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  1. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

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    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  2. High Density Sphere Culture of Adult Cardiac Cells Increases the Levels of Cardiac and Progenitor Markers and Shows Signs of Vasculogenesis

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    Kristina Vukusic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D environment and high cell density play an important role in restoring and supporting the phenotypes of cells represented in cardiac tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the suitability of high density sphere (HDS cultures for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology. Primary adult cardiac cells from nine human biopsies were cultured using different media for up to 9 weeks. The possibilities to favor a certain cell phenotype and induce production of extra cellular matrix (ECM were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Defined media gave significant increase in both cardiac- and progenitor-specific markers and also an intraluminal position of endothelial cells over time. Cardiac media showed indication of differentiation and maturity of HDS considering the ECM production and activities within NOTCH regulation but no additional cardiac differentiation. Endothelial media gave no positive effects on endothelial phenotype but increased proliferation without fibroblast overgrowth. In addition, indications for early vasculogenesis were found. It was also possible to affect the Wnt signaling in HDS by addition of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings show the suitability of HDS as in vitro model for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology.

  3. A population of Pax7-expressing muscle progenitor cells show differential responses to muscle injury dependent on developmental stage and injury extent

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    Stefanie eKnappe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration in vertebrates occurs by the activation of quiescent progenitor cells that express pax7 and replace and repair damaged fibers. We have developed a mechanical injury paradigm in zebrafish to determine whether developmental stage and injury size affect the regeneration dynamics of damaged muscle. We found that both small, focal injuries and large injuries affecting the entire myotome lead to the expression of myf5 and myogenin. Their expression was prolonged in older larvae, indicating a slower process of regeneration. We characterized the endogenous behavior of a population of muscle-resident Pax7-expressing cells using a pax7a:eGFP transgenic line and found that GFP+ cell migration in the myotome dramatically declined between 5 and 7 days post fertilization (dpf. Following a small injury, we observed that GFP+ cells responded by extending processes, before migrating to the injured fibers. Furthermore, these cells responded more rapidly to injury in 4dpf larvae compared to 7dpf. Interestingly, we did not see GFP+ fibers after repair of small injuries, indicating that pax7a-expressing cells did not contribute to fiber formation in this injury context. On the contrary, numerous GFP+ fibers could be observed after a large single myotome injury. Both injury models were accompanied by an increased number of proliferating GFP+ cells, which was more pronounced in larvae injured at 4dpf than 7dpf, This indicates intriguing developmental differences, even at these relatively early ages. Our data also suggests an interesting disparity in the role that pax7a-expressing muscle progenitor cells play during muscle regeneration, which may reflect the extent of muscle damage.

  4. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

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    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  5. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

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    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  6. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

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    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  7. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

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    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  8. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

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    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  9. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

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    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  11. Strategies to reverse endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes.

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    Petrelli, Alessandra; Di Fenza, Raffaele; Carvello, Michele; Gatti, Francesca; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  12. Strategies to Reverse Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

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    Alessandra Petrelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial, their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs. Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  13. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo; Pagliari, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient

  14. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

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    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  15. Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development

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    Bello Bruno C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide asymmetrically and often amplify the number of progeny they generate via symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Here we investigate whether specific neural stem cell-like neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila might also amplify neuronal proliferation by generating symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Results Cell lineage-tracing and genetic marker analysis show that remarkably large neuroblast lineages exist in the dorsomedial larval brain of Drosophila. These lineages are generated by brain neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to self renew but, unlike other brain neuroblasts, do not segregate the differentiating cell fate determinant Prospero to their smaller daughter cells. These daughter cells continue to express neuroblast-specific molecular markers and divide repeatedly to produce neural progeny, demonstrating that they are proliferating intermediate progenitors. The proliferative divisions of these intermediate progenitors have novel cellular and molecular features; they are morphologically symmetrical, but molecularly asymmetrical in that key differentiating cell fate determinants are segregated into only one of the two daughter cells. Conclusion Our findings provide cellular and molecular evidence for a new mode of neurogenesis in the larval brain of Drosophila that involves the amplification of neuroblast proliferation through intermediate progenitors. This type of neurogenesis bears remarkable similarities to neurogenesis in the mammalian brain, where neural stem cells as primary progenitors amplify the number of progeny they generate through generation of secondary progenitors. This suggests that key aspects of neural stem cell biology might be conserved in brain development of insects and mammals.

  16. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

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    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-07-31

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26(rbw/+);Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

  17. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

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    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  18. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

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    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  19. Characterization of Lgr6+ Cells as an Enriched Population of Hair Cell Progenitors Compared to Lgr5+ Cells for Hair Cell Generation in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

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    Yanping Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hair cell (HC loss is irreversible because only very limited HC regeneration has been observed in the adult mammalian cochlea. Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates prosensory cell proliferation and differentiation during cochlear development, and Wnt activation promotes the proliferation of Lgr5+ cochlear HC progenitors in newborn mice. Similar to Lgr5, Lgr6 is also a Wnt downstream target gene. Lgr6 is reported to be present in adult stem cells in the skin, nail, tongue, lung, and mammary gland, and this protein is very important for adult stem cell maintenance in rapidly proliferating organs. Our previous studies showed that Lgr6+ cells are a subpopulation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells and that both Lgr6+ and Lgr5+ progenitors can generate Myosin7a+ HCs in vitro. Thus we hypothesized that Lgr6+ cells are an enriched population of cochlear progenitor cells. However, the detailed distinctions between the Lgr5+ and Lgr6+ progenitors are unclear. Here, we systematically compared the proliferation, HC differentiation, and detailed transcriptome expression profiles of these two progenitor populations. We found that the same number of isolated Lgr6+ progenitors generated significantly more Myosin7a+ HCs compared to Lgr5+ progenitors; however, Lgr5+ progenitors formed more epithelial colonies and more spheres than Lgr6+ progenitors in vitro. Using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptome differences between Lgr5+ and Lgr6+ progenitors and identified a list of significantly differential expressed genes that might regulate the proliferation and differentiation of these HC progenitors, including 4 cell cycle genes, 9 cell signaling pathway genes, and 54 transcription factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Lgr6+ progenitors are an enriched population of inner ear progenitors that generate more HCs compared to Lgr5+ progenitors in the newborn mouse cochlea, and the our research provides a series of genes that might regulate the proliferation of progenitors

  20. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  1. Origin of hemopoietic stromal progenitor cells in chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, J.L.; Drize, N.J.; Gurevitch, O.A.; Samoylova, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Intravenously injected bone marrow cells do not participate in the regeneration of hemopoietic stromal progenitors in irradiated mice, nor in the curetted parts of the recipient's marrow. The hemopoietic stromal progenitors in allogeneic chimeras are of recipient origin. The adherent cell layer (ACL) of long-term cultures of allogeneic chimera bone marrow contains only recipient hemopoietic stromal progenitors. However, in ectopic hemopoietic foci produced by marrow implantation under the renal capsule and repopulated by the recipient hemopoietic cells after irradiation and reconstitution by syngeneic hemopoietic cells, the stromal progenitors were of implant donor origin, as were stromal progenitors of the ACL in long-term cultures of hemopoietic cells from ectopic foci. Our results confirm that the stromal and hemopoietic progenitors differ in origin and that hemopoietic stromal progenitors are not transplantable by the intravenous route in mice

  2. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajtha, L. G. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1967-07-15

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  3. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajtha, L.G.

    1967-01-01

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  4. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo

    2017-02-22

    For many years, myocardial tissue has been considered terminally differentiated and, thus, incapable of regenerating. Recent studies have shown, instead, that cardiomyocytes, at least in part, are slowly substituted by new cells originating by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient. The protocol here reported describes how from auricles a population of multipotent, cardiogenic cells can be isolated, cultured, and differentiated. Further studies are needed to fully exploit this cell population, but, sampling auricles, it could be possible to treat cardiac patients using their own cells circumventing rejection or organ shortage limitations.

  5. Adaptive remodeling of the biliary tree: the essence of liver progenitor cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    The liver progenitor cell population has long been thought to exist within the liver. However, there are no standardized criteria for defining the liver progenitor cells, and there has been intense debate about the origin of these cells in the adult liver. The characteristics of such cells vary depending on the disease model used and also on the method of analysis. Visualization of three-dimensional biliary structures has revealed that the emergence of liver progenitor cells essentially reflects the adaptive remodeling of the hepatic biliary network in response to liver injury. We propose that the progenitor cell exists as a subpopulation in the biliary tree and show that the appearance of liver progenitor cells in injured parenchyma is reflective of extensive remodeling of the biliary structure. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  6. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive 'tracking' of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging

  7. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  8. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  9. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  10. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  11. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  12. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lavik, Erin B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs.......To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs....

  13. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  14. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, A.; Zhou, D.; Geiger, H.; Zant, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study was to determine if ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor cells. Lin-cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM) and pretreated with vehicle or 100 μM z-VAD 1 h prior to exposure to 4 Gy IR. The apoptotic and/or necrotic responses of these cells to IR were analyzed by measuring the annexin V and/or 7-AAD staining in HSC and progenitor populations using flow cytometry, and hematopoietic function of these cells was determined by CAFC assay. Exposure of Lin-cells to IR selectively decreased the numbers of HSC and progenitors in association with an increase in apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of Lin- cells with z-VAD significantly inhibited IR-induced apoptosis and the decrease in the numbers of HSC and progenitors. However, IR alone or in combination with z-VAD did not lead to a significant increase in necrotic cell death in either HSC or progenitors. In addition, pretreatment of BM cells with z-VAD significantly attenuated IR-induced reduction in the frequencies of day-7, -28 and -35 CAFC. Exposure of HSC and progenitors to IR induces apoptosis. The induction of HSC and progenitor apoptosis contributes to IR-induced suppression of their hematopoietic function

  15. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  16. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  17. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  18. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in a single cell microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S; Raff, M C

    Although it is known that most cells of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube, the factors determining whether an individual neuroepithelial cell develops into a particular type of neurone or glial cell remain unknown. A promising model for studying this problem is the bipotential glial progenitor cell in the developing rat optic nerve; this cell differentiates into a particular type of astrocyte (a type-2 astrocyte) if cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and into an oligodendrocyte if cultured in serum-free medium. As the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) progenitor cell can differentiate along either glial pathway in neurone-free cultures, living axons clearly are not required for its differentiation, at least in vitro. However, the studies on 0-2A progenitor cells were carried out in bulk cultures of optic nerve, and so it was possible that other cell-cell interactions were required for differentiation in culture. We show here that 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate into type-2 astrocytes or oligodendrocytes when grown as isolated cells in microculture, indicating that differentiation along either glial pathway in vitro does not require signals from other CNS cells, apart from the signals provided by components of the culture medium. We also show that single 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate along either pathway without dividing, supporting our previous studies using 3H-thymidine and suggesting that DNA replication is not required for these cells to choose between the two differentiation programmes.

  20. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitors differentiate to cardiomyocytes and form biosynthetic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available The mammalian heart has little capacity to regenerate, and following injury the myocardium is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. Consequently, increased wall stress and workload on the remaining myocardium leads to chamber dilation, dysfunction, and heart failure. Cell-based therapy with an autologous, epigenetically reprogrammed, and cardiac-committed progenitor cell source could potentially reverse this process by replacing the damaged myocardium with functional tissue. However, it is unclear whether cardiac progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of attaining levels of structural and functional maturity comparable to that of terminally-fated cardiomyocytes. Here, we first describe the derivation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, which once differentiated allow for the enrichment of Nkx2-5(+ cardiac progenitors, and the cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein. We show that the cardiac progenitors are multipotent and capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac progenitor selection corresponds to cKit(+ cell enrichment, while cardiomyocyte cell-lineage commitment is concomitant with dual expression of either cKit/Flk1 or cKit/Sca-1. We proceed to show that the cardiac progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of forming electrically and mechanically coupled large-scale 2D cell cultures with mature electrophysiological properties. Finally, we examine the cell progenitors' ability to form electromechanically coherent macroscopic tissues, using a physiologically relevant 3D culture model and demonstrate that following long-term culture the cardiomyocytes align, and form robust electromechanical connections throughout the volume of the biosynthetic tissue construct. We conclude that the iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitors are a robust cell source for tissue engineering applications and a 3D culture platform for pharmacological

  2. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  4. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies. © AlphaMed Press.

  5. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  6. EMMPRIN overexpression in SVZ neural progenitor cells increases their migration towards ischemic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Michiko; Tsupykov, Oleg; Potter, Gaël; Boitard, Michael; Salmon, Patrick; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Gascon, Eduardo; Skibo, Galina; Dayer, Alexandre G; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2017-11-01

    Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system. We found that EMMPRIN-transduced progenitors exhibited enhanced MMP-2 activity in vitro and showed improved motility in 3D collagen gel as well as in cortical slices. Using a rat model of neonatal ischemia, we showed that EMMPRIN overexpressing SVZ cells invade the injured cortical tissue more efficiently than controls. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN overexpression could be suitable approach to improve capacities of endogenous or transplanted progenitors to invade the injured cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    quantitative PCR system (Stratagene). To knockdown Notch1 in TM40A cells, siRNA (s70698 and s70700) were purchased from Ambion. s70698 siRNA sense sequence: 5...hours after transfect ion and real-tim e quantitative P CR was used to confirm the knockdown efficiency. Results Label and chase progenitor cells...cells contained 0.8% o f DsRed positiv e (DsR +) progenitor cells (Fig. 1B). The mammosphere-forming capacity of DsR+ cells is 3.8-fold greater

  8. Development and molecular composition of the hepatic progenitor cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig

    2013-05-01

    End-stage liver diseases represent major health problems that are currently treated by liver transplantation. However, given the world-wide shortage of donor livers novel strategies are needed for therapeutic treatment. Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into the more specialized cell types of a given organ and are found in tissues throughout the body. These cells, whose progeny are termed progenitor cells in human liver and oval cells in rodents, have the potential to treat patients through the generation of hepatic parenchymal cells, even from the patient's own tissue. Little is known regarding the nature of the hepatic progenitor cells. Though they are suggested to reside in the most distal part of the biliary tree, the canal of Hering, the lack of unique surface markers for these cells has hindered their isolation and characterization. Upon activation, they proliferate and form ductular structures, termed "ductular reactions", which radiate into the hepatic parenchyma. The ductular reactions contain activated progenitor cells that not only acquire a phenotype resembling that observed in developing liver but also display markers of differentiation shared with the cholangiocytic or hepatocytic lineages, the two parenchymal hepatic cell types. Interactions between the putative progenitor cells, the surrounding support cells and the extracellular matrix scaffold, all constituting the progenitor cell niche, are likely to be important for regulating progenitor cell activity and differentiation. Therefore, identifying novel progenitor cell markers and deciphering their microenvironment could facilitate clinical use. The aims of the present PhD thesis were to expand knowledge of the hepatic progenitor cell niche and characterize it both during development and in disease. Several animal models of hepatic injury are known to induce activation of the progenitor cells. In order to identify possible progenitor cell markers and niche components

  9. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  10. NFIX Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; McLeay, Robert C.; Harvey, Tracey J.; Smith, Aaron G.; Barry, Guy; Cato, Kathleen; Plachez, Céline; Little, Erica; Mason, Sharon; Dixon, Chantelle; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Richards, Linda J.; Piper, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have the ability to give rise to neurons and glia in the embryonic, postnatal and adult brain. During development, the program regulating whether these cells divide and self-renew or exit the cell cycle and differentiate is tightly controlled, and imbalances to the normal trajectory of this process can lead to severe functional consequences. However, our understanding of the molecular regulation of these fundamental events remains limited. Moreover, processes underpinning development of the postnatal neurogenic niches within the cortex remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is expressed by neural progenitor cells within the embryonic hippocampus, and that progenitor cell differentiation is delayed within Nfix−/− mice. Moreover, we reveal that the morphology of the dentate gyrus in postnatal Nfix−/− mice is abnormal, with fewer subgranular zone neural progenitor cells being generated in the absence of this transcription factor. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the progenitor cell maintenance factor Sry-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) is upregulated in the hippocampus of Nfix−/− mice and demonstrate that NFIX can repress Sox9 promoter-driven transcription. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NFIX plays a central role in hippocampal morphogenesis, regulating the formation of neuronal and glial populations within this structure. PMID:23042739

  11. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyo Oishi

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is defined as the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue outside the skeletal tissue. HO is thought to result from aberrant differentiation of osteogenic progenitors within skeletal muscle. However, the precise origin of HO is still unclear. Skeletal muscle contains two kinds of progenitor cells, myogenic progenitors and mesenchymal progenitors. Myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors in human skeletal muscle can be identified as CD56(+ and PDGFRα(+ cells, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitors. Both CD56(+ cells and PDGFRα(+ cells showed comparable osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. However, in an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, PDGFRα(+ cells formed bone-like tissue and showed successful engraftment, while CD56(+ cells did not form bone-like tissue and did not adapt to an osteogenic environment. Immunohistological analysis of human HO sample revealed that many PDGFRα(+ cells were localized in proximity to ectopic bone formed in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes including osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the participation of miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells by using microarray. We identified miRNAs that had not been known to be involved in osteogenesis but showed dramatic changes during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells. Upregulation of miR-146b-5p and -424 and downregulation of miR-7 during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of upregulated miRNAs, miR-146b-5p and -424, resulted in the suppression of osteocyte maturation, suggesting that these two miRNAs have the positive role in the osteogenesis of PDGFRα(+ cells. Our results suggest that PDGFRα(+ cells may be the major source of HO and that the newly identified mi

  12. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  13. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  14. Characterization of a resident population of adventitial macrophage progenitor cells in postnatal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Spoon, Daniel B; Chue, Colin D; Hoffman, Scott J; Witt, Tyra A; Delacroix, Sinny; Kleppe, Laurel S; Mueske, Cheryl S; Pan, Shuchong; Gulati, Rajiv; Simari, Robert D

    2014-07-18

    Macrophages regulate blood vessel structure and function in health and disease. The origins of tissue macrophages are diverse, with evidence for local production and circulatory renewal. We identified a vascular adventitial population containing macrophage progenitor cells and investigated their origins and fate. Single-cell disaggregates from adult C57BL/6 mice were prepared from different tissues and tested for their capacity to form hematopoietic colony-forming units. Aorta showed a unique predilection for generating macrophage colony-forming units. Aortic macrophage colony-forming unit progenitors coexpressed stem cell antigen-1 and CD45 and were adventitially located, where they were the predominant source of proliferating cells in the aortic wall. Aortic Sca-1(+)CD45(+) cells were transcriptionally and phenotypically distinct from neighboring cells lacking stem cell antigen-1 or CD45 and contained a proliferative (Ki67(+)) Lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD135(-)CD115(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) subpopulation, consistent with the immunophenotypic profile of macrophage progenitors. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Sca-1(+)CD45(+) adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were not replenished via the circulation from bone marrow or spleen, nor was their prevalence diminished by depletion of monocytes or macrophages by liposomal clodronate treatment or genetic deficiency of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Rather adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were upregulated in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) and LDL-R(-/-) mice, with adventitial transfer experiments demonstrating their durable contribution to macrophage progeny particularly in the adventitia, and to a lesser extent the atheroma, of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. The discovery and characterization of resident vascular adventitial macrophage progenitor cells provides new insight into adventitial biology and its participation in atherosclerosis and provokes consideration of the broader existence of local macrophage

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Wang,1,* Qi Wu,2,* Jing Feng,3,4 Xin Sun5 1The Second Respiratory Department of the First People's Hospital of Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 3Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Department of Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods: We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion: Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has

  16. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  17. Progenitor cell populations in the periodontal ligament of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Stem cells in a variety of renewal tissues exhibit a slow rate of cell proliferation. The periodontal ligament of mouse molars was examined for the presence of slowly cycling progenitor cells to provide evidence for the existence of stem cells in this tissue. A pulse injection of 3 H-thymidine was administered and mice were sacrificed between 1 hour and 14 days after injection. Analysis of radioautographs using percentage of labeled cells and grain counts demonstrated that a population of label-retaining cells within 10 micron of blood vessels traversed the cell cycle more slowly than proliferating cells located greater than 10 micron from blood vessels. These data suggest that there is a slowly dividing population of progenitor cells in paravascular sites in mouse molar periodontal ligament which may be stem cells

  18. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. → Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. → PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  19. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG, a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133+ and CD133− cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133+ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet. αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  20. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Ma, Dongshen; Xing, Yun; Tang, Shanshan; Alahdal, Murad; Guo, Jiamin; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Shen, Yumeng; Wu, Qiong; Lu, Zhou; Jin, Liang

    2018-03-22

    A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133⁺ and CD133 - cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133⁺ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet). αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  1. Cellular therapy after spinal cord injury using neural progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury are explored. Particularly, the potential of adult derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) grafts to function as a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration was investigated. It was found that syngenic

  2. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  3. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxiu Li

    Full Text Available TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  4. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  5. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  7. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  8. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  9. Cell cycle regulation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sha; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The highly regulated process of blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets and their progenies, which differ in self-renewal and differentiation potential. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that cell cycle is tightly controlled by the complex interplay between extrinsic cues and intrinsic regulatory pathways involved in HSC self-renewal and differentiation. Deregulation of these cellular programs may transform HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-initiating stem cells, and can result in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia. While previous studies have shown roles for some cell cycle regulators and related signaling pathways in HSCs and HPCs, a more complete picture regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in HSCs or HPCs is lacking. Based on accumulated studies in this field, the present review introduces the basic components of the cell cycle machinery and discusses their major cellular networks that regulate the dormancy and cell cycle progression of HSCs. Knowledge on this topic would help researchers and clinicians to better understand the pathogenesis of relevant blood disorders and to develop new strategies for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs.

  10. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  11. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Hayato Fukusumi; Tomoko Shofuda; Yohei Bamba; Atsuyo Yamamoto; Daisuke Kanematsu; Yukako Handa; Keisuke Okita; Masaya Nakamura; Shinya Yamanaka; Hideyuki Okano; Yonehiro Kanemura

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPS...

  12. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Simon N; van Os, Ronald P; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have added significantly to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. Such models suggest that changes in the interaction between the HSPC and the hematopoietic microenvironmental 'niche' (cellular and extracellular components)

  13. Endothelial progenitor cell-based neovascularization : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Ischemic cardiovascular events are a major cause of death globally. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based approaches can result in improvement of vascular perfusion and might offer clinical benefit. However, although functional improvement is observed, the lack of long-term engraftment of EPCs

  14. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin-eosin...

  15. Cardiac stem/progenitor cells, secreted proteins, and proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Abraham, M.R.; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 583, č. 11 (2009), s. 1800-1807 ISSN 0014-5793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Cardiac stem/progenitor cell * paracrine factor * secretome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009

  16. Differentiation of insulin-producing cells from human neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hori

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Success in islet-transplantation-based therapies for type 1 diabetes, coupled with a worldwide shortage of transplant-ready islets, has motivated efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Islets and neurons share features, including common developmental programs, and in some species brain neurons are the principal source of systemic insulin. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that brain-derived human neural progenitor cells, exposed to a series of signals that regulate in vivo pancreatic islet development, form clusters of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs. During in vitro differentiation of neural progenitor cells with this novel method, genes encoding essential known in vivo regulators of pancreatic islet development were expressed. Following transplantation into immunocompromised mice, IPCs released insulin C-peptide upon glucose challenge, remained differentiated, and did not form detectable tumors. CONCLUSION: Production of IPCs solely through extracellular factor modulation in the absence of genetic manipulations may promote strategies to derive transplantable islet-replacement tissues from human neural progenitor cells and other types of multipotent human stem cells.

