome-wide expression studies and bioinformatic analysis revealed clonally stable, heritable differences in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 expression that correlated strongly with stellate morphology and vasculogenic capacity. Endogenous SDF-1 production contributed directly to vasculogenic differentiation: both shRNA-mediated knockdown of SDF-1 and AMD3100, an antagonist of the SDF-1 receptor CXC chemokine Receptor-4 (CXCR4, reduced tube-forming capacity, while exogenous SDF-1 induced tube formation by 2 non-vasculogenic clones. CPCs producing SDF-1 were able to vascularize Matrigel dermal implants in vivo, while CPCs with low SDF-1 production were not.Clonogenic c-kit+, sca-1+ CPCs are heterogeneous in morphology, gene expression patterns and differentiation potential. Clone-specific levels of SDF-1 expression both predict and promote development of a vasculogenic phenotype via a previously unreported autocrine mechanism.

  1. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  2. A Molecular Switch Regulating Cell Fate Choice between Muscle Progenitor Cells and Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yitai; Wang, Gang; Diao, Yarui; Long, Yanyang; Fu, Xinrong; Weng, Mingxi; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Kun; Cheung, Tom H; Ip, Nancy Y; Sun, Hao; Wang, Huating; Wu, Zhenguo

    2017-05-22

    During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7 + /Myf5 + progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA. Consistently, freshly isolated Pax7-null but not wild-type MPCs formed lipid-droplet-containing UCP1 + BA in culture. Mechanistically, MyoD and Myf5, both known transcription targets of Pax7 in MPC, potently repress Prdm16, a BA-specific lineage-determining gene, via the E2F4/p107/p130 transcription repressor complex. Importantly, inducible Pax7 ablation in developing mouse embryos promoted brown fat development. Thus, the MyoD/Myf5-E2F4/p107/p130 axis functions in both the Pax7 + /Myf5 + embryonic progenitor cells and postnatal myoblasts to repress the alternative BA fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  4. Effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of murine cornea limbal epithelial progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Liu, Han-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of mouse corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Mouse corneal epithelial cells(MCEs) were cultured in normoxia (210mL/L O(2) and 50mL/L CO(2)) and hypoxia (20mL/L O(2) and 50mL/L CO(2)), respectively. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) and cell proliferation were determined. The expression of corneal epithelial progenitor cell marker p63 and K19 was investigated by immunostaining. Normoxic colonies were smaller compared with colonies formed in hypoxia. CFE was (12.50±1.50)% in hypoxic cultures, which was similar compared with normoxia cultures [(11.13±1.86)%, P>0.05)]. Cell proliferation was enhanced in hypoxia. Progenitor markers p63 and K19 were expressed in most cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Murine limbal epithelial progenitor cells can be efficiently expanded in hypoxic conditions.

  5. Testosterone Levels Influence Mouse Fetal Leydig Cell Progenitors Through Notch Signaling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Tony; Saraswathula, Anirudh; Briot, Anaïs; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Capel, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leydig cells are the steroidogenic lineage of the mammalian testis that produces testosterone, a key hormone required throughout male fetal and adult life for virilization and spermatogenesis. Both fetal and adult Leydig cells arise from a progenitor population in the testis interstitium but are thought to be lineage-independent of one another. Genetic evidence indicates that Notch signaling is required during fetal life to maintain a balance between differentiated Leydig cells and their progenitors, but the elusive progenitor cell type and ligands involved have not been identified. In this study, we show that the Notch pathway signals through the ligand JAG1 in perivascular interstitial cells during fetal life. In the early postnatal testis, we show that circulating levels of testosterone directly affect Notch signaling, implicating a feedback role for systemic circulating factors in the regulation of progenitor cells. Between Postnatal Days 3 and 21, as fetal Leydig cells disappear from the testis and are replaced by adult Leydig cells, the perivascular population of interstitial cells active for Notch signaling declines, consistent with distinct regulation of adult Leydig progenitors. PMID:23467742

  6. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung's Disease.

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    David J Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung's disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung's patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis.

  7. It Is All in the Blood: The Multifaceted Contribution of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Complications

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    Gian Paolo Fadini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a worldwide growing disease and represents a huge social and healthcare problem owing to the burden of its complications. Micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications arise from excess damage through well-known biochemical pathways. Interestingly, microangiopathy hits the bone marrow (BM microenvironment with features similar to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The BM represents a reservoir of progenitor cells for multiple lineages, not limited to the hematopoietic system and including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteogenic cells. All these multiple progenitor cell lineages are profoundly altered in the setting of diabetes in humans and animal models. Reduction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs along with excess smooth muscle progenitor (SMP and osteoprogenitor cells creates an imbalance that promote the development of micro- and macroangiopathy. Finally, an excess generation of BM-derived fusogenic cells has been found to contribute to diabetic complications in animal models. Taken together, a growing amount of literature attributes to circulating progenitor cells a multi-faceted role in the pathophysiology of DM, setting a novel scenario that puts BM and the blood at the centre of the stage.

  8. Circulating human CD34(+) progenitor cells modulate neovascularization and inflammation in a nude mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, B. W. A.; Popa, E. R.; Schipper, M.; Brouwer, L. A.; Hendriks, M.; Harmsen, M. C.; van Luyn, M. J. A.

    CD34(+) progenitor cells hold promise for therapeutic neovascularization in various settings. In this study, the role of human peripheral blood CD34(+) cells in neovascularization and inflammatory cell recruitment was longitudinally studied in vivo. Human CD34(+) cells were incorporated in Matrigel,

  9. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  10. Environmental cues from CNS, PNS, and ENS cells regulate CNS progenitor differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännvall, Karin; Corell, Mikael; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular origin and environmental cues regulate stem cell fate determination. Neuroepithelial stem cells form the central nervous system (CNS), whereas neural crest stem cells generate the peripheral (PNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). CNS neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate determination...

  11. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  12. Dysregulation of Vascular Endothelial Progenitor Cells Lung-Homing in Subjects with COPD

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    Brittany M. Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by fixed airflow limitation and progressive decline of lung function and punctuated by occasional exacerbations. The disease pathogenesis may involve activation of the bone marrow stimulating mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. We investigated the hypothesis that lower circulating numbers of vascular endothelial progenitor cells (VEPCs are a consequence of increased lung-sequestration in COPD. Nonatopic, current or ex-smokers with diagnosed COPD and nonatopic, nonsmoking normal controls were enrolled. Blood and induced sputum extracted primitive hemopoietic progenitors (HPCs and VEPC were enumerated by flow cytometry. Migration and adhesive responses to fibronectin were assessed. In sputum, VEPC numbers were significantly greater in COPD compared to normal controls. In blood, VEPCs were significantly lower in COPD versus normal controls. There were no differences in HPC levels between the two groups in either compartment. Functionally, there was a greater migrational responsiveness of progenitors from COPD subjects to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α compared to normal controls. This was associated with greater numbers of CXCR4+ progenitors in sputum from COPD. Increased migrational responsiveness of progenitor cells may promote lung-homing of VEPC in COPD which may disrupt maintenance and repair of the airways and contribute to COPD disease pathogenesis.

  13. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

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    Daniel Zeve

    Full Text Available Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  14. Dynamics and robustness of the cardiac progenitor cell induced pluripotent stem cell network during cell phenotypes transition.

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    Yao, Yuangen; Ma, Chengzhang; Deng, Haiyou; Liu, Quan; Cao, Wei; Gui, Rong; Feng, Tianquan; Yi, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Robustness is a fundamental characteristic of biological systems since all living systems need to adapt to internal or external perturbations, unpredictable environments, stochastic events and unreliable components, and so on. A long-term challenge in systems biology is to reveal the origin of robustness underlying molecular regulator network. In this study, a simple Boolean model is used to investigate the global dynamic properties and robustness of cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) induced pluripotent stem cell network that governs reprogramming and directed differentiation process. It is demonstrated that two major attractors correspond to source and target cell phenotypes, respectively, and two dominating attracting trajectories characterise the biological pathways between two major cell phenotypes. In particular, the experimentally observed transition between different cell phenotypes can be reproduced and explained theoretically. Furthermore, the robustness of major attractors and trajectories is largely maintained with respect to small perturbations to the network. Taken together, the CPC-induced pluripotent stem cell network is extremely robustly designed for their functions.

  15. Glioma migration: clues from the biology of neural progenitor cells and embryonic CNS cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, P B

    2001-06-01

    Neural stem cells have recently come to the forefront in neurobiology because of the possibilities for CNS repair by transplantation. Further understanding of the biology of these cells is critical for making their use in CNS repair possible. It is likely that these discoveries will also have spin-offs for neuro-oncology as primary brain tumors may arise from a CNS progenitor cell. An understanding of the normal migratory ability of these cells is also likely to have a very important impact on the knowledge of brain tumor invasion.

  16. Nestin expressing progenitor cells during establishment of the neural retina and its vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hyo-Suk; Shin, Ji Man; Chun, Myung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In order to test if nestin is a useful marker for various types of progenitor cells, we explored nestin expression in the retina during development. Nestin expression was co-evaluated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GSIB4) histochemistry. Nestin immunoreactivity appears in cell soma of dividing neural progenitor cells and their leading processes in retinas from embryonic day (E) 13 to E20, in accordance with a BrdU-labeled pattern. At postnatal day (P) 5, it is restricted to the end feet of Müller cells. BrdU-labeled nuclei were mainly in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer in postnatal neonates. The retinal vessels demarcated with GSIB4-positive endothelial cells were first distributed in the nerve fiber layer from P3. Afterward the vascular branches sprouted and penetrated deeply into the retina. The endothelial cells positive for GSIB4 and the pericytes in the microvessels were additionally immunoreactive for nestin. Interestingly, the presumed migrating microglial cells showing only GSIB4 reactivity preceded the microvessels throughout the neuroblast layer during vascular sprouting and extension. These findings may suggest that nestin expression represents the proliferation and movement potential of the neural progenitor cells as well as the progenitor cells of the endothelial cell and the pericyte during retinal development. Thus, Müller glial cells might be potential neural progenitor cells of the retina, and the retinal microvasculature established by both the endothelial and the pericyte progenitor cells via vasculogenesis along microglia migrating routes sustains its angiogenic potential. PMID:22536550

  17. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

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    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  18. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits as a Potential Cardioprotective Agent: The Role of Circulating Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Mohamed, Maged E; Ahmed, K K M; Kumar, Arun H S

    2017-01-01

    Context: Date palms, along with their fruits' dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. In recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. Hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize endogenous progenitor cells, following tissue injury, to enhance tissue repair process is clinically relevant. Objectives: The present study investigates the potential of date of palm fruit extracts in repairing tissue injury following myocardial infarction (MI) potentially by mobilizing circulating progenitor cells. Methods: Extracts of four different varieties of date palm fruits common in Saudi Arabia eastern provision were scrutinized for their total flavonoid, total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as their effects on two different rodent MI models. Results: High concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in date palm fruit extracts, which contributed to the promising antioxidant activities of these extracts and the observed high protective effect against various induced in vivo MI. The extracts showed ability to build up reserves and to mobilize circulating progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral circulation to the site of myocardial infraction. Conclusion: Date palm fruit extracts have the potential to mobilize endogenous circulating progenitor cells, which can promote tissue repair following ischemic injury.

  19. Targeted Ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 in Retinal Progenitor Cells Mimics Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Lucie P.; Alves, Celso Henrique; Quinn, Peter M.; Vos, Rogier M.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Dudok, Jacobus J.; Hooibrink, Berend; Richard, Fabrice; Beck, Susanne C.; Huber, Gesine; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Le Bivic, André; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Wijnholds, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Development in the central nervous system is highly dependent on the regulation of the switch from progenitor cell proliferation to differentiation, but the molecular and cellular events controlling this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 genes results in severe impairment of retinal function, abnormal lamination and thickening of the retina mimicking human Leber congenital amaurosis due to loss of CRB1 function. We show that the levels of CRB1 and CRB2 proteins are crucial for mouse retinal development, as they restrain the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. The lack of these apical proteins results in altered cell cycle progression and increased number of mitotic cells leading to an increased number of late-born cell types such as rod photoreceptors, bipolar and Müller glia cells in postmitotic retinas. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 in the retina results in dysregulation of target genes for the Notch1 and YAP/Hippo signaling pathways and increased levels of P120-catenin. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 result in altered progenitor cell cycle distribution with a decrease in number of late progenitors in G1 and an increase in S and G2/M phase. These findings suggest that CRB1 and CRB2 suppress late progenitor pool expansion by regulating multiple proliferative signaling pathways. PMID:24339791

  20. Targeted ablation of CRB1 and CRB2 in retinal progenitor cells mimics Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie P Pellissier

    Full Text Available Development in the central nervous system is highly dependent on the regulation of the switch from progenitor cell proliferation to differentiation, but the molecular and cellular events controlling this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 genes results in severe impairment of retinal function, abnormal lamination and thickening of the retina mimicking human Leber congenital amaurosis due to loss of CRB1 function. We show that the levels of CRB1 and CRB2 proteins are crucial for mouse retinal development, as they restrain the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. The lack of these apical proteins results in altered cell cycle progression and increased number of mitotic cells leading to an increased number of late-born cell types such as rod photoreceptors, bipolar and Müller glia cells in postmitotic retinas. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 in the retina results in dysregulation of target genes for the Notch1 and YAP/Hippo signaling pathways and increased levels of P120-catenin. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 result in altered progenitor cell cycle distribution with a decrease in number of late progenitors in G1 and an increase in S and G2/M phase. These findings suggest that CRB1 and CRB2 suppress late progenitor pool expansion by regulating multiple proliferative signaling pathways.

  1. Aging of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells and their pathological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeault, M; Batra, S K

    2009-06-01

    The fascinating discovery of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells in recent years led to an explosion of interest in the development of novel stem cell-based therapies for improving the regenerative capacity of these endogenous immature cells or transplanted cells for the repair of damaged and diseased tissues. In counterbalance, a growing body of evidence has revealed that the changes in phenotypic and functional properties of human adult stem/progenitor cells may occur during chronological aging and have severe pathological consequences. Especially, intense oxidative and metabolic stress and chronic inflammation, enhanced telomere attrition and defects in DNA repair mechanisms may lead to severe DNA damages and genomic instability in adult stem/progenitor cells with advancing age that may in turn trigger their replicative senescence and/or programmed cell death. Moreover, the changes in the intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in the stringent control of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacities of these regenerative cells, including deregulated signals from the aged niche, may also contribute to their dysfunctions or loss during chronological aging. This age-associated decline in the regenerative capacity and number of functional adult stem/progenitor cells may increase the risk to develop certain diseases. At opposed end, the telomerase reactivation and accumulation of genetic alterations leading to a down-regulation of numerous tumor suppressor genes concomitant with the enhanced expression of diverse oncogenic products may result in their malignant transformation into cancer-initiating cells. Therefore, the rescue or replacement of aged and dysfunctional endogenous adult stem/progenitor cells or molecular targeting of their malignant counterpart, cancer stem/progenitor cells may constitute potential anti-aging and cancer therapies. These therapeutic strategies could be used for treating diverse devastating premature aging and age

  2. Derivation of myogenic progenitors directly from human pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Tohru; McGivern, Jered V; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Ebert, Allison D; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Using stem cells to replace degenerating muscle cells and restore lost skeletal muscle function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating neuromuscular diseases. Myogenic progenitors are a valuable cell type for cell-based therapy and also provide a platform for studying normal muscle development and disease mechanisms in vitro. Human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source of tissue for generating myogenic progenitors. Here, we present a novel protocol for deriving myogenic progenitors from human embryonic stem (hES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using free-floating spherical culture (EZ spheres) in a defined culture medium. hES cell colonies and human iPS cell colonies were expanded in medium supplemented with high concentrations (100 ng/ml) of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor in which they formed EZ spheres and were passaged using a mechanical chopping method. We found myogenic progenitors in the spheres after 6 weeks of culture and multinucleated myotubes following sphere dissociation and 2 weeks of terminal differentiation. A high concentration of FGF-2 plays a critical role for myogenic differentiation and is necessary for generating myogenic progenitors from pluripotent cells cultured as EZ spheres. Importantly, EZ sphere culture produced myogenic progenitors from human iPS cells generated from both healthy donors and patients with neuromuscular disorders (including Becker's muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Taken together, this study demonstrates a simple method for generating myogenic cells from pluripotent sources under defined conditions for potential use in disease modeling or cell-based therapies targeting skeletal muscle.

  3. Identification of human embryonic progenitor cell targeting peptides using phage display.

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    Paola A Bignone

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells are capable of differentiation into derivatives of all three primary embryonic germ layers and can self-renew indefinitely. They therefore offer a potentially scalable source of replacement cells to treat a variety of degenerative diseases. The ability to reprogram adult cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has now enabled the possibility of patient-specific hPS cells as a source of cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially, cell replacement therapies. While reprogramming technology has dramatically increased the availability of normal and diseased hPS cell lines for basic research, a major bottleneck is the critical unmet need for more efficient methods of deriving well-defined cell populations from hPS cells. Phage display is a powerful method for selecting affinity ligands that could be used for identifying and potentially purifying a variety of cell types derived from hPS cells. However, identification of specific progenitor cell-binding peptides using phage display may be hindered by the large cellular heterogeneity present in differentiating hPS cell populations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that peptides selected for their ability to bind a clonal cell line derived from hPS cells would bind early progenitor cell types emerging from differentiating hPS cells. The human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell line, W10, was used and cell-targeting peptides were identified. Competition studies demonstrated specificity of peptide binding to the target cell surface. Efficient peptide targeted cell labeling was accomplished using multivalent peptide-quantum dot complexes as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cell-binding peptides were selective for differentiated hPS cells, had little or no binding on pluripotent cells, but preferential binding to certain embryonic progenitor cell lines and early endodermal hPS cell derivatives. Taken

  4. Response-predictive gene expression profiling of glioma progenitor cells in vitro.

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    Sylvia Moeckel

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are amongst the most deadly human tumors. Treatment results are disappointing. Still, in several trials around 20% of patients respond to therapy. To date, diagnostic strategies to identify patients that will profit from a specific therapy do not exist.In this study, we used serum-free short-term treated in vitro cell cultures to predict treatment response in vitro. This approach allowed us (a to enrich specimens for brain tumor initiating cells and (b to confront cells with a therapeutic agent before expression profiling.As a proof of principle we analyzed gene expression in 18 short-term serum-free cultures of high-grade gliomas enhanced for brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC before and after in vitro treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib. Profiles from treated progenitor cells allowed to predict therapy-induced impairment of proliferation in vitro.For the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib used in this dataset, the approach revealed additional predictive information in comparison to the evaluation of classical signaling analysis.