  17. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Shuttle of Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Calorini, Lido; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Cell therapies are treatments in which stem or progenitor cells are stimulated to differentiate into specialized cells able to home to and repair damaged tissues. After their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) stimulated worldwide interest as possible vehicles to perform autologous cell therapy of tumors. Taking into account the tumor-homing properties of EPCs, two different approaches to control cancer progression have been pursued by combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy or with nanomedicine. The first approach is based on the possibility of engineering EPCs to express different transgenes, and the second is based on the capacity of EPCs to take up nanomaterials. Here we review the most important progress covering the following issues: the characterization of bona fide endothelial progenitor cells, their role in tumor vascularization and metastasis, and preclinical data about their use in cell-based tumor therapy, considering antiangiogenic, suicide, immune-stimulating, and oncolytic virus gene therapy. The mixed approach of EPC cell therapy and nanomedicine is discussed in terms of plasmonic-dependent thermoablation and molecular imaging.

  3. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alantolactone selectively ablates acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are largely attributed to leukemia stem cells (LSCs which are difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and responsible for relapse. Thus, new therapeutic strategies which could selectively target LSCs in clinical leukemia treatment and avoid drug resistance are urgently needed. However, only a few small molecules have been reported to show anti-LSCs activity. Methods The aim of the present study was to identify alantolactone as novel agent that can ablate acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells from AML patient specimens and evaluate the anticancer activity of alantolactone in vitro and in vivo. Results The present study is the first to demonstrate that alantolactone, a prominent eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, could specifically ablate LSCs from AML patient specimens. Furthermore, in comparison to the conventional chemotherapy drug, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, alantolactone showed superior effects of leukemia cytotoxicity while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Alantolactone induced apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner by suppression of NF-kB and its downstream target proteins. DMA-alantolactone, a water-soluble prodrug of alantolactone, could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Based on these results, we propose that alantolactone may represent a novel LSCs-targeted therapy and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones offer a new scaffold for drug discovery towards anti-LSCs agents.

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, M T; Abd El Nabi, E A; Abd El Hamid, M; Sabry, D; Atta, H M; Rahed, L A; Shamaa, A; Mahfouz, S; Taha, F M; Elrefaay, S; Gharib, D M; Elsetohy, Khaled A

    2015-03-01

    We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1). EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I) were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS) was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Abd El Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1. EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  7. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  9. Characterization of multipotent adult progenitor cells, a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Verfaillie, C M

    2001-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and a subpopulation of cells--multipotent adult progenitor cells--were identified that have the potential for multilineage differentiation. Their ability to engraft and differentiate in vivo is under investigation.

  10. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Coelho da Costa, Meline; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Neves, Cynara Mendes; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Calloni, Giordano Wosgrau; Trentin, Andrea Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effect was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells

  11. Cadmium modulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and skews toward myelopoiesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yandong; Yu, Xinchun; Sun, Shuhui; Li, Qian; Xie, Yunli; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yifan; Pei, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wenmin; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Zhijun; Zhang, Yubin

    2016-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3 months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells. In accordance with increased myeloid progenitors and decreased lymphoid progenitors, the BM and spleens of Cd-treated mice had more monocytes and/or neutrophils and fewer B cells and T cells. Cd impaired the ability of the non-hematopoietic system to support LT-HSCs, in that lethally irradiated Cd-treated recipients transplanted with normal BM cells had reduced LT-HSCs after the hematopoietic system was fully reconstituted. This is consistent with reduced osteoblasts, a known critical component for HSC niche, observed in Cd-treated mice. Conversely, lethally irradiated control recipients transplanted with BM cells from Cd-treated mice had normal LT-HSC reconstitution. Furthermore, both control mice and Cd-treated mice that received Alendronate, a clinical drug used for treating osteoporosis, had BM increases of LT-HSCs. Thus, the results suggest Cd increase of LT-HSCs is due to effects on HSCs and not on osteoblasts, although, Cd causes osteoblast reduction and impaired niche function for maintaining HSCs. Furthermore, Cd skews HSCs toward myelopoiesis. - Highlights: • Cd increases the number of LT-HSCs but impairs their development. • Cd-treated hosts have compromised ability to support LT-HSCs. • Cd promotes myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis at the MPP level.

  12. Cadmium modulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and skews toward myelopoiesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yandong; Yu, Xinchun [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qian [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xie, Yunli [Insititute of Brain Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qiang [Putuo District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhao, Yifan; Pei, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wenmin; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Zhijun [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Yubin, E-mail: yz001@fudan.edu.cn [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3 months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells. In accordance with increased myeloid progenitors and decreased lymphoid progenitors, the BM and spleens of Cd-treated mice had more monocytes and/or neutrophils and fewer B cells and T cells. Cd impaired the ability of the non-hematopoietic system to support LT-HSCs, in that lethally irradiated Cd-treated recipients transplanted with normal BM cells had reduced LT-HSCs after the hematopoietic system was fully reconstituted. This is consistent with reduced osteoblasts, a known critical component for HSC niche, observed in Cd-treated mice. Conversely, lethally irradiated control recipients transplanted with BM cells from Cd-treated mice had normal LT-HSC reconstitution. Furthermore, both control mice and Cd-treated mice that received Alendronate, a clinical drug used for treating osteoporosis, had BM increases of LT-HSCs. Thus, the results suggest Cd increase of LT-HSCs is due to effects on HSCs and not on osteoblasts, although, Cd causes osteoblast reduction and impaired niche function for maintaining HSCs. Furthermore, Cd skews HSCs toward myelopoiesis. - Highlights: • Cd increases the number of LT-HSCs but impairs their development. • Cd-treated hosts have compromised ability to support LT-HSCs. • Cd promotes myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis at the MPP level.

  13. The influence of electric fields on hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carlos Atico; Fleury, Asha T; Tormos, Christian J; Petruk, Vadim; Chawla, Sagar; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2010-12-01

    The differentiation and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) depend on various in vivo environmental factors or cues, which may include an endogenous electrical field (EF), as observed during nervous system development and repair. In this study, we investigate the morphologic, phenotypic, and mitotic alterations of adult hippocampal NPCs that occur when exposed to two EFs of estimated endogenous strengths. NPCs treated with a 437 mV/mm direct current (DC) EF aligned perpendicularly to the EF vector and had a greater tendency to differentiate into neurons, but not into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, compared to controls. Furthermore, NPC process growth was promoted perpendicularly and inhibited anodally in the 437 mV/mm DC EF. Yet fewer cells were observed in the DC EF, which in part was due to a decrease in cell viability. The other EF applied was a 46 mV/mm alternating current (AC) EF. However, the 46 mV/mm AC EF showed no major differences in alignment or differentiation, compared to control conditions. For both EF treatments, the percent of mitotic cells during the last 14 h of the experiment were statistically similar to controls. Reported here, to our knowledge, is the first evidence of adult NPC differentiation affected in an EF in vitro. Further investigation and application of EFs on stem cells is warranted to elucidate the utility of EFs to control phenotypic behavior. With progress, the use of EFs may be engineered to control differentiation and target the growth of transplanted cells in a stem cell-based therapy to treat nervous system disorders.

  14. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and

  15. Myocardial regeneration by transplantation of modified endothelial progenitor cells expressing SDF-1 in a rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, A.; Kroh, A.; Konschalla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell based therapy has been shown to attenuate myocardial dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in different acute and chronic animal models. It has been further shown that stromal-cell derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) facilitates proliferation and migration of endogenous progenitor cells...... into injured tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of exogenously applied and endogenously mobilized cells in a regenerative strategy for MI therapy. Lentivirally SDF-1a-infected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were injected after 90 min. of ligation and reperfusion of the left...... compared to medium control. Intracoronary application of cells did not lead to significant differences compared to medium injected control hearts. Histology showed a significantly elevated rate of apoptotic cells and augmented proliferation after transplantation of EPCs and EPCs + SDF-1 alpha in infarcted...

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Haamedi, Nasrin; Stevanato, Lara; Carter, David; Brooke, Gary; Young, Michael; Coffey, Peter; Sinden, John; Patel, Sara; Vugler, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. Methods Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. Results The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. Conclusions Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. Translational Relevance Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies. PMID:27486556

  17. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  19. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-01-01

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture

  20. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  1. Ionizing Radiation Potentiates High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Reprograms Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Vibe; Ingerslev, Lars R; Andersen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life. We hypothesized that irradiation reprograms the epigenome of metabolic progenitor cells, which could account for impaired metabolism after cancer treatment...... mice. Mice subjected to total body irradiation showed alterations in glucose metabolism and, when challenged with HFD, marked hyperinsulinemia. Insulin signaling was chronically disrupted in skeletal muscle and adipose progenitor cells collected from irradiated mice and differentiated in culture...

  2. Epigenome profiling and editing of neocortical progenitor cells during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mareike; Kalebic, Nereo; Florio, Marta; Lakshmanaperumal, Naharajan; Haffner, Christiane; Brandl, Holger; Henry, Ian; Huttner, Wieland B

    2017-09-01

    The generation of neocortical neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is primarily controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA in the context of chromatin. To understand the complex layer of regulation that orchestrates different NPC types from the same DNA sequence, epigenome maps with cell type resolution are required. Here, we present genomewide histone methylation maps for distinct neural cell populations in the developing mouse neocortex. Using different chromatin features, we identify potential novel regulators of cortical NPCs. Moreover, we identify extensive H3K27me3 changes between NPC subtypes coinciding with major developmental and cell biological transitions. Interestingly, we detect dynamic H3K27me3 changes on promoters of several crucial transcription factors, including the basal progenitor regulator Eomes We use catalytically inactive Cas9 fused with the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 to edit H3K27me3 at the Eomes locus in vivo , which results in reduced Tbr2 expression and lower basal progenitor abundance, underscoring the relevance of dynamic H3K27me3 changes during neocortex development. Taken together, we provide a rich resource of neocortical histone methylation data and outline an approach to investigate its contribution to the regulation of selected genes during neocortical development. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  4. Adventitial SCA-1+ Progenitor Cell Gene Sequencing Reveals the Mechanisms of Cell Migration in Response to Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kokkinopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial progenitor cells, including SCA-1+ and mesenchymal stem cells, are believed to be important in vascular remodeling. It has been shown that SCA-1+ progenitor cells are involved in neointimal hyperplasia of vein grafts, but little is known concerning their involvement in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis. We employed single-cell sequencing technology on primary adventitial mouse SCA-1+ cells from wild-type and atherosclerotic-prone (ApoE-deficient mice and found that a group of genes controlling cell migration and matrix protein degradation was highly altered. Adventitial progenitors from ApoE-deficient mice displayed an augmented migratory potential both in vitro and in vivo. This increased migratory ability was mimicked by lipid loading to SCA-1+ cells. Furthermore, we show that lipid loading increased miRNA-29b expression and induced sirtuin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels to promote cell migration. These results provide direct evidence that blood cholesterol levels influence vascular progenitor cell function, which could be a potential target cell for treatment of vascular disease.

  5. FGF8 activates proliferation and migration in mouse post-natal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cruz-Martinez

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8 is a key molecular signal that is necessary for early embryonic development of the central nervous system, quickly disappearing past this point. It is known to be one of the primary morphogenetic signals required for cell fate and survival processes in structures such as the cerebellum, telencephalic and isthmic organizers, while its absence causes severe abnormalities in the nervous system and the embryo usually dies in early stages of development. In this work, we have observed a new possible therapeutic role for this factor in demyelinating disorders, such as leukodystrophy or multiple sclerosis. In vitro, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were cultured with differentiating medium and in the presence of FGF8. Differentiation and proliferation studies were performed by immunocytochemistry and PCR. Also, migration studies were performed in matrigel cultures, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were placed at a certain distance of a FGF8-soaked heparin bead. The results showed that both migration and proliferation was induced by FGF8. Furthermore, a similar effect was observed in an in vivo demyelinating mouse model, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were observed migrating towards the FGF8-soaked heparin beads where they were grafted. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that FGF8 is a novel factor to induce oligodendrocyte progenitor cell activation, migration and proliferation in vitro, which can be extrapolated in vivo in demyelinated animal models.

  6. Cancer Progenitor Cells: The Result of an Epigenetic Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinska, Karolina; Faria, Gabriela; McGonagle, Sandra; Macumber, Kate Morgan; Heerboth, Sarah; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2018-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells was proposed in the late 1990s. Although initially the idea seemed controversial, the existence of cancer stem cells is now well established. However, the process leading to the formation of cancer stem cells is still not clear and thus requires further research. This article discusses epigenetic events that possibly produce cancer progenitor cells from predisposed cells by the influence of their environment. Every somatic cell possesses an epigenetic signature in terms of histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are obtained during lineage-specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, which is specific to that particular tissue. We call this signature an epigenetic switch. The epigenetic switch is not fixed. Our epigenome alters with aging. However, depending on the predisposition of the cells of a particular tissue and their microenvironment, the balance of the switch (histone modifications and the DNA methylation) may be tilted to immortality in a few cells, which generates cancer progenitor cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  8. Pipeline for Tracking Neural Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Holm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Automated methods for neural stem cell lineage construction become increasingly important due to the large amount of data produced from time lapse imagery of in vitro cell growth experiments. Segmentation algorithms with the ability to adapt to the problem at hand and robust tracking methods play...... a key role in constructing these lineages. We present here a tracking pipeline based on learning a dictionary of discriminative image patches for segmentation and a graph formulation of the cell matching problem incorporating topology changes and acknowledging the fact that segmentation errors do occur...

  9. Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting of the BLT2 in chronic myeloid leukemia inhibits leukemia stem/progenitor cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meifang; Ai, Hongmei; Li, Tao [Department of Laboratory Medicine, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China); Rajoria, Pasupati; Shahu, Prakash [Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Li, Xiansong, E-mail: lixiansongjz@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has significantly improved clinical outcome for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, patients develop resistance when the disease progresses to the blast phase (BP) and the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that BCR-ABL activates BLT2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to promote leukemogenesis and this involves the p53 signaling pathway. Compared to normal bone marrow (NBM), the mRNA and protein levels of BLT2 are significantly increased in BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. This is correlated with increasing BCR-ABL expression. In contrast, knockdown of BCR-ABL or inhibition of its tyrosine kinase activity decreases Blt2 protein level. BLT2 inhibition induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and self-renewal capacity of CD34{sup +} cells from TKI-resistant BP-CML patients. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL TKI on CML stem/progenitor cells are further enhanced upon combination with BLT2 inhibition. We further show that BLT2 activation selectively suppresses p53 but not Wnt or BMP-mediated luciferase activity and transcription. Our results demonstrate that BLT2 is a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL and critically involved in the resistance of BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors to TKIs treatment. Our findings suggest that BLT2 and p53 can serve as therapeutic targets for CML treatment. - Highlights: • BCR-ABL regulates BLT2 expression to promote leukemogenesis. • BLT2 is essential to maintain CML cell function. • Activation of BLT2 suppresses p53 signaling pathway in CML cells. • Inhibition of BLT2 and BCR-ABL synergize in eliminating CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors.

  11. β-Cell regeneration through the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells: Pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitor cell research has been in the spotlight, as these cells have the potential to replace pancreatic β-cells for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with the absence or reduction of pancreatic β-cells. During the past few decades, the successful treatment of diabetes through transplantation of the whole pancreas or isolated islets has nearly been achieved. However, novel sources of pancreatic islets or insulin-producing cells are required to provide sufficient amounts of donor tissues. To overcome this limitation, the use of pancreatic progenitor cells is gaining more attention. In particular, pancreatic exocrine cells, such as duct epithelial cells and acinar cells, are attractive candidates for β-cell regeneration because of their differentiation potential and pancreatic lineage characteristics. It has been assumed that β-cell neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells could occur in pancreatic ducts in the postnatal stage. Several studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can arise in the duct tissue of the adult pancreas. Acinar cells also might have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. The present review summarizes recent progress in research on the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, especially duct and acinar cells.

  12. Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaye, Aurélie P; Bergemann, David; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Flasse, Lydie C; Von Berg, Virginie; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2015-09-02

    In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In

  13. Radiosensitivity of human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Omori, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The haematopoietic system is regenerative tissue with a high proliferative potential; therefore, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are sensitive to extracellular oxidative stress caused by radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. An understanding of this issue can help predict haematopoietic recovery from radiation exposure as well as the extent of radiation damage to the haematopoietic system. In the present study, the radiosensitivity of human lineage-committed myeloid haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), including colony-forming unit–granulocyte macrophage, burst-forming unit–erythroid and colony-forming unit–granulocyte–erythroid–macrophage–megakaryocyte cells, which are contained in adult individual peripheral blood (PB) and fetus/neonate placental/umbilical cord blood (CB), were studied. The PB of 59 healthy individual blood donors and the CB of 42 neonates were investigated in the present study. HSPCs prepared from PB and CB were exposed to 0.5 or 2 Gy x-irradiation. The results showed that large individual differences exist in the surviving fraction of cells. In the case of adult PB, a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the surviving fraction observed at a dose of 0.5 Gy and the age of the blood donors; however, none of these correlations were observed after 2 Gy x-irradiation. In addition, seasonal and gender variation were observed in the surviving fraction of CB HSPCs. The present results suggest that there are large individual differences in the surviving fraction of HSPCs contained in both adult PB and fetus/neonate CB. In addition, some factors, including the gender, age and season of birth, affect the radiosensitivity of HSPCs, especially with a relatively low-dose exposure. (paper)

  14. Chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Heyliger, Simone O.; Wang, Kaiyu; Johnson, Deadre J.

    2009-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the relative safety of chlorpyrifos (CPF) to various facets of the environment. Although published works suggest that CPF is relatively safe in adult animals, recent evidence indicates that juveniles, both animals and humans, may be more sensitive to CPF toxicity than adults. In young animals, CPF is neurotoxic and mechanistically interferes with cellular replication and cellular differentiation, which culminates in the alteration of synaptic neurotransmission in neurons. However, the effects of CPF on glial cells are not fully elucidated. Here we report that chlorpyrifos is toxic to oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, CPF produced dose-dependent increases in 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence intensities relative to the vehicle control. Moreover, CPF toxicity is associated with nuclear condensation and elevation of caspase 3/7 activity and Heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression. Pan-caspase inhibitor QVDOPh and cholinergic receptor antagonists' atropine and mecamylamine failed to protect oligodendrocyte progenitors from CPF-induced injury. Finally, glutathione (GSH) depletion enhanced CPF-induced toxicity whereas nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor L-NAME partially protected progenitors and the non-specific antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) completely spared cells from injury. Collectively, this data suggests that CPF induced toxicity is independent of cholinergic stimulation and is most likely caused by the induction of oxidative stress.

  15. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

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    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  17. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Davari, Maliheh; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Pakravesh, Jalil; Bagheri, Abouzar

    2012-04-10

    Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  18. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  19. Progenitor Cell Fate Decisions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    effects of co-transplantation of these populations. Understanding the relationships between normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells has... effect of E2 against double-strand break damage was dependent on ER expression. NBS1 mediated the E2 protective effects against ionizing radiation...transfected with 2 Jeg of pGL3 lucif - erase reporter vector containing S’ flanking constructs of the NBSl promoter, ellon 1 and intron 1 (-360/+1076

  20. PDGFRα and CD51 mark human nestin+ sphere-forming mesenchymal stem cells capable of hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Sandra; Lacombe, Julie; Hanoun, Maher; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Bruns, Ingmar; Kunisaki, Yuya; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate filament protein Nestin labels populations of stem/progenitor cells, including self-renewing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a major constituent of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. However, the intracellular location of Nestin prevents its use for prospective live cell isolation. Hence it is important to find surface markers specific for Nestin⁺ cells. In this study, we show that the expression of PDGFRα and CD51 among CD45⁻ Ter119⁻ CD31⁻ mouse bone marrow (BM) stromal cells characterizes a large fraction of Nestin⁺ cells, containing most fibroblastic CFUs, mesenspheres, and self-renewal capacity after transplantation. The PDGFRα⁺ CD51 ⁺subset of Nestin⁺ cells is also enriched in major HSC maintenance genes, supporting the notion that niche activity co-segregates with MSC activity. Furthermore, we show that PDGFRα⁺ CD51⁺ cells in the human fetal BM represent a small subset of CD146⁺ cells expressing Nestin and enriched for MSC and HSC niche activities. Importantly, cultured human PDGFRα⁺ CD51⁺ nonadherent mesenspheres can significantly expand multipotent hematopoietic progenitors able to engraft immunodeficient mice. These results thus indicate that the HSC niche is conserved between the murine and human species and suggest that highly purified nonadherent cultures of niche cells may represent a useful novel technology to culture human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

  1. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

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    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  2. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  3. Generation of hepatocyte- and endocrine pancreatic-like cells from human induced endodermal progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Akkerman, Renate; Dastidar, Sumitava; Roelandt, Philip; Kumar, Manoj; Bajaj, Manmohan; Mestre Rosa, Ana Rita; Helsen, Nicky; Vanslembrouck, Veerle; Kalo, Eric; Khurana, Satish; Laureys, Jos; Gysemans, Conny; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells (MAPCs) are one potential stem cell source to generate functional hepatocytes or β-cells. However, human MAPCs have less plasticity than pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), as their ability to generate endodermal cells is not robust. Here we studied the role of 14

  4. ALS skeletal muscle shows enhanced TGF-β signaling, fibrosis and induction of fibro/adipogenic progenitor markers.

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    David Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which upper and lower motoneurons degenerate leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. Several studies indicate that skeletal muscle contributes to disease progression; however the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Fibrosis is a common feature in skeletal muscle under chronic damage conditions such as those caused by muscular dystrophies or denervation. However, the exact mechanisms of fibrosis induction and the cellular bases of this pathological response are unknown. We show that extracellular matrix (ECM components are augmented in skeletal muscles of symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice, a widely used murine model of ALS. These mice also show increased TGF-β1 mRNA levels, total Smad3 protein levels and p-Smad3 positive nuclei. Furthermore, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα, Tcf4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA levels are augmented in the skeletal muscle of symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice. Additionally, the fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs, which are the main producers of ECM constituents, are also increased in these pathogenic conditions. Therefore, FAPs and ECM components are more abundant in symptomatic stages of the disease than in pre-symptomatic stages. We present evidence that fibrosis observed in skeletal muscle of symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice is accompanied with an induction of TGF-β signaling, and also that FAPs might be involved in triggering a fibrotic response. Co-localization of p-Smad3 positive cells together with PDGFRα was observed in the interstitial cells of skeletal muscles from symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice. Finally, the targeting of pro-fibrotic factors such as TGF-β, CTGF/CCN2 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF signaling pathway might be a suitable therapeutic approach to improve muscle function in several degenerative diseases.

  5. Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Alessandra; Caron, Leslie; Nakano, Atsushi; Lam, Jason T; Bernshausen, Alexandra; Chen, Yinhong; Qyang, Yibing; Bu, Lei; Sasaki, Mika; Martin-Puig, Silvia; Sun, Yunfu; Evans, Sylvia M; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Chien, Kenneth R

    2006-12-15

    Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors. We use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1(+) precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells, we clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1(+)/Nkx2.5(+)/flk1(+) defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.

  6. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

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    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  7. Human Migratory Meniscus Progenitor Cells Are Controlled via the TGF-β Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Hayat; Schminke, Boris; Bode, Christa; Roth, Moritz; Albert, Julius; von der Heyde, Silvia; Rosen, Vicki; Miosge, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Degeneration of the knee joint during osteoarthritis often begins with meniscal lesions. Meniscectomy, previously performed extensively after meniscal injury, is now obsolete because of the inevitable osteoarthritis that occurs following this procedure. Clinically, meniscus self-renewal is well documented as long as the outer, vascularized meniscal ring remains intact. In contrast, regeneration of the inner, avascular meniscus does not occur. Here, we show that cartilage tissue harvested from the avascular inner human meniscus during the late stages of osteoarthritis harbors a unique progenitor cell population. These meniscus progenitor cells (MPCs) are clonogenic and multipotent and exhibit migratory activity. We also determined that MPCs are likely to be controlled by canonical transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that leads to an increase in SOX9 and a decrease in RUNX2, thereby enhancing the chondrogenic potential of MPC. Therefore, our work is relevant for the development of novel cell biological, regenerative therapies for meniscus repair. PMID:25418724

  8. Osteoblast Production by Reserved Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Bone Regeneration and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kazunori; Shibata, Eri; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-12-04

    Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration. Besides regeneration, OPCs also supply osteoblasts for normal bone maintenance. We further showed that OPCs are derived from embryonic somites, as is the case with embryonic osteoblasts, and are replenished from mesenchymal precursors in adult zebrafish. Our findings reveal that reserved progenitors are a significant and complementary source of osteoblasts for zebrafish bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

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    Skardelly, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Skardelly@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Kamprad, Manja [Institute of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meixensberger, Juergen [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Milosevic, Javorina [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  10. Portal inflammation during NAFLD is frequent and associated with the early phases of putative hepatic progenitor cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Simone; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Perrone, Giuseppe; Picardi, Antonio; Morini, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether portal tract inflammation observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation, as thoroughly evaluated with different markers of the staminal lineage. Fifty-two patients with NAFLD were studied. NAFLD activity score, fibrosis and portal inflammation were histologically evaluated. Putative hepatic progenitor cells, intermediate hepatobiliary cells and bile ductules/interlobular bile ducts were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin (CK)-7, CK-19 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and a hepatic progenitor cell compartment score was derived. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast activity was determined by immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin. Portal inflammation was absent in a minority of patients, mild in 40% of cases and more than mild in about half of patients, showing a strong correlation with fibrosis (r=0.76, pcells (r=0.48, pcells (r=0.6, pcell compartment activation were associated with portal inflammation by univariate analysis. In the multivariate model, the only variable independently associated with portal inflammation was hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6). Portal inflammation is frequent during NAFLD and strongly associated with activation of putative hepatic progenitor cells since the first steps of their differentiation, portal myofibroblast activity and fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Progress of stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhimin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yuyao; Zhang, Dandan; Shen, Bingqiao; Luo, Min; Gu, Ping

    2017-05-10

    Retinal degeneration (RD), such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa, is one of the leading causes of blindness. Presently, no satisfactory therapeutic options are available for these diseases principally because the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) do not regenerate, although wet AMD can be prevented from further progression by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nevertheless, stem/progenitor cell approaches exhibit enormous potential for RD treatment using strategies mainly aimed at the rescue and replacement of photoreceptors and RPE. The sources of stem/progenitor cells are classified into two broad categories in this review, which are (1) ocular-derived progenitor cells, such as retinal progenitor cells, and (2) non-ocular-derived stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stromal cells. Here, we discuss in detail the progress in the study of four predominant stem/progenitor cell types used in animal models of RD. A short overview of clinical trials involving the stem/progenitor cells is also presented. Currently, stem/progenitor cell therapies for RD still have some drawbacks such as inhibited proliferation and/or differentiation in vitro (with the exception of the RPE) and limited long-term survival and function of grafts in vivo. Despite these challenges, stem/progenitor cells represent the most promising strategy for RD treatment in the near future.

  12. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  13. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

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    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  14. Low antigenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human ES cells

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    Eun-Mi Kim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Mi Kim1, Nicholas Zavazava1,21Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 2Immunology Graduate Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USAAbstract: Human embryonic stem (hES cells are essential for improved understanding of diseases and our ability to probe new therapies for use in humans. Currently, bone marrow cells and cord blood cells are used for transplantation into patients with hematopoietic malignancies, immunodeficiencies and in some cases for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, due to the high immunogenicity of these hematopoietic cells, toxic regimens of drugs are required for preconditioning and prevention of rejection. Here, we investigated the efficiency of deriving hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs from the hES cell line H13, after co-culturing with the murine stromal cell line OP9. We show that HPCs derived from the H13 ES cells poorly express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and no detectable class II antigens (HLA-DR. These characteristics make hES cell-derived hematopoietic cells (HPCs ideal candidates for transplantation across MHC barriers under minimal immunosuppression.Keywords: human embryonic stem cells, H13, hematopoiesis, OP9 stromal cells, immunogenicity

  15. Double-chimera proteins to enhance recruitment of endothelial cells and their progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, M; Kazemi, M; Hashemi, M; Zarkesh-Esfahanai, S H; Bahrami, E; Hashemi-Beni, B; Ahmadi, R

    2013-08-20

    Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments. We aimed to evaluate efficient attachment of endothelial cells and their progenitors on surfaces coated with mixture of specific antibodies, L-selectin and VE-cadherin, with prohibited platelet attachment. The most efficient conditions for coating of L-selectin-Fc chimera and VE-cadherin-Fc chimera proteins were first determined by protein coating on ELISA plates. The whole processes were repeated on titanium substrates, which are commonly used to coat stents. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. Cell attachment, growth, proliferation, viability and surface cytotoxicity were evaluated using nuclear staining and MTT assay. Platelet and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Optimal concentration of each protein for surface coating was 50 ng/ml. The efficacy of protein coating was both heat and pH independent. Calcium ions had significant impact on simultaneous dual-protein coating (P<0.05). Coating stability data revealed more than one year stability for these coated proteins at 4°C. L-selectin and VE-cadherin (ratio of 50:50) coated surface showed highest EPC and HUVEC attachment, viability and proliferation compared to single protein coated and non-coated titanium surfaces (P<0.05). This double coated surface did not show any cytotoxic effect. Surfaces coated with L-selectin and VE-cadherin are friendly surface for EPC and endothelial cell attachment with less platelet attachment. These desirable factors make the L-selectin and VE-cadherin coated surfaces perfect candidate endovascular device. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Generation of NKX6-1+ Pancreatic Progenitors from Multiple Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Nostro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs represent a renewable source of pancreatic beta cells for both basic research and therapeutic applications. Given this outstanding potential, significant efforts have been made to identify the signaling pathways that regulate pancreatic development in hPSC differentiation cultures. In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF and nicotinamide signaling induces the generation of NKX6-1+ progenitors from all hPSC lines tested. Furthermore, we show that the size of the NKX6-1+ population is regulated by the duration of treatment with retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10, and inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and hedgehog signaling pathways. When transplanted into NOD scid gamma (NSG recipients, these progenitors differentiate to give rise to exocrine and endocrine cells, including monohormonal insulin+ cells. Together, these findings provide an efficient and reproducible strategy for generating highly enriched populations of hPSC-derived beta cell progenitors for studies aimed at further characterizing their developmental potential in vivo and deciphering the pathways that regulate their maturation in vitro.

  17. Effect of 3D-scaffold formation on differentiation and survival in human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Stefanie; Schmich, Jürgen; Block, Stephan; Liedmann, Andrea; Jonas, Ludwig; Weiss, Dieter G; Helm, Christiane A; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2010-11-11

    3D-scaffolds have been shown to direct cell growth and differentiation in many different cell types, with the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment being important in determining the fate of the embedded cells. Here we used a hydrogel-based scaffold to investigate the influences of matrix concentration and functionalisation with laminin on the formation of the scaffolds, and the effect of these scaffolds on human neural progenitor cells cultured within them. In this study we used different concentrations of the hydrogel-based matrix PuraMatrix. In some experiments we functionalised the matrix with laminin I. The impact of concentration and treatment with laminin on the formation of the scaffold was examined with atomic force microscopy. Cells from a human fetal neural progenitor cell line were cultured in the different matrices, as well as in a 2D culture system, and were subsequently analysed with antibody stainings against neuronal markers. In parallel, the survival rate of the cells was determined by a live/dead assay. Atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrated that the matrices are formed by networks of isolated PuraMatrix fibres and aggregates of fibres. An increase of the hydrogel concentration led to a decrease in the mesh size of the scaffolds and functionalisation with laminin promoted aggregation of the fibres (bundle formation), which further reduces the density of isolated fibres. We showed that laminin-functionalisation is essential for human neural progenitor cells to build up 3D-growth patterns, and that proliferation of the cells is also affected by the concentration of matrix. In addition we found that 3D-cultures enhanced neuronal differentiation and the survival rate of the cells compared to 2D-cultures. Taken together, we have demonstrated a direct influence of the 3D-scaffold formation on the survival and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. These findings emphasize the importance of optimizing 3

  18. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  1. Towards consistent generation of pancreatic lineage progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Smith, Austin

    2015-10-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells can in principle be used as a source of any differentiated cell type for disease modelling, drug screening, toxicology testing or cell replacement therapy. Type I diabetes is considered a major target for stem cell applications due to the shortage of primary human beta cells. Several protocols have been reported for generating pancreatic progenitors by in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Here we first assessed one of these protocols on a panel of pluripotent stem cell lines for capacity to engender glucose sensitive insulin-producing cells after engraftment in immunocompromised mice. We observed variable outcomes with only one cell line showing a low level of glucose response. We, therefore, undertook a systematic comparison of different methods for inducing definitive endoderm and subsequently pancreatic differentiation. Of several protocols tested, we identified a combined approach that robustly generated pancreatic progenitors in vitro from both embryo-derived and induced pluripotent stem cells. These findings suggest that, although there are intrinsic differences in lineage specification propensity between pluripotent stem cell lines, optimal differentiation procedures may consistently direct a substantial fraction of cells into pancreatic specification. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. A single-cell resolution map of mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowa, Sonia; Hamey, Fiona K; Pijuan Sala, Blanca; Diamanti, Evangelia; Shepherd, Mairi; Laurenti, Elisa; Wilson, Nicola K; Kent, David G; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-08-25

    Maintenance of the blood system requires balanced cell fate decisions by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Because cell fate choices are executed at the individual cell level, new single-cell profiling technologies offer exciting possibilities for mapping the dynamic molecular changes underlying HSPC differentiation. Here, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile more than 1600 single HSPCs, and deep sequencing has enabled detection of an average of 6558 protein-coding genes per cell. Index sorting, in combination with broad sorting gates, allowed us to retrospectively assign cells to 12 commonly sorted HSPC phenotypes while also capturing intermediate cells typically excluded by conventional gating. We further show that independently generated single-cell data sets can be projected onto the single-cell resolution expression map to directly compare data from multiple groups and to build and refine new hypotheses. Reconstruction of differentiation trajectories reveals dynamic expression changes associated with early lymphoid, erythroid, and granulocyte-macrophage differentiation. The latter two trajectories were characterized by common upregulation of cell cycle and oxidative phosphorylation transcriptional programs. By using external spike-in controls, we estimate absolute messenger RNA (mRNA) levels per cell, showing for the first time that despite a general reduction in total mRNA, a subset of genes shows higher expression levels in immature stem cells consistent with active maintenance of the stem-cell state. Finally, we report the development of an intuitive Web interface as a new community resource to permit visualization of gene expression in HSPCs at single-cell resolution for any gene of choice. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Generation of Induced Progenitor-like Cells from Mature Epithelial Cells Using Interrupted Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A suitable source of progenitor cells is required to attenuate disease or affect cure. We present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to generate “induced progenitor-like (iPL cells” using carefully timed expression of induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc; OSKM from non-proliferative Club cells. Interrupted reprogramming allowed controlled expansion yet preservation of lineage commitment. Under clonogenic conditions, iPL cells expanded and functioned as a bronchiolar progenitor-like population to generate mature Club cells, mucin-producing goblet cells, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-expressing ciliated epithelium. In vivo, iPL cells can repopulate CFTR-deficient epithelium. This interrupted reprogramming process could be metronomically applied to achieve controlled progenitor-like proliferation. By carefully controlling the duration of expression of OSKM, iPL cells do not become pluripotent, and they maintain their memory of origin and retain their ability to efficiently return to their original phenotype. A generic technique to produce highly specified populations may have significant implications for regenerative medicine. : In this article Waddell, Nagy, and colleagues present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to produce highly specified functional “induced progenitor-like cells” from mature quiescent cells. They propose that careful control of the duration of transient expression of iPSC reprogramming factors (OSKM allows controlled expansion yet preservation of parental lineage without traversing the pluripotent state. Keywords: generation of induced progenitor-like cells

  4. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  5. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  6. Quercetin inhibits adipogenesis of muscle progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Funakoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors capable of contributing to myogenesis to maintain adult muscle mass and function. Several experiments have demonstrated that muscle satellite cells can differentiate into adipocytes in vitro, supporting the mesenchymal differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, muscle satellite cells may be a source of ectopic muscle adipocytes, explaining the lipid accumulation often observed in aged skeletal muscle (sarcopenia and in muscles of patients` with diabetes. Quercetin, a polyphenol, is one of the most abundant flavonoids distributed in edible plants, such as onions and apples, and possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro with primary cells from rat limbs by culture in the presence of quercetin under adipogenic conditions. Morphological observations, Oil Red-O staining results, triglyceride content analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that quercetin was capable of inhibiting the adipogenic induction of muscle satellite cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner by suppressing the transcript levels of adipogenic markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and fatty acid binding protein 4. Our results suggested that quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro by suppressing the transcription of adipogenic markers. Keywords: Quercetin, Muscle satellite cell, Differentiation, Intramuscular lipid

  7. Molecular Characterization of Notch1 Positive Progenitor Cells in the Developing Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dvoriantchikova

    Full Text Available The oscillatory expression of Notch signaling in neural progenitors suggests that both repressors and activators of neural fate specification are expressed in the same progenitors. Since Notch1 regulates photoreceptor differentiation and contributes (together with Notch3 to ganglion cell fate specification, we hypothesized that genes encoding photoreceptor and ganglion cell fate activators would be highly expressed in Notch1 receptor-bearing (Notch1+ progenitors, directing these cells to differentiate into photoreceptors or into ganglion cells when Notch1 activity is diminished. To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to study expression profiles of whole retinas and isolated from them Notch1+ cells at embryonic day 14 (E14 and postnatal day 0 (P0. To isolate Notch1+ cells, we utilized immunomagnetic cell separation. We also used Notch3 knockout (Notch3KO animals to evaluate the contribution of Notch3 signaling in ganglion cell differentiation. Hierarchical clustering of 6,301 differentially expressed genes showed that Notch1+ cells grouped near the same developmental stage retina cluster. At E14, we found higher expression of repressors (Notch1, Hes5 and activators (Dll3, Atoh7, Otx2 of neuronal differentiation in Notch1+ cells compared to whole retinal cell populations. At P0, Notch1, Hes5, and Dll1 expression was significantly higher in Notch1+ cells than in whole retinas. Otx2 expression was more than thirty times higher than Atoh7 expression in Notch1+ cells at P0. We also observed that retinas of wild type animals had only 14% (P < 0.05 more ganglion cells compared to Notch3KO mice. Since this number is relatively small and Notch1 has been shown to contribute to ganglion cell fate specification, we suggested that Notch1 signaling may play a more significant role in RGC development than the Notch3 signaling cascade. Finally, our findings suggest that Notch1+ progenitors--since they heavily express both pro-ganglion cell (Atoh7

  8. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hippo pathway effectors control cardiac progenitor cell fate by acting as dynamic sensors of substrate mechanics and nanostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Mosqueira, Diogo

    2014-03-25

    Stem cell responsiveness to extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and mechanical cues has been the subject of a number of investigations so far, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell mechano-biology still need full clarification. Here we demonstrate that the paralog proteins YAP and TAZ exert a crucial role in adult cardiac progenitor cell mechano-sensing and fate decision. Cardiac progenitors respond to dynamic modifications in substrate rigidity and nanopattern by promptly changing YAP/TAZ intracellular localization. We identify a novel activity of YAP and TAZ in the regulation of tubulogenesis in 3D environments and highlight a role for YAP/TAZ in cardiac progenitor proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we show that YAP/TAZ expression is triggered in the heart cells located at the infarct border zone. Our results suggest a fundamental role for the YAP/TAZ axis in the response of resident progenitor cells to the modifications in microenvironment nanostructure and mechanics, thereby contributing to the maintenance of myocardial homeostasis in the adult heart. These proteins are indicated as potential targets to control cardiac progenitor cell fate by materials design. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Troy; Howard, Alexis; Elsey, Ruth M.; Raza, Sarah; O’Connor, Alice; Beatty, Brian; Conrad, Jack; Solounias, Nikos; Chow, Priscilla; Mukta, Saima; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population. PMID:27144443

  11. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Troy; Howard, Alexis; Elsey, Ruth M; Raza, Sarah; O'Connor, Alice; Beatty, Brian; Conrad, Jack; Solounias, Nikos; Chow, Priscilla; Mukta, Saima; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population.

  12. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  13. Unmasking Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties in Differentiated Epithelial Cells Using Short-term Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    ...) To determine the range of mammary stem cell types participating in gland regeneration. 2) To develop the short-term transplantation assay as a means by which critical regulators of stem and progenitor cell behavior can be discovered and evaluated. Relevance: Studies will provide a direct test of prevailing stem cell models.

  14. Unmasking Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties in Differentiated Epithelial Cells Using Short-term Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    ...) To determine the range of mammary stem cell types participating in gland regeneration. 2) To develop the short-term transplantation assay as a means by which critical regulators of stem and progenitor cell behavior can be discovered and evaluated. Relevance: Studies will provide a direct test of prevailing stem cell models.

  15. Effects of hematopoietic growth factors on purified bone marrow progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bot (Freek)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells and in-vitro culture to examine the following questions: 1. The effects of recombinant lL-3 and GM-CSF on proliferation and differentiation of enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells have not been clearly defined: - how do IL~3

  16. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  17. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Diehl, M.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3{+-}2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10{+-}1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU {>=}2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  18. PRDM11 is dispensable for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoren, Lina A; Fog, Cathrine K; Jensen, Klaus T

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)(1) supply organisms with life-long output of mature blood cells. To do so, the HSC pool size has to be maintained by HSC self-renewing divisions. PRDM3 and PRDM16 have been documented to regulate HSC self-renewal, maintenance and function. We found Prdm11 to have...... similar expression patterns in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartments as Prdm3 and Prdm16. Therefore, we undertook experiments to test if PRDM11 regulates HSC self-renewal, maintenance and function by investigating the Prdm11(-/-) mice. Our data shows that phenotypic HSPCs...

  19. Erythropoietin Receptor Positive Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-mei Hu; Guo-xu Xu; Guo-tong XU; Wei-ye Li; Xia Lei; Bo Ma; Yu Zhang; Yan Yan; Ya-lan Wu; Ge-zhi Xu; Wen Ye; Ling Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible involvement of erythropoietin (EPO)/erythropoietin receptor(EPOR) system in neovascularization and vascular regeneration in diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods EPOR positive circulating progenitor cells (CPCs: CD34+) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs: CD34+KDR+) were assessed by flow cytometry in type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of DR. The cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched control patients without diabetes (n=7), non-prolif-erative DR (NPDR, n=7), proliferative DR (PDR, n=8), and PDR complicated with diabetic nephropathy (PDR-DN, n=7). Results The numbers of EPOR+ CPCs and EPOR+ EPCs were reduced remarkably in NPDR compared with the control group (both P<0.01), whereas rebounded in PDR and PDR-DN groups in varying degrees. Similar changes were observed in respect of the proportion of EPOR+ CPCs in CPCs (NPDR vs.control, P< 0.01) and that of EPOR+ EPCs in EPCs (NPDR vs. control, P< 0.05). Conclusion Exogenous EPO, mediated via the EPO/EPOR system of EPCs, may alleviate the im-paired vascular regeneration in NPDR, whereas it might aggravate retinal neovascularization in PDR due to a rebound of EPOR+ EPCs associated with ischemia.

  20. Intrathymic injection of hematopoietic progenitor cells establishes functional T cell development in a mouse model of severe combined immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Z. Tuckett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be curative in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency, there is a need for additional strategies boosting T cell immunity in individuals suffering from genetic disorders of lymphoid development. Here we show that image-guided intrathymic injection of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice is feasible and facilitates the generation of functional T cells conferring protective immunity. Methods Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy C57BL/6 mice (wild-type, Luciferase+, CD45.1+ and injected intravenously or intrathymically into both male and female, young or aged NOD-scid IL2rγnull recipients. The in vivo fate of injected cells was analyzed by bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometry of thymus- and spleen-derived T cell populations. In addition to T cell reconstitution, we evaluated mice for evidence of immune dysregulation based on diabetes development and graft-versus-host disease. T cell immunity following intrathymic injection of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice was assessed in a B cell lymphoma model. Results Despite the small size of the thymic remnant in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice, we were able to accomplish precise intrathymic delivery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by ultrasound-guided injection. Thymic reconstitution following intrathymic injection of healthy allogeneic hematopoietic cells was most effective in young male recipients, indicating that even in the setting of severe immunodeficiency, sex and age are important variables for thymic function. Allogeneic T cells generated in intrathymically injected NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice displayed anti-lymphoma activity in vivo, but we found no evidence for severe auto/alloreactivity in T cell-producing NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice, suggesting that immune dysregulation is not a major concern

  1. Enrichment of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by magnetic cell sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Čížek, M.; Nagyová, M.; Slovinská, L.; Novotná, I.; Jergová, S.; Radoňák, J.; Hlučilová, Jana; Vanický, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2009), s. 88-94 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB0808108 Grant - others:Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV-51002105; Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV SK-CZ-0045-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Oligodendrocytes progenitors Lineage * Magnetic separation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009

  2. PRMT5 is essential for the maintenance of chondrogenic progenitor cells in the limb bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Li, Qiang; Co, Swanie; Huang, Bau-Lin; Ding, Ding; Uy, Jann C; Ji, Zhicheng; Mackem, Susan; Bedford, Mark T; Galli, Antonella; Ji, Hongkai; Vokes, Steven A

    2016-12-15

    During embryonic development, undifferentiated progenitor cells balance the generation of additional progenitor cells with differentiation. Within the developing limb, cartilage cells differentiate from mesodermal progenitors in an ordered process that results in the specification of the correct number of appropriately sized skeletal elements. The internal pathways by which these cells maintain an undifferentiated state while preserving their capacity to differentiate is unknown. Here, we report that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 has a crucial role in maintaining progenitor cells. Mouse embryonic buds lacking PRMT5 have severely truncated bones with wispy digits lacking joints. This novel phenotype is caused by widespread cell death that includes mesodermal progenitor cells that have begun to precociously differentiate into cartilage cells. We propose that PRMT5 maintains progenitor cells through its regulation of Bmp4 Intriguingly, adult and embryonic stem cells also require PRMT5 for maintaining pluripotency, suggesting that similar mechanisms might regulate lineage-restricted progenitor cells during organogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Neural progenitor cells but not astrocytes respond distally to thoracic spinal cord injury in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9, sham surgery (n = 8, or no surgery (n = 8. Spinal cord and brain tissues were fixed and cut at six regions of the neuroaxis. Immunohistochemistry showed increased reactivity of neural progenitor cell marker nestin in the central canal at all levels of the spinal cord. Increased reactivity of astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein was found only at the lesion epicenter. The number of activated microglia was significantly increased at the lesion site, and activated microglia extended to the lumbar enlargement. Phagocytic microglia and macrophages were significantly increased only at the lesion site. There were no changes in nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, microglia and macrophage response in the third ventricle of rats subjected to mild-contusion thoracic SCI compared to the sham surgery or no surgery. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, astrocytes and microglia respond differently to a localized SCI, presumably due to differences in inflammatory signaling. These different cellular responses may have implications in the way that neural progenitor cells can be manipulated for neuroregeneration after SCI. This needs to be further investigated.