  5. Characterization of interstitial Cajal progenitors cells and their changes in Hirschsprung's disease.

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    Zhi-Hua Chen

    Full Text Available Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC are critical to gastrointestinal motility. The phenotypes of ICC progenitors have been observed in the mouse gut, but whether they exist in the human colon and what abnormal changes in their quantity and ultrastructure are present in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR colon remains uncertain. In this study, we collected the surgical resection of colons, both proximal and narrow segments, from HSCR patients and normal controls. First, we identified the progenitor of ICC in normal adult colon using immunofluorescent localization techniques with laser confocal microscopy. Next, the progenitors were sorted to observe their morphology. We further applied flow cytometry to examine the content of ICC progenitors in these fresh samples. The ultrastructural changes in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and were compared with the normal adult colon. The presumed early progenitor (c-Kit(lowCD34(+Igf1r(+ and committed progenitor (c-Kit(+CD34(+Igf1r(+ of ICC exist in adult normal colon as well as in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon. However, the proportions of mature, early and committed progenitors of ICC were dramatically reduced in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon. The proportions of mature and committed progenitors of ICC in the proximal segment of the HSCR colon were lower than in the adult normal colon. Ultrastructurally, ICC, enteric nerves, and smooth muscle in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon showed severe injury, including swollen vacuola or ted mitochondria, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesiculation and degranulation, and disappearance of the caveolae on the ICC membrane surface. The contents of ICC and its progenitors in the narrow part of the HSCR colon were significantly decreased than those of adult colon, which may be associated with HSCR pathogenesis.

  6. ETV5 Regulates Sertoli Cell Chemokines Involved in Mouse Stem/Progenitor Spermatogonia Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Liz; Ekman, Gail C; Garcia, Thomas; Carnes, Kay; Zhang, Zhen; Murphy, Theresa; Murphy, Kenneth M; Hess, Rex A; Cooke, Paul S; Hofmann, Marie–Claude

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to offspring. Although growth factors responsible for self–renewal of these cells are known, the factors and mechanisms that attract and physically maintain these cells within their microenvironment are poorly understood. Mice with targeted disruption of Ets variant gene 5 (Etv5) show total loss of stem/progenitor spermatogonia following the first wave of spermatogenesis, resulting in a Sertoli cell–only phenotype and aspermia. Microarray analysis of primary Sertoli cells from Etv5 knockout (Etv5−/−) versus wild–type (WT) mice revealed significant decreases in expression of several chemokines. Chemotaxis assays demonstrated that migration of stem/progenitor spermatogonia toward Etv5−/− Sertoli cells was significantly decreased compared to migration toward WT Sertoli cells. Interestingly, differentiating spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids were not chemoattracted by WT Sertoli cells, whereas stem/progenitor spermatogonia showed a high and significant chemotactic index. Rescue assays using recombinant chemokines indicated that C-C-motif ligand 9 (CCL9) facilitates Sertoli cell chemoattraction of stem/progenitor spermatogonia, which express C-C-receptor type 1 (CCR1). In addition, there is protein–DNA interaction between ETV5 and Ccl9, suggesting that ETV5 might be a direct regulator of Ccl9 expression. Taken together, our data show for the first time that Sertoli cells are chemoattractive for stem/progenitor spermatogonia, and that production of specific chemokines is regulated by ETV5. Therefore, changes in chemokine production and consequent decreases in chemoattraction by Etv5−/− Sertoli cells helps to explain stem/progenitor spermatogonia loss in Etv5−/− mice. PMID:20799334

  7. From hepatocytes to stem and progenitor cells for liver regenerative medicine: advances and clinical perspectives.

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    Sokal, E M

    2011-04-01

    The parenchymal liver cell is a unique fully functional metabolic unit that can be used for liver regenerative medicine to restore function of the diseased organ; the aim of the procedure is to prevent progression of end-stage disease. The alternative, orthotopic liver transplantation, is highly intrusive, irreversible and limited by general organ shortage. Mature liver cell - hepatocyte - transplantation has been shown to have short- to medium-term efficacy for correction of miscellaneous inborn errors of metabolism. However, although proof of concept has been established, the procedure has not yet achieved full success, due to limited durability of functional benefit. Hepatocyte procurement is also restricted by organ shortage, and their storage is difficult due to poor tolerance of cryopreservation. Alternative cell sources are therefore needed for development and wider accessibility of cell-based liver regenerative medicine. Besides safety, the main challenge for these alternative cells is to acquire similar levels of functionality once implanted into the target organ. In this respect, liver derived progenitor cells may have some advantages over stem cells derived from other tissues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  9. EMT Involved in Migration of Stem/Progenitor Cells for Pituitary Development and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration are important processes in embryonic development of many tissues as well as oncogenesis. The pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue and recent studies indicate that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells actively migrate and develop this tissue during embryogenesis. Notably, although migration activity of stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal period seems to be reduced compared to that in the embryonic period, it is hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary re-migrate from their microenvironment niche to contribute to the regeneration system. Therefore, elucidation of EMT in the pituitary stem/progenitor cells will promote understanding of pituitary development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as pituitary adenoma. In this review, so as to gain more insights into the mechanisms of pituitary development and regeneration, we summarize the EMT in the pituitary by focusing on the migration of pituitary stem/progenitor cells during both embryonic and postnatal organogenesis. PMID:27058562

  10. Lgr5(+ve) stem/progenitor cells contribute to nephron formation during kidney development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Rookmaaker, M.B.; Kujala, P.; Ng, A.; Leushacke, M.; Snippert, H.; van de Wetering, M.; Tan, S.; van Es, J.H.; Huch, M.; Poulsom, R.; Verhaar, M.C.; Peters, P.J.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expression of the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 in the developing kidney and assess the stem/progenitor identity of Lgr5(+ve) cells via in vivo lineage tracing. The

  11. The combination of valproic acid and lithium delays hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walasek, Marta A.; Bystrykh, Leonid; van den Boom, Vincent; Olthof, Sandra; Ausema, Albertina; Ritsema, Martha; Huls, Gerwin; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge on the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal and differentiation, in vitro control of stem cell fate decisions has been difficult. The ability to inhibit HSPC commitment in culture may be of benefit to cell therapy protocols. Small

  12. The combination of valproic acid and lithium delays hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walasek, M.A.; Bystrykh, L.; Boom, V. van den; Olthof, S.; Ausema, A.; Ritsema, M.; Huls, G.A.; Haan, G. de; Os, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge on the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal and differentiation, in vitro control of stem cell fate decisions has been difficult. The ability to inhibit HSPC commitment in culture may be of benefit to cell therapy protocols. Small

  13. Transplantation of human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwei; Zhang, Wenjian; Xu, Shiqing; Lin, Hua; Sui, Weiguo; Liu, Honglin; Peng, Liang; Fang, Qing; Chen, Li; Lou, Jinning

    2017-06-27

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Pancreas or islet transplantation has been reported to prevent the development of DN lesions and ameliorate or reverse existing glomerular lesions in animal models. Shortage of pancreas donor is a severe problem. Islets derived from stem cells may offer a potential solution to this problem. To evaluate the effect of stem cell-derived islet transplantation on DN in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced DM. Pancreatic progenitor cells were isolated from aborted fetuses of 8 weeks of gestation. And islets were prepared by suspension culture after a differentiation of progenitor cells in medium containing glucagon-like peptide-1 (Glp-1) and nicotinamide. Then islets were transplanted into the liver of diabetic rats via portal vein. Blood glucose, urinary volume, 24 h urinary protein and urinary albumin were measured once biweekly for 16 weeks. Graft survival was evaluated by monitoring human C-peptide level in rat sera and by immunohistochemical staining for human mitochondrial antigen and human C-peptide in liver tissue. The effect of progenitor-derived islets on filtration membrane was examined by electron microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunohistochemical staining, real-time PCR and western blot were employed for detecting fibronectin, protein kinase C beta (PKCβ), protein kinase A (PKA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Islet-like clusters derived from 8th gestational-week human fetal pancreatic progenitors survived in rat liver. And elevated serum level of human C-peptide was detected. Blood glucose, 24 h urinary protein and urinary albumin were lower in progenitor cell group than those in DN or insulin treatment group. Glomerular basement membrane thickness and fibronectin accumulation decreased significantly while podocytes improved morphologically in progenitor cell group. Furthermore, receptor of advanced glycation

  14. Changes of number of cells expressing proliferation and progenitor cell markers with age in rabbit intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasen, Miersalijiang; Fei, Qinming; Hutton, William C; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Basic knowledge about the normal regeneration process within the intervertebral disc (IVD) is important to the understanding of the underlying biology. The presence of progenitor and stem cells in IVD has been verified. However, changes of number of progenitor and stem cells with age are still unknown. In this study, changes of cell proliferation and progenitor cell markers with age in IVD cells from rabbits of two different ages were investigated using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was chosen as a marker for proliferation, and Notch1, Jagged1, C-KIT, CD166 were chosen as stem/progenitor cell markers. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell number in the G2/M phase of the young rabbits was significantly higher than that of mature rabbits. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the expression of PCNA, C-KIT, CD166, Notch1, and Jagged1 in both young and mature annulus fibrosus (AF). Protein expressions of these cell markers in the young rabbits were all significantly higher than those in the mature rabbits. The expression levels of PCNA, CD166, C-KIT, Jagged1 were significantly higher in the AF, and PCNA, C-KIT in the nucleus pulposus from young rabbits than those from the mature rabbits. These findings demonstrated that both proliferation and progenitor cells exist in rabbit IVDs and the number of cells expressing proliferation and progenitor cell markers decreases with age in the rabbit IVD cells. Methods that are designed to maintain the endogenous progenitor cells and stimulate their proliferation could be successful in preventing or inhibiting degenerative disc disease.

  15. Kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients undergoing carotid artery surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalender G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available G Kalender,1 A Kornberger,2 M Lisy,1 Andres Beiras-Fernandez,2 UA Stock2 1Deparment of General, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Hoechst Hospital, 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are primitive cells found in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (PB. In particular, the potential of EPCs to differentiate into mature endothelial cells remains of high interest for clinical applications such as bio-functionalized patches for autologous seeding after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine EPCs’ kinetics in patients undergoing carotid artery thromboendarterectomy (CTEA and patch angioplasty. Methods: Twenty CTEA patients were included (15 male, mean age 76 years. PB samples were taken at 1 day preoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for CD34, CD133, KDR, and CD45. Expression of KDR, SDF-1α, and G-CSF was analyzed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed 0.031%±0.016% (% of PB mononuclear cells KDR+ cells and 0.052%±0.022% CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells, preoperatively. A 33% decrease of CD45–/CD34+/CD133+ cells was observed at day 1 after surgery. However, a relative number (compared to initial preoperative values of CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells was found on day 3 (82% and on day 5 (94% postoperatively. More profound upregulated levels of CD45–CD34+/CD133+ cells were observed for diabetic (+47% compared to nondiabetic and male (+38% compared to female patients. No significant postoperative time-dependent differences were found in numbers of KDR+ cells and the concentrations of the cytokines KDR and G-CSF. However, the SDF-1α levels decreased significantly on day 1 postoperatively but returned to preoperative levels by day 3. Conclusion: CTEA results in short-term downregulation of circulating

  16. Distinct Sources of Hematopoietic Progenitors Emerge before HSCs and Provide Functional Blood Cells in the Mammalian Embryo

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    Kathleen E. McGrath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic potential arises in mammalian embryos before adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. At embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5, we show the first murine definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs have an immunophenotype distinct from primitive hematopoietic progenitors, maturing megakaryocytes and macrophages, and rare B cell potential. EMPs emerge in the yolk sac with erythroid and broad myeloid, but not lymphoid, potential. EMPs migrate to the fetal liver and rapidly differentiate, including production of circulating neutrophils by E11.5. Although the surface markers, transcription factors, and lineage potential associated with EMPs overlap with those found in adult definitive hematopoiesis, they are present in unique combinations or proportions that result in a specialized definitive embryonic progenitor. Furthermore, we find that embryonic stem cell (ESC-derived hematopoiesis recapitulates early yolk sac hematopoiesis, including primitive, EMP, and rare B cell potential. EMPs do not have long-term potential when transplanted in immunocompromised adults, but they can provide transient adult-like RBC reconstitution.

  17. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

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    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  18. Characterization of Lgr5+ Progenitor Cell Transcriptomes after Neomycin Injury in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

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    Shasha Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lgr5+ supporting cells (SCs are enriched hair cell (HC progenitors in the cochlea. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that HC injury can spontaneously activate Lgr5+ progenitors to regenerate HCs in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Promoting HC regeneration requires the understanding of the mechanism of HC regeneration, and this requires knowledge of the key genes involved in HC injury-induced self-repair responses that promote the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitors. Here, as expected, we found that neomycin-treated Lgr5+ progenitors (NLPs had significantly greater HC regeneration ability, and greater but not significant proliferation ability compared to untreated Lgr5+ progenitors (ULPs in response to neomycin exposure. Next, we used RNA-seq analysis to determine the differences in the gene-expression profiles between the transcriptomes of NLPs and ULPs from the neonatal mouse cochlea. We first analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in NLPs and ULPs and then analyzed the cell cycle genes, the transcription factors, and the signaling pathway genes that might regulate the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitors. We found 9 cell cycle genes, 88 transcription factors, 8 microRNAs, and 16 cell-signaling pathway genes that were significantly upregulated or downregulated after neomycin injury in NLPs. Lastly, we constructed a protein-protein interaction network to show the interaction and connections of genes that are differentially expressed in NLPs and ULPs. This study has identified the genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration of Lgr5+ progenitors after neomycin injury, and investigations into the roles and mechanisms of these genes in the cochlea should be performed in the future to identify potential therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  19. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

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    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

  20. Generation of stratified squamous epithelial progenitor cells from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

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    Satoru Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.

  1. Generation of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Yoshida, Satoru; Yasuda, Miyuki; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Tetsu; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Okano, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2011-01-01

    Background Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. Methodology/Principal Findings We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method) with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets. PMID:22174914

  2. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Can Be Enriched by Implanting Biomaterial into Spatium Intermusculare

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    Jia-Bei Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs have been used successfully to treat patients with cancer and disorders of the blood and immune systems. In this study, we tried to enrich HSPCs by implanting biomaterials into the spatium intermusculare of mice hind limbs. Gelatine sponges were implanted into the spatium intermusculare of mice and then retrieved after 12 days. The presence of HSPCs in the migrating cells (MCs was detected by phenotypically probing with CD34+Sca-1+ and functionally confirming the presence of using colony-forming cell assay and assessing the long-term reconstitution ability. The frequency of CD34+, Sca-1+, and CD34+Sca-1+ cells and colony formation unit in the MCs was much higher than that in the bone marrow (BM. Moreover, transplanted MCs were able to home to BM, muscle, and spleen, which induced an efficient long-term hematopoietic reconstitution in vivo. In addition, HSPCs within the MCs originated from the BM. Furthermore, the administration of G-CSF greatly reduced the time of implantation, and increased the number of MCs and frequency of HSPCs in the MCs. These data provide compelling evidence that HSPCs can be enriched by implanting biomaterial into spatium intermusculare. Implantation of biomaterial may be seen as the first step to a proof of their applicability to clinical practice in enriching HSPCs.

  3. Protection of neurons derived from human neural progenitor cells by veratridine.

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    Morgan, Peter J; Ortinau, Stefanie; Frahm, Jana; Krüger, Norman; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2009-08-26

    The survival of developing dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be modulated by voltage-dependent mechanisms. Manipulation of these mechanisms in human neural progenitor cell cultures could improve the survival of immature dopaminergic neurons, and therefore aid research into pharmacological and cell replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Here, we examined the effect of the Na+ channel agonist veratridine on the human fetal neural progenitor ReNcell VM cell line. Neuronal differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry, whereas patch clamp recordings showed the expression of functional voltage-gated sodium channels. Our results show that veratridine is neuroprotective in human fetal neural progenitor cells, which may benefit studies investigating neuronal development by reducing premature death amongst developing neurons.

  4. Resistance exercise increases endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenic factors.

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    Ross, Mark D; Wekesa, Antony L; Phelan, John P; Harrison, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are involved in vascular growth and repair. They increase in the circulation after a single bout of aerobic exercise, potentially related to muscle ischemia. Muscular endurance resistance exercise (MERE) bouts also have the potential to induce muscle ischemia if appropriately structured. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of a single bout of MERE on circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors. Thirteen trained men age 22.4 ± 0.5 yr (mean ± SEM) performed a bout of MERE consisting of three sets of six exercises at participants' 15-repetition maximum without resting between repetitions or exercises. The MERE bout duration was 12.1 ± 0.6 min. Blood lactate and HR were 11.9 ± 0.9 mmol·L and 142 ± 5 bpm, respectively, at the end of MERE. Blood was sampled preexercise and at 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h postexercise. Circulating EPC and serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D), granulocyte colony stimulating factor, soluble Tie-2, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-9) were higher (P < 0.05) in the postexercise period. Circulating EPC levels were unchanged at 10 min postexercise but higher at 2 h postexercise (P < 0.05). The concentration of most angiogenic factors and metalloproteinases were higher at 10 min postexercise (VEGF-A, +38%; VEGF-C, +40%; VEGF-D, +9%; soluble Tie-2, +15%; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, +24%; MMP-1, +62%; MMP-2, +3%; MMP-3, +54%; and MMP-9, +45%; all P < 0.05). Soluble E-selectin was lower (P < 0.05) at 2 and 24 h postexercise, with endothelial microparticles and thrombomodulin unchanged. Short intense bouts of MERE can trigger increases in circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors, potentially contributing to vascular adaptation and vasculoprotection.