  4. Nubp1 is required for lung branching morphogenesis and distal progenitor cell survival in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schnatwinkel

    Full Text Available The lung is a complex system in biology and medicine alike. Whereas there is a good understanding of the anatomy and histology of the embryonic and adult lung, less is known about the molecular details and the cellular pathways that ultimately orchestrate lung formation and affect its health. From a forward genetic approach to identify novel genes involved in lung formation, we identified a mutated Nubp1 gene, which leads to syndactyly, eye cataract and lung hypoplasia. In the lung, Nubp1 is expressed in progenitor cells of the distal epithelium. Nubp1(m1Nisw mutants show increased apoptosis accompanied by a loss of the distal progenitor markers Sftpc, Sox9 and Foxp2. In addition, Nubp1 mutation disrupts localization of the polarity protein Par3 and the mitosis relevant protein Numb. Using knock-down studies in lung epithelial cells, we also demonstrate a function of Nubp1 in regulating centrosome dynamics and microtubule organization. Together, Nubp1 represents an essential protein for lung progenitor survival by coordinating vital cellular processes including cell polarity and centrosomal dynamics.

  5. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells as Effectors in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Granick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shed light on novel functions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC. While they are critical for maintenance and replenishment of blood cells in the bone marrow, these cells are not limited to the bone marrow compartment and function beyond their role in hematopoiesis. HSPC can leave bone marrow and circulate in peripheral blood and lymph, a process often manipulated therapeutically for the purpose of transplantation. Additionally, these cells preferentially home to extramedullary sites of inflammation where they can differentiate to more mature effector cells. HSPC are susceptible to various pathogens, though they may participate in the innate immune response without being directly infected. They express pattern recognition receptors for detection of endogenous and exogenous danger-associated molecular patterns and respond not only by the formation of daughter cells but can themselves secrete powerful cytokines. This paper summarizes the functional and phenotypic characterization of HSPC, their niche within and outside of the bone marrow, and what is known regarding their role in the innate immune response.

  6. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells ...

  7. Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Kirby, Tyler J; Kosmac, Kate; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-05

    Satellite cells, the predominant stem cell population in adult skeletal muscle, are activated in response to hypertrophic stimuli and give rise to myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds myofibers. This ECM is composed largely of collagens secreted by interstitial fibrogenic cells, which influence satellite cell activity and muscle repair during hypertrophy and aging. Here we show that MPCs interact with interstitial fibrogenic cells to ensure proper ECM deposition and optimal muscle remodeling in response to hypertrophic stimuli. MPC-dependent ECM remodeling during the first week of a growth stimulus is sufficient to ensure long-term myofiber hypertrophy. MPCs secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which represses Rrbp1, a master regulator of collagen biosynthesis, in fibrogenic cells to prevent excessive ECM deposition. These findings provide insights into how skeletal stem and progenitor cells interact with other cell types to actively regulate their extracellular environments for tissue maintenance and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  9. Human endothelial progenitor cells rescue cortical neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation induced death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Donzelli, Elisabetta; De Cristofaro, Valentina; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; D'Amico, Giovanna; Scuteri, Arianna; Tredici, Giovanni

    2016-09-19

    Cerebral ischemia is characterized by both acute and delayed neuronal injuries. Neuro-protection is a major issue that should be properly addressed from a pharmacological point of view, and cell-based treatment approaches are of interest due to their potential pleiotropic effects. Endothelial progenitor cells have the advantage of being mobilized from the bone marrow into the circulation, but have been less studied than other stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, the comparison between human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) and human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hMSC) in terms of efficacy in rescuing neurons from cell death after transitory ischemia is the aim of the current study, in the effort to address further directions. In vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on a primary culture of rodent cortical neurons was set up with different durations of exposure: 1, 2 and 3hrs with assessment of neuron survival. The 2hrs OGD was chosen for the subsequent experiments. After 2hrs OGD neurons were either placed in indirect co-culture with hMSC or hEPC or cultured in hMSC or hEPC conditioned medium and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. At day 2 after 2hrs OGD exposure, mean neuronal survival was 47.9±24.2%. In contrast, after treatment with hEPC and hMSC indirect co-culture was 74.1±27.3%; and 69.4±18.8%, respectively. In contrast, treatment with conditioned medium did not provide any advantage in terms of survival to OGD neurons The study shows the efficacy of hEPC in indirect co-culture to rescue neurons from cell death after OGD, comparable to that of hMSC. hEPC deserve further studies given their potential interest for ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single Lgr5- or Lgr6-expressing taste stem/progenitor cells generate taste bud cells ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenwen; Lewandowski, Brian C; Watson, Jaime; Aihara, Eitaro; Iwatsuki, Ken; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F; Jiang, Peihua

    2014-11-18

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and its homologs (e.g., Lgr6) mark adult stem cells in multiple tissues. Recently, we and others have shown that Lgr5 marks adult taste stem/progenitor cells in posterior tongue. However, the regenerative potential of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells and the identity of adult taste stem/progenitor cells that regenerate taste tissue in anterior tongue remain elusive. In the present work, we describe a culture system in which single isolated Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells from taste tissue can generate continuously expanding 3D structures ("organoids"). Many cells within these taste organoids were cycling and positive for proliferative cell markers, cytokeratin K5 and Sox2, and incorporated 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Importantly, mature taste receptor cells that express gustducin, carbonic anhydrase 4, taste receptor type 1 member 3, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2, or cytokeratin K8 were present in the taste organoids. Using calcium imaging assays, we found that cells grown out from taste organoids derived from isolated Lgr5(+) cells were functional and responded to tastants in a dose-dependent manner. Genetic lineage tracing showed that Lgr6(+) cells gave rise to taste bud cells in taste papillae in both anterior and posterior tongue. RT-PCR data demonstrated that Lgr5 and Lgr6 may mark the same subset of taste stem/progenitor cells both anteriorly and posteriorly. Together, our data demonstrate that functional taste cells can be generated ex vivo from single Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells, validating the use of this model for the study of taste cell generation.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 No description Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  5. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  6. H4 histamine receptors mediate cell cycle arrest in growth factor-induced murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-France Petit-Bertron

    Full Text Available The most recently characterized H4 histamine receptor (H4R is expressed preferentially in the bone marrow, raising the question of its role during hematopoiesis. Here we show that both murine and human progenitor cell populations express this receptor subtype on transcriptional and protein levels and respond to its agonists by reduced growth factor-induced cell cycle progression that leads to decreased myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid colony formation. H4R activation prevents the induction of cell cycle genes through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway that is not associated with apoptosis. It is mediated specifically through H4R signaling since gene silencing or treatment with selective antagonists restores normal cell cycle progression. The arrest of growth factor-induced G1/S transition protects murine and human progenitor cells from the toxicity of the cell cycle-dependent anticancer drug Ara-C in vitro and reduces aplasia in a murine model of chemotherapy. This first evidence for functional H4R expression in hematopoietic progenitors opens new therapeutic perspectives for alleviating hematotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  7. Advancing haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell biology through single-cell profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hamey, Fiona; Nestorowa, Sonia; Wilson, Nicola Kaye; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) sit at the top of the haematopoietic hierarchy, and their fate choices need to be carefully controlled to ensure balanced production of all mature blood cell types. As cell fate decisions are made at the level of the individual cells, recent technological advances in measuring gene and protein expression in increasingly large numbers of single cells have been rapidly adopted to study both normal and pathological HSPC function. In this review we...

  8. Prolonged Expansion Induces Spontaneous Neural Progenitor Differentiation from Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2017-12-01

    Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from dental tissues received considerable interest in regenerative medicine, particularly in nerve regeneration owing to their embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Proliferation efficacy and differentiation capacity into diverse cell lineages propose dental MSCs as an in vitro tool for disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous differentiation efficiency of dental MSCs obtained from human gingiva tissue (hGMSCs) into neural progenitor cells after extended passaging. At passage 41, the morphology of hGMSCs changed from typical fibroblast-like shape into sphere-shaped cells with extending processes. Next-generation transcriptomics sequencing showed increased expression of neural progenitor markers such as NES, MEIS2, and MEST. In addition, de novo expression of neural precursor genes, such as NRN1, PHOX2B, VANGL2, and NTRK3, was noticed in passage 41. Immunocytochemistry results showed suppression of neurogenesis repressors TP53 and p21, whereas Western blot results revealed the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF and NT3 at passage 41. Our results showed the spontaneous efficacy of hGMSCs to differentiate into neural precursor cells over prolonged passages and that these cells may assist in producing novel in vitro disease models that are associated with neural development.

  9. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  10. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Angelotti, M.L.; Rizzo, P.; Dijkman, H.; Lazzeri, E.; Mooren, F.; Ballerini, L.; Parente, E.; Sagrinati, C.; Mazzinghi, B.; Ronconi, E.; Becherucci, F.; Benigni, A.; Steenbergen, E.; Lasagni, L.; Remuzzi, G.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Romagnani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner

  11. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Differentiation of Myeloid Progenitor Cells During Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Mittal, Sharad K; Sahu, Anuradha; Sahu, Srikant K; Chauhan, Sunil K

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess distinct immunomodulatory properties and have tremendous potential for use in therapeutic applications in various inflammatory diseases. MSCs have been shown to regulate pathogenic functions of mature myeloid inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. Intriguingly, the capacity of MSCs to modulate differentiation of myeloid progenitors (MPs) to mature inflammatory cells remains unknown to date. Here, we report the novel finding that MSCs inhibit the expression of differentiation markers on MPs under inflammatory conditions. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of MSCs is dependent on direct cell-cell contact and that this intercellular contact is mediated through interaction of CD200 expressed by MSCs and CD200R1 expressed by MPs. Furthermore, using an injury model of sterile inflammation, we show that MSCs promote MP frequencies and suppress infiltration of inflammatory cells in the inflamed tissue. We also find that downregulation of CD200 in MSCs correlates with abrogation of their immunoregulatory function. Collectively, our study provides unequivocal evidence that MSCs inhibit differentiation of MPs in the inflammatory environment via CD200-CD200R1 interaction. Stem Cells 2017;35:1532-1541. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Impaired neuronal maturation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells in mice lacking CRAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Götz, Rudolf; Camarero, Guadelupe; Heinsen, Helmut; Blum, Robert; Rapp, Ulf Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    RAF kinases are major constituents of the mitogen activated signaling pathway, regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival of many cell types, including neurons. In mammals, the family of RAF proteins consists of three members, ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF. Ablation of CRAF kinase in inbred mouse strains causes major developmental defects during fetal growth and embryonic or perinatal lethality. Heterozygous germline mutations in CRAF result in Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by neurocognitive impairment that may involve hippocampal physiology. The role of CRAF signaling during hippocampal development and generation of new postnatal hippocampal granule neurons has not been examined and may provide novel insight into the cause of hippocampal dysfunction in Noonan syndrome. In this study, by crossing CRAF-deficiency to CD-1 outbred mice, a CRAF mouse model was established which enabled us to investigate the interplay of neural progenitor proliferation and postmitotic differentiation during adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Albeit the general morphology of the hippocampus was unchanged, CRAF-deficient mice displayed smaller granule cell layer (GCL) volume at postnatal day 30 (P30). In CRAF-deficient mice a substantial number of abnormal, chromophilic, fast dividing cells were found in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG), indicating that CRAF signaling contributes to hippocampal neural progenitor proliferation. CRAF-deficient neural progenitor cells showed an increased cell death rate and reduced neuronal maturation. These results indicate that CRAF function affects postmitotic neural cell differentiation and points to a critical role of CRAF-dependent growth factor signaling pathway in the postmitotic development of adult-born neurons.

  14. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

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    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  15. SCA-1 Expression Level Identifies Quiescent Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

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    Mina N.F. Morcos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell generation depends on continuous cellular output by the sequential hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and progenitor populations that all contain quiescent and actively cycling cells. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs express the surface molecule Stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1/LY6A. Using histone 2B-red fluorescent fusion protein label retention and cell-cycle reporter mice, we demonstrate that high SCA-1 expression (SCA-1hi identifies not only quiescent HSCs but quiescent cells on all hierarchical levels within the lineage−SCA-1+KIT+ (LSK population. Each transplanted SCA-1hi HSPC population also displayed self-renewal potential superior to that of the respective SCA-1lo population. SCA-1 expression is inducible by type I interferon (IFN. We show, however, that quiescence and high self-renewal capacity of cells with brighter SCA-1 expression at steady state were independent of type I IFN signaling. We conclude that SCA-1 expression levels can be used to prospectively isolate functionally heterogeneous HSPC subpopulations.

  16. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  17. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

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    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  18. The isolation and in vitro expansion of hepatic Sca-1 progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, Elizabeth; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2009-01-01

    The intra-hepatic population of liver progenitor cells expands during liver injury when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. These cells can be purified by density gradient centrifugation and cultured. Separated by size only this population contains small cells of hematopoietic, epithelial and endothelial lineages and is thought to contain liver stem cells. The identity of liver stem cells remains unknown although there is some evidence that tissue Sca1 + CD45 - cells display progenitor cell characteristics. We identified both intra-hepatic and gall bladder Sca1 + cells following liver injury and expanded ex vivo Sca1 cells as part of heterogenous cell culture or as a purified population. We found significant difference between the proliferation of Sca-1 cells when plated on laminin or collagen I while proliferation of heterogenous population was not affected by the extracellular matrix indicating the necessity for culture of Sca1 + cells with laminin matrix or laminin producing cells in long term liver progenitor cell cultures.

  19. Correction of glucocerebrosidase deficiency after retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Correll, P.H.; Perry, L.K.; Brady, R.O.; Karlsson, S.

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral gene transfer has been used successfully to correct the glucocerebrosidase (GCase) deficiency in primary hematopoietic cells from patients with Gaucher disease. For this model of somatic gene therapy, the authors developed a high-titer, amphotropic retroviral vector designated NTG in which the human GCase gene was driven by the mutant polyoma virus enhancer/herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene (tk) promoter (Py + /Htk). NTG normalized GCase activity in transduced Gaucher fibroblasts and efficiently infected human monocytic and erythroleukemic cell lines. RNA blot-hybridization (Northern blot) analysis of these hemaptopoietic cell lines showed unexpectedly high-level expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat (Mo-MLV LTR) and levels of Py + /Htk enhancer/promoter-initiated human GCase RNA that approximated endogenous GCase RNA levels. Furthermore, NTG efficiently infected human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Detection of the provirus in approximately one-third of NTG-infected progenitor colonies that had not been selected in G418-containing medium indicates that relative resistance to G418 underestimated the actual gene transfer efficiency. Northern blot analysis of NTG-infected, progenitor-derived cells showed expression from both the Mo-MLV LTR and the Py + /Htk enhancer/promoter. NTG-transduced hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with Gaucher disease generated progeny in which GCase activity has been normalized

  20. Correction of glucocerebrosidase deficiency after retroviral-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.; Correll, P.H.; Perry, L.K.; Brady, R.O.; Karlsson, S. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Retroviral gene transfer has been used successfully to correct the glucocerebrosidase (GCase) deficiency in primary hematopoietic cells from patients with Gaucher disease. For this model of somatic gene therapy, the authors developed a high-titer, amphotropic retroviral vector designated NTG in which the human GCase gene was driven by the mutant polyoma virus enhancer/herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene (tk) promoter (Py{sup +}/Htk). NTG normalized GCase activity in transduced Gaucher fibroblasts and efficiently infected human monocytic and erythroleukemic cell lines. RNA blot-hybridization (Northern blot) analysis of these hemaptopoietic cell lines showed unexpectedly high-level expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat (Mo-MLV LTR) and levels of Py{sup +}/Htk enhancer/promoter-initiated human GCase RNA that approximated endogenous GCase RNA levels. Furthermore, NTG efficiently infected human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Detection of the provirus in approximately one-third of NTG-infected progenitor colonies that had not been selected in G418-containing medium indicates that relative resistance to G418 underestimated the actual gene transfer efficiency. Northern blot analysis of NTG-infected, progenitor-derived cells showed expression from both the Mo-MLV LTR and the Py{sup +}/Htk enhancer/promoter. NTG-transduced hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with Gaucher disease generated progeny in which GCase activity has been normalized.

  1. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Selective In Vitro Propagation of Nephron Progenitors Derived from Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Tanigawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephron progenitors in the embryonic kidney propagate while generating differentiated nephrons. However, in mice, the progenitors terminally differentiate shortly after birth. Here, we report a method for selectively expanding nephron progenitors in vitro in an undifferentiated state. Combinatorial and concentration-dependent stimulation with LIF, FGF2/9, BMP7, and a WNT agonist is critical for expansion. The purified progenitors proliferated beyond the physiological limits observed in vivo, both for cell numbers and lifespan. Neonatal progenitors were maintained for a week, while progenitors from embryonic day 11.5 expanded 1,800-fold for nearly 20 days and still reconstituted 3D nephrons containing glomeruli and renal tubules. Furthermore, progenitors generated from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent cells could be expanded with retained nephron-forming potential. Thus, we have established in vitro conditions for promoting the propagation of nephron progenitors, which will be essential for dissecting the mechanisms of kidney organogenesis and for regenerative medicine.

  3. Selective In Vitro Propagation of Nephron Progenitors Derived from Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Sharma, Nirmala; Perantoni, Alan O; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2016-04-26

    Nephron progenitors in the embryonic kidney propagate while generating differentiated nephrons. However, in mice, the progenitors terminally differentiate shortly after birth. Here, we report a method for selectively expanding nephron progenitors in vitro in an undifferentiated state. Combinatorial and concentration-dependent stimulation with LIF, FGF2/9, BMP7, and a WNT agonist is critical for expansion. The purified progenitors proliferated beyond the physiological limits observed in vivo, both for cell numbers and lifespan. Neonatal progenitors were maintained for a week, while progenitors from embryonic day 11.5 expanded 1,800-fold for nearly 20 days and still reconstituted 3D nephrons containing glomeruli and renal tubules. Furthermore, progenitors generated from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent cells could be expanded with retained nephron-forming potential. Thus, we have established in vitro conditions for promoting the propagation of nephron progenitors, which will be essential for dissecting the mechanisms of kidney organogenesis and for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxyurea inhibits parvovirus B19 replication in erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Bua, Gloria; Conti, Ilaria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2017-07-15

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) of the human bone marrow, leading to transient arrest of erythropoiesis and severe complications mainly in subjects with underlying hematological disorders or with immune system deficits. Currently, there are no specific antiviral drugs for B19V treatment, but identification of compounds inhibiting B19V replication can be pursued by a drug repositioning strategy. In this frame, the present study investigates the activity of hydroxyurea (HU), the only disease-modifying therapy approved for sickle cell disease (SCD), towards B19V replication in the two relevant cellular systems, the UT7/EpoS1 cell line and EPCs. Results demonstrate that HU inhibits B19V replication with EC 50 values of 96.2µM and 147.1µM in UT7/EpoS1 and EPCs, respectively, providing experimental evidence of the antiviral activity of HU towards B19V replication, and confirming the efficacy of a drug discovery process by drug repositioning strategy. The antiviral activity occurs in vitro at concentrations lower than those affecting cellular DNA replication and viability, and at levels measured in plasma samples of SCD patients undergoing HU therapy. HU might determine a dual beneficial effect on SCD patients, not only for the treatment of the disease but also towards a virus responsible for severe complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  6. Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Francone, Victor P.; Mina, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there have been significant advances in the identification of putative stem cells also referred to as “mesenchymal stem cells” (MSC) in dental tissues including the dental pulp. It is thought that MSC in dental pulp share certain similarities with MSC isolated from other tissues. However, cells in dental pulp are still poorly characterized. This study focused on the characterization of progenitor and stem cells in dental pulps of erupted and unerupted mice molars. Our study showed that dental pulps from unerupted molars contain a significant number of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45- and little if any CD45+ cells. Our in vitro functional studies showed that dental pulp cells from unerupted molars displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulp from erupted molars displayed a reduced number of cells, contained higher percentage of CD45+ and lower percentage of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45- as compared to unerupted molars. In vitro functional assays demonstrated the ability of a small fraction of cells to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. There was a significant reduction in the osteo-dentinogenic potential of the pulp cells derived from erupted molars compared to unerupted molars. Furthermore, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pulp cells from erupted molars was dependent on a long induction period and infrequent. Based on these findings we propose that the dental pulp of the erupted molars contain a small population of multipotent cells, whereas the dental pulp of the unerupted molars does not contain multipotent cells but is enriched in osteo-dentinogenic progenitors engaged in the formation of coronal and radicular odontoblasts. PMID:20193787

  7. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-β1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-β1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-β1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-β1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-β1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease

  8. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, P.; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per

    2017-01-01

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast...... to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem...... cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology...

  9. Connexin 32 and connexin 43 are involved in lineage restriction of hepatic progenitor cells to hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Pei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-potential hepatic progenitor cells can give rise to both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which is the last phase and critical juncture in terms of sequentially hepatic lineage restriction from any kind of stem cells. If their differentiation can be controlled, it might access to functional hepatocytes to develop pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries as well as cell therapies for end-stage liver diseases. Methods In this study, we investigated the influence of Cx32 and Cx43 on hepatocyte differentiation of WB-F344 cells by in vitro gain and loss of function analyses. An inhibitor of Cx32 was also used to make further clarification. To reveal p38 MAPK pathway is closely related to Cxs, rats with 70% partial hepatectomy were injected intraperitoneally with a p38 inhibitor, SB203580. Besides, the effects of p38 MAPK pathway on differentiation of hepatoblasts isolated from fetal rat livers were evaluated by addition of SB203580 in culture medium. Results In vitro gain and loss of function analyses showed overexpression of Connexin 32 and knockdown of Connexin 43 promoted hepatocytes differentiation from hepatic progenitor cells. In addition, in vitro and ex vivo research revealed inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway can improve hepatocytes differentiation correlating with upregulation of Connexin 32 expression and downregulation of Connexin 43 expression. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that Connexins play crucial roles in facilitating differentiation of hepatic progenitors. Our work further implicates that regulators of Connexins and their related pathways might provide new insights to improve lineage restriction of stem cells to mature hepatocytes.

  10. Generation of Oligodendrogenic Spinal Neural Progenitor Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mohamad; Ahuja, Christopher S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation. Throughout, cell exposure to growth factors and patterning morphogens has been optimized for both concentration and timing, based on the literature and empirical experience, resulting in a robust and highly efficient protocol. Using this derivation procedure, it is possible to obtain millions of oligodendrogenic-NPCs within 40 days of initial cell plating which is substantially shorter than other protocols for similar cell types. This protocol has also been optimized to use translationally relevant human iPSCs as the parent cell line. The resultant cells have been extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo and express key markers of an oligodendrogenic lineage. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  11. Macrophage/epithelium cross-talk regulates cell cycle progression and migration in pancreatic progenitors.

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    Kristin Mussar

    Full Text Available Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon "paired-less" isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates.

  12. Macrophage/epithelium cross-talk regulates cell cycle progression and migration in pancreatic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussar, Kristin; Tucker, Andrew; McLennan, Linsey; Gearhart, Addie; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Crisa, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon "paired-less" isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates.

  13. Progenitor/stem cell transplantation for repair of myocardial infarction: Hype or hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuliang; Wang, Yuhua; Cao, Nan; Yang, Huangtian; Wang, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances, heart failure remains the predominant cause of mortality worldwide. Currently, progenitor/stem cell biology holds great promise for a new era of cell-based therapy for salvaging the failing heart. However, the translational arm of progenitor/stem cell science is in a relatively primitive state. For the time being, the clinical trials have been both encouraging and disappointing. How to improve the engraftment, long-term survival and appropriate differ...

  14. An update on ABO incompatible hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Joseph; Pham, Huy P

    2016-06-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has long been established as the optimal treatment for many hematologic malignancies. In the setting of allogenic HLA matched HPC transplantation, greater than 50% of unrelated donors and 30% of related donors demonstrate some degree of ABO incompatibility (ABOi), which is classified in one of three ways: major, minor, or bidirectional. Major ABOi refers to the presence of recipient isoagglutinins against the donor's A and/or B antigen. Minor ABOi occurs when the HPC product contains the isoagglutinins targeting the recipient's A and/or B antigen. Bidirectional refers to the presence of both major and minor ABOi. Major adverse events associated with ABOi HPC transplantation includes acute and delayed hemolysis, pure red cell aplasia, and delayed engraftment. ABOi HPC transplantation poses a unique challenge to the clinical transplantation unit, the HPC processing lab, and the transfusion medicine service. Therefore, it is essential that these services actively communicate with one another to ensure patient safety. This review will attempt to globally address the challenges related to ABOi HPC transplantation, with an increased focus on aspects related to the laboratory and transfusion medicine services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Muscle Progenitor Cell Regenerative Capacity in the Torn Rotator Cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gretchen A.; Farris, Ashley L.; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in-vitro and in-vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in-vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25410765

  16. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  17. Slug controls stem/progenitor cell growth dynamics during mammary gland morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa Nassour

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis results from the coordination of distinct cell signaling pathways controlling migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation, along stem/progenitor cell dynamics. To decipher this puzzle, we focused on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT "master genes". EMT has emerged as a unifying concept, involving cell-cell adhesion, migration and apoptotic pathways. EMT also appears to mingle with stemness. However, very little is known on the physiological role and relevance of EMT master-genes. We addressed this question during mammary morphogenesis. Recently, a link between Slug/Snai2 and stemness has been described in mammary epithelial cells, but EMT master genes actual localization, role and targets during mammary gland morphogenesis are not known and we focused on this basic question.Using a Slug-lacZ transgenic model and immunolocalization, we located Slug in a distinct subpopulation covering about 10-20% basal cap and duct cells, mostly cycling cells, coexpressed with basal markers P-cadherin, CK5 and CD49f. During puberty, Slug-deficient mammary epithelium exhibited a delayed development after transplantation, contained less cycling cells, and overexpressed CK8/18, ER, GATA3 and BMI1 genes, linked to luminal lineage. Other EMT master genes were overexpressed, suggesting compensation mechanisms. Gain/loss-of-function in vitro experiments confirmed Slug control of mammary epithelial cell luminal differentiation and proliferation. In addition, they showed that Slug enhances specifically clonal mammosphere emergence and growth, cell motility, and represses apoptosis. Strikingly, Slug-deprived mammary epithelial cells lost their potential to generate secondary clonal mammospheres.We conclude that Slug pathway controls the growth dynamics of a subpopulation of cycling progenitor basal cells during mammary morphogenesis. Overall, our data better define a key mechanism coordinating cell lineage dynamics and morphogenesis, and

  18. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  19. Autologous fibrin glue as an encapsulating scaffold for delivery of retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Anwar Esmail Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The retina is a highly sophisticated piece of the neural machinery that begins the translation of incoming light signals into meaningful visual information. Several degenerative diseases of the retina are characterized by photoreceptor loss and eventually lead to irreversible blindness. Regenerative medicine, using tissue engineering-based constructs to deliver progenitor cells or photoreceptors along with supporting carrier matrix is a promising approach for restoration of structure and function. Fresh fibrin glue (FG produced by the CryoSeal®FS system in combination with mouse retinal progenitor cells (RPCs were evaluated in this study. In vitro expanded RPCs isolated from postnatal mouse retina were encapsulated into FG and cultured in the presence of the protease inhibitor, tranexamic acid. Encapsulation of RPCs into FG did not show adverse effects on cell proliferation or cell survival. RPCs exhibited fibroblast-like morphology concomitantly with attachment to the encapsulating FG surface. They expressed α7 and β3 integrin subunits that could mediate attachment to fibrin matrix via an RGD independent mechanism. The three dimensional environment and the attachment surface provided by FG was associated with a rapid downregulation of the progenitor marker SOX2 and enhanced the expression of the differentiation markers CRX and recoverin. However, the in vitro culture conditions did not promote full differentiation into mature photoreceptors. Nevertheless, we have shown that autologous fibrin, when fabricated into a scaffold for RPCs for delivery to the retina, provides the cells with external cues that could potentially improve the differentiation events. Hence, transient encapsulation of RPCs into FG could be a valid and potential treatment strategy to promote retinal regeneration following degenerative diseases. However, further optimization is necessary to maximize the outcomes in terms of mature photoreceptors.

  20. Isolation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors by Cell Sorting for Successful Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN+ cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN+ cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN+ cells in a NURR1+ cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells display clonal restriction in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, Marc; Özçelik, Tayfun; Bağişlar, Sevgi; Vakil, Varsha; Smith, Eric LP; Dai, Kezhi; Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Batuman, Olcay A

    2006-01-01

    In multiple myeloma (MM), increased neoangiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and disease progression. Increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to neoangiogenesis in MM, and, importantly, covary with disease activity and response to treatment. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for increased EPC levels and neoangiogenic function in MM, we investigated whether these cells were clonal by determining X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) patterns in female patients by a human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA). In addition, EPCs and bone marrow cells were studied for the presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) gene rearrangement, which indicates clonality in B cells; thus, its presence in EPCs would indicate a close genetic link between tumor cells in MM and endothelial cells that provide tumor neovascularization. A total of twenty-three consecutive patients who had not received chemotherapy were studied. Screening in 18 patients found that 11 displayed allelic AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and these patients were further studied for XCI patterns in EPCs and hair root cells by HUMARA. In 2 patients whose EPCs were clonal by HUMARA, and in an additional 5 new patients, EPCs were studied for IGH gene rearrangement using PCR with family-specific primers for IGH variable genes (V H ). In 11 patients, analysis of EPCs by HUMARA revealed significant skewing (≥ 77% expression of a single allele) in 64% (n = 7). In 4 of these patients, XCI skewing was extreme (≥ 90% expression of a single allele). In contrast, XCI in hair root cells was random. Furthermore, PCR amplification with V H primers resulted in amplification of the same product in EPCs and bone marrow cells in 71% (n = 5) of 7 patients, while no IGH rearrangement was found in EPCs from healthy controls. In addition, in patients with XCI skewing in EPCs, advanced age was associated with poorer clinical status, unlike patients whose EPCs had random XCI

  2. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  3. Regulation of adult neural progenitor cell functions by purinergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Illes, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular purines are signaling molecules in the neurogenic niches of the brain and spinal cord, where they activate cell surface purinoceptors at embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although mRNA and protein are expressed at NSCs/NPCs for almost all subtypes of the nucleotide-sensitive P2X/P2Y, and the nucleoside-sensitive adenosine receptors, only a few of those have acquired functional significance. ATP is sequentially degraded by ecto-nucleotidases to ADP, AMP, and adenosine with agonistic properties for distinct receptor-classes. Nucleotides/nucleosides facilitate or inhibit NSC/NPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. The most ubiquitous effect of all agonists (especially of ATP and ADP) appears to be the facilitation of cell proliferation, usually through P2Y1Rs and sometimes through P2X7Rs. However, usually P2X7R activation causes necrosis/apoptosis of NPCs. Differentiation can be initiated by P2Y2R-activation or P2X7R-blockade. A key element in the transduction mechanism of either receptor is the increase of the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration, which may arise due to its release from intracellular storage sites (G protein-coupling; P2Y) or due to its passage through the receptor-channel itself from the extracellular space (ATP-gated ion channel; P2X). Further research is needed to clarify how purinergic signaling controls NSC/NPC fate and how the balance between the quiescent and activated states is established with fine and dynamic regulation. GLIA 2017;65:213-230. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extracellular matrix of cultured glial cells: Selective expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate by type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, V.; Bertolotto, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the extracellular matrix composition of cultured glial cells by immunocytochemistry with different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Double immunofluorescence experiments and metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine performed in different types of cerebellar and cortical cultures showed that bipotential progenitors for type-2 astrocytes and for oligodendrocytes synthesize chondroitin sulfate (CS) and deposit this proteoglycan in their extracellular matrix. The distribution of the various [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycosaminoglycans between the intracellular and the extracellular space was different. CS was present both within the cells and in the culture medium, although in different amounts. Bi-potential progenitors became also O4-positive during their development in vitro. At the stage of O4-positivity they were still stained with antibodies against CS. However, when the progenitor cells were maintained in serum-free medium and differentiated into Gal-C-positive oligodendrocytes, they became CS-negative. In the presence of fetal calf serum in the culture medium, the bipotential progenitors differentiated into GFAP-positive type-2 astrocytes. These cells still expressed CS: their Golgi area and their surface were stained with anti-CS antibodies. Staining with monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of CS (4-sulfate, 6-sulfate, and unsulfated) revealed that both bipotential progenitors and type-2 astrocytes synthesized only chondroitin 4-sulfate. Type-1 astrocytes were negative for both the polyclonal and the monoclonal anti-CS antibodies. Finally, type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors were weakly stained with anti-laminin antibodies and unstained with anti-fibronectin. Type-1 astrocytes were positive for both anti-laminin and anti-fibronectin antibodies and appeared to secrete fibronectin in the extracellular space

  5. FGF signalling controls the specification of hair placode-derived SOX9 positive progenitors to Merkel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Binh; Cohen, Idan; Kumar, Vinod; Xu, Zijian; Bar, Carmit; Dauber-Decker, Katherine L; Tsai, Pai-Chi; Marangoni, Pauline; Klein, Ophir D; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Chen, Ting; Mikkola, Marja L; Ezhkova, Elena

    2018-06-13

    Merkel cells are innervated mechanosensory cells responsible for light-touch sensations. In murine dorsal skin, Merkel cells are located in touch domes and found in the epidermis around primary hairs. While it has been shown that Merkel cells are skin epithelial cells, the progenitor cell population that gives rise to these cells is unknown. Here, we show that during embryogenesis, SOX9-positive (+) cells inside hair follicles, which were previously known to give rise to hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and cells of the hair follicle lineage, can also give rise to Merkel Cells. Interestingly, while SOX9 is critical for HFSC specification, it is dispensable for Merkel cell formation. Conversely, FGFR2 is required for Merkel cell formation but is dispensable for HFSCs. Together, our studies uncover SOX9(+) cells as precursors of Merkel cells and show the requirement for FGFR2-mediated epithelial signalling in Merkel cell specification.

  6. MAPK signaling pathways and HDAC3 activity are disrupted during differentiation of emerin-null myogenic progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M. Collins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD. Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize that muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways. Emerin-null progenitors were delayed in their cell cycle exit, had decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression and formed fewer myotubes. Emerin binds to and activates histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3. Here, we show that theophylline, an HDAC3-specific activator, improved myotube formation in emerin-null cells. Addition of the HDAC3-specific inhibitor RGFP966 blocked myotube formation and MyHC expression in wild-type and emerin-null myogenic progenitors, but did not affect cell cycle exit. Downregulation of emerin was previously shown to affect the p38 MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Using a pure population of myogenic progenitors completely lacking emerin expression, we show that these pathways are also disrupted. ERK inhibition improved MyHC expression in emerin-null cells, but failed to rescue myotube formation or cell cycle exit. Inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented differentiation in both wild-type and emerin-null progenitors. These results show that each of these molecular pathways specifically regulates a particular stage of myogenic differentiation in an emerin-dependent manner. Thus, pharmacological targeting of multiple pathways acting at specific differentiation stages may be a better therapeutic approach in the future to rescue muscle regeneration in vivo.

  7. Sox1 marks an activated neural stem/progenitor cell in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Venere, Monica; Han, Young-Goo; Bell, Robert; Song, Jun S.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Blelloch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus continues generating new neurons throughout life. These neurons originate from radial astrocytes within the subgranular zone (SGZ). Here, we find that Sox1, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors, is expressed in a subset of radial astrocytes. Lineage tracing using Sox1-tTA;tetO-Cre;Rosa26 reporter mice shows that the Sox1-expressing cells represent an activated neural stem/progenitor population that gives rise to most if not all newly born ...

  8. Earmuff restricts progenitor cell potential by attenuating the competence to respond to self-renewal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Derek H; Komori, Hideyuki; Grbac, Daniel; Chen, Keng; Koe, Chwee Tat; Wang, Hongyan; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Despite expressing stem cell self-renewal factors, intermediate progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential, which allows them to give rise exclusively to differentiated progeny rather than stem cell progeny. Failure to restrict the developmental potential can allow intermediate progenitor cells to revert into aberrant stem cells that might contribute to tumorigenesis. Insight into stable restriction of the developmental potential in intermediate progenitor cells could improve our understanding of the development and growth of tumors, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs), generated by type II neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, provide an in vivo model for investigating the mechanisms that stably restrict the developmental potential of intermediate progenitor cells. Here, we report that the transcriptional repressor protein Earmuff (Erm) functions temporally after Brain tumor (Brat) and Numb to restrict the developmental potential of uncommitted (immature) INPs. Consistently, endogenous Erm is detected in immature INPs but undetectable in INPs. Erm-dependent restriction of the developmental potential in immature INPs leads to attenuated competence to respond to all known neuroblast self-renewal factors in INPs. We also identified that the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex probably functions cooperatively with Erm to restrict the developmental potential of immature INPs. Together, these data led us to conclude that the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism stably restricts the developmental potential of immature INPs by attenuating their genomic responses to stem cell self-renewal factors. We propose that restriction of developmental potential by the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism functionally distinguishes intermediate progenitor cells from stem cells, ensuring the generation of differentiated cells and preventing the formation of progenitor cell-derived tumor-initiating stem cells.

  9. Lgr5-EGFP marks taste bud stem/progenitor cells in posterior tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Li, Yan; Redding, Kevin M; Iwatsuki, Ken; Margolskee, Robert F; Jiang, Peihua

    2013-05-01

    Until recently, reliable markers for adult stem cells have been lacking for many regenerative mammalian tissues. Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) has been identified as a marker for adult stem cells in intestine, stomach, and hair follicle; Lgr5-expressing cells give rise to all types of cells in these tissues. Taste epithelium also regenerates constantly, yet the identity of adult taste stem cells remains elusive. In this study, we found that Lgr5 is strongly expressed in cells at the bottom of trench areas at the base of circumvallate (CV) and foliate taste papillae and weakly expressed in the basal area of taste buds and that Lgr5-expressing cells in posterior tongue are a subset of K14-positive epithelial cells. Lineage-tracing experiments using an inducible Cre knockin allele in combination with Rosa26-LacZ and Rosa26-tdTomato reporter strains showed that Lgr5-expressing cells gave rise to taste cells, perigemmal cells, along with self-renewing cells at the bottom of trench areas at the base of CV and foliate papillae. Moreover, using subtype-specific taste markers, we found that Lgr5-expressing cell progeny include all three major types of adult taste cells. Our results indicate that Lgr5 may mark adult taste stem or progenitor cells in the posterior portion of the tongue. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney.

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    Troy Camarata

    Full Text Available New nephron formation (nephrogenesis ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population.

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Zizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Guilin; Xie, Xueshun; Wei, Yongxin; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Youxin; Du, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma

  12. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cai-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Ma, Yan; Yang, Long-Yan; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on "VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide" and "competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2" mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics.

  13. Fetal programming of adult Leydig cell function by androgenic effects on stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Karen R; Smith, Lee B; Atanassova, Nina; Macpherson, Sheila; McKinnell, Chris; van den Driesche, Sander; Jobling, Matthew S; Chambers, Thomas J G; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; O'Hara, Laura; Platts, Sophie; Renato de Franca, Luiz; Lara, Nathália L M; Anderson, Richard A; Sharpe, Richard M

    2014-05-06

    Fetal growth plays a role in programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders, which in men, are associated with lowered testosterone levels. Fetal growth and fetal androgen exposure can also predetermine testosterone levels in men, although how is unknown, because the adult Leydig cells (ALCs) that produce testosterone do not differentiate until puberty. To explain this conundrum, we hypothesized that stem cells for ALCs must be present in the fetal testis and might be susceptible to programming by fetal androgen exposure during masculinization. To address this hypothesis, we used ALC ablation/regeneration to identify that, in rats, ALCs derive from stem/progenitor cells that express chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II. These stem cells are abundant in the fetal testis of humans and rodents, and lineage tracing in mice shows that they develop into ALCs. The stem cells also express androgen receptors (ARs). Reduction in fetal androgen action through AR KO in mice or dibutyl phthalate (DBP) -induced reduction in intratesticular testosterone in rats reduced ALC stem cell number by ∼40% at birth to adulthood and induced compensated ALC failure (low/normal testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone). In DBP-exposed males, this failure was probably explained by reduced testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, which is associated with increased histone methylation (H3K27me3) in the proximal promoter. Accordingly, ALCs and ALC stem cells immunoexpressed increased H3K27me3, a change that was also evident in ALC stem cells in fetal testes. These studies highlight how a key component of male reproductive development can fundamentally reprogram adult hormone production (through an epigenetic change), which might affect lifetime disease risk.

  14. Development of MAPC derived induced endodermal progenitors : Generation of pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells (MAPCs) are one potential stem cell source to generate functional hepatocytes or β-cells. However, human MAPCs have less plasticity than pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), as their ability to generate endodermal cells is not robust. Here we studied the role of 14

  15. Biochemistry and biology: heart-to-heart to investigate cardiac progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenti, Isotta; Forte, Elvira; Angelini, Francesco; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Cardiac regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field, with promising future developments for effective personalized treatments. Several stem/progenitor cells are candidates for cardiac cell therapy, and emerging evidence suggests how multiple metabolic and biochemical pathways strictly regulate their fate and renewal. In this review, we will explore a selection of areas of common interest for biology and biochemistry concerning stem/progenitor cells, and in particular cardiac progenitor cells. Numerous regulatory mechanisms have been identified that link stem cell signaling and functions to the modulation of metabolic pathways, and vice versa. Pharmacological treatments and culture requirements may be exploited to modulate stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal, possibly boosting their regenerative potential for cell therapy. Mitochondria and their many related metabolites and messengers, such as oxygen, ROS, calcium and glucose, have a crucial role in regulating stem cell fate and the balance of their functions, together with many metabolic enzymes. Furthermore, protein biochemistry and proteomics can provide precious clues on the definition of different progenitor cell populations, their physiology and their autocrine/paracrine regulatory/signaling networks. Interdisciplinary approaches between biology and biochemistry can provide productive insights on stem/progenitor cells, allowing the development of novel strategies and protocols for effective cardiac cell therapy clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Guo, Luo; Lu, Ling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, ShaSha; Gao, Junyan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhu, Chengwen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Chuanying; Gao, Xia; Tang, Mingliang; Chen, Fangyi; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear supporting cells (SCs) have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC) regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein-protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  17. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear supporting cells (SCs have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein–protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  18. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Guo, Luo; Lu, Ling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, ShaSha; Gao, Junyan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhu, Chengwen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Chuanying; Gao, Xia; Tang, Mingliang; Chen, Fangyi; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear supporting cells (SCs) have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC) regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein–protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration. PMID:28491023

  19. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

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    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  20. Cell-Cycle-Specific Function of p53 in Fanconi Anemia Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation

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    Xiaoli Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Overactive p53 has been proposed as an important pathophysiological factor for bone marrow failure syndromes, including Fanconi anemia (FA. Here, we report a p53-dependent effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC proliferation in mice deficient for the FA gene Fanca. Deletion of p53 in Fanca−/− mice leads to replicative exhaustion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC in transplant recipients. Using Fanca−/− HSCs expressing the separation-of-function mutant p53515C transgene, which selectively impairs the p53 function in apoptosis but keeps its cell-cycle checkpoint activities intact, we show that the p53 cell-cycle function is specifically required for the regulation of Fanca−/− HSC proliferation. Our results demonstrate that p53 plays a compensatory role in preventing FA HSCs from replicative exhaustion and suggest a cautious approach to manipulating p53 signaling as a therapeutic utility in FA. : In this article, Pang and colleagues demonstrate a p53-dependent HSPC proliferation regulation in mice deficient for the Fanca gene in the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway. They show that the p53 cell-cycle function is specifically required for the regulation of FA HSC proliferation. These results suggest that overactive p53 may represent a compensatory checkpoint mechanism for FA HSC proliferation. Keywords: p53, bone marrow failure, Fanconi anemia, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, apoptosis, cell cycle, proliferation

  1. Androgen Modulates Functions of Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Activated Egr1 Signaling

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    Yizhou Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches show that androgens have important effects on migration of endothelial cells and endothelial protection in coronary heart disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs as a progenitor cell type that can differentiate into endothelial cells, have a critical role in angiogenesis and endothelial protection. The relationship between androgen and the functions of EPCs has animated much interest and controversy. In this study, we investigated the angiogenic and migratory functions of EPCs after treatment by dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the molecular mechanisms as well. We found that DHT treatment enhanced the incorporation of EPCs into tubular structures formed by HUVECs and the migratory activity of EPCs in the transwell assay dose dependently. Moreover, microarray analysis was performed to explore how DHT changes the gene expression profiles of EPCs. We found 346 differentially expressed genes in androgen-treated EPCs. Angiogenesis-related genes like Egr-1, Vcan, Efnb2, and Cdk2ap1 were identified to be regulated upon DHT treatment. Furthermore, the enhanced angiogenic and migratory abilities of EPCs after DHT treatment were inhibited by Egr1-siRNA transfection. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DHT markedly enhances the vessel forming ability and migration capacity of EPCs. Egr1 signaling may be a possible pathway in this process.

  2. Constitutive expression of pluripotency-associated genes in mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs.

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    Simone Pacini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently characterized a progenitor of mesodermal lineage (MPCs from the human bone marrow of adults or umbilical cord blood. These cells are progenitors able to differentiate toward mesenchymal, endothelial and cardiomyogenic lineages. Here we present an extensive molecular characterization of MPCs, from bone marrow samples, including 39 genes involved in stem cell machinery, differentiation and cell cycle regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MPCs are cytofluorimetrically characterized and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the gene expression profile, comparing it with MSCs and hESCs lines. Immunofluorescence and dot-blot analysis confirm qRT-PCR data. MPCs exhibit an increased expression of OCT4, NANOG, SALL4, FBX15, SPP1 and to a lesser extent c-MYC and KLF4, but lack LIN28 and SOX2. MPCs highly express SOX15. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MPCs express many pluripotency-associated genes and show a peculiar Oct-4 molecular circuit. Understanding this unique molecular mechanism could lead to identifying MPCs as feasible, long telomeres, target cells for reprogramming with no up-regulation of the p53 pathway. Furthermore MPCs are easily and inexpensively harvested from human bone marrow.

  3. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikirova, Nina A; Jackson, James A; Hunninghake, Ron; Kenyon, Julian; Chan, Kyle W H; Swindlehurst, Cathy A; Minev, Boris; Patel, Amit N; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Leonard; Ramos, Famela; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2010-04-08

    The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  4. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  5. Wnt/β-Catenin Stimulation and Laminins Support Cardiovascular Cell Progenitor Expansion from Human Fetal Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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    Agneta Månsson-Broberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic regenerative capacity of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has not been fully characterized. Here we demonstrate that we can expand cells with characteristics of cardiovascular progenitor cells from the MSC population of human fetal hearts. Cells cultured on cardiac muscle laminin (LN-based substrata in combination with stimulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway showed increased gene expression of ISL1, OCT4, KDR, and NKX2.5. The majority of cells stained positive for PDGFR-α, ISL1, and NKX2.5, and subpopulations also expressed the progenitor markers TBX18, KDR, c-KIT, and SSEA-1. Upon culture of the cardiac MSCs in differentiation media and on relevant LNs, portions of the cells differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle-like cells. Our protocol for large-scale culture of human fetal cardiac MSCs enables future exploration of the regenerative functions of these cells in the context of myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Left atrial appendages from adult hearts contain a reservoir of diverse cardiac progenitor cells.