  5. Identification of an Aptamer Binding to Human Osteogenic-Induced Progenitor Cells

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    Niederlaender, Jan; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Reinert, Siegmar; Schweizer, Ernst; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Alexander, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a specific aptamer against human jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) for tissue engineering applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This aptamer should serve as a capture molecule to enrich or even purify osteogenic progenitor cells from JPCs or from adult stem cells of other sources. Using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), we generated the first aptamer to specifically bind to human osteogenically induced JPCs. We did not detect any binding of the aptamer to undifferentiated JPCs, adipogenically and chondrogenically induced JPCs, or to any other cell line tested. However, similar binding patterns of the identified aptamer 74 were detected with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from placental tissue and bone marrow. After cell sorting, we analyzed the expression of osteogenic marker genes in the aptamer 74-positive and aptamer 74-negative fractions and detected no significant differences. Additionally, the analysis of the mineralization capacity revealed a slight tendency for the aptamer positive fraction to have a higher osteogenic potential. In terms of proliferation, JPCs growing in aptamer-coated wells showed increased proliferation rates compared with the controls. Herein, we report the development of an innovative approach for tissue engineering applications. Further studies should be conducted to modify and improve the specificity of the generated aptamer. PMID:23289534

  6. The in vivo developmental potential of porcine skin-derived progenitors and neural stem cells.

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    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Teson, Jennifer M; Whitworth, Kristin M; Samuel, Melissa S; Spate, Lee D; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2012-09-20

    Multipotent skin-derived progenitors (SKPs) can be traced back to embryonic neural crest cells and are able to differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny in vitro. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewing and can contribute to neuron and glia in the nervous system. Recently, we derived porcine SKPs and NSCs from the same enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic fetuses and demonstrated that SKPs could contribute to neural and mesodermal lineages in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether porcine SKPs and NSCs can generate ectoderm and mesoderm lineages or other germ layers in vivo. Embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for investigating cell lineage determination and cell potency through normal embryonic development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo developmental potential of porcine SKPs and fetal brain-derived NSCs by chimera production. Porcine SKPs, NSCs, and fibroblasts were injected into precompact in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF) and then transferred into corresponding surrogates 24 h postinjection. We found that porcine SKPs could incorporate into the early embryos and contribute to various somatic tissues of the 3 germ layers in postnatal chimera, and especially have an endodermal potency. However, this developmental potential is compromised when they differentiate into fibroblasts. In addition, porcine NSCs fail to incorporate into host embryos and contribute to chimeric piglets. Therefore, neural crest-derived SKPs may represent a more primitive state than their counterpart neural stem cells in terms of their contributions to multiple cell lineages.

  7. Embryonic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reside in Muscle before Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis.

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    Yuka Tanaka

    Full Text Available In mice, hematopoietic cells home to bone marrow from fetal liver prenatally. To elucidate mechanisms underlying homing, we performed immunohistochemistry with the hematopoietic cell marker c-Kit, and observed c-Kit(+ cells localized inside muscle surrounding bone after 14.5 days post coitum. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD45(+ c-Kit(+ hematopoietic cells were more abundant in muscle than in bone marrow between 14.5 and 17.5 days post coitum, peaking at 16.5 days post coitum. CD45(+ c-Kit(+ cells in muscle at 16.5 days post coitum exhibited higher expression of Gata2, among several hematopoietic genes, than did fetal liver or bone marrow cells. Colony formation assays revealed that muscle hematopoietic cells possess hematopoietic progenitor activity. Furthermore, exo utero transplantation revealed that fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells home to muscle and then to BM. Our findings demonstrate that hematopoietic progenitor cell homing occurs earlier than previously reported and that hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in muscle tissue before bone marrow hematopoiesis occurs during mouse embryogenesis.

  8. Embryonic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reside in Muscle before Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis.

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    Tanaka, Yuka; Inoue-Yokoo, Tomoko; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Shirasawa, Senji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    In mice, hematopoietic cells home to bone marrow from fetal liver prenatally. To elucidate mechanisms underlying homing, we performed immunohistochemistry with the hematopoietic cell marker c-Kit, and observed c-Kit(+) cells localized inside muscle surrounding bone after 14.5 days post coitum. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD45(+) c-Kit(+) hematopoietic cells were more abundant in muscle than in bone marrow between 14.5 and 17.5 days post coitum, peaking at 16.5 days post coitum. CD45(+) c-Kit(+) cells in muscle at 16.5 days post coitum exhibited higher expression of Gata2, among several hematopoietic genes, than did fetal liver or bone marrow cells. Colony formation assays revealed that muscle hematopoietic cells possess hematopoietic progenitor activity. Furthermore, exo utero transplantation revealed that fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells home to muscle and then to BM. Our findings demonstrate that hematopoietic progenitor cell homing occurs earlier than previously reported and that hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in muscle tissue before bone marrow hematopoiesis occurs during mouse embryogenesis.

  9. Simultaneous Measurement of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells In Blood Using Multi-color Flow Cytometry

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    Cimato, Thomas R.; Furlage, Rosemary L.; Conway, Alexis; Wallace, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are the source of all inflammatory cell types. Discovery of specific cell surface markers unique to human hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor (HSPC) cell populations has facilitated studies of their development from stem cells to mature cells. The specific marker profiles of HSCs and HSPCs can be used to understand their role in human inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study is to simultaneously measure HSCs and HSPCs in normal human venous blood using multi-color flow cytometry. Our secondary aim is to determine how G-CSF mobilization alters the quantity of each HSC and HSPC population. Here we show that cells within the CD34+ fraction of human venous blood contains cells with the same cell surface markers found in human bone marrow samples. Mobilization with G-CSF significantly increases the quantity of total CD34+ cells, blood borne HSCs, multipotent progenitors, common myeloid progenitors, and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors as a percentage of total MNCs analyzed. The increase in blood borne common lymphoid and granulocyte macrophage progenitors with G-CSF treatment did not reach significance. G-CSF treatment predominantly increased the numbers of HSCs and multipotent progenitors in the total CD34+ cell population; common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors were enriched relative to total MNCs analyzed, but not relative to total CD34+ cells. Our findings illustrate the utility of multi-color flow cytometry to quantify circulating HSCs and HSPCs in venous blood samples from human subjects. PMID:26663713

  10. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

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    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  11. Primary liver tumour of intermediate (hepatocyte-bile duct cell) phenotype: a progenitor cell tumour?

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    Robrechts, C; De Vos, R; Van den Heuvel, M; Van Cutsem, E; Van Damme, B; Desmet, V; Roskams, T

    1998-08-01

    A 57-year-old female patient presented with painless obstructive jaundice and mild mesogastric pain; she was in good general condition on admission. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed diffuse tumoral invasion of the liver, suggesting diffuse metastases. A liver biopsy showed a tumour with a trabecular growth pattern, composed of uniform relatively small cells, very suggestive of an endocrine carcinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains, however, did not show any endocrine differentiation, but showed positivity for both hepatocyte-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 8 and 18) and bile duct-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 7 and 19). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, shown to be a good marker for cholangiocarcinoma, was immunoreactive. Electron microscopy revealed tumour cells with an intermediate phenotype: the cells clearly showed hepatocyte features on one hand and bile duct cell features on the other hand. Nine days after admission, the patient died due to liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy. Autopsy excluded another primary tumour site. Overall, this tumour was a primary liver tumour with an intermediate phenotype and with a very rapid clinical course. The intermediate (between hepatocyte and bile duct cell) phenotype suggests an immature progenitor cell origin, which is concordant with a rapid clinical course. This type of tumour has not been described previously and provides additional evidence for the existence of progenitor cells in human liver.

  12. Superficial cells are self-renewing chondrocyte progenitors, which form the articular cartilage in juvenile mice.

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    Li, Lei; Newton, Phillip T; Bouderlique, Thibault; Sejnohova, Marie; Zikmund, Tomas; Kozhemyakina, Elena; Xie, Meng; Krivanek, Jan; Kaiser, Jozef; Qian, Hong; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Lassar, Andrew B; Warman, Matthew L; Barenius, Björn; Adameyko, Igor; Chagin, Andrei S

    2017-03-01

    Articular cartilage has little regenerative capacity. Recently, genetic lineage tracing experiments have revealed chondrocyte progenitors at the articular surface. We further characterized these progenitors by using in vivo genetic approaches. Histone H2B-green fluorescent protein retention revealed that superficial cells divide more slowly than underlying articular chondrocytes. Clonal genetic tracing combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that superficial cells renew their number by symmetric division, express mesenchymal stem cell markers, and generate chondrocytes via both asymmetric and symmetric differentiation. Quantitative analysis of cellular kinetics, in combination with phosphotungstic acid-enhanced micro-computed tomography, showed that superficial cells generate chondrocytes and contribute to the growth and reshaping of articular cartilage. Furthermore, we found that cartilage renewal occurs as the progeny of superficial cells fully replace fetal chondrocytes during early postnatal life. Thus, superficial cells are self-renewing progenitors that are capable of maintaining their own population and fulfilling criteria of unipotent adult stem cells. Furthermore, the progeny of these cells reconstitute adult articular cartilage de novo, entirely substituting fetal chondrocytes.-Li, L., Newton, P. T., Bouderlique, T., Sejnohova, M., Zikmund, T., Kozhemyakina, E., Xie, M., Krivanek, J., Kaiser, J., Qian, H., Dyachuk, V., Lassar, A. B., Warman, M. L., Barenius, B., Adameyko, I., Chagin, A. S. Superficial cells are self-renewing chondrocyte progenitors, which form the articular cartilage in juvenile mice. © FASEB.

  13. Spheroid Coculture of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Monolayer Expanded Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Polydimethylsiloxane Microwells Modestly Improves In Vitro Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrega, Kathryn; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    While two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro, expanded cells do not engraft long term in human recipients. This outcome is attributed to the failure of 2D culture to recapitulate the bone marrow (BM) niche signal milieu. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of a novel three-dimensional (3D) coculture system to support HSPC expansion in vitro. A high-throughput polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell platform was used to manufacture thousands of uniform 3D multicellular coculture spheroids. Relative gene expression in 3D spheroid versus 2D adherent BM-derived MSC cultures was characterized and compared with literature reports. We evaluated coculture spheroids, each containing 25-400 MSCs and 10 umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ progenitor cells. At low exogenous cytokine concentrations, 2D and 3D MSC coculture modestly improved overall hematopoietic cell and CD34+ cell expansion outcomes. By contrast, a substantial increase in CD34+CD38- cell yield was observed in PDMS microwell cultures, regardless of the presence or absence of MSCs. This outcome indicated that CD34+CD38- cell culture yield could be increased using the microwell platform alone, even without MSC coculture support. We found that the increase in CD34+CD38- cell yield observed in PDMS microwell cultures did not translate to enhanced engraftment in NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) mice or a modification in the relative human hematopoietic lineages established in engrafted mice. In summary, there was no statistical difference in CD34+ cell yield from 2D or 3D cocultures, and MSC coculture support provided only modest benefit in either geometry. While the high-throughput 3D microwell platform may provide a useful model system for studying cells in coculture, further optimization will be required to generate HSPC yields suitable for use in clinical applications.

  14. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

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    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrotaxis of cardiac progenitor cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells requires serum and is directed via PI3'K pathways.

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    Frederich, Bert J; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Haddad, Michael J; Poe, Adam; Lau, Victor C; Moshref, Maryam; Knowlton, Anne A; Sirish, Padmini; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2017-06-28

    The limited regenerative capacity of cardiac tissue has long been an obstacle to treating damaged myocardium. Cell-based therapy offers an enormous potential to the current treatment paradigms. However, the efficacy of regenerative therapies remains limited by inefficient delivery and engraftment. Electrotaxis (electrically guided cell movement) has been clinically used to improve recovery in a number of tissues but has not been investigated for treating myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to test the electrotactic behaviors of several types of cardiac cells. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hiPSC-CPCs) were used. CPCs and CFs electrotax toward the anode of a direct current electric field, whereas hiPSC-CPCs electrotax toward the cathode. The voltage-dependent electrotaxis of CPCs and CFs requires the presence of serum in the media. Addition of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule to serum-free media restores directed migration. We provide evidence that CPC and CF electrotaxis is mediated through phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase signaling. In addition, very late antigen-4, an integrin and growth factor receptor, is required for electrotaxis and localizes to the anodal edge of CPCs in response to direct current electric field. The hiPSC-derived CPCs do not express very late antigen-4, migrate toward the cathode in a voltage-dependent manner, and, similar to CPCs and CFs, require media serum and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for electrotaxis. The electrotactic behaviors of these therapeutic cardiac cells may be used to improve cell-based therapy for recovering function in damaged myocardium. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Generation of high proliferative potential hematopoietic progenitor cells from embryonic stem cell-derived BL-CFC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui-Yu; Liu, Bing; Yuan, Ye; Mao, Ning

    2003-08-01

    The blast colony-forming cells (BL-CFC), which are detected within embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells (ES cells) differentiated for 2.5-3.5 days, have dual-potential of differentiation to hematopoietic and endothelial cells. In this investigation the culture method of BL-CFC was established and colony forming assay, immunofluorescent technique as well as nested RT-PCR was employed to identify the differentiation capacity of adherent and nonadherent cells derived from individual blast colony. The results showed that the adherent cells could intake DiI-Ac-LDL and expressed the endothelium-specific surface markers including CD31, UEA-I and VE-cadherin. In addition, nonadherent cells were capable of developing primitive or/and definitive hematopoiesis potential. High proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) bearing self-renewal capacity was found in 20% of BL-CFC. It is concluded that BL-CFC derived from embryonic stem cells can generate high proliferative potential hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, the whether BL-CFC can reconstitute the adult bone marrow hematopoiesis in long-term remains to be further determined.

  17. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Füllgrabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF, sebaceous gland (SG, and interfollicular epidermis (IFE of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments.

  18. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments. PMID:26607954

  19. Enhancement of myocardial regeneration through genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells expressing Pim-1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Wu, Weitao; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie A; Avitabile, Daniele; Quijada, Pearl; Collins, Brett L; Fransioli, Jenna; Sussman, Mark A

    2009-11-24

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the efficacy of cellular adoptive transfer for therapeutic myocardial regeneration, problems remain for donated cells with regard to survival, persistence, engraftment, and long-term benefits. This study redresses these concerns by enhancing the regenerative potential of adoptively transferred cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) via genetic engineering to overexpress Pim-1, a cardioprotective kinase that enhances cell survival and proliferation. Intramyocardial injections of CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 were given to infarcted female mice. Animals were monitored over 4, 12, and 32 weeks to assess cardiac function and engraftment of Pim-1 CPCs with echocardiography, in vivo hemodynamics, and confocal imagery. CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 showed increased proliferation and expression of markers consistent with cardiogenic lineage commitment after dexamethasone exposure in vitro. Animals that received CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 also produced greater levels of cellular engraftment, persistence, and functional improvement relative to control CPCs up to 32 weeks after delivery. Salutary effects include reduction of infarct size, greater number of c-kit(+) cells, and increased vasculature in the damaged region. Myocardial repair is significantly enhanced by genetic engineering of CPCs with Pim-1 kinase. Ex vivo gene delivery to enhance cellular survival, proliferation, and regeneration may overcome current limitations of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy stimulates endogenous host progenitor cells to improve colonic epithelial regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sémont

    Full Text Available Patients who undergo pelvic radiotherapy may develop severe and chronic complications resulting from gastrointestinal alterations. The lack of curative treatment highlights the importance of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. We thus tested the therapeutic benefit of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC treatment and proposed molecular mechanisms of action. MSC efficacy was tested in an experimental model of radiation-induced severe colonic ulceration histologically similar to that observed in patients. In this model, MSC from bone marrow were administered intravenously, immediately or three weeks (established lesions after irradiation. MSC therapy reduces radiation-induced colonic ulceration and increases animal survival. MSC treatment induces therapeutic efficacy whatever the time of cell infusion. Infused-MSC engraft in the colon but also increase endogenous MSC mobilization in blood that have lasting benefits over time. In vitro analysis demonstrates that the MSC effect is mediated by paracrine mechanisms through the non-canonical WNT (Wingless integration site pathway. In irradiated rat colons, MSC treatment increases the expression of the non-canonical WNT4 ligand by epithelial cells. The epithelial regenerative process is improved after MSC injection by stimulation of colonic epithelial cells positive for SOX9 (SRY-box containing gene 9 progenitor/stem cell markers. This study demonstrates that MSC treatment induces stimulation of endogenous host progenitor cells to improve the regenerative process and constitutes an initial approach to arguing in favor of the use of MSC to limit/reduce colorectal damage induced by radiation.

  1. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  2. MANF Promotes Differentiation and Migration of Neural Progenitor Cells with Potential Neural Regenerative Effects in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Anttila, Jenni E; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs...

  3. Directed differentiation of porcine epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells into neurons and glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Carter, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases; however, safety concerns must be addressed through transplantation studies in large animal models, such as the pig. The aim of this study was to derive NPCs from porcine blastocysts...

  4. Multipotent adult progenitor cells : their role in wound healing and the treatment of dermal wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdrich, B. J.; Lind, R. C.; Liechty, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cellular therapy in the treatment of dermal wounds is currently an active area of investigation. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are an attractive choice for cytotherapy because they have a large proliferative potential, the ability to differentiate into different cell types and

  5. Stem and Progenitor Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders are attractive targets for stem and progenitor cell-based therapy. Yet many conditions are not, whether by virtue of an inhospitable disease environment, poorly understood pathophysiology, or poor alignment of donor cell capabilities with patient needs. Moreove...

  6. Growth factors and hepatic progenitor cells in liver regeneration : translating bench to bedside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    Upon severe acute or chronic liver injury, hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) become activated. HPCs are adult stem cells of the liver and are considered a reserve population acting as second line of defense in liver regeneration. However, in many cases of severe liver disease this repair mechanism

  7. c-Myb is required for progenitor cell homeostasis in colonic crypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malaterre, J.; Carpinelli, M.; Ernst, M.; Alexander, W.; Cooke, M.; Sutton, S.; Dworkin, S.; Heakth, J.K.; Frampton, J.; McArthur, G.; Clevers, J.C.; Hilton, D.; Mantamadiotis, Th.; Ramsay, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    The colonic crypt is the functional unit of the colon mucosa with a central role in ion and water reabsorption. Under steady-state conditions, the distal colonic crypt harbors a single stem cell at its base that gives rise to highly proliferative progenitor cells that differentiate into columnar,

  8. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  9. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  10. Developmental potential of defined neural progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Nicolas; Bibel, Miriam; Tucker, Kerry Lee; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2004-11-01

    The developmental potential of a uniform population of neural progenitors was tested by implanting them into chick embryos. These cells were generated from retinoic acid-treated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and were used to replace a segment of the neural tube. At the time of implantation, the progenitors expressed markers defining them as Pax6-positive radial glial (RG) cells, which have recently been shown to generate most pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. Six days after implantation, the progenitors generated large numbers of neurons in the spinal cord, and differentiated into interneurons and motoneurons at appropriate locations. They also colonized the host dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and differentiated into neurons, but, unlike stem cell-derived motoneurons, they failed to elongate axons out of the DRG. In addition, they neither expressed the DRG marker Brn3a nor the Trk neurotrophin receptors. Control experiments with untreated ES cells indicated that when colonizing the DRG, these cells did elongate axons and expressed Brn3a, as well as Trk receptors. Our results thus indicate that ES cell-derived progenitors with RG characteristics generate neurons in the spinal cord and the DRG. They are able to respond appropriately to local cues in the spinal cord, but not in the DRG, indicating that they are restricted in their developmental potential.