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    Jussi V Leinonen

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence supporting the claim that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs are key players in cardiac regeneration, but the anatomic source and phenotype of the master cardiac progenitors remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the different cardiac stem cell populations in the left atrial appendage (LAA and their fates.We investigated the CPC content and profile of adult murine LAAs using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the LAA contains a large number of CPCs relative to other areas of the heart, representing over 20% of the total cell number. We grew two distinct CPC populations from the LAA by varying the degree of proteolysis. These differed by their histological location, surface marker profiles and growth dynamics. Specifically, CD45(pos cells grew with milder proteolysis, while CD45(neg cells grew mainly with more intense proteolysis. Both cell types could be induced to differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte markers and organelles, albeit by different protocols. Many CD45(pos cells expressed CD45 initially and rapidly lost its expression while differentiating.Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in murine adult hearts. Two different types of CPCs were isolated, differing in their epicardial-myocardial localization. Considering studies demonstrating layer-specific origins of different cardiac progenitor cells, our findings may shed light on possible pathways to study and utilize the diversity of endogenous progenitor cells in the adult heart.

  7. Mechanosensory organ regeneration in zebrafish depends on a population of multipotent progenitor cells kept latent by Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mario; Ceci, Maria Laura; Gutiérrez, Daniela; Anguita-Salinas, Consuelo; Allende, Miguel L

    2016-04-07

    Regenerating damaged tissue is a complex process, requiring progenitor cells that must be stimulated to undergo proliferation, differentiation and, often, migratory behaviors and morphological changes. Multiple cell types, both resident within the damaged tissue and recruited to the lesion site, have been shown to participate. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation after injury, and their regulation by different cells types, are not fully understood. The zebrafish lateral line is a suitable system to study regeneration because most of its components are fully restored after damage. The posterior lateral line (PLL) is a mechanosensory system that develops embryonically and is initially composed of seven to eight neuromasts distributed along the trunk and tail, connected by a continuous stripe of interneuromastic cells (INCs). The INCs remain in a quiescent state owing to the presence of underlying Schwann cells. They become activated during development to form intercalary neuromasts. However, no studies have described if INCs can participate in a regenerative event, for example, after the total loss of a neuromast. We used electroablation in transgenic larvae expressing fluorescent proteins in PLL components to completely ablate single neuromasts in larvae and adult fish. This injury results in discontinuity of the INCs, Schwann cells, and the PLL nerve. In vivo imaging showed that the INCs fill the gap left after the injury and can regenerate a new neuromast in the injury zone. Further, a single INC is able to divide and form all cell types in a regenerated neuromast and, during this process, it transiently expresses the sox2 gene, a neural progenitor cell marker. We demonstrate a critical role for Schwann cells as negative regulators of INC proliferation and neuromast regeneration, and that this inhibitory property is completely dependent on active ErbB signaling. The potential

  8. Progenitor cells of erythroblasts: an in vitro investigation of erythropoietin-responsive cells of guinea pig bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosse, C.; Beaufait, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments were designed to therst whether erythroblast progenitor cell function could be demonstrated in a morphological cell type designated as transitional cells. Two cell fractions were obtained from the bone marrow of normal and polycythemic guinea pigs. One fraction (F1) was enriched in transitional cells and contained few other cell types which could be considered as candidates for erythropoietin responsive cells (ERC). The other fraction (F2) contained undifferentiated blast cells as well as transitional cells. The effect of human urinary erythropoiesis stimulating factors (ESF) on heme synthesis was compared in these two fractions by measuring 59 Fe incorporation into heme. ESF was more effective in stimulating heme synthesis in guinea pig bone marrow cells than homologous sera obtained from anemic or hypoxic animals. The majority of ERC sedimented in F2, but the stimulation index was comparable in the two fractions. It was confirmed by radioautography that the ESF response in F1 was due to the generation of proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts that incorporated 55 Fe. The generation of these cells in F1 was dependent on the addition of ESF to the cultures, whereas 55 Fe-labeled erythroblasts were recovered from cultures of F2 not supplemented with ESF. ESF induced a proportion of transitional cells to incorporate 55 Fe in both F1 and F2. Transitional cells were the only cell type in which heme synthesis was dependent on ESF. Radioautography with 55 Fe identified a proportion of these cells as ERC in both F1 and F2 fractions of bone marrow obtained from normal and polycythemic guinea pigs. The present studies show that some transitional cells function as progenitors of erythroblasts because they respond to ESF by initiation of heme synthesis and by transformation into the earliest recognizable erythroid cells

  9. Regulated proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in long-term human marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, J.; Eaves, A.C.; Eaves, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the cycling status of various classes of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitor populations maintained for many weeks in standard normal long-term human marrow cultures. These were initiated with a single inoculum of marrow aspirate and were routinely fed by weekly removal of half of the nonadherent cells and replacement of half of the growth medium. Progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters) present in the nonadherent fraction and progenitors of small granulocyte/macrophage colonies (fewer than 500 cells) present in both the nonadherent and adherent fractions were found to be actively cycling at all times examined (28% to 63% kill following a 20-minute exposure to 20 microCi/mL of high specific activity 3 H-thymidine). In contrast, progenitors of large granulocyte/macrophage colonies (more than 500 cells) and progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters), present in the adherent layer, consistently alternated between a quiescent state at the time of each weekly medium change and a proliferating state two to three days later (0% to 13% kill and 21% to 49% kill, respectively). Additional experiments revealed that the activation of primitive progenitors in the adherent layer was not dependent on the addition of fresh glutamine or hydrocortisone, nor on the physical manipulations involved in changing the growth medium. These studies provide the first direct evidence that normal long-term human marrow cultures support the continued turnover of a variety of early hematopoietic progenitor cell types. Further, they indicate that the proliferative activity of the most primitive of these progenitors is regulated by stage-specific cell-cell interactions that are subject to manipulation

  10. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

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    Yoav Hammer

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function.To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes.Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8% and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs, their viability (measured by MTT assay, KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture.In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0 vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9, p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93 vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62, p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46 vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39, p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers.In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  11. {sup 13}C dynamic nuclear polarization for measuring metabolic flux in endothelial progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Nathalie; Laustsen, Christoffer; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde, E-mail: Lotte@clin.au.dk

    2016-11-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population that is believed to be involved in vasculogenesis. With the purpose of enhancing endothelial repair, EPCs could have a potential for future cell therapies. Due to the low amount of EPCs in the peripheral circulating blood, in vitro expansion is needed before administration to recipients and the effects of in vitro culturing is still an under-evaluated field with little knowledge of how the cells change over time in culture. The aim of this study was to use hyperpolarised carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy to profile important metabolic pathways in a population of progenitor cells and to show that cell culturing in 3D scaffolds seem to block the metabolic processes that leads to cell senescence. The metabolic breakdown of hyperpolarized [1-{sup 13}C]pyruvate was followed after injection of the substrate to a bioreactor system with EPCs either adhered to 3D printed scaffolds or kept in cell suspension. The pyruvate-to-lactate conversion was elevated in suspension of EPCs compared to the EPCs adhered to scaffolds. Furthermore in the setup with EPCs in suspension, an increase in lactate production was seen over time indicating that the older the cultures of EPCs was before using the cells for cell suspension experiments, the more lactate they produce, compared to a constant lactate level in the cells adhered to scaffolds. It could therefore be stated that cells grown first in 2D culture and subsequent prepared for cell suspension show a metabolism with higher lactate production consistent with cells senescence processes compared to cells grown first at 2D culture and subsequent in the 3D printed scaffolds, where metabolism shows no sign of metabolic shifting during the monitored period. - Highlights: • Hyperpolarized 13C MRS detects EPCs metabolic changes associated with ageing and cultivating conditions. • Increased lactate production in EPC’s correlates positively with aging.

  12. Neural stem/progenitor cells are activated during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E A B; Vickaryous, M K

    2018-02-01

    As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period. Next, we conducted a detailed spatiotemporal characterization of these cells before, during, and after tail regeneration. Our findings show that SOX2, a hallmark protein of NSPCs, is constitutively expressed by virtually all ELCs before, during, and after regeneration. We also found that during regeneration, ELCs express an expanded panel of NSPC and lineage-restricted progenitor cell markers, including MSI-1, SOX9, and TUJ1. Using electron microscopy, we determined that multiciliated, uniciliated, and biciliated cells are present, although the latter was only observed in regenerated spinal cords. Our results demonstrate that cells within the ependymal layer of the original, regenerating and fully regenerate spinal cord represent a heterogeneous population. These include radial glia comparable to Type E and Type B cells, and a neuronal-like population of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells. We propose that spinal cord regeneration in geckos represents a truncation of the restorative trajectory observed in some urodeles and teleosts, resulting in the formation of a structurally distinct replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Expression and function of PML-RARA in the hematopoietic progenitor cells of Ctsg-PML-RARA mice.

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    Lukas D Wartman

    Full Text Available Because PML-RARA-induced acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a morphologically differentiated leukemia, many groups have speculated about whether its leukemic cell of origin is a committed myeloid precursor (e.g. a promyelocyte versus an hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC. We originally targeted PML-RARA expression with CTSG regulatory elements, based on the early observation that this gene was maximally expressed in cells with promyelocyte morphology. Here, we show that both Ctsg, and PML-RARA targeted to the Ctsg locus (in Ctsg-PML-RARA mice, are expressed in the purified KLS cells of these mice (KLS = Kit(+Lin(-Sca(+, which are highly enriched for HSPCs, and this expression results in biological effects in multi-lineage competitive repopulation assays. Further, we demonstrate the transcriptional consequences of PML-RARA expression in Ctsg-PML-RARA mice in early myeloid development in other myeloid progenitor compartments [common myeloid progenitors (CMPs and granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs], which have a distinct gene expression signature compared to wild-type (WT mice. Although PML-RARA is indeed expressed at high levels in the promyelocytes of Ctsg-PML-RARA mice and alters the transcriptional signature of these cells, it does not induce their self-renewal. In sum, these results demonstrate that in the Ctsg-PML-RARA mouse model of APL, PML-RARA is expressed in and affects the function of multipotent progenitor cells. Finally, since PML/Pml is normally expressed in the HSPCs of both humans and mice, and since some human APL samples contain TCR rearrangements and express T lineage genes, we suggest that the very early hematopoietic expression of PML-RARA in this mouse model may closely mimic the physiologic expression pattern of PML-RARA in human APL patients.

  14. Vitamin D receptor–retinoid X receptor heterodimer signaling regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alerie Guzman; Errea, Oihana; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Gonzalez, Ginez A.; Kerninon, Christophe; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Lewis, Hilary J.; Jones, Clare A.; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Zhao, Chao; Huang, Jeffrey K.; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OLG) progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature OLGs are key to understanding myelination and remyelination. Signaling via the retinoid X receptor γ (RXR-γ) has been shown to be a positive regulator of OPC differentiation. However, the nuclear receptor (NR) binding partner of RXR-γ has not been established. In this study we show that RXR-γ binds to several NRs in OPCs and OLGs, one of which is vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using pharmacological and knockdown approaches we show that RXR–VDR signaling induces OPC differentiation and that VDR agonist vitamin D enhances OPC differentiation. We also show expression of VDR in OLG lineage cells in multiple sclerosis. Our data reveal a role for vitamin D in the regenerative component of demyelinating disease and identify a new target for remyelination medicines. PMID:26644513

  15. Progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and consequences of ART and cloning-associated epimutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Shari L

    2010-06-01

    The "holy grail" of regenerative medicine is the identification of an undifferentiated progenitor cell that is pluripotent, patient specific, and ethically unambiguous. Such a progenitor cell must also be able to differentiate into functional, transplantable tissue, while avoiding the risks of immune rejection. With reports detailing aberrant genomic imprinting associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and reproductive cloning, the idea that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from surplus in vitro fertilized embryos or nuclear transfer ESCs (ntESCs) harvested from cloned embryos may harbor dangerous epigenetic errors has gained attention. Various progenitor cell sources have been proposed for human therapy, from hESCs to ntESCs, and from adult stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS and piPS cells). This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of these technologies, with particular emphasis on epigenetic stability.

  16. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  17. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M; Schumacher, Michael A; Matthis, Andrea L; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R; Hong, Christian I; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A; Montrose, Marshall H

    2015-11-24

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5(+) cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration.

  18. Cathepsin L is required for endothelial progenitor cell-induced neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbich, Carmen; Heeschen, Christopher; Aicher, Alexandra; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Bruhl, Thomas; Hofmann, Wolf K.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2004-01-15

    Infusion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but not of mature endothelial cells (ECs), promotes neovascularization after ischemia. We performed a gene expression profiling of EPCs and ECs to identify genes, which might be important for the neovascularization capacity of EPCs. Intriguingly, the protease cathepsin L (CathL) was highly expressed in EPCs as opposed to ECs and is essential for matrix degradation and invasion by EPCs in vitro. CathL deficient mice showed impaired functional recovery after hind limb ischemia supporting the concept for an important role of CathL in postnatal neovascularization. Infused CathL deficient progenitor cells failed to home to sites of ischemia and to augment neovascularization. In contrast, over expression of CathL in mature ECs significantly enhanced their invasive activity and induced their neovascularization capacity in vivo. Taken together, CathL plays a crucial role for the integration of circulating EPCs into the ischemic tissue and is required for neovascularization mediated by EPCs.

  19. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Norepinephrine stimulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells after limb ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During several pathological processes such as cancer progression, thermal injury, wound healing and hindlimb ischemia, the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs mobilization was enhanced with an increase of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine (NE secretion, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of NE on EPCs has less been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPCs from BMs, peripheral circulation and spleens, the VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle, peripheral circulation and spleen and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius were quantified in mice with hindlimbs ischemia. Systemic treatment of NE significantly increased EPCs number in BM, peripheral circulation and spleen, VEGF concentration in BM and skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius in mice with hind limb ischemia, but did not affair VEGF concentration in peripheral circulation and spleen. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were cultured with NE in vitro to evaluate proliferation potential, migration capacity and phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS signal moleculars. Treatment of NE induced a significant increase in number of EPCs in the S-phase in a dose-dependent manner, as well as migrative activity of EPCs in vitro (p<0.05. The co-treatment of Phentolamine, I127, LY294002 and L-NAME with NE blocked the effects of NE on EPCs proliferation and migration. Treatment with NE significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS of EPCs. Addition of phentolamine and I127 attenuated the activation of Akt/eNOS pathway, but metoprolol could not. Pretreatment of mice with either Phentolamine or I127 significantly attenuated the effects of NE on EPCs in vivo, VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius, but Metoprolol did not. CONCLUSION: These results unravel that sympathetic nervous system regulate EPCs mobilization and their pro-angiogenic capacity via α adrenoceptor

  1. Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions with Human Tropoelastin.

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    Young Yu

    Full Text Available The deployment of endovascular implants such as stents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease damages the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of thrombosis and promoting neointimal hyperplasia. The rapid restoration of a functional endothelium is known to reduce these complications. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are increasingly recognized as important contributors to device re-endothelialization. Extracellular matrix proteins prominent in the vessel wall may enhance EPC-directed re-endothelialization. We examined attachment, spreading and proliferation on recombinant human tropoelastin (rhTE and investigated the mechanism and site of interaction. EPCs attached and spread on rhTE in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximal level of 56±3% and 54±3%, respectively. EPC proliferation on rhTE was comparable to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen. EDTA, but not heparan sulfate or lactose, reduced EPC attachment by 81±3%, while full attachment was recovered after add-back of manganese, inferring a classical integrin-mediated interaction. Integrin αVβ3 blocking antibodies decreased EPC adhesion and spreading on rhTE by 39±3% and 56±10% respectively, demonstrating a large contribution from this specific integrin. Attachment of EPCs on N-terminal rhTE constructs N25 and N18 accounted for most of this interaction, accompanied by comparable spreading. In contrast, attachment and spreading on N10 was negligible. αVβ3 blocking antibodies reduced EPC spreading on both N25 and N18 by 45±4% and 42±14%, respectively. In conclusion, rhTE supports EPC binding via an integrin mechanism involving αVβ3. N25 and N18, but not N10 constructs of rhTE contribute to EPC binding. The regulation of EPC activity by rhTE may have implications for modulation of the vascular biocompatibility of endovascular implants.

  2. Identification of progenitor cancer stem cell in lentigo maligna melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, M R; Doukaki, S; Malleo, F; Aricò, M

    2008-07-01

    The potential role of stem cells in neoplasia has aroused considerable interest over the past few years. A number of known biologic characteristics of melanomas support the theory that they may originate in a mutated stem cell. Melanocytic stem cell markers have been described recently. Moreover, the CD133 cells that show surface markers for CD34 are stem cells primitive. These stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. The identification of cancer stem/initiating cells with a crucial role in tumor formation may open up new pharmacologic perspectives. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of CD133 and CD34, two putative markers of cancer stem cells in the lentigo maligna melanoma. Thirty cases of lentigo maligna melanoma were analyzed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. The vast majority of the samples analyzed showed the presence of rare cells, which were clearly positive for CD133 and CD34. Strong CD133 and CD34 staining was found in the outer root sheath of the mid-lower hair follicles, intermixed with atypical melanocytes extending along layers of the hair follicles. A number of these staminal cells were adjacent and intermixed with melanoma cells. This study supports the stem cell origin of this tumor and suggests that the precursor of the melanoma in question is a stem-like cell rather than the primitive melanoblast committed to be exclusively involved in melanocytic differentiation.

  3. Nigral dopaminergic neuron replenishment in adult mice through VE-cadherin-expressing neural progenitor cells

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    Abir A Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2– neural progenitor cells. We sought to further validate this finding and explore a potential atypical origin for these progenitor cells. Since neural progenitor cells have a proximal association with the vasculature of the brain and subsets of endothelial cells are Nestin+, we hypothesized that dopaminergic neural progenitors might share a common cell lineage. Therefore, we employed a VE-cadherin promoter-driven CREERT2:THlox/THlox transgenic mouse line to ablate the tyrosine hydroxylase gene from endothelial cells in adult animals. After 26 weeks, but not 13 weeks, following the genetic blockade of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in VE-cadherin+ cells, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase+ neurons in the substantia nigra. The results from this genetic lineage tracing study suggest that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by a VE-cadherin+ progenitor cell population potentially arising from an endothelial lineage.

  4. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Progenitor-Like Cells in Normal and Injured Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Yovchev, Mladen I.; Zhang, Jinghang; Alfieri, Alan A.; Tchaikovskaya, Tatyana; Laconi, Ezio; Dabeva, Mariana D.

    2016-01-01

    In normal rat liver, thymocyte antigen 1 (Thy1) is expressed in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and in some blood progenitor cells. Thy1-expressing cells also accumulate in the liver during impaired liver regeneration. The origin and nature of these cells are not well understood. By using RT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, we describe the presence of rare Thy1+ cells in the liver lobule of normal animals, occasionally forming small collections of up to 20 cells. These cells constitute a small portion (1.7% to 1.8%) of nonparenchymal cells and reveal a mixed mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype, expressing E-cadherin, cytokeratin 18, and desmin. The most potent mitogens for mesenchymal-epithelial Thy1+ cells in vitro are the inflammatory cytokines interferon γ, IL-1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB, which are not produced by Thy1+ cells. Thy1+ cells express all typical mesenchymal stem cell and hepatic progenitor cell markers and produce growth factor and cytokine mRNA (Hgf, Il6, Tgfa, and Tweak) for proteins that maintain oval cell growth and differentiation. Under appropriate conditions, mesenchymal-epithelial cells differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte-like cells. In this study, we show that the adult rat liver harbors a small pool of endogenous mesenchymal-epithelial cells not recognized previously. In the quiescent state, these cells express both mesenchymal and epithelial cell markers. They behave like hepatic stem cells/progenitors with dual phenotype, exhibiting high plasticity and long-lasting proliferative activity. PMID:25447047

  6. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

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    Xiaoxia Jin

    Full Text Available Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A, hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  7. Btg1 is Required to Maintain the Pool of Stem and Progenitor Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Micheli, Laura; Saraulli, Daniele; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Cannas, Sara; Scardigli, Raffaella; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Costanzi, Marco; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Moreira, Pedro; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons. Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at 2 months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as well as of mature neurons, greatly decreases compared to wild-type controls. Remarkably, adult dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells of Btg1-null mice exit the cell cycle after completing the S phase, express p53 and p21 at high levels and undergo apoptosis within 5 days. In the SVZ of adult (two-month-old) Btg1-null mice we observed an equivalent decrease, associated to apoptosis, of stem cells, neuroblasts, and neurons; furthermore, neurospheres derived from SVZ stem cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the self-renewal and expansion capacity. We conclude that ablation of Btg1 reduces the pool of dividing adult stem and progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and SVZ by decreasing their proliferative capacity and inducing apoptosis, probably reflecting impairment of the control of the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. As a result, the ability of Btg1-null mice to discriminate among overlapping contextual memories was affected. Btg1 appears, therefore, to be required for maintaining adult stem and progenitor cells quiescence and self-renewal. PMID:22969701

  8. Identification of human embryonic progenitor cell targeting peptides using phage display.

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    Paola A Bignone

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells are capable of differentiation into derivatives of all three primary embryonic germ layers and can self-renew indefinitely. They therefore offer a potentially scalable source of replacement cells to treat a variety of degenerative diseases. The ability to reprogram adult cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has now enabled the possibility of patient-specific hPS cells as a source of cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially, cell replacement therapies. While reprogramming technology has dramatically increased the availability of normal and diseased hPS cell lines for basic research, a major bottleneck is the critical unmet need for more efficient methods of deriving well-defined cell populations from hPS cells. Phage display is a powerful method for selecting affinity ligands that could be used for identifying and potentially purifying a variety of cell types derived from hPS cells. However, identification of specific progenitor cell-binding peptides using phage display may be hindered by the large cellular heterogeneity present in differentiating hPS cell populations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that peptides selected for their ability to bind a clonal cell line derived from hPS cells would bind early progenitor cell types emerging from differentiating hPS cells. The human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell line, W10, was used and cell-targeting peptides were identified. Competition studies demonstrated specificity of peptide binding to the target cell surface. Efficient peptide targeted cell labeling was accomplished using multivalent peptide-quantum dot complexes as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cell-binding peptides were selective for differentiated hPS cells, had little or no binding on pluripotent cells, but preferential binding to certain embryonic progenitor cell lines and early endodermal hPS cell derivatives. Taken

  9. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

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    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  10. Late Release of Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells after Chemotherapy Predicts Response and Survival in Cancer Patients

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    Jeanine M. Roodhart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We and others have previously demonstrated that the acute release of progenitor cells in response to chemotherapy actually reduces the efficacy of the chemotherapy. Here, we take these data further and investigate the clinical relevance of circulating endothelial (progenitor cells (CE(PCs and modulatory cytokines in patients after chemotherapy with relation to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS. Patients treated with various chemotherapeutics were included. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, 4 hours, and 7 and 21 days after chemotherapy. The mononuclear cell fraction was analyzed for CE(PC by FACS analysis. Plasma was analyzed for cytokines by ELISA or Luminex technique. CE(PCs were correlated with response and PFS/OS using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. We measured CE(PCs and cytokines in 71 patients. Only patients treated with paclitaxel showed an immediate increase in endothelial progenitor cell 4 hours after start of treatment. These immediate changes did not correlate with response or survival. After 7 and 21 days of chemotherapy, a large and consistent increase in CE(PC was found (P < .01, independent of the type of chemotherapy. Changes in CE(PC levels at day 7 correlated with an increase in tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy and predicted PFS/OS, regardless of the tumor type or chemotherapy. These findings indicate that the late release of CE(PC is a common phenomenon after chemotherapeutic treatment. The correlation with a clinical response and survival provides further support for the biologic relevance of these cells in patients' prognosis and stresses their possible use as a therapeutic target.