  11. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and

  12. Polycomb group protein Ezh2 regulates hepatic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in murine embryonic liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Koike

    Full Text Available In embryonic liver, hepatic progenitor cells are actively proliferating and generate a fundamental cellular pool for establishing parenchymal components. However, the molecular basis for the expansion of the progenitors maintaining their immature state remains elusive. Polycomb group proteins regulate gene expression throughout the genome by modulating of chromatin structure and play crucial roles in development. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2, a key component of polycomb group proteins, catalyzes tri-methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3, which trigger the gene suppression. In the present study, we investigated a role of Ezh2 in the regulation of the expanding hepatic progenitor population in vivo. We found that Ezh2 is highly expressed in the actively proliferating cells at the early developmental stage. Using a conditional knockout mouse model, we show that the deletion of the SET domain of Ezh2, which is responsible for catalytic induction of H3K27me3, results in significant reduction of the total liver size, absolute number of liver parenchymal cells, and hepatic progenitor cell population in size. A clonal colony assay in the hepatic progenitor cells directly isolated from in vivo fetal livers revealed that the bi-potent clonogenicity was significantly attenuated by the Ezh2 loss of function. Moreover, a marker expression based analysis and a global gene expression analysis showed that the knockout of Ezh2 inhibited differentiation to hepatocyte with reduced expression of a number of liver-function related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that Ezh2 is required for the hepatic progenitor expansion in vivo, which is essential for the functional maturation of embryonic liver, through its activity for catalyzing H3K27me3.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 {mu}m diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: arava001@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Behnan Sahin, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cressman, Erik N.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 {mu}m in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  14. Infusion of megakaryocytic progenitor products generated from cord blood hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells: results of the phase 1 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, a constant shortage in the supply of platelets has become an important medical and society challenge, especially in developing country, and the in vitro production of megakaryocytic progenitor cells (MPs from cord blood could represent an effective platelet substitute. In the present study, our objective was to determine the safety and feasibility of ex vivo generated MPs in patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MPs were produced and characterized from cord blood mononuclear cells under a serum free medium with cytokines. We investigated the feasibility of expansion and infusion of cord blood-derived MPs in 24 patients with advanced hematological malignancies. The primary end point was the safety and tolerability of the infusion of cord blood-derived MPs. No adverse effects were observed in patients who received ex vivo-generated cells at concentrations of up to a median value of 5.45 × 10(6cells/kg of body weight. With one year follow-up, acute and chronic GVHD had not been observed among patients who received MPs infusion, even without ABO blood group and HLA typing matching. CONCLUSIONS: These initial results in patients are very encouraging. They suggest that infusion of cord blood-derived MPs appears safe and feasible for treatment of thrombocytopenia.

  15. Fetal adrenal capsular cells serve as progenitor cells for steroidogenic and stromal adrenocortical cell lineages in M. musculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michelle A.; Acharya, Asha; Finco, Isabella; Swonger, Jessica M.; Elston, Marlee J.; Tallquist, Michelle D.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    The lineage relationships of fetal adrenal cells and adrenal capsular cells to the differentiated adrenal cortex are not fully understood. Existing data support a role for each cell type as a progenitor for cells of the adult cortex. This report reveals that subsets of capsular cells are descendants of fetal adrenocortical cells that once expressed Nr5a1. These fetal adrenocortical cell descendants within the adrenal capsule express Gli1, a known marker of progenitors of steroidogenic adrenal cells. The capsule is also populated by cells that express Tcf21, a known inhibitor of Nr5a1 gene expression. We demonstrate that Tcf21-expressing cells give rise to Nr5a1-expressing cells but only before capsular formation. After the capsule has formed, capsular Tcf21-expressing cells give rise only to non-steroidogenic stromal adrenocortical cells, which also express collagen 1a1, desmin and platelet-derived growth factor (alpha polypeptide) but not Nr5a1. These observations integrate prior observations that define two separate origins of adult adrenocortical steroidogenic cells (fetal adrenal cortex and/or the adrenal capsule). Thus, these observations predict a unique temporal and/or spatial role of adult cortical cells that arise directly from either fetal cortical cells or from fetal cortex-derived capsular cells. Last, the data uncover the mechanism by which two populations of fetal cells (fetal cortex derived Gli1-expressing cells and mesenchymal Tcf21-expressing mesenchymal cells) participate in the establishment of the homeostatic capsular progenitor cell niche of the adult cortex. PMID:24131628

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  19. [Analysis and significance of hematopoietic progenitor B cells in patients with acute leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Li; Wang, Shun-Qing; Mao, Ping; DU, Qing-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Normal hematopoietic B progenitor cells are similar with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells in terms of morphology and immunophenotypes which easily result in misdiagnosis of diseases. This study was purposed to explore the importance of B progenitor cell (BPC) level in differential diagnosis of hematologic diseases. A total of 664 specimens including 87 specimens from patients with non-malignant hematologic diseases as control and 577 specimens from AL patients in different progressive stage were analyzed. Out of 577 specimens 26 were collected from ALL patients, 261 were collected from B-ALL, 290 were collected from AML. The relation of different clinical status (new diagnosis, remission, relapse), age and degree of leukemia cell involvement with hematopoietic BPC level were analyzed through identification of CD34/CD10/CD19/CD45 antibody combination and quantification of hematopoietic BPC. The results indicated that (1) CD45 distributed from positive to weak positive, and with very low side scatter. The early hematopoietic BPC expressed CD34⁺, along with increasing of cell maturation, the CD34 expression gradually disappeared, while CD19 and CD10 showed positive in whole stage of hemaropoietic BPC, and early CD10 highly was expressed. (2) the mean percentage of hematopoietic BPC was 1.36% in control group, 0.60% in T-ALL, 1.39% in B-ALL and 0.80% in AML; the detected rate of hematopoietic BPC in control, T-ALL, B-ALL and AML were 87.4%, 61.5%, 83.5%, 75.9%, respectively; the mean percentage of hematopoietic BPC was 0.37% at new diagnosis, 1.66% in remission and 0.55% in relapse. (3) along with increase of age, the hematopoietic BPC level generally disclined. (4) specimens >5% hematopoietic BPC were mainly found in remission stage of leukemia patients. It is concluded that the hematopoietic BPC are present in malignant and non-malignant hematologic diseases. The changes of hematopoietic BPC level correlate with disease state, age and leukemia cell

  20. Impaired adult myeloid progenitor CMP and GMP cell function in conditional c-myb-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Yen K; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2012-09-15

    The differentiation of myeloid progenitors to mature, terminally differentiated cells is a highly regulated process. Here, we showed that conditional disruption of the c-myb proto-oncogene in adult mice resulted in dramatic reductions in CMP, GMP and MEP myeloid progenitors, leading to a reduction of neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and platelets in peripheral blood. In addition, c-myb plays a critical role at multiple stages of myeloid development, from multipotent CMP and bipotent GMP to unipotent CFU-G and CFU-M progenitor cells. c-myb controls the differentiation of these cells and is required for the proper commitment, maturation and normal differentiation of CMPs and GMPs. Specifically, c-myb regulates the precise commitment to the megakaryocytic and granulo-monocytic pathways and governs the granulocytic-monocytic lineage choice. c-myb is also required for the commitment along the granulocytic pathway for early myeloid progenitor cells and for the maturation of committed precursor cells along this pathway. On the other hand, disruption of the c-myb gene favors the commitment to the monocytic lineage, although monocytic development was abnormal with cells appearing more mature with atypical CD41 surface markers. These results demonstrate that c-myb plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple stages in adult myelogenesis.

  1. Genome-wide gene amplification during differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Fischer

    Full Text Available DNA sequence amplification is a phenomenon that occurs predictably at defined stages during normal development in some organisms. Developmental gene amplification was first described in amphibians during gametogenesis and has not yet been described in humans. To date gene amplification in humans is a hallmark of many tumors. We used array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization to discover gene amplifications during in vitro differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here we report a complex gene amplification pattern two and five days after induction of differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. We identified several amplified genes in neural progenitor cells that are known to be amplified in malignant tumors. There is also a striking overlap of amplified chromosomal regions between differentiating neural progenitor cells and malignant tumor cells derived from astrocytes. Gene amplifications in normal human cells as physiological process has not been reported yet and may bear resemblance to developmental gene amplifications in amphibians and insects.

  2. Evaluation of islets derived from human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells in diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jian; Xu, Shi-Qing; Cai, Han-Qing; Men, Xiu-Li; Wang, Zai; Lin, Hua; Chen, Li; Jiang, Yong-Wei; Liu, Hong-Lin; Li, Cheng-Hui; Sui, Wei-Guo; Deng, Hong-Kui; Lou, Jin-Ning

    2013-01-01

    With the shortage of donor organs for islet transplantation, insulin-producing cells have been generated from different types of stem cell. Human fetal pancreatic stem cells have a better self-renewal capacity than adult stem cells and can readily differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells, making them a potential source for islets in diabetes treatment. In the present study, the functions of pancreatic islets derived from human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human pancreatic progenitor cells isolated from the fetal pancreas were expanded and differentiated into islet endocrine cells in culture. Markers for endocrine and exocrine functions as well as those for alpha and beta cells were analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To evaluate the functions of these islets in vivo, the islet-like structures were transplanted into renal capsules of diabetic nude mice. Immunohistochemical staining for human C-peptide and human mitochondrion antigen was applied to confirm the human origin and the survival of grafted islets. Human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells were able to expand in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF), and to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells with high efficiency upon the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 and activin-A. The differentiated cells expressed insulin, glucagon, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), GLUT2 and voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC), and were able to aggregate into islet-like structures containing alpha and beta cells upon suspension. These structures expressed and released a higher level of insulin than adhesion cultured cells, and helped to maintain normoglycemia in diabetic nude mice after transplantation. Human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells have good capacity for generating insulin producing cells and provide a promising potential source for diabetes treatment.

  3. Fetal liver hepatic progenitors are supportive stromal cells for hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-04-27

    Previously we showed that the ~2% of fetal liver cells reactive with an anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody support ex vivo expansion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); these cells express two proteins important for HSC ex vivo expansion, IGF2, and angiopoietin-like 3. Here we show that these cells do not express any CD3 protein and are not T cells; rather, we purified these HSC-supportive stromal cells based on the surface phenotype of SCF(+)DLK(+). Competitive repopulating experiments show that SCF(+)DLK(+) cells support the maintenance of HSCs in ex vivo culture. These are the principal fetal liver cells that express not only angiopoietin-like 3 and IGF2, but also SCF and thrombopoietin, two other growth factors important for HSC expansion. They are also the principal fetal liver cells that express CXCL12, a factor required for HSC homing, and also alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indicating that they are fetal hepatic stem or progenitor cells. Immunocytochemistry shows that >93% of the SCF(+) cells express DLK and Angptl3, and a portion of SCF(+) cells also expresses CXCL12. Thus SCF(+)DLK(+) cells are a highly homogenous population that express a complete set of factors for HSC expansion and are likely the primary stromal cells that support HSC expansion in the fetal liver.

  4. Role of c-kit ligand in the expansion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J; Briddell, R A; Srour, E F; Leemhuis, T B; Hoffman, R

    1992-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the c-kit ligand plays an important role in the regulation of early events occurring during human hematopoiesis, we determined the effect of a recombinant form of c-kit ligand, termed mast cell growth factor (MGF), on the high-proliferative potential colony-forming cell (HPP-CFC) and the cell responsible for initiating long-term hematopoiesis in vitro (LTBMIC). MGF alone did not promote HPP-CFC colony formation by CD34+ DR- CD15- marrow cells, but synergistically augmented the ability of a combination of granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) interleukin (IL)-3 and a recombinant GM-CSF/IL-3 fusion protein (FP) to promote the formation of HPP-CFC-derived colonies. MGF had a similarly profound effect on in vitro long-term hematopoiesis. Repeated additions of IL-3, GM-CSF, or FP alone to CD34+ DR- CD15- marrow cells in a stromal cell-free culture system increased cell numbers 10(3)-fold by day 56 of long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), while combinations of MGF with IL-3 or FP yielded 10(4)- and 10(5)-fold expansion of cell numbers. Expansion of the number of assayable colony-forming unit-granulocyte-monocyte (CFU-GM) generated during LTBMC was also markedly enhanced when MGF was added in combination with IL-3 or FP. In addition, MGF, IL-3, and FP individually led to a twofold to threefold increase in HPP-CFC numbers after 14 to 21 days of LTBMC. Furthermore, the effects of these cytokines on HPP-CFC expansion during LTBMC were additive. Throughout the LTBMC, cells receiving MGF possessed a higher cloning efficiency than those receiving IL-3, GM-CSF, or FP alone. These data indicate that the c-kit ligand synergistically interacts with a number of cytokines to directly augment the proliferative capacity of primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  5. Collective adhesion and displacement of retinal progenitor cells upon extracellular matrix substrates of transplantable biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ankush; Mishra, Shawn; Pena, Juan; Zhou, Jing; Redenti, Stephen; Majeska, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to replace retinal photoreceptors lost to damage or disease rely upon the migration of replacement cells transplanted into sub-retinal spaces. A significant obstacle to the advancement of cell transplantation for retinal repair is the limited migration of transplanted cells into host retina. In this work, we examine the adhesion and displacement responses of retinal progenitor cells on extracellular matrix substrates found in retina as well as widely used in the design and preparation of transplantable scaffolds. The data illustrate that retinal progenitor cells exhibit unique adhesive and displacement dynamics in response to poly-l-lysine, fibronectin, laminin, hyaluronic acid, and Matrigel. These findings suggest that transplantable biomaterials can be designed to improve cell integration by incorporating extracellular matrix substrates that affect the migratory behaviors of replacement cells. PMID:29344334

  6. SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts Into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts by Dedifferentiation Into CD34+ Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianghui; Jambusaria, Ankit; Hong, Zhigang; Marsboom, Glenn; Toth, Peter T; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Malik, Asrar B; Rehman, Jalees

    2017-06-20

    The mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and lineage conversion of adult human fibroblasts into functional endothelial cells have not yet been fully defined. Furthermore, it is not known whether fibroblast dedifferentiation recapitulates the generation of multipotent progenitors during embryonic development, which give rise to endothelial and hematopoietic cell lineages. Here we established the role of the developmental transcription factor SOX17 in regulating the bilineage conversion of fibroblasts by the generation of intermediate progenitors. CD34+ progenitors were generated after the dedifferentiation of human adult dermal fibroblasts by overexpression of pluripotency transcription factors. Sorted CD34+ cells were transdifferentiated into induced endothelial cells and induced erythroblasts using lineage-specific growth factors. The therapeutic potential of the generated cells was assessed in an experimental model of myocardial infarction. Induced endothelial cells expressed specific endothelial cell surface markers and also exhibited the capacity for cell proliferation and neovascularization. Induced erythroblasts expressed erythroid surface markers and formed erythroid colonies. Endothelial lineage conversion was dependent on the upregulation of the developmental transcription factor SOX17, whereas suppression of SOX17 instead directed the cells toward an erythroid fate. Implantation of these human bipotential CD34+ progenitors into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) mice resulted in the formation of microvessels derived from human fibroblasts perfused with mouse and human erythrocytes. Endothelial cells generated from human fibroblasts also showed upregulation of telomerase. Cell implantation markedly improved vascularity and cardiac function after myocardial infarction without any evidence of teratoma formation. Dedifferentiation of fibroblasts to intermediate CD34+ progenitors gives rise to endothelial cells and

  7. Modulation of beta1-integrins on hemopoietic progenitor cells after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalli, Adriana E; Thomson, Jennifer V; Babirad, Irene M; Duong, Mylinh; Doyle, Tracey M; Howie, Karen J; Newbold, Paul; Craggs, Richard I; Foster, Martyn; Gauvreau, Gail M; O'Byrne, Paul M; Sehmi, Roma

    2008-10-01

    Mobilization of hemopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow (BM) is a feature of inflammatory asthmatic responses. Understanding the mechanisms regulating progenitor cell mobilization and trafficking to the peripheral circulation might be important for the development of effective asthma therapies. We investigated the role of adhesion molecules in the mobilization of hemopoietic progenitor cells from the BM during an allergen-induced asthmatic response. BM and peripheral blood samples were obtained from dual-responders with mild asthma before and at several time points after allergen challenge. Fluctuations in expression and adhesive properties of beta1- and beta2-integrins on CD34(+)CD45(+) progenitor cells were assessed by using flow cytometry and adhesion to protein-coated wells, respectively. On BM-derived CD34(+)CD45(+) cells, expression of very late antigen (VLA) 4, but not VLA-5 or Mac-1, decreased significantly 24 hours after allergen challenge and had begun to recover by 48 hours after challenge. In peripheral blood allergen challenge induced a significant decrease in VLA-4 levels after 6 hours, which had not recovered by 96 hours after challenge. Similarly, VLA-5 expression decreased, most prominently at 72 to 96 hours after allergen challenge. In contrast, Mac-1 levels did not change. Chemokine-stimulated adhesion of BM-derived CD34(+)CD45(+) cells to fibronectin was significantly attenuated 24 hours after challenge. Furthermore, adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was greatly reduced by anti-VLA-4 or anti-VLA-5 antibodies. Preferential downregulation of beta1-integrin expression on progenitor cells can reduce the tethering forces to BM components, thus facilitating their egress to the peripheral circulation during an allergic inflammatory response.

  8. Ethanol alters cell fate of fetal human brain-derived stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangipuram, Sharada D; Lyman, William D

    2010-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (ETOH) exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We previously showed that ETOH alters cell adhesion molecule gene expression and increases neurosphere size in fetal brain-derived neural stem cells (NSC). Here, our aim was to determine the effect of ETOH on the cell fate of NSC, premature glial-committed precursor cells (GCP), and premature neuron-committed progenitor cells (NCP). NSC, GCP, and NCP were isolated from normal second-trimester fetal human brains (n = 3) by positive selection using magnetic microbeads labeled with antibodies to CD133 (NSC), A2B5 (GCP), or PSA-NCAM (NCP). As a result of the small percentage in each brain, NSC were cultured in mitogenic media for 72 hours to produce neurospheres. The neurospheres from NSC and primary isolates of GCP and NCP were used for all experiments. Equal numbers of the 3 cell types were treated either with mitogenic media or with differentiating media, each containing 0 or 100 mM ETOH, for 120 hours. Expression of Map2a, GFAP, and O4 was determined by immunoflourescence microscopy and western blot analysis. Fluorescence intensities were quantified using Metamorph software by Molecular Devices, and the bands of western blots were quantified using densitometry. ETOH in mitogenic media promoted formation of neurospheres by NSC, GCP, and NCP. Under control conditions, GCP attached and differentiated, NSC and NCP formed neurospheres that were significantly smaller in size than those in ETOH. Under differentiating conditions, Map2a expression increased significantly in NSC and GCP and reduced significantly in NCP, and GFAP expression reduced significantly in GCP and NCP, and Gal-C expression reduced significantly in all 3 cell types in the presence of ETOH compared to controls. This study shows that ETOH alters the cell fate of neuronal stem and progenitor cells. These alterations could contribute to the mechanism for the abnormal brain development in FASD.

  9. Dynamic Pax6 expression during the neurogenic cell cycle influences proliferation and cell fate choices of retinal progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xian-Jie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paired homeobox protein Pax6 is essential for proliferation and pluripotency of retinal progenitors. However, temporal changes in Pax6 protein expression associated with the generation of various retinal neurons have not been characterized with regard to the cell cycle. Here, we examine the dynamic changes of Pax6 expression among chicken retinal progenitors as they progress through the neurogenic cell cycle, and determine the effects of altered Pax6 levels on retinogenesis. Results We provide evidence that during the preneurogenic to neurogenic transition, Pax6 protein levels in proliferating progenitor cells are down-regulated. Neurogenic retinal progenitors retain a relatively low level of Pax6 protein, whereas postmitotic neurons either elevate or extinguish Pax6 expression in a cell type-specific manner. Cell imaging and cell cycle analyses show that neurogenic progenitors in the S phase of the cell cycle contain low levels of Pax6 protein, whereas a subset of progenitors exhibits divergent levels of Pax6 protein upon entering the G2 phase of the cell cycle. We also show that M phase cells contain varied levels of Pax6, and some correlate with the onset of early neuronal marker expression, forecasting cell cycle exit and cell fate commitment. Furthermore, either elevating or knocking down Pax6 attenuates cell proliferation and results in increased cell death. Reducing Pax6 decreases retinal ganglion cell genesis and enhances cone photoreceptor and amacrine interneuron production, whereas elevating Pax6 suppresses cone photoreceptor and amacrine cell fates. Conclusion These studies demonstrate for the first time quantitative changes in Pax6 protein expression during the preneurogenic to neurogenic transition and during the neurogenic cell cycle. The results indicate that Pax6 protein levels are stringently controlled in proliferating progenitors. Maintaining a relatively low Pax6 protein level is necessary for S phase

  10. Thy-1 (CD90)-Positive Hepatic Progenitor Cells, Hepatoctyes, and Non-parenchymal Liver Cells Isolated from Human Livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas S; Dayoub, Rania

    2017-01-01

    In response to liver injury, hepatic cells, especially hepatocytes, can rapidly proliferate to repair liver damage. Additionally, it was shown that under certain circumstances liver resident cells with progenitor capabilities are involved in liver cell proliferation and differentiation. These hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), known as oval cells in rodents, are derived from the canals of Hering, which are located in the periportal region of the liver. Regarding to different cell niches, which were defined for human HPCs, several markers have been used to identify these cells such as CD34, c-kit, OV-6, and Thy-1 (CD90). The latter was shown to be expressed on HPCs in human liver tissue with histological signs of regeneration. In this chapter we describe a detailed method for the isolation of Thy-1 positive cells from human resected liver tissue. Based on a procedure for isolating primary human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) we expanded this protocol to additional enzymatic dissociation, filtration, and centrifugation steps. This results in a bile duct cell enriched fraction of NPCs from which Thy-1 (CD90) positive cells were purified by Thy-1 positivity selection using MACS technique. Bipotential progenitor cells from human liver resections can be isolated using Thy-1 and was shown to be a suitable tool for the enrichment of liver resident progenitor cells for xenotransplantation.

  11. A novel role of microRNA146b in promoting mammary alveolar progenitor cell maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsarraj, Hanan S; Hong, Yan; Valdez, Kelli; Carletti, Martha; Salah, Sally M; Raimo, Monica; Taverna, Daniela; Prochasson, Philippe; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Tweardy, David J; Christenson, Lane K; Behbod, Fariba

    2013-06-01

    In this report, we have shown that miR146b promotes the maintenance of pregnancy-derived mammary luminal alveolar progenitors. MiR146b expression was significantly higher in the mammary glands of pregnant and lactating mice than in virgin mice. Furthermore, miR146b levels were significantly higher in mouse mammary glands exposed to the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, compared with those of untreated control animals. Pregnancy-derived primary mouse mammary epithelial cells in which miR146b was knocked down showed a significant reduction in the number of hollow acinar organoid structures formed on three-dimensional Matrigel and in β-casein expression. This demonstrates that miR146b promotes the maintenance of pregnancy-derived mammary luminal alveolar progenitors. It has been shown that mouse mammary luminal progenitors give rise to hollow organoid structures, whereas solid organoid structures are derived from stem cells. Among several miR146b targets, miR146b knockdown resulted in preferential STAT3β overexpression. In the primary mouse mammary epithelial cells, overexpression of STAT3β isoform caused mammary epithelial cell death and a significant reduction in β-casein mRNA expression. Therefore, we conclude that during pregnancy miR146b is involved in luminal alveolar progenitor cell maintenance, at least partially, by regulating STAT3β.

  12. FGF8 activates proliferation and migration in mouse post-natal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cruz-Martinez

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8 is a key molecular signal that is necessary for early embryonic development of the central nervous system, quickly disappearing past this point. It is known to be one of the primary morphogenetic signals required for cell fate and survival processes in structures such as the cerebellum, telencephalic and isthmic organizers, while its absence causes severe abnormalities in the nervous system and the embryo usually dies in early stages of development. In this work, we have observed a new possible therapeutic role for this factor in demyelinating disorders, such as leukodystrophy or multiple sclerosis. In vitro, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were cultured with differentiating medium and in the presence of FGF8. Differentiation and proliferation studies were performed by immunocytochemistry and PCR. Also, migration studies were performed in matrigel cultures, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were placed at a certain distance of a FGF8-soaked heparin bead. The results showed that both migration and proliferation was induced by FGF8. Furthermore, a similar effect was observed in an in vivo demyelinating mouse model, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were observed migrating towards the FGF8-soaked heparin beads where they were grafted. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that FGF8 is a novel factor to induce oligodendrocyte progenitor cell activation, migration and proliferation in vitro, which can be extrapolated in vivo in demyelinated animal models.

  13. CGRP induction in cystic fibrosis airways alters the submucosal gland progenitor cell niche in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiliang; Fisher, John T; Lynch, Thomas J; Luo, Meihui; Evans, Turan I A; Neff, Traci L; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Yulong; Ou, Yi; Bunnett, Nigel W; Russo, Andrew F; Goodheart, Michael J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F

    2011-08-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), a lack of functional CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels causes defective secretion by submucosal glands (SMGs), leading to persistent bacterial infection that damages airways and necessitates tissue repair. SMGs are also important niches for slow-cycling progenitor cells (SCPCs) in the proximal airways, which may be involved in disease-related airway repair. Here, we report that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) activates CFTR-dependent SMG secretions and that this signaling pathway is hyperactivated in CF human, pig, ferret, and mouse SMGs. Since CGRP-expressing neuroendocrine cells reside in bronchiolar SCPC niches, we hypothesized that the glandular SCPC niche may be dysfunctional in CF. Consistent with this hypothesis, CFTR-deficient mice failed to maintain glandular SCPCs following airway injury. In wild-type mice, CGRP levels increased following airway injury and functioned as an injury-induced mitogen that stimulated SMG progenitor cell proliferation in vivo and altered the proliferative potential of airway progenitors in vitro. Components of the receptor for CGRP (RAMP1 and CLR) were expressed in a very small subset of SCPCs, suggesting that CGRP indirectly stimulates SCPC proliferation in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These findings demonstrate that CGRP-dependent pathways for CFTR activation are abnormally upregulated in CF SMGs and that this sustained mitogenic signal alters properties of the SMG progenitor cell niche in CF airways. This discovery may have important implications for injury/repair mechanisms in the CF airway.

  14. Wnt signaling induces differentiation of progenitor cells in organotypic keratinocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bob Y

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interfollicular skin develops normally only when the activity of the progenitor cells in the basal layer is counterbalanced by the exit of cells into the suprabasal layers, where they differentiate and cornify to establish barrier function. Distinct stem and progenitor compartments have been demonstrated in hair follicles and sebaceous glands, but there are few data to describe the control of interfollicular progenitor cell activity. Wnt signaling has been shown to be an important growth-inducer of stem cell compartments in skin and many other tissues. Results Here, we test the effect of ectopic Wnt1 expression on the behavior of interfollicular progenitor cells in an organotypic culture model, and find that Wnt1 signaling inhibits their growth and promotes terminal differentiation. Conclusion These results are consistent with the phenotypes reported for transgenic mice engineered to have gain or loss of function of Wnt signaling in skin, which would recommend our culture model as an accurate one for molecular analysis. Since it is known that canonical ligands are expressed in skin, it is likely that this pathway normally regulates the balance of growth and differentiation, and suggests it could be important to pathogenesis.

  15. MUC-1-/ESA+ progenitor cells in normal, benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-11-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468. In normal breast tissues MUC-1-/ESA+ cells were mainly found in the suprabasal layer, but under the apical surface of the duct/alveolus. In the hyperplastic areas of fibrocystic disease, the number of this subpopulation of cells was higher than that in hypoplastic areas and in fibroadenomas. In invasive ductal carcinoma, the MMUC-1-/ESA+ cells were heterogeneously present in different carcinoma nests. In the MCF-7 cell line most cells were MUC-1-/ESA+, and in the MDA-MB-468 cell line MUC-1-/ESA+ cells and MUC-1-/ESA+ cells were almost equal. Our results show that the MUC-1-/ESA+ subpopulation increases in fibrocystic disease within the hyperplastic areas, and varies in benign and malignant breast tumours, indicating that breast carcinogenesis may develop from malignant changes of normal MUC-1-/ESA+ cells.

  16. Generation of murine sympathoadrenergic progenitor-like cells from embryonic stem cells and postnatal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shobhit; Wahl, Joachim; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Stadel, Dominic; Braubach, Peter; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Beltinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sympathoadrenergic progenitor cells (SAPs) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are important for normal development of the sympathetic PNS and for the genesis of neuroblastoma, the most common and often lethal extracranial solid tumor in childhood. However, it remains difficult to isolate sufficient numbers of SAPs for investigations. We therefore set out to improve generation of SAPs by using two complementary approaches, differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolation from postnatal murine adrenal glands. We provide evidence that selecting for GD2 expression enriches for ESC-derived SAP-like cells and that proliferating SAP-like cells can be isolated from postnatal adrenal glands of mice. These advances may facilitate investigations about the development and malignant transformation of the sympathetic PNS.

  17. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...... from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month...

  18. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    OpenAIRE

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor...

  19. Characterization of Cardiac-Resident Progenitor Cells Expressing High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Estienne Roehrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity has been associated with stem and progenitor cells in various tissues. Human cord blood and bone marrow ALDH-bright (ALDHbr cells have displayed angiogenic activity in preclinical studies and have been shown to be safe in clinical trials in patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease. The presence of ALDHbr cells in the heart has not been evaluated so far. We have characterized ALDHbr cells isolated from mouse hearts. One percent of nonmyocytic cells from neonatal and adult hearts were ALDHbr. ALDHvery-br cells were more frequent in neonatal hearts than adult. ALDHbr cells were more frequent in atria than ventricles. Expression of ALDH1A1 isozyme transcripts was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHbr cells, and lowest in ALDHdim cells. ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHdim cells, and lowest in ALDHbr cells. ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDHvery-br and ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, albeit at lower levels compared with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. Freshly isolated ALDHbr cells were enriched for cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, CD34, CD90, CD44, and CD106. ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, could be grown in culture for more than 40 passages. They expressed sarcomeric α-actinin and could be differentiated along multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, the proportion of ALDHbr cells declined with cell passage. In conclusion, the cardiac-derived ALDHbr population is enriched for progenitor cells that exhibit mesenchymal progenitor-like characteristics and can be expanded in culture. The regenerative potential of cardiac-derived ALDHbr cells remains to be evaluated.

  20. Regulatory Systems in Bone Marrow for Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Mobilization and Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, P.; Carrillo, E.; Vélez, C.; Hita-Contreras, F.; Martínez-Amat, A.; Rodríguez-Serrano, F.; Boulaiz, H.; Ortiz, R.; Melguizo, C.; Prados, J.; Aránega, A.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell release, migration, and homing from the bone marrow (BM) and of the mobilization pathway involves a complex interaction among adhesion molecules, cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, stromal cells, and hematopoietic cells. The identification of new mechanisms that regulate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) cells has important implications, not only for hematopoietic transplantation but also for cell therapies in regenerative medicine for patients with acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and stroke, among others. This paper reviews the regulation mechanisms underlying the homing and mobilization of BM hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, investigating the following issues: (a) the role of different factors, such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), among other ligands; (b) the stem cell count in peripheral blood and BM and influential factors; (c) the therapeutic utilization of this phenomenon in lesions in different tissues, examining the agents involved in HSPCs mobilization, such as the different forms of G-CSF, plerixafor, and natalizumab; and (d) the effects of this mobilization on BM-derived stem/progenitor cells in clinical trials of patients with different diseases. PMID:23844360

  1. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai, Mima; Asahina, Kinji; Iseki, Sachiko; Teramoto, Kenichi; Nishida, Tomohiro; Shimizu-Saito, Keiko; Ota, Masato; Eto, Kazuhiro; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    2009-04-03

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or alpha-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

  2. Functional evidence for derivation of systemic histiocytic neoplasms from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Benjamin H; Roos-Weil, Damien; Baillou, Claude; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Yoshimi, Akihide; Miyara, Makoto; Papo, Matthias; Hélias-Rodzewicz, Zofia; Terrones, Nathalie; Ozkaya, Neval; Dogan, Ahmet; Rampal, Raajit; Urbain, Fanny; Le Fèvre, Lucie; Diamond, Eli L; Park, Christopher Y; Papo, Thomas; Charlotte, Frédéric; Gorochov, Guy; Taly, Valérie; Bernard, Olivier A; Amoura, Zahir; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Lemoine, François M; Haroche, Julien; Emile, Jean-François

    2017-07-13

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and the non-LCH neoplasm Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) are heterogeneous neoplastic disorders marked by infiltration of pathologic macrophage-, dendritic cell-, or monocyte-derived cells in tissues driven by recurrent mutations activating MAPK signaling. Although recent data indicate that at least a proportion of LCH and ECD patients have detectable activating kinase mutations in circulating hematopoietic cells and bone marrow-based hematopoietic progenitors, functional evidence of the cell of origin of histiocytosis from actual patient materials has long been elusive. Here, we provide evidence for mutations in MAPK signaling intermediates in CD34(+) cells from patients with ECD and LCH/ECD, including detection of shared origin of LCH and acute myelomonocytic leukemia driven by TET2-mutant CD34(+) cell progenitors in one patient. We also demonstrate functional self-renewal capacity for CD34(+) cells to drive the development of histiocytosis in xenotransplantation assays in vivo. These data indicate that the cell of origin of at least a proportion of patients with systemic histiocytoses resides in hematopoietic progenitor cells prior to committed monocyte/macrophage or dendritic cell differentiation and provide the first example of a patient-derived xenotransplantation model for a human histiocytic neoplasm. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Regulatory Systems in Bone Marrow for Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Mobilization and Homing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell release, migration, and homing from the bone marrow (BM and of the mobilization pathway involves a complex interaction among adhesion molecules, cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, stromal cells, and hematopoietic cells. The identification of new mechanisms that regulate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs cells has important implications, not only for hematopoietic transplantation but also for cell therapies in regenerative medicine for patients with acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and stroke, among others. This paper reviews the regulation mechanisms underlying the homing and mobilization of BM hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, investigating the following issues: (a the role of different factors, such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, among other ligands; (b the stem cell count in peripheral blood and BM and influential factors; (c the therapeutic utilization of this phenomenon in lesions in different tissues, examining the agents involved in HSPCs mobilization, such as the different forms of G-CSF, plerixafor, and natalizumab; and (d the effects of this mobilization on BM-derived stem/progenitor cells in clinical trials of patients with different diseases.

  4. Long-lived keratin 15+ esophageal progenitor cells contribute to homeostasis and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Véronique; Lento, Ashley A; Islam, Mirazul; Pitarresi, Jason R; Kharbanda, Akriti; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Whelan, Kelly A; Long, Apple; Rhoades, Ben; Tang, Qiaosi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Lengner, Christopher J; Bass, Adam J; Wileyto, E Paul; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Wang, Timothy C; Rustgi, Anil K

    2017-06-01

    The esophageal lumen is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium comprised of proliferative basal cells that differentiate while migrating toward the luminal surface and eventually desquamate. Rapid epithelial renewal occurs, but the specific cell of origin that supports this high proliferative demand remains unknown. Herein, we have described a long-lived progenitor cell population in the mouse esophageal epithelium that is characterized by expression of keratin 15 (Krt15). Genetic in vivo lineage tracing revealed that the Krt15 promoter marks a long-lived basal cell population able to self-renew, proliferate, and generate differentiated cells, consistent with a progenitor/stem cell population. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that Krt15+ basal cells are molecularly distinct from Krt15- basal cells. Depletion of Krt15-derived cells resulted in decreased proliferation, thereby leading to atrophy of the esophageal epithelium. Further, Krt15+ cells were radioresistant and contributed to esophageal epithelial regeneration following radiation-induced injury. These results establish the presence of a long-lived and indispensable Krt15+ progenitor cell population that provides additional perspective on esophageal epithelial biology and the widely prevalent diseases that afflict this epithelium.

  5. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Christopher S; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-05-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3(+)TCR-αβ(+) single-positive CD8(+) or CD4(+) cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naive phenotypes, a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen-specific cytotoxicity and near-complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ-encoding loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell differentiation and for the future development of stem-cell-based engineered T cell therapies.

  6. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  7. Controlled skeletal progenitor cell migration on nanostructured porous silicon/silicon micropatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Costa, V.; Sánchez-Vaquero, V.; Muñoz-Noval, Á.; González-Méndez, L.; Punzón-Quijorna, E.; Gallach-Pérez, D.; Manso-Silván, M.; Martínez-Muñoz, G.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J. P.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) was used for the fabrication of surface micropatterns aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. In particular, surface patterns of nanoPS and Si were engineered by high-energy ion-beam irradiation and subsequent anodization. It was found that human skeletal progenitor cells are sensitive to oneand two-dimensional patterns and that focal adhesion is inhibited on nanoPS areas. In spite of this anti-fouling characteristics, studies on patterns with reduced Si areas show that cells conform to nanoPS pathways favoring migration through cell protrusion, body translocation and tail retraction from two parallel Si traction rails. Moreover, migration can be blocked and cells tend to arrange when grid patterns with the appropriate dimensions are fabricated. The experimental results confirm that progenitor cells are able to exploit nanoPS anti-fouling designs by adapting to it for migration purposes.