  11. FGFR3 regulates brain size by controlling progenitor cell proliferation and apoptosis during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis-Broadgate, Suzanne L; Thomson, Rachel E; Pellicano, Francesca; Tartaglia, Michael A; Pontikis, Charlie C; Cooper, Jonathan D; Iwata, Tomoko

    2005-03-01

    Mice with the K644E kinase domain mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) (EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E)) exhibited a marked enlargement of the brain. The brain size was increased as early as E11.5, not secondary to the possible effect of Fgfr3 activity in the skeleton. Furthermore, the mutant brains showed a dramatic increase in cortical thickness, a phenotype opposite to that in FGF2 knockout mice. Despite this increased thickness, cortical layer formation was largely unaffected and no cortical folding was observed during embryonic days 11.5-18.5 (E11.5-E18.5). Measurement of cortical thickness revealed an increase of 38.1% in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mice at E14.5 and the advanced appearance of the cortical plate was frequently observed at this stage. Unbiased stereological analysis revealed that the volume of the ventricular zone (VZ) was increased by more than two fold in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mutants at E14.5. A relatively mild increase in progenitor cell proliferation and a profound decrease in developmental apoptosis during E11.5-E14.5 most likely accounts for the dramatic increase in total telecephalic cell number. Taken together, our data suggest a novel function of Fgfr3 in controlling the development of the cortex, by regulating proliferation and apoptosis of cortical progenitors.

  12. Progenitor cells in liver regeneration: molecular responses controlling their activation and expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Jelnes, Peter; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2005-01-01

    created in the liver by a certain insult. This review will focus on molecular responses controlling activation and expansion of the hepatic progenitor cell niche, emphasizing similarities and differences in the microenvironments orchestrating regeneration by recruitment of progenitor cell populations...... cells, and recruited inflammatory cells as well as the variety of growth-modulating molecules produced and/or harboured by these elements. The cellular and molecular responses to different regenerative stimuli seem to depend on the injury inflicted and consequently on the molecular microenvironment...

  13. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lifeng [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhou, Yong [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yu, Shanhe [Shanghai Institute of Hematology, RuiJin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ji, Guixiang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences/Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Aihua, E-mail: aihuagu@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  14. The combination of valproic acid and lithium delays hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walasek, Marta A.; Bystrykh, Leonid; van den Boom, Vincent; Olthof, Sandra; Ausema, Albertina; Ritsema, Martha; Huls, Gerwin; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge on the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal and differentiation, in vitro control of stem cell fate decisions has been difficult. The ability to inhibit HSPC commitment in culture may be of benefit to cell therapy protocols. Small

  15. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  16. Triiodothyronine promotes the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells through the MAPK/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Song-Bai; Jing, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-ming; Du, Jian-Lin; Liu, Ya-Jie; Qin, Qin; She, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important functions in the development and physiological function of the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine (T3) can promote the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs) and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism. Our results showed that T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor inhibitor bisphenol A (100 μmol/L) did not affect T3's ability to induce proliferation. Further studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), MAPK3, and Ki67 in EPCs in the T3 group (10 nmol/L) increased 2.9-, 3-, and 4.1-fold, respectively, compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in the T3 group increased approximately 2-fold compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and there were more EPCs in the S phase of the cell cycle (20.6% vs. 12.0%, P < 0.05). The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the ability of T3 to promote the proliferation of EPCs and to alter cell cycle progression. This study suggested that T3 significantly promotes the proliferation of EPCs, and this effect may be achieved through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Epicardial progenitor cells were successfully cultured from E12.5 mice. • Thyroid hormone T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs. • This biological effect may be mediated via activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and increased intravascular nitric oxide in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D; Powell, Tiffany M; Thompson, Michael; Benjamin, Moshe; Rodrigo, Maria; Carlow, Andrea; Annavajjhala, Vidhya; Shiva, Sruti; Dejam, Andre; Gladwin, Mark T; McCoy, J Philip; Zalos, Gloria; Press, Beverly; Murphy, Mandy; Hill, Jonathan M; Csako, Gyorgy; Waclawiw, Myron A; Cannon, Richard O

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether cardiac rehabilitation participation increases circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and benefits vasculature in patients already on stable therapy previously shown to augment EPCs and improve endothelial function. Forty-six of 50 patients with coronary artery disease completed a 36-session cardiac rehabilitation program: 45 were treated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy > or = 1 month (average baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol = 81 mg/dL). Mononuclear cells isolated from blood were quantified for EPCs by flow cytometry (CD133/VEGFR-2 cells) and assayed in culture for EPC colony-forming units (CFUs). In 23 patients, EPCs were stained for annexin-V as a marker of apoptosis, and nitrite was measured in blood as an indicator of intravascular nitric oxide. Endothelial progenitor cells increased from 35 +/- 5 to 63 +/- 10 cells/mL, and EPC-CFUs increased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.6 per well (both P < .01), but 11 patients had no increase in either measure. Those patients whose EPCs increased from baseline showed significant increases in nitrite and reduction in annexin-V staining (both P < .01) versus no change in patients without increase in EPCs. Over the course of the program, EPCs increased prior to increase in nitrite in the blood. Cardiac rehabilitation in patients receiving stable statin therapy and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at goal increases EPC number, EPC survival, and endothelial differentiation potential, associated with increased nitric oxide in the blood. Although this response was observed in most patients, a significant minority showed neither EPC mobilization nor increased nitric oxide in the blood.

  18. Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors

  19. Noncoding RNA in the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play key roles in cellular processes, particularly in the brain. The present study used RNA sequencing to identify the transcriptional landscape of two human neural progenitor cell lines, SK-N-SH and ReNcell CX, as they differentiate into human cortical projection neurons. Protein coding genes were found to account for 54.8% and 57.0% of expressed genes, respectively, and alignment of RNA sequencing reads revealed that only 25.5-28.1% mapped to exonic regions of the genome. Differential expression analysis in the two cell lines identified altered gene expression in both protein coding and noncoding RNAs as they undergo neural differentiation with 222 differentially expressed genes observed in SK-N-SH cells and 19 differentially expressed genes in ReNcell CX. Interestingly, genes showing differential expression in SK-N-SH cells are enriched in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder, but not in gene sets related to cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was used to detect modules of co-expressed protein coding and noncoding RNAs in SK-N-SH cells and found four modules to be associated with neural differentiation. These modules contain varying levels of noncoding RNAs ranging from 10.7% to 49.7% with gene ontology suggesting roles in numerous cellular processes important for differentiation. These results indicate that noncoding RNAs are highly expressed in human neural progenitor cells and likely hold key regulatory roles in gene networks underlying neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  1. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Per Henrik; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik

    2017-06-15

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem cells (CD133 + /CD24 lo ), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology, as did the nonexpressing cells. Depletion experiments showed that after the complete removal of the subpopulations of NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs, the expression of these genes appeared in other NPCs within a few days. The percentage of NANOG- and REX1-expressing cells returned to that observed before depletion. Our results are best explained by a model in which there is stochastic transient expression of pluripotency-associated genes in proliferating NPCs.

  2. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF and posterior circumvallate (CV taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  3. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  4. Generation of stratified squamous epithelial progenitor cells from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.

  5. Histone 2B-GFP Label-Retaining Prostate Luminal Cells Possess Progenitor Cell Properties and Are Intrinsically Resistant to Castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxiao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of slow-cycling luminal cells in the prostate has been suggested, but their identity and functional properties remain unknown. Using a bigenic mouse model to earmark, isolate, and characterize the quiescent stem-like cells, we identify a label-retaining cell (LRC population in the luminal cell layer as luminal progenitors. Molecular and biological characterizations show that these luminal LRCs are significantly enriched in the mouse proximal prostate, exhibit relative dormancy, display bipotency in both in vitro and in vivo assays, and express a stem/progenitor gene signature with resemblance to aggressive prostate cancer. Importantly, these LRCs, compared with bulk luminal cells, maintain a lower level of androgen receptor (AR expression and are less androgen dependent and also castration resistant in vivo. Finally, analysis of phenotypic markers reveals heterogeneity within the luminal progenitor cell pool. Our study establishes luminal LRCs as progenitors that may serve as a cellular origin for castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  6. Markers of Pluripotency in Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Their Differentiation to Progenitor of Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castro, Irma Lydia; García-López, Guadalupe; Ávila-González, Daniela; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Portillo, Wendy; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Díaz, Néstor Fabián

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have promise for regenerative medicine due to their auto-renovation and differentiation capacities. Nevertheless, there are several ethical and methodological issues about these cells that have not been resolved. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have been proposed as source of pluripotent stem cells. Several groups have studied hAEC but have reported inconsistencies about their pluripotency properties. The aim of the present study was the in vitro characterization of hAEC collected from a Mexican population in order to identify transcription factors involved in the pluripotency circuitry and to determine their epigenetic state. Finally, we evaluated if these cells differentiate to cortical progenitors. We analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively the expression of the transcription factors of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and REX1) by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR in hAEC. Also, we determined the presence of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, E-cadherin, KLF4, TFE3 as well as the proliferation and epigenetic state by immunocytochemistry of the cells. Finally, hAEC were differentiated towards cortical progenitors using a protocol of two stages. Here we show that hAEC, obtained from a Mexican population and cultured in vitro (P0-P3), maintained the expression of several markers strongly involved in pluripotency maintenance (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, TFE3, KLF4, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and E-cadherin). Finally, when hAEC were treated with growth factors and small molecules, they expressed markers characteristic of cortical progenitors (TBR2, OTX2, NeuN and β-III-tubulin). Our results demonstrated that hAEC express naïve pluripotent markers (KLF4, REX1 and TFE3) as well as the cortical neuron phenotype after differentiation. This highlights the need for further investigation of hAEC as a possible source of hPSC. PMID:26720151

  7. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Paik Wah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey, E-mail: zyantey@ukm.edu.my [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chan, Kok Meng [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Rajab, Nor Fadilah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e{sup +} cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1{sup +}, CD11b{sup +}, Gr-1{sup +}, and CD45{sup +} cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and

  8. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Paik Wah; Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Chan, Kok Meng; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e + cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1 + , CD11b + , Gr-1 + , and CD45 + cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and progenitors. • 1,4-BQ

  9. [Culture of pancreatic progenitor cells in hanging drop and on floating filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng-xia; Chen, Fang; Chi, Ying; Yang, Shao-guang; Lu, Shi-hong; Han, Zhong-chao

    2013-06-01

    To construct a method to culture pancreatic progenitor cells in hanging drop and on floating filter,and to examine if pancreatic progenitor cells can differentiate into mature endocrine cells with this method. Murine embryos at day 12.5 were isolated and digested into single cells,which were then cultured in hanging drop for 24h and formed spheres.Spheres were cultured on the filter for 6 days,which floated in the dish containing medium.During culture,the expressions of pancreas duodenum homeobox-1(PDX-1)and neurogenin3(Ngn3)were determined.The expressions of endocrine and exocrine markers,insulin,glucagon,and carboxypeptidase(CPA)were determined on day 7 by immunohistochemistry.Insulin secretion of spheres stimulated by glucose was detected by ELISA.The changes of pancreatic marker expressions during culture were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR). One day after the culture,there were still a large amount of PDX-1 positive cells in pancreatic spheres,and these cells proliferated.On day 3,high expression of Ngn3 was detected,and the Ngn3-positive cells did not proliferate.On day 7,The expressions of endocrine and exocrine markers in the differentiated pancreatic progenitor cells were detected,which were consistent with that in vivo.Insulin was secreted by spheres upon the stimulation of glucose. In hanging drop and on floating filter,pancreatic progenitor cells can differentiate into mature endocrine cells.

  10. Biomimetic hydrogels direct spinal progenitor cell differentiation and promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Sydney A.; Sabin, Alexandra L.; Besser, Rachel R.; Gooden, Olivia M.; Shirk, Bryce D.; Nguyen, Quan M.; Khaing, Zin Z.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI. Approach. A collagen-based hydrogel was modified to mimic the mechanical properties of the neonatal spinal cord, and components present in the developing extracellular matrix were included to provide appropriate chemical cues to the NPCs to direct their differentiation toward oligodendrocytes. The hydrogel with cells was then transplanted into a unilateral cervical contusion model of SCI to examine the functional recovery with this treatment. Six behavioral tests and histological assessment were performed to examine the in vivo response to this treatment. Main results. Our results demonstrate that we can achieve a significant increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation of NPCs compared to standard culture conditions using a three-component biomaterial composed of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and laminin that has mechanical properties matched to those of neonatal neural tissue. Additionally, SCI rats with hydrogel transplants, with and without NPCs, showed functional recovery. Animals transplanted with hydrogels with NPCs showed significantly increased functional recovery over six weeks compared to the media control group. Significance. The three-component hydrogel presented here has the potential to provide cues to direct differentiation in vivo to encourage regeneration of the central nervous system.

  11. Fetal progenitor cell transplantation treats methylmalonic aciduria in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Nicole E.; Pennell, Samuel D.; Wood, Leonie R.; Pitt, James J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Peters, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fetal cells were transplanted into a methylmalonic acid mouse model. ► Cell engraftment was detected in liver, spleen and bone marrow. ► Biochemical disease correction was measured in blood samples. ► A double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) proved more effective. ► Higher levels of engraftment may be required for greater disease correction. -- Abstract: Methylmalonic aciduria is a rare disorder caused by an inborn error of organic acid metabolism. Current treatment options are limited and generally focus on disease management. We aimed to investigate the use of fetal progenitor cells to treat this disorder using a mouse model with an intermediate form of methylmalonic aciduria. Fetal liver cells were isolated from healthy fetuses at embryonic day 15–17 and intravenously transplanted into sub-lethally irradiated mice. Liver donor cell engraftment was determined by PCR. Disease correction was monitored by urine and blood methylmalonic acid concentration and weight change. Initial studies indicated that pre-transplantation sub-lethal irradiation followed by transplantation with 5 million cells were suitable. We found that a double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) provided a more effective treatment. Donor cell liver engraftment of up to 5% was measured. Disease correction, as defined by a decrease in blood methylmalonic acid concentration, was effected in methylmalonic acid mice transplanted with a double dose of cells and who showed donor cell liver engraftment. Mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentration decreased from 810 ± 156 (sham transplanted) to 338 ± 157 μmol/L (double dose of 5 million cells) while mean blood C3 carnitine concentration decreased from 20.5 ± 4 (sham transplanted) to 5.3 ± 1.9 μmol/L (double dose of 5 million cells). In conclusion, higher levels of engraftment may be required for greater disease correction; however these studies show promising results for cell transplantation biochemical

  12. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate (IM is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM, using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25 µM reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5 µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5 µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells increased. At higher concentrations (15 µM, the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control. Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15 µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved.

  13. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

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    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  14. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirstead, Hans S; Nistor, Gabriel; Bernal, Giovanna; Totoiu, Minodora; Cloutier, Frank; Sharp, Kelly; Steward, Oswald

    2005-05-11

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.

  15. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

  16. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Rizzo, Paola; Dijkman, Henry; Lazzeri, Elena; Mooren, Fieke; Ballerini, Lara; Parente, Eliana; Sagrinati, Costanza; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Ronconi, Elisa; Becherucci, Francesca; Benigni, Ariela; Steenbergen, Eric; Lasagni, Laura; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wetzels, Jack; Romagnani, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner surface of Bowman's capsule can regenerate podocytes, but whether dysregulated proliferation of these progenitors contributes to crescent formation is unknown. In this study, we used confocal microscopy, laser capture microdissection, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR to demonstrate that hypercellular lesions of different podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis consist of three distinct populations: CD133(+)CD24(+)podocalyxin (PDX)(-)nestin(-) renal progenitors, CD133(+)CD24(+)PDX(+)nestin(+) transitional cells, and CD133(-)CD24(-)PDX(+)nestin(+) differentiated podocytes. In addition, TGF-beta induced CD133(+)CD24(+) progenitors to produce extracellular matrix, and these were the only cells to express the proliferation marker Ki67. Taken together, these results suggest that glomerular hyperplastic lesions derive from the proliferation of renal progenitors at different stages of their differentiation toward mature podocytes, providing an explanation for the pathogenesis of hyperplastic lesions in podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  17. Reciprocal upregulation of Notch signaling molecules in hematopoietic progenitor and mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play pivotal supportive roles in hematopoiesis, how they interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is not well understood. We investigated the interaction between HSCs and surrogate MSCs (C3H10T1/2 stromal cells, focusing on the molecular events induced by cell contact of these bipartite populations. C3H10T1/2 is a mesenchymal stromal cell line that can be induced to differentiate into preadipocytes (A54 and myoblasts (M1601. The stromal cell derivatives were cocultured with murine HSCs (Lineage-Sca1+, and gene expression profiles in stromal cells and HSCs were compared before and after the coculture. HSCs gave rise to cobblestone areas only on A54 cells, with ninefold more progenitors than on M1601 or undifferentiated C3H10T1/2 cells. Microarray-based screening and a quantitative reverse transcriptase directed-polymerase chain reaction showed that the levels of Notch ligands (Jagged1 and Delta-like 3 were increased in A54 cells upon interaction with HSCs. On the other hand, the expression of Notch1 and Hes1 was upregulated in the HSCs cocultured with A54 cells. A transwell assay revealed that the reciprocal upregulation was dependent on cell-to-cell contact. The result suggested that in the hematopoietic niche, HSCs help MSCs to produce Notch ligands, and in turn, MSCs help HSCs to express Notch receptor. Such a reciprocal upregulation would reinforce the downstream signaling to determine the fate of hematopoietic cell lineage. Clarification of the initiating events on cell contact should lead to the identification of specific molecular targets to facilitate HSC engraftment in transplantation therapy.

  18. Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitors and transplantation in a rat model of optic chiasm demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pouya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses showed that stage-specific markers, Olig2, Sox10, NG2, PDGFRα, O4, A2B5, GalC, and MBP were expressed following the differentiation procedure, and enrichment of the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results are comparable with the expression of stage-specific markers in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Transplantation of hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into the lysolecithin-induced demyelinated optic chiasm of the rat model resulted in recovery from symptoms, and integration and differentiation into oligodendrocytes were detected by immunohistofluorescence staining against PLP and MBP, and measurements of the visual evoked potentials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed that oligodendrocyte progenitors generated efficiently from hiPSCs can be used in future biomedical studies once safety issues have been overcome.

  19. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Intraocular Injection of ES Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors Improve Visual Function in Retinal Ganglion Cell-Depleted Mouse Models

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    Mundackal S. Divya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC transplantation is a promising strategy to restore visual function resulting from irreversible RGC degeneration occurring in glaucoma or inherited optic neuropathies. We previously demonstrated FGF2 induced differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC to RGC lineage, capable of retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL integration upon transplantation. Here, we evaluated possible improvement of visual function by transplantation of ES cell derived neural progenitors in RGC depleted glaucoma mice models. ESC derived neural progenitors (ES-NP were transplanted into N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA injected, RGC-ablated mouse models and a pre-clinical glaucoma mouse model (DBA/2J having sustained higher intra ocular pressure (IOP. Visual acuity and functional integration was evaluated by behavioral experiments and immunohistochemistry, respectively. GFP-expressing ES-NPs transplanted in NMDA-injected RGC-depleted mice differentiated into RGC lineage and possibly integrating into GCL. An improvement in visual acuity was observed after 2 months of transplantation, when compared to the pre-transplantation values. Expression of c-Fos in the transplanted cells, upon light induction, further suggests functional integration into the host retinal circuitry. However, the transplanted cells did not send axonal projections into optic nerve. Transplantation experiments in DBA/2J mouse showed no significant improvement in visual functions, possibly due to both host and transplanted retinal cell death which could be due to an inherent high IOP. We showed that, ES NPs transplanted into the retina of RGC-ablated mouse models could survive, differentiate to RGC lineage, and possibly integrate into GCL to improve visual function. However, for the survival of transplanted cells in glaucoma, strategies to control the IOP are warranted.

  1. Efficient generation of lens progenitor cells from cataract patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Qiu

    Full Text Available The development of a technique to induce the transformation of somatic cells to a pluripotent state via the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors was a transformational event in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of this technique also impacted ophthalmology, as patient-specific induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs may be useful resources for some ophthalmological diseases. The lens is a key refractive element in the eye that focuses images of the visual world onto the retina. To establish a new model for drug screening to treat lens diseases and investigating lens aging and development, we examined whether human lens epithelial cells (HLECs could be induced into iPSCs and if lens-specific differentiation of these cells could be achieved under defined chemical conditions. We first efficiently reprogrammed HLECs from age-related cataract patients to iPSCs with OCT-4, SOX-2, and KLF-4. The resulting HLEC-derived iPS (HLE-iPS colonies were indistinguishable from human ES cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, pluripotent marker expression and their ability to generate all embryonic germ-cell layers. Next, we performed a 3-step induction procedure: HLE-iPS cells were differentiated into large numbers of lens progenitor-like cells with defined factors (Noggin, BMP and FGF2, and we determined that these cells expressed lens-specific markers (PAX6, SOX2, SIX3, CRYAB, CRYAA, BFSP1, and MIP. In addition, HLE-iPS-derived lens cells exhibited reduced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT markers compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Our study describes a highly efficient procedure for generating lens progenitor cells from cataract patient HLEC-derived iPSCs. These patient-derived pluripotent cells provide a valuable model for studying the developmental and molecular biological mechanisms that underlie cell determination in lens development and cataract

  2. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  3. Directed differentiation of porcine epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells into neurons and glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Carter, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases; however, safety concerns must be addressed through transplantation studies in large animal models, such as the pig. The aim of this study was to derive NPCs from porcine blastocysts...

  4. Repair of Tissues by Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells (MSCs): Controversies, Myths, and Changing Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Prockop, Darwin J

    2009-01-01

    Research on stem cells has progressed at a rapid pace and, as might be anticipated, the results have generated several controversies, a few myths and a change in a major paradigm. Some of these issues will be reviewed in this study with special emphasis on how they can be applied to the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, referred to as MSCs.

  5. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...

  6. DYRK1A is a regulator of S phase entry in hepatic progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, Hedwig Suzanne; Westendorp, Bart; Viebahn, Cornelia S; Post, Krista; van Wolferen, Monique E; Oosterhoff, Loes A; Egan, David A; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Toussaint, Mathilda Jm; Schotanus, Baukje A; de Bruin, Alain; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C; Spee, Bart

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are adult liver stem cells that act as second line of defense in liver regeneration. They are normally quiescent, but in case of severe liver damage HPC proliferation is triggered by external activation mechanisms from their niche. Although several important

  7. Stem and Progenitor Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders are attractive targets for stem and progenitor cell-based therapy. Yet many conditions are not, whether by virtue of an inhospitable disease environment, poorly understood pathophysiology, or poor alignment of donor cell capabilities with patient needs. Moreove...

  8. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...... that modulation of host immunity is likely necessary for prolonged xenograft survival in this model....