  8. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  9. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Paula G; Pasquini, Juana M; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  10. Eotaxin-rich Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and CCR3+ Endothelium in the Atopic Asthmatic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asosingh, Kewal; Vasanji, Amit; Tipton, Aaron; Queisser, Kimberly; Wanner, Nicholas; Janocha, Allison; Grandon, Deepa; Anand-Apte, Bela; Rothenberg, Marc. E.; Dweik, Raed; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is closely linked to and precedes eosinophilic infiltration in asthma. Eosinophils are recruited into the airway by chemoattractant eotaxins, which are expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, epithelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells that contain eotaxins contribute to the initiation of angiogenesis and inflammation in asthma. Whole lung allergen challenge of atopic asthma patients revealed vascular activation occurs within hours of challenge, and prior to airway inflammation. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed at high levels on submucosal endothelial cells in patients and murine model of asthma. Exvivo exposure of murine endothelial cells to eotaxins induced migration and angiogenesis. In mechanistic studies, wildtype mice transplanted with eotaxin-1/2 deficient bone marrow had markedly less angiogenesis and inflammation in an atopic asthma model, while adoptive transfer of proangiogenic progenitor cells from wildtype mice in an atopic asthma model into the eotaxin-1/2 deficient mice led to angiogenesis and airway inflammation. The findings indicate that TH2-promoting hematopoietic progenitor cells are rapidly recruited to the lung upon allergen exposure and release eotaxins that coordinately activate endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and airway inflammation. PMID:26810221

  11. Lipidome of midbody released from neural stem and progenitor cells during mammalian cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eArai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Midbody release from proliferative neural progenitor cells is tightly associated with the neuronal commitment of neural progenitor cells during the progression of neurogenesis in the mammalian cerebral cortex. While the central portion of the midbody, a cytoplasmic bridge between nascent daughter cells, is engulfed by one of the daughter cell by most cells in vitro, it is shown to be released into the extracellular cerebrospinal fluid in vivo in mouse embryos. Several proteins have been involved in midbody release; however, few studies have addressed the participation of the plasma membrane’s lipids in this process. Here, we show by Shotgun Lipidomic analysis that phosphatydylserine (PS, among other lipids, is enriched in the released midbodies compared to lipoparticles and cellular membranes, both collected from the cerebrospinal fluid of the developing mouse embryos. Moreover, the developing mouse embryo neural progenitor cells released two distinct types of midbodies carrying either internalized PS or externalized PS on their membrane. This strongly suggests that phagocytosis and an alternative fate of released midbodies exists. HeLa cells, which are known to mainly engulf the midbody show almost no PS exposure, if any, on the outer leaflet of the midbody membrane. These results point towards that PS exposure might be involved in the selection of recipients of released midbodies, either to be engulfed by daughter cells or phagocytosed by non-daughter cells or another cell type in the developing cerebral cortex.

  12. Analysis of variation in results of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell enumeration in a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratama, J. W.; Kraan, J.; Levering, W.; van Bockstaele, D. R.; Rijkers, G. T.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held in The Netherlands and Belgium with the aim of investigating whether or not the use of a standard protocol vs. local protocols for flow cytometric enumeration of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells would reduce interlaboratory variation. The standard protocol consisted of a

  13. Targeted ablation of CRB1 and CRB2 in retinal progenitor cells mimics Leber congenital amaurosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellissier, Lucie P.; Alves, Celso Henrique; Quinn, Peter M.; Vos, Rogier M.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Dudok, Jacobus J.; Hooibrink, Berend; Richard, Fabrice; Beck, Susanne C.; Huber, Gesine; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Le Bivic, André; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Wijnholds, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Development in the central nervous system is highly dependent on the regulation of the switch from progenitor cell proliferation to differentiation, but the molecular and cellular events controlling this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 genes results

  14. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Drouven, Johannes W.; Waanders, Femke; Franssen, Casper F. M.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Popa, Eliane R.

    Krenning G, Dankers PY, Drouven JW, Waanders F, Franssen CF, van Luyn MJ, Harmsen MC, Popa ER. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1314-F1322, 2009. First published April 1, 2009; doi:

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  16. Multifactorial treatment increases endothelial progenitor cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, H; Jacobsen, P Karl; Lajer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) augment vascular repair and neovascularisation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced EPC and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is reduced by multifactorial intervention. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate in type 2 diabetic patients...

  17. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The adult rodent brain contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs), generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to visualize endogenous NPC migration...

  18. Multiple myeloma–related deregulation of bone marrow–derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Ron-Patrick; Brueckmann, Ines; Fröbel, Julia; Geyh, Stefanie; Büst, Sebastian; Fischer, Johannes C.; Roels, Frederik; Wilk, Christian Matthias; Schildberg, Frank A.; Hünerlitürkoglu, Ali-Nuri; Zilkens, Christoph; Jäger, Marcus; Steidl, Ulrich; Zohren, Fabian; Fenk, Roland; Kobbe, Guido; Brors, Benedict; Czibere, Akos; Schroeder, Thomas; Trumpp, Andreas; Haas, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder frequently accompanied by hematopoietic impairment. We show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), in particular megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors, are diminished in the BM of MM patients. Genomic profiling of HSPC subsets revealed deregulations of signaling cascades, most notably TGFβ signaling, and pathways involved in cytoskeletal organization, migration, adhesion, and cell-cycle regulation in the patients. Functionally, proliferation, colony formation, and long-term self-renewal were impaired as a consequence of activated TGFβ signaling. In accordance, TGFβ levels in the BM extracellular fluid were elevated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) had a reduced capacity to support long-term hematopoiesis of HSPCs that completely recovered on blockade of TGFβ signaling. Furthermore, we found defective actin assembly and down-regulation of the adhesion receptor CD44 in MM HSPCs functionally reflected by impaired migration and adhesion. Still, transplantation into myeloma-free NOG mice revealed even enhanced engraftment and normal differentiation capacities of MM HSPCs, which underlines that functional impairment of HSPCs depends on MM-related microenvironmental cues and is reversible. Taken together, these data implicate that hematopoietic suppression in MM emerges from the HSPCs as a result of MM-related microenvironmental alterations. PMID:22517906

  19. Multiple myeloma-related deregulation of bone marrow-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Ingmar; Cadeddu, Ron-Patrick; Brueckmann, Ines; Fröbel, Julia; Geyh, Stefanie; Büst, Sebastian; Fischer, Johannes C; Roels, Frederik; Wilk, Christian Matthias; Schildberg, Frank A; Hünerlitürkoglu, Ali-Nuri; Zilkens, Christoph; Jäger, Marcus; Steidl, Ulrich; Zohren, Fabian; Fenk, Roland; Kobbe, Guido; Brors, Benedict; Czibere, Akos; Schroeder, Thomas; Trumpp, Andreas; Haas, Rainer

    2012-09-27

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder frequently accompanied by hematopoietic impairment. We show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), in particular megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors, are diminished in the BM of MM patients. Genomic profiling of HSPC subsets revealed deregulations of signaling cascades, most notably TGFβ signaling, and pathways involved in cytoskeletal organization, migration, adhesion, and cell-cycle regulation in the patients. Functionally, proliferation, colony formation, and long-term self-renewal were impaired as a consequence of activated TGFβ signaling. In accordance, TGFβ levels in the BM extracellular fluid were elevated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) had a reduced capacity to support long-term hematopoiesis of HSPCs that completely recovered on blockade of TGFβ signaling. Furthermore, we found defective actin assembly and down-regulation of the adhesion receptor CD44 in MM HSPCs functionally reflected by impaired migration and adhesion. Still, transplantation into myeloma-free NOG mice revealed even enhanced engraftment and normal differentiation capacities of MM HSPCs, which underlines that functional impairment of HSPCs depends on MM-related microenvironmental cues and is reversible. Taken together, these data implicate that hematopoietic suppression in MM emerges from the HSPCs as a result of MM-related microenvironmental alterations.

  20. Parvovirus B19 Replication and Expression in Differentiating Erythroid Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bua

    Full Text Available The pathogenic Parvovirus B19 (B19V is characterized by a strict adaptation to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs, a heterogeneous population of differentiating cells with diverse phenotypic and functional properties. In our work, we studied the dynamics of B19V infection in EPCs in dependence on the cell differentiation stage, in terms of distribution of infected cells, synthesis of viral nucleic acids and production of infectious virus. EPCs at early differentiation stage led to an abortive infection, without viral genome replication and a very low transcriptional activity. EPCs at later stages were permissive, with highest levels of viral replicative activity at day 9 (+3.0 Log from 2 to 48 hpi and lower levels at day 18 (+1.5 Log from 2 to 48 hpi. B19V DNA increment was in accordance with the percentage of cells positive to flow-FISH assay (41.4% at day 9, 1.1% at day 18. Quantitation of total RNA indicated a close association of genome replication and transcription with viral RNA accumulation within infected cells related to viral DNA increase during the course of infection. Analysis of the different classes of mRNAs revealed two distinct pattern of genome expression profile with a fine regulation in the frequency utilization of RNA processing signals: an early phase, when cleavage at the proximal site leading to a higher relative production of mRNA for NS protein, and a late phase, when cleavage at the distal site was more frequent leading to higher relative abundance of mRNA for VP and 11 kDA proteins. Infectious virus was released from cells at day 6-15, but not at day 18. Our results, providing a detailed description of B19V replication and expression profile in differentiating EPCs, highlight the very tight adaptation of B19V to a specific cellular target defined both by its erythroid lineage and its differentiation stage.

  1. Stem/progenitor cells from inflamed human dental pulp retain tissue regeneration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Dominick J; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Song, Yingjie; Fouad, Ashraf F; Romberg, Elaine E; Shi, Songtao; Tuan, Rocky S; Huang, George T-J

    2011-01-01

    Background Potent stem/progenitor cells have been isolated from normal human dental pulps termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, it is unknown whether these cells exist in inflamed pulps (IPs). Aims To determine whether DPSCs can be identified and isolated from IPs; and if they can be successfully cultured, whether they retain tissue regeneration potential in vivo. Materials & methods DPSCs from freshly collected normal pulps (NPs) and IPs were characterized in vitro and their tissue regeneration potential tested using an in vivo study model. Results The immunohistochemical analysis showed that IPs expressed higher levels of mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD90, CD105 and CD146 compared with NPs (p < 0.05). Flow cytometry analysis showed that DPSCs from both NPs and IPs expressed moderate to high levels of CD146, stage-specific embryonic antigen-4, CD73 and CD166. Total population doubling of DPSCs-IPs (44.6 ± 2.9) was lower than that of DPSCs-NPs (58.9 ± 2.5) (p < 0.05), and DPSCs-IPs appeared to have a decreased osteo/dentinogenic potential compared with DPSCs-NPs based on the mineral deposition in cultures. Nonetheless, DPSCs-IPs formed pulp/dentin complexes similar to DPSCs-NPs when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Conclusion DPSCs-IPs can be isolated and their mesenchymal stem cell marker profiles are similar to those from NPs. Although some stem cell properties of DPSCs-IPs were altered, cells from some samples remained potent in tissue regeneration in vivo. PMID:20465527

  2. Conditionally reprogrammed normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells display a progenitor-cell-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Saenz

    Full Text Available Mammary epithelial (ME cells cultured under conventional conditions senesce after several passages. Here, we demonstrate that mouse ME cells isolated from normal mammary glands or from mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-Neu-induced mammary tumors, can be cultured indefinitely as conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs on irradiated fibroblasts in the presence of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cell surface progenitor-associated markers are rapidly induced in normal mouse ME-CRCs relative to ME cells. However, the expression of certain mammary progenitor subpopulations, such as CD49f+ ESA+ CD44+, drops significantly in later passages. Nevertheless, mouse ME-CRCs grown in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix gave rise to mammary acinar structures. ME-CRCs isolated from MMTV-Neu transgenic mouse mammary tumors express high levels of HER2/neu, as well as tumor-initiating cell markers, such as CD44+, CD49f+, and ESA+ (EpCam. These patterns of expression are sustained in later CRC passages. Early and late passage ME-CRCs from MMTV-Neu tumors that were implanted in the mammary fat pads of syngeneic or nude mice developed vascular tumors that metastasized within 6 weeks of transplantation. Importantly, the histopathology of these tumors was indistinguishable from that of the parental tumors that develop in the MMTV-Neu mice. Application of the CRC system to mouse mammary epithelial cells provides an attractive model system to study the genetics and phenotype of normal and transformed mouse epithelium in a defined culture environment and in vivo transplant studies.

  3. Manipulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing with Sphingosine-1-Phosphate for Terapeutic Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Priscilla Anne

    Ischemic vascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide and yet current therapies only delay disease progression and improve quality of life without addressing the fundamental problem of tissue loss. Within the field of tissue engineering, therapeutic angiogenesis provides a promising approach to alternatively provide new blood vessel formation via spatiotemporally controlled delivery of proangiogenic agents. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid that is upregulated under ischemic conditions, has recently gained great enthusiasm as a potential mediator in neovascularization strategies given its essential roles in promoting both neovessel formation and stabilization, and cellular trafficking along highly regulated endogenous gradients. Herein, the governing hypothesis guiding this dissertation is that local biomaterial-controlled delivery of S1P may be used to enhance migration and recruitment of vascular progenitor cells for enhanced therapeutic angiogenesis within ischemic tissue. The initial work in this dissertation investigated the effect of hypoxia on the angiogenic response of both mature and progenitor endothelial cells to S1P stimulation in vitro. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) were isolated from human umbilical cord blood to provide a clinically relevant source of vascular progenitor cells for the studies conducted within this dissertation. S1P stimulation promoted angiogenic activity of both ECs and OECs under both ambient and hypoxic (1%) oxygen tensions. Furthermore, dual therapy with the combination of S1P and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) further enhanced cellular responses. Interestingly, hypoxia substantially augmented the functional response of OECs to S1P, resulting in 25-fold and 6.5-fold increases in directed migration and sprouting, respectively. Thus, these studies highlighted the potential for S1P as a therapeutic agent for treatment of ischemic diseases. An injectable biomaterial system

  4. Targeting of the BLT2 in chronic myeloid leukemia inhibits leukemia stem/progenitor cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meifang; Ai, Hongmei; Li, Tao [Department of Laboratory Medicine, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China); Rajoria, Pasupati; Shahu, Prakash [Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Li, Xiansong, E-mail: lixiansongjz@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has significantly improved clinical outcome for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, patients develop resistance when the disease progresses to the blast phase (BP) and the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that BCR-ABL activates BLT2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to promote leukemogenesis and this involves the p53 signaling pathway. Compared to normal bone marrow (NBM), the mRNA and protein levels of BLT2 are significantly increased in BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. This is correlated with increasing BCR-ABL expression. In contrast, knockdown of BCR-ABL or inhibition of its tyrosine kinase activity decreases Blt2 protein level. BLT2 inhibition induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and self-renewal capacity of CD34{sup +} cells from TKI-resistant BP-CML patients. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL TKI on CML stem/progenitor cells are further enhanced upon combination with BLT2 inhibition. We further show that BLT2 activation selectively suppresses p53 but not Wnt or BMP-mediated luciferase activity and transcription. Our results demonstrate that BLT2 is a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL and critically involved in the resistance of BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors to TKIs treatment. Our findings suggest that BLT2 and p53 can serve as therapeutic targets for CML treatment. - Highlights: • BCR-ABL regulates BLT2 expression to promote leukemogenesis. • BLT2 is essential to maintain CML cell function. • Activation of BLT2 suppresses p53 signaling pathway in CML cells. • Inhibition of BLT2 and BCR-ABL synergize in eliminating CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors.

  5. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Christopher S.; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T.; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H.; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B.; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M.; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-01-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3+TCRab+ single positive (SP) CD8+ or CD4+ cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports highly efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naïve phenotypes, a diverse TCR repertoire, and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen specific cytotoxicity and near complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell development and stem cell based approaches to engineered T cell therapies. PMID:28369043

  6. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  7. Monomeric CXCL12 outperforms its dimeric and wild type variants in the promotion of human endothelial progenitor cells' function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuang; Li, Yaning; Yuan, Fang; Qu, Meijie; Song, Yaying; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-24

    CXCL12 overexpression improves neurobehavioral recovery during post-ischemic stroke through multiple mechanisms including promoting endothelial progenitor cells function in animal models. It has been proposed that the monomer and dimer forms possess differential chemotactic and regulatory function. The aim of present study is to explore whether a monomeric or dimeric CXCL12 plays a different role in the endothelial progenitor cells proliferation, migration, and tube-formation in vitro. In this study, we transferred monomeric, dimeric and wild type CXCL12 gene into endothelial progenitor cells via lentiviral vectors. We investigated endothelial progenitor cells function following the interaction of CXCL12/CXCR4 or CXCL12/CXCR7 and downstream signaling pathways. Our results showed that the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells had enhanced ability in cell proliferation, migration, and tube-formation compared to that in dimeric or wild type controls (p function of migration, but not proliferation or tube-formation, was significantly reduced in the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells when the cells were pre-treated with either CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 or siCXCR7 (p function was partially regulated by CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 signal pathways. Our study demonstrated that monomeric CXCL12 was the fundamental form, which played important roles in endothelial progenitor cells' proliferation, migration, and tube-formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Engraftment of enteric neural progenitor cells into the injured adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Hotta, Ryo; Whalen, Michael; Nayyar, Naema; Nagy, Nandor; Cheng, Lily; Zuckerman, Aaron; Goldstein, Allan M; Dietrich, Jorg

    2016-01-25

    A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an attractive approach, but its application has been challenging due to the lack of suitable cell sources, ethical concerns, and immune-mediated tissue rejection. We propose an innovative approach that utilizes gut-derived neural tissue for cell-based therapies following focal or diffuse central nervous system injury. Enteric neuronal stem and progenitor cells, able to differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages, were isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system and propagated in vitro. Gut-derived neural progenitors, genetically engineered to express fluorescent proteins, were transplanted into the injured brain of adult mice. Using different models of brain injury in combination with either local or systemic cell delivery, we show that transplanted enteric neuronal progenitor cells survive, proliferate, and differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages in vivo. Moreover, transplanted cells migrate extensively along neuronal pathways and appear to modulate the local microenvironment to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that enteric nervous system derived cells represent a potential source for tissue regeneration in the central nervous system. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to explore whether autologous gut-derived cell transplantation into the injured brain can result in functional neurologic recovery.

  9. CD34+ cells represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells in murine bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs were shown to have angiogenic potential contributing to neovascularization. However, a clear definition of mouse EPCs by cell surface markers still remains elusive. We hypothesized that CD34 could be used for identification and isolation of functional EPCs from mouse bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD34(+ cells, c-Kit(+/Sca-1(+/Lin(- (KSL cells, c-Kit(+/Lin(- (KL cells and Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs using fluorescent activated cell sorting. EPC colony forming capacity and differentiation capacity into endothelial lineage were examined in the cells. Although CD34(+ cells showed the lowest EPC colony forming activity, CD34(+ cells exhibited under endothelial culture conditions a more adherent phenotype compared with the others, demonstrating the highest mRNA expression levels of endothelial markers vWF, VE-cadherin, and Flk-1. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in immediate recruitment of cells to the myocardium following myocardial infarction and systemic cell injection was observed for CD34(+ cells comparing with others, which could be explained by the highest mRNA expression levels of key homing-related molecules Integrin β2 and CXCR4 in CD34(+ cells. Cell retention and incorporation into the vasculature of the ischemic myocardium was also markedly increased in the CD34(+ cell-injected group, giving a possible explanation for significant reduction in fibrosis area, significant increase in neovascularization and the best cardiac functional recovery in this group in comparison with the others. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mouse CD34(+ cells may represent a functional EPC population in bone marrow, which could benefit the investigation of therapeutic EPC biology.

  10. Myocardial regeneration by transplantation of modified endothelial progenitor cells expressing SDF-1 in a rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, A.; Kroh, A.; Konschalla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell based therapy has been shown to attenuate myocardial dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in different acute and chronic animal models. It has been further shown that stromal-cell derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) facilitates proliferation and migration of endogenous progenitor cells...... into injured tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of exogenously applied and endogenously mobilized cells in a regenerative strategy for MI therapy. Lentivirally SDF-1a-infected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were injected after 90 min. of ligation and reperfusion of the left...... anterior descending artery (LAD) intramyocardial and intracoronary using a new rodent catheter system. Eight weeks after transplantation, echocardiography and isolated heart studies revealed a significant improvement of LV function after intramyocardial application of lentiviral with SDF-1 infected EPCs...

  11. Temporal Progression of Retinal Progenitor Cell Identity: Implications in Cell Replacement Therapies

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    Awais Javed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal degenerative diseases, which lead to the death of rod and cone photoreceptor cells, are the leading cause of inherited vision loss worldwide. Induced pluripotent or embryonic stem cells (iPSCs/ESCs have been proposed as a possible source of new photoreceptors to restore vision in these conditions. The proof of concept studies carried out in mouse models of retinal degeneration over the past decade have highlighted several limitations for cell replacement in the retina, such as the low efficiency of cone photoreceptor production from stem cell cultures and the poor integration of grafted cells in the host retina. Current protocols to generate photoreceptors from stem cells are largely based on the use of extracellular factors. Although these factors are essential to induce the retinal progenitor cell (RPC fate from iPSCs/ESCs, developmental studies have shown that RPCs alter fate output as a function of time (i.e., their temporal identity to generate the seven major classes of retinal cell types, rather than spatial position. Surprisingly, current stem cell differentiation protocols largely ignore the intrinsic temporal identity of dividing RPCs, which we argue likely explains the low efficiency of cone production in such cultures. In this article, we briefly review the mechanisms regulating temporal identity in RPCs and discuss how they could be exploited to improve cone photoreceptor production for cell replacement therapies.

  12. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Osafune, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliorating AKI. We established a multistep differentiation protocol for inducing hiPSCs into OSR1+SIX2+ renal progenitors capable of reconstituting three-dimensional proximal renal tubule-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that renal subcapsular transplantation of hiPSC-derived renal progenitors ameliorated the AKI in mice induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury, significantly suppressing the elevation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and attenuating histopathological changes, such as tubular necrosis, tubule dilatation with casts, and interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge, few reports demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy with renal lineage cells generated from hiPSCs have been published. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for kidney diseases could be developed using hiPSC-derived renal cells. This report is the first to demonstrate that the transplantation of renal progenitor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has therapeutic effectiveness in mouse models of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, this report clearly demonstrates that the therapeutic benefits come from trophic effects by the renal progenitor cells, and it identifies the renoprotective factors secreted by the progenitors. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of developing regenerative medicine strategy using iPS cells against renal diseases.

  13. Obesity reversibly depletes the basal cell population and enhances mammary epithelial cell estrogen receptor alpha expression and progenitor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Tamara; D'Amato, Joseph V; Arendt, Lisa M

    2017-11-29

    Obesity is correlated with an increased risk for developing postmenopausal breast cancer. Since obesity rates continue to rise worldwide, it is important to understand how the obese microenvironment influences normal mammary tissue to increase breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that obesity increases the proportion of luminal progenitor cells, which are thought to be the cells of origin for the most common types of breast cancer, potentially leading to an increased risk for breast cancer. To study the obese microenvironment within the mammary gland, we used a high-fat diet mouse model of obesity and human breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty surgery. We identified changes in breast epithelial cell populations using flow cytometry for cell surface markers, in vitro functional assays and expression of markers on breast tissue sections. In both obese female mice and women, mammary epithelial cell populations demonstrated significant decreases in basal/myoepithelial cells, using either flow cytometry or cell-type-specific markers (SMA and p63). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression was significantly increased in luminal cells in obese mammary tissue, compared with control mice or breast tissue from lean women. Functional assays demonstrated significantly enhanced mammary epithelial progenitor activity in obese mammary epithelial cells and elevated numbers of ERα-positive epithelial cells that were co-labeled with markers of proliferation. Weight loss in a group of obese mice reversed increases in progenitor activity and ERα expression observed in obese mammary tissue. Obesity enhances ERα-positive epithelial cells, reduces the number of basal/myoepithelial cells, and increases stem/progenitor activity within normal mammary tissue in both women and female mice. These changes in epithelial cell populations induced by obesity are reversible with weight loss. Our findings support further studies to examine how obesity-induced changes in stem/progenitor cells

  14. Mimicking the neurotrophic factor profile of embryonic spinal cord controls the differentiation potential of spinal progenitors into neuronal cells.

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    Masaya Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the choice of lineage of neural progenitor cells is determined, at least in part, by environmental factors, such as neurotrophic factors. Despite extensive studies using exogenous neurotrophic factors, the effect of endogenous neurotrophic factors on the differentiation of progenitor cells remains obscure. Here we show that embryonic spinal cord derived-progenitor cells express both ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA before differentiation. BDNF gene expression significantly decreases with their differentiation into the specific lineage, whereas CNTF gene expression significantly increases. The temporal pattern of neurotrophic factor gene expression in progenitor cells is similar to that of the spinal cord during postnatal development. Approximately 50% of spinal progenitor cells differentiated into astrocytes. To determine the effect of endogenous CNTF on their differentiation, we neutralized endogenous CNTF by administration of its polyclonal antibody. Neutralization of endogenous CNTF inhibited the differentiation of progenitor cells into astrocytes, but did not affect the numbers of neurons or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, to mimic the profile of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord during embryonic development, we applied BDNF or neurotrophin (NT-3 exogenously in combination with the anti-CNTF antibody. The exogenous application of BDNF or NT-3 promoted the differentiation of these cells into neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. These findings suggest that endogenous CNTF and exogenous BDNF and NT-3 play roles in the differentiation of embryonic spinal cord derived progenitor cells into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively.

  15. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

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    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone

  16. The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may be associated with the occurrence and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

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    Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The onset of chronic subdural hematoma may be associated with direct or indirect minor injuries to the head or a poorly repaired vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells happen to be one of the key factors involved in hemostasis and vascular repair. This study was designed to observe the levels of endothelial progenitor cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other indicators in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma to determine the possible relationship between the endothelial progenitor cells and the occurrence, development, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma. METHOD: We enrolled 30 patients with diagnosed chronic subdural hematoma by computer tomography scanning and operating procedure at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2009 to July 2011. Meanwhile, we collected 30 cases of peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers over the age of 50. Approximately 2 ml of blood was taken from veins of the elbow to test the peripheral blood routine and coagulation function. The content of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The level of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower in preoperational patients with chronic subdural hematomas than in controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the blood routine and coagulation function. However, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were significantly different between the recurrent group and the non-recurrent group. CONCLUSIONS: The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic subdural hematoma patients was significantly lower than the level in healthy controls. Meanwhile, the level of endothelial progenitor cells in recurrent patients was significantly lower than the level in patients without recurrence. Endothelial progenitor cells may be related to the

  17. Pancreatic-carcinoma-cell-derived pro-angiogenic factors can induce endothelial-cell differentiation of a subset of circulating CD34+ progenitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vizio, Barbara; Biasi, Fiorella; Scirelli, Tiziana; Novarino, Anna; Prati, Adriana; Ciuffreda, Libero; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Poli, Giuseppe; Bellone, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    .... Recent studies suggest that circulating endothelial progenitor cells are recruited into the angiogenic vascular system of several cancers, including pancreatic carcinoma, and that they correlate with clinical progress...

  18. Lineage Specification from Prostate Progenitor Cells Requires Gata3-Dependent Mitotic Spindle Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Maxwell E R; Nguyen, Alana H T; Tremblay, Mathieu; Viala, Sophie; Béland, Mélanie; Bertos, Nicholas R; Park, Morag; Bouchard, Maxime

    2017-04-11

    During prostate development, basal and luminal cell lineages are generated through symmetric and asymmetric divisions of bipotent basal cells. However, the extent to which spindle orientation controls division symmetry or cell fate, and the upstream factors regulating this process, are still elusive. We report that GATA3 is expressed in both prostate basal progenitor and luminal cells and that loss of GATA3 leads to a mislocalization of PRKCZ, resulting in mitotic spindle randomization during progenitor cell division. Inherently proliferative intermediate progenitor cells accumulate, leading to an expansion of the luminal compartment. These defects ultimately result in a loss of tissue polarity and defective branching morphogenesis. We further show that disrupting the interaction between PRKCZ and PARD6B is sufficient to recapitulate the spindle and cell lineage phenotypes. Collectively, these results identify a critical role for GATA3 in prostate lineage specification, and further highlight the importance of regulating spindle orientation for hierarchical cell lineage organization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

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    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  20. [Isolation, culture and identification of two types of endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Yi; Zhang, Huai-Qin; Yu, Hua; Yang, De-Ye; Huang, Wei-Jian; Zhou, Hao

    2007-04-01

    To investigate how to isolate, culture and identify two types of endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood in rabbits. Mononuclear cells(MNCs) were isolated from rabbit peripheral blood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) were obtained from MNCs through different ways of isolation and culture. Two types of cells were assessed by DiI-ac-LDL uptake and lectin binding, and then they were identified by immunofluorescence of flk-1, immunocytochemistry of CD34 and VIII factor related antigen and vasculogenesis activity in vitro. Two types of endothelial progenitor cells were obtained from rabbit peripheral blood through different ways of isolation and culture. EPCs on the seventh day and EOCs on the sixteenth day were positive for ac-LDL uptake and lectin binding, and both of them expressed CD34, flk-1 and VIII factor related antigen. EOCs were assembled into primitive vascular tube-like structures when plated in matrigel. EPCs and EOCs could be obtained from rabbit peripheral blood when different ways of isolation and culture were performed. The system of cell culture can be applied to subsequent experiments in cell transplantation.

  1. Self-renewing Pten-/- TP53-/- protospheres produce metastatic adenocarcinoma cell lines with multipotent progenitor activity.

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    Wassim Abou-Kheir

    Full Text Available Prostate cancers of luminal adenocarcinoma histology display a range of clinical behaviors. Although most prostate cancers are slow-growing and indolent, a proportion is aggressive, developing metastasis and resistance to androgen deprivation treatment. One hypothesis is that a portion of aggressive cancers initiate from stem-like, androgen-independent tumor-propagating cells. Here we demonstrate the in vitro creation of a mouse cell line, selected for growth as self-renewing stem/progenitor cells, which manifests many in vivo properties of aggressive prostate cancer. Normal mouse prostate epithelium containing floxed Pten and TP53 alleles was subjected to CRE-mediated deletion in vitro followed by serial propagation as protospheres. A polyclonal cell line was established from dissociated protospheres and subsequently a clonal daughter line was derived. Both lines demonstrate a mature luminal phenotype in vitro. The established lines contain a stable minor population of progenitor cells with protosphere-forming ability and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Both lines formed orthotopic adenocarcinoma tumors with metastatic potential to lung. Intracardiac inoculation resulted in brain and lung metastasis, while intra-tibial injection induced osteoblastic bone formation, recapitulating the bone metastatic phenotype of human prostate cancer. The cells showed androgen receptor dependent growth in vitro. Importantly, in vivo, the deprivation of androgens from established orthotopic tumors resulted in tumor regression and eventually castration-resistant growth. These data suggest that transformed prostate progenitor cells preferentially differentiate toward luminal cells and recapitulate many characteristics of the human disease.

  2. Long-active granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Laszlo, Daniele; Lanza, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Peg-filgrastim (PEG-FIL), a polyethylene glycol-conjugated form of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), has been introduced in clinical practice and is effective in shortening the time of neutropenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy. G-CSF has emerged as the preferred cytokine for hematopoietic progenitor cells' (HPC) mobilization. Nevertheless, data on the ability of PEG-FIL in this field have been published. We review publications in the field with the goal of providing an overview of this approach. PEG-FIL may be able to mobilize CD34(+) cells in a more timely fashion than G-CSF, with the advantages of only a single-dose administration, an earlier start and a reduction in the number of apheresis procedures. The main controversies concern the dosage of the drug and the optimal dose. In the context of chemo-mobilization, a single dose of 6 mg PEG-FIL seems effective in terms of HPC's mobilization and there is no increase in this effect if the dose is doubled to 12 mg. Steady-state mobilization requires higher doses of PEG-FIL and this approach is not cost-effective when compared with G-CSF. The experiences with PEG-FIL in the healthy donor setting are very limited.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells from Placenta, Cord Blood, and Fetal Liver, Based on Their Immunophenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Kuchma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the characteristics of human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs with the CD34+CD45lowSSClow phenotype from full-term placental tissue (FTPT as compared to cord blood (CB and fetal liver (FL cells. We demonstrated the presence of cell subpopulations at various stages of the differentiation with such immunophenotypes as CD34+/lowCD45low/-, CD34++CD45low/-, CD34+++CD45low/-, CD34+/lowCD45hi, and CD34++CD45hi in both first trimester placental tissue (FiTPT and FTPT which implies their higher phenotypic heterogeneity compared to CB. HPCs of the FTPT origin expressed the CD90 antigen at a higher level compared to its expression by the CB HPCs and the CD133 antigen expression being at the same level in both cases. The HPCs compartment of FTPT versus CB contained higher number of myeloid and erythroid committed cells but lower number of myeloid and lymphoid ones compared to FL HPCs. HPCs of the FTPT and CB origin possess similar potentials for the multilineage differentiation in vitro and similar ratios of myeloid and erythroid progenitors among the committed cells. This observation suggests that the active hematopoiesis occurs in the FTPT. We obtained viable HPCs from cryopreserved placental tissue fragments allowing us to develop procedures for banking and testing of placenta-derived HPCs for clinical use.

  4. N-cadherin identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells by in vitro stem cell assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong P T; Xiao, L; Deane, James A; Tan, Ker-Sin; Cousins, Fiona L; Masuda, Hirotaka; Sprung, Carl N; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E

    2017-11-01

    Is there a specific surface marker that identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with adult stem cell activity using in vitro assays? N-cadherin isolates clonogenic, self-renewing human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with high proliferative potential that differentiate into cytokeratin+ gland-like structures in vitro and identifies their location in some cells of gland profiles predominantly in basalis endometrium adjacent to the myometrium. Human endometrium contains a small population of clonogenic, self-renewing epithelial cells with high proliferative potential that differentiate into large gland-like structures, but their identity and location is unknown. Stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) distinguishes the epithelium of basalis from functionalis and is a marker of human post-menopausal (Post-M) endometrial epithelium. Prospective observational study of endometrial epithelial cells obtained from hysterectomy samples taken from 50 pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and 24 Post-M women, of which 4 were from women who had taken daily estradiol valerate 2 mg/day for 8 weeks prior. Gene profiling was used to identify differentially expressed surface markers between fresh EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule)-magnetic bead-selected basalis-like epithelial cells from Post-M endometrium compared with predominantly functionalis epithelial cells from Pre-M endometrium and validated by qRT-PCR. In vitro clonogenicity and self-renewal assays were used to assess the stem/progenitor cell properties of magnetic bead-sorted N-cadherin+ and N-cadherin- epithelial cells. The cellular identity, location and phenotype of N-cadherin+ cells was assessed by dual colour immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy for cytokeratin, proliferative status (Ki-67), ERα, SSEA-1, SOX9 and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers on full thickness human endometrium. CDH2 (N-cadherin gene) was one of 11 surface molecules highly expressed in Post-M compared to

  5. Mutual interaction between human multipotent adult progenitor cells and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Plessers, Jeroen; Pinxteren, Jef; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2014-01-01

    Human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) are isolated from bone marrow with a more extensive expansion capacity compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and with the ability to differentiate into endothelium. Like hMSCs, hMAPCs inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens. In this study, we tested the interaction between hMAPCs and natural killer (NK) cells. We assessed the susceptibility of hMAPCs to NK cell-mediated lysis and the immunomodulation of hMAPCs on NK cell function during IL-2-driven stimulation and the cytolytic effector phase. Human MAPCs express the ligands PVR and ULBP-2/5/6, which are recognized by activating NK cell receptors. However, they also express MHC class I molecules, which induce inhibitory signals in NK cells. Freshly isolated NK cells at different effector:target ratios did not kill hMAPCs as assessed by an MTT and (51)Cr-release assay, while hMAPCs impaired the cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells against the NK-sensitive K562 leukemia cell line. By contrast, IL-2-stimulated NK cells were capable of killing hMAPCs, and preactivated NK cells were not influenced during their cytotoxic effector function against K562 cells by hMAPCs. When added during the 6-day preactivation phase with IL-2, hMAPCs dose-dependently reduced NK cell proliferation in an IDO-dependent manner, but they did not influence the induction of cytotoxic capacity by IL-2. This study indicates that human MAPCs mutually interact with NK cells.

  6. C/EBPα Is Required for Long-Term Self-Renewal and Lineage Priming of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and for the Maintenance of Epigenetic Configurations in Multipotent Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasemann, Marie S; Lauridsen, Felicia K B; Waage, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and act through their ability to bind DNA and impact on gene transcription. Their functions are interpreted in the complex landscape of chromatin, but current knowledge on how this is achieved is very limited. C/EBPα is a......Transcription factors are key regulators of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and act through their ability to bind DNA and impact on gene transcription. Their functions are interpreted in the complex landscape of chromatin, but current knowledge on how this is achieved is very limited. C...

  7. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes early hematopoietic progenitor formation and erythroid specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Anuradha; Dobbin, Edwina; Corrigan, Pamela; Freeburn, Robin; Wheadon, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP) formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes early hematopoietic progenitor formation and erythroid specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Tarafdar

    Full Text Available The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.