  9. Identification of a progenitor cell population destined to form fracture fibrocartilage callus in Dickkopf-related protein 3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yu; Adams, Douglas; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ryu; Kamimura, Masayuki; Itoi, Eiji; Rowe, David W

    2016-11-01

    Fracture healing is a complex biological process involving the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and chondrogenic, osteogenic, and angiogenic differentiation. The mechanisms underlying the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) expression in periosteal cells using Dkk3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice. We found that proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells began in the periosteum, involving Dkk3-positive cell proliferation near the fracture site. In addition, Dkk3 was expressed in fibrocartilage cells together with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 in the early phase of fracture healing as a cell marker of fibrocartilage cells. Dkk3 was not expressed in mature chondrogenic cells or osteogenic cells. Transient expression of Dkk3 disappeared in the late phase of fracture healing, except in the superficial periosteal area of fracture callus. The Dkk3 expression pattern differed in newly formed type IV collagen positive blood vessels and the related avascular tissue. This is the first report that shows Dkk3 expression in the periosteum at a resting state and in fibrocartilage cells during the fracture healing process, which was associated with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells. These fluorescent mesenchymal lineage cells may be useful for future studies to better understand fracture healing.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Sei, E-mail: skakinuma.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamiya, Akihide [Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Tokai University, Isehara (Japan); Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Asahina, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Koshikawa, Naohiko [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Seiki, Motoharu [Medical School, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14–deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14–deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4α and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14–deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14–deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14–mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Loss of MMP-14 delayed formation of bile duct-like structures in perinatal liver. • Overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatobalsts promoted the biliary formation in vitro. • Loss of MMP-14 promoted hepatocyte maturation of hepatoblasts in vivo. • MMP-14–mediated signaling regulates terminal differentiation of

  11. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  12. Characterization of single cell derived cultures of periosteal progenitor cells to ensure the cell quality for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stich

    Full Text Available For clinical applications of cells and tissue engineering products it is of importance to characterize the quality of the used cells in detail. Progenitor cells from the periosteum are already routinely applied in the clinics for the regeneration of the maxillary bone. Periosteal cells have, in addition to their potential to differentiate into bone, the ability to develop into cartilage and fat. However, the question arises whether all cells isolated from periosteal biopsies are able to differentiate into all three tissue types, or whether there are subpopulations. For an efficient and approved application in bone or cartilage regeneration the clarification of this question is of interest. Therefore, 83 different clonal cultures of freshly isolated human periosteal cells derived from mastoid periosteum biopsies of 4 donors were generated and growth rates calculated. Differentiation capacities of 51 clonal cultures towards the osteogenic, the chondrogenic, and the adipogenic lineage were investigated. Histological and immunochemical stainings showed that 100% of the clonal cultures differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage, while 94.1% demonstrated chondrogenesis, and 52.9% could be stimulated to adipogenesis. For osteogenesis real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of BGLAP and RUNX2 and for adipogenesis of FABP4 and PPARG confirmed the results. Overall, 49% of the cells exhibited a tripotent potential, 45.1% showed a bipotent potential (without adipogenic differentiation, 3.9% bipotent (without chondrogenic differentiation, and 2% possessed a unipotent osteogenic potential. In FACS analyses, no differences in the marker profile of undifferentiated clonal cultures with bi- and tripotent differentiation capacity were found. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed 52 differentially expressed genes for clonal subpopulations with or without chondrogenic differentiation capacity, among them DCN, NEDD9, TGFBR3, and TSLP. For clinical

  13. Dedifferentiation of Human Primary Thyrocytes into Multilineage Progenitor Cells without Gene Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Vladimir; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Matsuse, Michiko; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kumagai, Atsushi; Uga, Tatsuya; Yano, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yuji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    While identification and isolation of adult stem cells have potentially important implications, recent reports regarding dedifferentiation/reprogramming from differentiated cells have provided another clue to gain insight into source of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we developed a novel culture system to obtain dedifferentiated progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. After enzymatic digestion, primary thyrocytes, expressing thyroglobulin, vimentin and cytokeratin-18, were cultured in a serum-free medium called SAGM. Although the vast majority of cells died, a small proportion (∼0.5%) survived and proliferated. During initial cell expansion, thyroglobulin/cytokeratin-18 expression was gradually declined in the proliferating cells. Moreover, sorted cells expressing thyroid peroxidase gave rise to proliferating clones in SAGM. These data suggest that those cells are derived from thyroid follicular cells or at least thyroid-committed cells. The SAGM-grown cells did not express any thyroid-specific genes. However, after four-week incubation with FBS and TSH, cytokeratin-18, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor, PAX8 and TTF1 expressions re-emerged. Moreover, surprisingly, the cells were capable of differentiating into neuronal or adipogenic lineage depending on differentiating conditions. In summary, we have developed a novel system to generate multilineage progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. This seems to be achieved by dedifferentiation of thyroid follicular cells. The presently described culture system may be useful for regenerative medicine, but the primary importance will be as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of thyroid diseases. PMID:21556376

  14. Generation of Neural Progenitor Spheres from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Suspension Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Song, Liqing; Tsai, Ang-Chen; Ma, Teng; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems cannot provide large numbers of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their derivatives that are demanded for commercial and clinical applications in in vitro drug screening, disease modeling, and potentially cell therapy. The technologies that support three-dimensional (3-D) suspension culture, such as a stirred bioreactor, are generally considered as promising approaches to produce the required cells. Recently, suspension bioreactors have also been used to generate mini-brain-like structure from hPSCs for disease modeling, showing the important role of bioreactor in stem cell culture. This chapter describes a detailed culture protocol for neural commitment of hPSCs into neural progenitor cell (NPC) spheres using a spinner bioreactor. The basic steps to prepare hPSCs for bioreactor inoculation are illustrated from cell thawing to cell propagation. The method for generating NPCs from hPSCs in the spinner bioreactor along with the static control is then described. The protocol in this study can be applied to the generation of NPCs from hPSCs for further neural subtype specification, 3-D neural tissue development, or potential preclinical studies or clinical applications in neurological diseases.

  15. Brain derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the cardiogenic potential of adult resident progenitor cells in failing murine heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmita Samal

    Full Text Available Resident cardiac progenitor cells show homing properties when injected into the injured but not to the healthy myocardium. The molecular background behind this difference in behavior needs to be studied to elucidate how adult progenitor cells can restore cardiac function of the damaged myocardium. Since the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF moderates cardioprotection in injured hearts, we focused on delineating its regulatory role in the damaged myocardium.Comparative gene expression profiling of freshly isolated undifferentiated Sca-1 progenitor cells derived either from heart failure transgenic αMHC-CyclinT1/Gαq overexpressing mice or wildtype littermates revealed transcriptional variations. Bdnf expression was up regulated 5-fold during heart failure which was verified by qRT-PCR and confirmed at protein level. The migratory capacity of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts was improved by 15% in the presence of 25 ng/ml BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-mediated effects on Sca-1 cells were studied via pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC proteomics approach. After BDNF treatment significant differences between newly synthesized proteins in Sca-1 cells from control and transgenic hearts were observed for CDK1, SRRT, HDGF, and MAP2K3 which are known to regulate cell cycle, survival and differentiation. Moreover BDNF repressed the proliferation of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts.Comparative profiling of resident Sca-1 cells revealed elevated BDNF levels in the failing heart. Exogenous BDNF (i stimulated migration, which might improve the homing ability of Sca-1 cells derived from the failing heart and (ii repressed the cell cycle progression suggesting its potency to ameliorate heart failure.

  16. Disruption of canonical TGFβ-signaling in murine coronary progenitor cells by low level arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Patrick; Huang, Tianfang; Broka, Derrick; Parker, Patti [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnett, Joey V. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Medical University, Nashville, TN (United States); Camenisch, Todd D., E-mail: camenisch@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to arsenic results in several types of cancers as well as heart disease. A major contributor to ischemic heart pathologies is coronary artery disease, however the influences by environmental arsenic in this disease process are not known. Similarly, the impact of toxicants on blood vessel formation and function during development has not been studied. During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types including smooth muscle cells which contribute to the coronary vessels. The TGFβ family of ligands and receptors is essential for developmental cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation into coronary smooth muscle cells. In this in vitro study, 18 hour exposure to 1.34 μM arsenite disrupted developmental EMT programming in murine epicardial cells causing a deficit in cardiac mesenchyme. The expression of EMT genes including TGFβ2, TGFβ receptor-3, Snail, and Has-2 are decreased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to arsenite. TGFβ2 cell signaling is abrogated as detected by decreases in phosphorylated Smad2/3 when cells are exposed to 1.34 μM arsenite. There is also loss of nuclear accumulation pSmad due to arsenite exposure. These observations coincide with a decrease in vimentin positive mesenchymal cells invading three-dimensional collagen gels. However, arsenite does not block TGFβ2 mediated smooth muscle cell differentiation by epicardial cells. Overall these results show that arsenic exposure blocks developmental EMT gene programming in murine coronary progenitor cells by disrupting TGFβ2 signals and Smad activation, and that smooth muscle cell differentiation is refractory to this arsenic toxicity. - Highlights: • Arsenic blocks TGFβ2 induced expression of EMT genes. • Arsenic blocks TGFβ2 triggered Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • Arsenic blocks epicardial cell differentiation into cardiac mesenchyme.

  17. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 μm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Behnan Sahin, M.; Cressman, Erik N.K.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 μm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 {mu}m diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: arava001@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Behnan Sahin, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cressman, Erik N.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 {mu}m in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers.

  19. Infusion of megakaryocytic progenitor products generated from cord blood hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells: results of the phase 1 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, a constant shortage in the supply of platelets has become an important medical and society challenge, especially in developing country, and the in vitro production of megakaryocytic progenitor cells (MPs from cord blood could represent an effective platelet substitute. In the present study, our objective was to determine the safety and feasibility of ex vivo generated MPs in patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MPs were produced and characterized from cord blood mononuclear cells under a serum free medium with cytokines. We investigated the feasibility of expansion and infusion of cord blood-derived MPs in 24 patients with advanced hematological malignancies. The primary end point was the safety and tolerability of the infusion of cord blood-derived MPs. No adverse effects were observed in patients who received ex vivo-generated cells at concentrations of up to a median value of 5.45 × 10(6cells/kg of body weight. With one year follow-up, acute and chronic GVHD had not been observed among patients who received MPs infusion, even without ABO blood group and HLA typing matching. CONCLUSIONS: These initial results in patients are very encouraging. They suggest that infusion of cord blood-derived MPs appears safe and feasible for treatment of thrombocytopenia.

  20. Precommitment low-level Neurog3 expression defines a long-lived mitotic endocrine-biased progenitor pool that drives production of endocrine-committed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Hipkens, Susan B.; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W.; Yang, Yu-Ping; Magnuson, Mark A.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The current model for endocrine cell specification in the pancreas invokes high-level production of the transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) in Sox9+ bipotent epithelial cells as the trigger for endocrine commitment, cell cycle exit, and rapid delamination toward proto-islet clusters. This model posits a transient Neurog3 expression state and short epithelial residence period. We show, however, that a Neurog3TA.LO cell population, defined as Neurog3 transcriptionally active and Sox9+ and often containing nonimmunodetectable Neurog3 protein, has a relatively high mitotic index and prolonged epithelial residency. We propose that this endocrine-biased mitotic progenitor state is functionally separated from a pro-ductal pool and endows them with long-term capacity to make endocrine fate-directed progeny. A novel BAC transgenic Neurog3 reporter detected two types of mitotic behavior in Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, associated with progenitor pool maintenance or derivation of endocrine-committed Neurog3HI cells, respectively. Moreover, limiting Neurog3 expression dramatically increased the proportional representation of Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, with a doubling of its mitotic index relative to normal Neurog3 expression, suggesting that low Neurog3 expression is a defining feature of this cycling endocrine-biased state. We propose that Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO endocrine-biased progenitors feed production of Neurog3HI endocrine-committed cells during pancreas organogenesis. PMID:27585590

  1. Hedgehog Signaling Promotes the Proliferation and Subsequent Hair Cell Formation of Progenitor Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Lu, Xiaoling; Guo, Luo; Ni, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Zhao, Liping; Wu, Lingjie; Sun, Shan; Zhang, Shasha; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    Hair cell (HC) loss is the major cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Unlike lower vertebrates, mammalian cochlear HCs cannot regenerate spontaneously after damage, although the vestibular system does maintain limited HC regeneration capacity. Thus HC regeneration from the damaged sensory epithelium has been one of the main areas of research in the field of hearing restoration. Hedgehog signaling plays important roles during the embryonic development of the inner ear, and it is involved in progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the cell fate decision. In this study, we show that recombinant Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein effectively promotes sphere formation, proliferation, and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells isolated from the neonatal mouse cochlea. To further explore this, we determined the effect of Hedgehog signaling on cell proliferation and HC regeneration in cultured cochlear explant from transgenic R26-SmoM2 mice that constitutively activate Hedgehog signaling in the supporting cells of the cochlea. Without neomycin treatment, up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling did not significantly promote cell proliferation or new HC formation. However, after injury to the sensory epithelium by neomycin treatment, the over-activation of Hedgehog signaling led to significant supporting cell proliferation and HC regeneration in the cochlear epithelium explants. RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to compare the transcripts of the cochleae from control mice and R26-SmoM2 mice, and multiple genes involved in the proliferation and differentiation processes were identified. This study has important implications for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by manipulating the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:29311816

  2. Hedgehog Signaling Promotes the Proliferation and Subsequent Hair Cell Formation of Progenitor Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair cell (HC loss is the major cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Unlike lower vertebrates, mammalian cochlear HCs cannot regenerate spontaneously after damage, although the vestibular system does maintain limited HC regeneration capacity. Thus HC regeneration from the damaged sensory epithelium has been one of the main areas of research in the field of hearing restoration. Hedgehog signaling plays important roles during the embryonic development of the inner ear, and it is involved in progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the cell fate decision. In this study, we show that recombinant Sonic Hedgehog (Shh protein effectively promotes sphere formation, proliferation, and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells isolated from the neonatal mouse cochlea. To further explore this, we determined the effect of Hedgehog signaling on cell proliferation and HC regeneration in cultured cochlear explant from transgenic R26-SmoM2 mice that constitutively activate Hedgehog signaling in the supporting cells of the cochlea. Without neomycin treatment, up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling did not significantly promote cell proliferation or new HC formation. However, after injury to the sensory epithelium by neomycin treatment, the over-activation of Hedgehog signaling led to significant supporting cell proliferation and HC regeneration in the cochlear epithelium explants. RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to compare the transcripts of the cochleae from control mice and R26-SmoM2 mice, and multiple genes involved in the proliferation and differentiation processes were identified. This study has important implications for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by manipulating the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  3. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 No description Neural Neural progenito...SRX346675,SRX346817 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. The Use of Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal and Neural Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Naosuke; Atesok, Kivanc; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regenera...

  5. Definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells manifest distinct differentiation output in the zebrafish VDA and PBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Sood, Raman; Xu, Jin; Zhen, Fenghua; English, Milton A; Liu, P Paul; Wen, Zilong

    2009-02-01

    One unique feature of vertebrate definitive hematopoiesis is the ontogenic switching of hematopoietic stem cells from one anatomical compartment or niche to another. In mice, hematopoietic stem cells are believed to originate in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), subsequently migrate to the fetal liver (FL) and finally colonize the bone marrow (BM). Yet, the differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem cells within early niches such as the AGM and FL remains incompletely defined. Here, we present in vivo analysis to delineate the differentiation potential of definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish AGM and FL analogies, namely the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) and the posterior blood island (PBI), respectively. Cell fate mapping and analysis of zebrafish runx1(w84x) and vlad tepes (vlt(m651)) mutants revealed that HSPCs in the PBI gave rise to both erythroid and myeloid lineages. However, we surprisingly found that HSPCs in the VDA were not quiescent but were uniquely adapted to generate myeloid but not erythroid lineage cells. We further showed that such distinct differentiation output of HSPCs was, at least in part, ascribed to the different micro-environments present in these two niches. Our results highlight the importance of niche in shaping the differentiation output of developing HSPCs.

  6. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  7. MRI of the transplanted endothelial progenitor cells for prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhanlong; Teng Gaojun; Mai Xiaoli; Chen Jun; Sun Junhui; Zhang Hongying; Yu Hui; Li Guozhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system to depict and track in vivo of magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and to study the possibility for preventing the atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of carotid arterial injury after transplantation. Methods: New Zealand rabbit EPCs were isolated, confirmed, expanded and then incubated with home synthesized Fe 2 O 3 -PLL, Prussian blue stain was performed for showing intracellular irons. The model of carotid arterial injury was performed by 2.5F balloons, the group A of 8 rabbits received magnetically labeled EPCs, group B of 3 rabbits received fluorescent-labeled EPCs and the group C of 5 rabbits were given same volume saline injection after endothelial injury of the carotid artery. MR imaging and histology were performed and compared 4 days later for randomly chosen three rabbit, each from one of the three group; all the other rabbits were fed with high lipid diet and examed using MR imaging and histology after 15 weeks. Results: Epcs labeling efficiency was more than 95% by Prussian blue stain, 4 days after transplantation of EPCs, only in group A, the injured endothelium of carotid artery had signal intensity loss in T 2 * WI, which were correlated well with the area where the most Prussian blue staining positive cells were found in histopathology analyses. The rabbits of group A and B which received EPCs transplantation exhibited fewer plaques formation than those of the group C (P 2 O 3 -PLL. The 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system could depict and monitor the magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells homing to the injured endothelium of the artery, and EPCs contribute to preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of atherosclerosis. (authors)

  8. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway restores cardiac progenitor cell availability in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio P; Avolio, Elisa; Muthukrishnan, Deepti; Munasinghe, Pujika Emani; Angelini, Gianni; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes impinges upon mechanisms of cardiovascular repair. However, the biochemical adaptation of cardiac stem cells to sustained hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular targets of high glucose-induced damage in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from murine and human hearts and attempt safeguarding CPC viability and function through reactivation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Type-1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. CPC abundance was determined by flow cytometry. Proliferating CPCs were identified in situ by immunostaining for the proliferation marker Ki67. Diabetic hearts showed marked reduction in CPC abundance and proliferation when compared with controls. Moreover, Sca-1(pos) CPCs isolated from hearts of diabetic mice displayed reduced activity of key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and transketolase, increased levels of superoxide and advanced glucose end-products (AGE), and inhibition of the Akt/Pim-1/Bcl-2 signalling pathway. Similarly, culture of murine CPCs or human CD105(pos) progenitor cells in high glucose inhibits the pentose phosphate and pro-survival signalling pathways, leading to the activation of apoptosis. In vivo and in vitro supplementation with benfotiamine reactivates the pentose phosphate pathway and rescues CPC availability and function. This benefit is abrogated by either G6PD silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or Akt inhibition by dominant-negative Akt. We provide new evidence of the negative impact of diabetes and high glucose on mechanisms controlling CPC redox state and survival. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway might represent a novel mechanistic target for protection of CPC integrity.

  9. Improved sphincter contractility after allogenic muscle-derived progenitor cell injection into the denervated rat urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Tracy W; Lee, Ji Youl; Somogyi, George; Pruchnic, Ryan; Smith, Christopher P; Huard, Johnny; Chancellor, Michael B

    2003-11-01

    To study the physiologic outcome of allogenic transplant of muscle-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) in the denervated female rat urethra. MDPCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of normal 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats and purified using the preplate technique. Sciatic nerve-transected rats were used as a model of stress urinary incontinence. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups: control, denervated plus 20 microL saline injection, and denervated plus allogenic MDPCs (1 to 1.5 x 10(6) cells) injection. Two weeks after injection, urethral muscle strips were prepared and underwent electrical field stimulation. The pharmacologic effects of d-tubocurare, phentolamine, and tetrodotoxin on the urethral strips were assessed by contractions induced by electrical field stimulation. The urethral tissues also underwent immunohistochemical staining for fast myosin heavy chain and CD4-activated lymphocytes. Urethral denervation resulted in a significant decrease of the maximal fast-twitch muscle contraction amplitude to only 8.77% of the normal urethra and partial impairment of smooth muscle contractility. Injection of MDPCs into the denervated sphincter significantly improved the fast-twitch muscle contraction amplitude to 87.02% of normal animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed a large amount of new skeletal muscle fiber formation at the injection site of the urethra with minimal inflammation. CD4 staining showed minimal lymphocyte infiltration around the MDPC injection sites. Urethral denervation resulted in near-total abolishment of the skeletal muscle and partial impairment of smooth muscle contractility. Allogenic MDPCs survived 2 weeks in sciatic nerve-transected urethra with minimal inflammation. This is the first report of the restoration of deficient urethral sphincter function through muscle-derived progenitor cell tissue engineering. MDPC-mediated cellular urethral myoplasty warrants additional investigation as a new method to treat stress urinary

  10. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

  11. An autocrine γ-aminobutyric acid signaling system exists in pancreatic β-cell progenitors of fetal and postnatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mary M; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Wang, Shuanglian; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced and secreted by adult pancreatic β-cells, which also express GABA receptors mediating autocrine signaling and regulating β-cell proliferation. However, whether the autocrine GABA signaling involves in β-cell progenitor development or maturation remains uncertain. By means of immunohistochemistry we analyzed the expression profiles of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the α1-subunit of type-A GABA receptor (GABAARα1) in the pancreas of mice at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), E18.5, postnatal day 1 (P1) and P7. Our data showed that at E15.5 the pancreatic and duodenum homeobox-1 (Pdx1) was expressed in the majority of cells in the developing pancreata. Notably, insulin immunoreactivity was identified in a subpopulation of pancreatic cells with a high level of Pdx1 expression. About 80% of the high-level Pdx-1 expressing cells in the pancreas expressed GAD and GABAARα1 at all pancreatic developmental stages. In contrast, only about 30% of the high-level Pdx-1 expressing cells in the E15.5 pancreas expressed insulin; i.e., a large number of GAD/GABAARα1-expressing cells did not express insulin at this early developmental stage. The expression level of GAD and GABAARα1 increased steadily, and progressively more GAD/GABAARα1-expressing cells expressed insulin in the course of pancreatic development. These results suggest that 1) GABA signaling proteins appear in β-cell progenitors prior to insulin expression; and 2) the increased expression of GABA signaling proteins may be involved in β-cell progenitor maturation.

  12. What is the functional background of filigree extracellular matrix and cell-cell connections at the interface of the renal stem/progenitor cell niche?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will W. Minuth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of a nephron is induced by a reciprocal exchange of morphogenetic proteins between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. For sustaining concentration of diffusing proteins high, it is believed that an intimate contact exists between involved cells. However, actual morphological data show that both types of stem/progenitor cell bodies are separated by an interface. To analyze details of this arrangement, neonatal rabbit kidneys were fixed in traditional glutaraldehyde (GA solution for transmission electron microscopy. For an enhanced contrast fixation of samples was performed in GA solution including either cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To record always the same perspective, embedded blocks of parenchyma were cut in orientated vertical and transverse planes to the lumen of lining collecting duct tubules. Screening of samples fixed by GA solution demonstrates a constant separation of stem/progenitor cell bodies by an unobstrusively looking interface. In contrast, improved fixation of specimens in GA solution including cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils between them earlier not visible filigree extracellular matrix. Further projections of mesenchymal cells covered by this matrix cross the interface to contact epithelial cells. The end of a projection does not dangle but is mounted by a special plug connection. At this site the plasma membranes of mesenchymal and epithelial cells are connected via tunneling nanotubes. Regarding this unique arrangement the principal question is to what extent illustrated extracellular matrix and cell-cell connections are involved in the exchange of morphogenetic proteins during induction of a nephron. Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future

  13. In vitro characterization of a human neural progenitor cell coexpressing SSEA4 and CD133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barraud, Perrine; Stott, Simon; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    The stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4) is commonly used as a cell surface marker to identify the pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Immunohistochemistry on human embryonic central nervous system revealed that SSEA4 is detectable in the early neuroepithelium, and its expression....... Therefore, we propose that SSEA4 associated with CD133 can be used for both the positive selection and the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells from human embryonic forebrain....... decreases as development proceeds. Flow cytometry analysis of forebrain-derived cells demonstrated that the SSEA4-expressing cells are enriched in the neural stem/progenitor cell fraction (CD133(+)), but are rarely codetected with the neural stem cell (NSC) marker CD15. Using a sphere-forming assay, we...

  14. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa; Nagai, Mami; Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Asano, Shigetaka; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1 +/+ MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1 −/− MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1 +/+ and Med1 −/− MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells

  15. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Nagai, Mami [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Roeder, Robert G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Asano, Shigetaka [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Ito, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: itomi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1{sup +/+} MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1{sup +/+} and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

  16. Extracellular histones reduce survival and angiogenic responses of late outgrowth progenitor and mature endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, H A; Carestia, A; Scotti, L; Parborell, F; Schattner, M; Negrotto, S

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Extracellular histones are highly augmented in sites of neovessel formation, such as regeneration