  9. Neurorescue effects and stem properties of chorionic villi and amniotic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzarossa, C; Bossolasco, P; Besana, A; Manca, M P; De Grada, L; De Coppi, P; Giardino, D; Silani, V; Cova, L

    2013-03-27

    The capability to integrate into degenerative environment, release neurotrophic cytokines, contrast oxidative stress and an inherent differentiation potential towards siteappropriate phenotypes are considered crucial for the use of stem cells in tissue repair and regeneration. Naïve human chorial villi- (hCVCs) and amniotic fluid- (hAFCs) derived cells, whose properties and potentiality have not been extensively investigated, may represent two novel foetal cell sources for stem cell therapy. We previously described that long-term transplantation of hAFCs in the lateral ventricles of wobbler and healthy mice was feasible and safe. In the present study we examine the in vitro intrinsic stem potential of hCVCs and hAFCs for future therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. Presence of stem lineages was evaluated assessing the expression pattern of relevant candidate markers by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Release of cytokines that may potentialy sustain endogenous neurogenesis and/or activate neuroprotective pathways was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We also performed an in vitro neurorescue assay, wherein a neuroblastoma cell line damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was treated with hCVC/hAFC-derived conditioned medium (CM). Naïve hCVCs/hAFCs show a neurogenic/angiogenic predisposition. Both cell types express several specific neural stem/progenitor markers, such as nestin and connexin 43, and release significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor. hCVC and hAFC populations comprise several interesting cell lineages, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cells with neural-like phenotypes. Moreover, although CMs obtained from both cell cultures actively sustained metabolic activity in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model, only hCVC-derived CMs significantly reduced neurotoxin

  10. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal......-specific antibodies revealed donor cells in the subretinal space at 10-13 days and smaller numbers within the retina on days 12 and 13, with evidence suggesting a limited degree of morphological integration; however, no cells remained at 4 weeks. The strong mononuclear cell reaction and loss of donor cells indicate...

  11. Distinct and Overlapping Sarcoma Subtypes Initiated from Muscle Stem and Progenitor Cells

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    Jordan M. Blum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, whereas undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7+ and MyoD+ myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic KrasG12D and deleting Trp53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, whereas MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taking them together, we have established mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells.

  12. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

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    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  13. Species diversity regarding the presence of proximal tubular progenitor cells of the kidney

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    J. Hansson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular source for tubular regeneration following kidney injury is a matter of dispute, with reports suggesting a stem or progenitor cells as the regeneration source while linage tracing studies in mice seemingly favor the classical theory, where regeneration is performed by randomly surviving cells. We, and others have previously described a scattered cell population localized to the tubules of human kidney, which increases in number following injury. Here we have characterized the species distribution of these proximal tubular progenitor cells (PTPCs in kidney tissue from chimpanzee, pig, rat and mouse using a set of human PTPC markers. We detected PTPCs in chimpanzee and pig kidneys, but not in mouse tissue. Also, subjecting mice to the unilateral urethral obstruction model, caused clear signs of tubular injury, but failed to induce the PTPC phenotype in renal tubules.

  14. Identification of Multipotent Progenitors that Emerge Prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Embryonic Development

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    Matthew A. Inlay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis in the embryo proceeds in a series of waves, with primitive erythroid-biased waves succeeded by definitive waves, within which the properties of hematopoietic stem cells (multilineage potential, self-renewal, and engraftability gradually arise. Whereas self-renewal and engraftability have previously been examined in the embryo, multipotency has not been thoroughly addressed, especially at the single-cell level or within well-defined populations. To identify when and where clonal multilineage potential arises during embryogenesis, we developed a single-cell multipotency assay. We find that, during the initiation of definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo, a defined population of multipotent, engraftable progenitors emerges that is much more abundant within the yolk sac (YS than the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM or fetal liver. These experiments indicate that multipotent cells appear in concert within both the YS and AGM and strongly implicate YS-derived progenitors as contributors to definitive hematopoiesis.

  15. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

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    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  16. A mechanism for the inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation by cocaine.

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    Chun-Ting Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to cocaine causes morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis in neural progenitor cells may play a pivotal role in causing these abnormalities. To understand the molecular mechanism through which cocaine inhibits cell proliferation in neural progenitors, we sought to identify the molecules that are responsible for mediating the effect of cocaine on cell cycle regulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Microarray analysis followed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to screen cocaine-responsive and cell cycle-related genes in a neural progenitor cell line where cocaine exposure caused a robust anti-proliferative effect by interfering with the G1-to-S transition. Cyclin A2, among genes related to the G1-to-S cell cycle transition, was most strongly down-regulated by cocaine. Down-regulation of cyclin A was also found in cocaine-treated human primary neural and A2B5+ progenitor cells, as well as in rat fetal brains exposed to cocaine in utero. Reversing cyclin A down-regulation by gene transfer counteracted the proliferation inhibition caused by cocaine. Further, we found that cocaine-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which involves N-oxidation of cocaine via cytochrome P450, promotes cyclin A down-regulation by causing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and expression of ATF4. In the developing rat brain, the P450 inhibitor cimetidine counteracted cocaine-induced inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation as well as down-regulation of cyclin A. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of cyclin A underlies cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition in neural progenitors. The down-regulation of cyclin A is initiated by N-oxidative metabolism of cocaine and consequent ER stress. Inhibition of

  17. Postnatal NG2 proteoglycan–expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons

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    Belachew, Shibeshih; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Aguirre, Adan A.; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Kirby, Martha; Anderson, Stacie; Gallo, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using a transgenic mouse, we show that NG2 proteoglycan–positive progenitor cells that express the 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase gene display a multipotent phenotype in vitro and generate electrically excitable neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The fast kinetics a...

  18. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

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    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Heparin prevents Zika virus induced-cytopathic effects in human neural progenitor cells.

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    Ghezzi, Silvia; Cooper, Lynsay; Rubio, Alicia; Pagani, Isabel; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pelletier, Julien; Meneghetti, Maria Cecilia Z; Lima, Marcelo A; Skidmore, Mark A; Broccoli, Vania; Yates, Edwin A; Vicenzi, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, which mainly affected Brazil and neighbouring states, demonstrated the paucity of information concerning the epidemiology of several flaviruses, but also highlighted the lack of available agents with which to treat such emerging diseases. Here, we show that heparin, a widely used anticoagulant, while exerting a modest inhibitory effect on Zika Virus replication, fully prevents virus-induced cell death of human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas.

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    Yaron Suissa

    Full Text Available Neurogenin3(+ (Ngn3(+ progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+ cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth. Some gastrin(+ cells in the developing pancreas co-express glucagon, ghrelin or pancreatic polypeptide, but many gastrin(+ cells do not express any other islet hormone. Pancreatic gastrin(+ cells express the transcription factors Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and low levels of Pdx1, and derive from Ngn3(+ endocrine progenitor cells as shown by genetic lineage tracing. Using mice deficient for key transcription factors we show that gastrin expression depends on Ngn3, Nkx2.2, NeuroD1 and Arx, but not Pax4 or Pax6. Finally, gastrin expression is induced upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endocrine cells expressing insulin. Thus, gastrin(+ cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells.

  1. Distinct roles of neuroepithelial-like and radial glia-like progenitor cells in cerebellar regeneration.

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    Kaslin, Jan; Kroehne, Volker; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael

    2017-04-15

    Zebrafish can regenerate after brain injury, and the regenerative process is driven by resident stem cells. Stem cells are heterogeneous in the vertebrate brain, but the significance of having heterogeneous stem cells in regeneration is not understood. Limited availability of specific stem cells might impair the regeneration of particular cell lineages. We studied regeneration of the adult zebrafish cerebellum, which contains two major stem and progenitor cell types: ventricular zone and neuroepithelial cells. Using conditional lineage tracing we demonstrate that cerebellar regeneration depends on the availability of specific stem cells. Radial glia-like cells are thought to be the predominant stem cell type in homeostasis and after injury. However, we find that radial glia-like cells play a minor role in adult cerebellar neurogenesis and in recovery after injury. Instead, we find that neuroepithelial cells are the predominant stem cell type supporting cerebellar regeneration after injury. Zebrafish are able to regenerate many, but not all, cell types in the cerebellum, which emphasizes the need to understand the contribution of different adult neural stem and progenitor cell subtypes in the vertebrate central nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Yaron; Magenheim, Judith; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Hija, Ayat; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed; Sussel, Lori; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; McCracken, Kyle; Wells, James M; Heller, R Scott; Dor, Yuval; Glaser, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenin3(+) (Ngn3(+)) progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+) cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth. Some gastrin(+) cells in the developing pancreas co-express glucagon, ghrelin or pancreatic polypeptide, but many gastrin(+) cells do not express any other islet hormone. Pancreatic gastrin(+) cells express the transcription factors Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and low levels of Pdx1, and derive from Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cells as shown by genetic lineage tracing. Using mice deficient for key transcription factors we show that gastrin expression depends on Ngn3, Nkx2.2, NeuroD1 and Arx, but not Pax4 or Pax6. Finally, gastrin expression is induced upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endocrine cells expressing insulin. Thus, gastrin(+) cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells.

  3. An insulin signaling feedback loop regulates pancreas progenitor cell differentiation during islet development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A; Mastracci, Teresa L; Anderson, Ryan M

    2016-01-15

    As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation. Blocking insulin signaling in the pancreatic progenitors hastened the expression of the essential β cell genes insulin and pdx1, and promoted β cell fate at the expense of alpha cell fate. In addition, loss of insulin signaling promoted β cell regeneration and destabilization of alpha cell character. These data indicate that insulin signaling constitutes a tunable mechanism for β cell compensatory plasticity during early development. Moreover, using a novel blastomere-to-larva transplantation strategy, we found that loss of insulin signaling in endoderm-committed blastomeres drove their differentiation into β cells. Furthermore, the extent of this differentiation was dependent on the function of the β cell mass in the host. Altogether, our results indicate that modulation of insulin signaling will be crucial for the development of β cell restoration therapies for diabetics; further clarification of the mechanisms of insulin signaling in β cell progenitors will reveal therapeutic targets for both in vivo and in vitro β cell generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

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    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Gong, Yun Guo; Khoo, Sok Kean [Genomic Microarray Core Facility, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and

  5. A novel serum-free monolayer culture for orderly hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent cells via mesodermal progenitors.

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    Akira Niwa

    Full Text Available Elucidating the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is important for understanding both normal and pathological hematopoietic development in vivo. For this purpose, a robust and simple hematopoietic differentiation system that can faithfully trace in vivo hematopoiesis is necessary. In this study, we established a novel serum-free monolayer culture that can trace the in vivo hematopoietic pathway from ES/iPS cells to functional definitive blood cells via mesodermal progenitors. Stepwise tuning of exogenous cytokine cocktails induced the hematopoietic mesodermal progenitors via primitive streak cells. These progenitors were then differentiated into various cell lineages depending on the hematopoietic cytokines present. Moreover, single cell deposition assay revealed that common bipotential hemoangiogenic progenitors were induced in our culture. Our system provides a new, robust, and simple method for investigating the mechanisms of mesodermal and hematopoietic differentiation.

  6. Lgr5+ve Stem/Progenitor Cells Contribute to Nephron Formation during Kidney Development

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    Nick Barker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expression of the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 in the developing kidney and assess the stem/progenitor identity of Lgr5+ve cells via in vivo lineage tracing. The appearance and localization of Lgr5+ve cells coincided with that of the S-shaped body around embryonic day 14. Lgr5 expression remained restricted to cell clusters within developing nephrons in the cortex until postnatal day 7, when expression was permanently silenced. In vivo lineage tracing identified Lgr5 as a marker of a stem/progenitor population within nascent nephrons dedicated to generating the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and distal convoluted tubule. The Lgr5 surface marker and experimental models described here will be invaluable for deciphering the contribution of early nephron stem cells to developmental defects and for isolating human nephron progenitors as a prerequisite to evaluating their therapeutic potential.

  7. Myogenic capacity of muscle progenitor cells from head and limb muscles.

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    Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Torensma, Ruurd; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2012-02-01

    The restoration of muscles in the soft palate of patients with cleft lip and/or palate is accompanied by fibrosis, which leads to speech and feeding problems. Treatment strategies that improve muscle regeneration have only been tested in limb muscles. Therefore, in the present study the myogenic potential of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) isolated from head muscles was compared with that of limb muscles. Muscle progenitor cells were isolated from the head muscles and limb muscles of rats and cultured. The proliferation of MPCs was analysed by DNA quantification. The differentiation capacity was analysed by quantifying the numbers of fused cells, and by measuring the mRNA levels of differentiation markers. Muscle progenitor cells were stained to quantify the expression of paired box protein Pax 7 (Pax-7), myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), and myogenin. Proliferation was similar in the head MPCs and the limb MPCs. Differentiating head and limb MPCs showed a comparable number of fused cells and mRNA expression levels of myosin-1 (Myh1), myosin-3 (Myh3), and myosin-4 (Myh4). During proliferation and differentiation, the number of Pax-7(+), MyoD(+), and myogenin(+) cells in head and limb MPCs was equal. It was concluded that head and limb MPCs show similar myogenic capacities in vitro. Therefore, in vivo myogenic differences between those muscles might rely on the local microenvironment. Thus, regenerative strategies for limb muscles might also be used for head muscles. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

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    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  9. Evaluation of two automated cell counters for the analysis of hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gils, S; Cauwelier, B; Devos, H; Vanlaere, I; Roggeman, S; Emmerechts, J

    2017-06-01

    Routine hematology parameters in hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis products (HPC-A) are usually determined using automated cell counters. These instruments, however, are designed to analyze whole blood samples, that differ considerably from HPC-A in blood cell composition. This study evaluates the performance of two automated cell counters for the analysis of HPC-A. Routine hematology parameters [red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), WBC differentiation, and platelets (PLT)] were determined on the Unicel DxH 800 instrument (Beckman Coulter) and the XN-350 instrument (Sysmex). Correlations with the reference methods, intrarun precision, and linearity of the analyses were studied. Good correlations were found for almost all parameters. However, RBC count was overestimated by XN-350, using the impedance technique, as was neutrophil percentage using DxH 800. Coefficients of variation for intrarun precision were below 10% on both analyzers for all parameters, except for neutrophil percentage (14.7%) and PLT (10%) on DxH 800. Both instruments showed good linearity for all parameters, except for RBC and HCT on DxH 800. With the exception of the measurement of neutrophils on DxH 800 and RBC by the impedance technique on the XN-350, routine hematology parameters in HPC-A can safely be determined using automated cell counters. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Generation of Alveolar Epithelial Spheroids via Isolated Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Shimpei Gotoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM as a surface marker of NKX2-1+ “ventralized” anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs in vitro and in fetal human and murine lungs. Using SFTPC-GFP reporter hPSCs and a 3D coculture system with fetal human lung fibroblasts, we showed that CPM+ cells isolated from VAFECs differentiate into AECs, demonstrating that CPM is a marker of AEPCs. Moreover, 3D coculture differentiation of CPM+ cells formed spheroids with lamellar-body-like structures and an increased expression of surfactant proteins compared with 2D differentiation. Methods to induce and isolate AEPCs using CPM and consequently generate alveolar epithelial spheroids would aid human pulmonary disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  11. Advances in Liver Regeneration: Revisiting Hepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Their Origin

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    Ali-Reza Sadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver has evolved to become a highly plastic organ with extraordinary regenerative capabilities. What drives liver regeneration is still being debated. Adult liver stem/progenitor cells have been characterized and used to produce functional hepatocytes and biliary cells in vitro. However, in vivo, numerous studies have questioned whether hepatic progenitor cells have a significant role in liver regeneration. Mature hepatocytes have recently been shown to be more plastic than previously believed and give rise to new hepatocytes after acute and chronic injury. In this review, we discuss current knowledge in the field of liver regeneration and the importance of the serotonin pathway as a clinical target for patients with liver dysfunction.

  12. Proteomic profiling reveals dopaminergic regulation of progenitor cell functions of goldfish radial glial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Esau, Crystal; Da Fonte, Dillon F; Trudeau, Vance L

    2016-07-20

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) are stem-like cells found in the developing and adult central nervous system. They function as both a scaffold to guide neuron migration and as progenitor cells that support neurogenesis. Our previous study revealed a close anatomical relationship between dopamine neurons and RGCs in the telencephalon of female goldfish. In this study, label-free proteomics was used to identify the proteins in a primary RGC culture and to determine the proteome response to the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 (10μM), in order to better understand dopaminergic regulation of RGCs. A total of 689 unique proteins were identified in the RGCs and these were classified into biological and pathological pathways. Proteins such as nucleolin (6.9-fold) and ependymin related protein 1 (4.9-fold) were increased in abundance while proteins triosephosphate isomerase (10-fold) and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (5-fold) were decreased in abundance. Pathway analysis revealed that proteins that consistently changed in abundance across biological replicates were related to small molecules such as ATP, lipids and steroids, hormones, glucose, cyclic AMP and Ca(2+). Sub-network enrichment analysis suggested that estrogen receptor signaling, among other transcription factors, is regulated by D1 receptor activation. This suggests that these signaling pathways are correlated to dopaminergic regulation of radial glial cell functions. Most proteins down-regulated by SKF 38393 were involved in cell cycle/proliferation, growth, death, and survival, which suggests that dopamine inhibits the progenitor-related processes of radial glial cells. Examples of differently expressed proteins including triosephosphate isomerase, nucleolin, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line beta were validated by qPCR and western blot, which were consistent with MS/MS data in the direction of change. This is the first study to characterize the RGC

  13. interleukin-11 induces and maintains progenitors of different cell lineages during Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration.

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    Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Katou, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Fukazawa, Taro; Kubo, Takeo

    2017-09-08

    Unlike mammals, Xenopus laevis tadpoles possess high ability to regenerate their lost organs. In amphibians, the main source of regenerated tissues is lineage-restricted tissue stem cells, but the mechanisms underlying induction, maintenance and differentiation of these stem/progenitor cells in the regenerating organs are poorly understood. We previously reported that interleukin-11 (il-11) is highly expressed in the proliferating cells of regenerating Xenopus tadpole tails. Here, we show that il-11 knockdown (KD) shortens the regenerated tail length, and the phenotype is rescued by forced-il-11-expression in the KD tadpoles. Moreover, marker genes for undifferentiated notochord, muscle, and sensory neurons are downregulated in the KD tadpoles, and the forced-il-11-expression in intact tadpole tails induces expression of these marker genes. Our findings demonstrate that il-11 is necessary for organ regeneration, and suggest that IL-11 plays a key role in the induction and maintenance of undifferentiated progenitors across cell lineages during Xenopus tail regeneration. Xenopus laevis tadpoles have maintained their ability to regenerate various organs. Here, the authors show that interleukin-11 is necessary for organ regeneration, by inducing and maintaining undifferentiated progenitors across cell lineages during Xenopus tail regeneration.

  14. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells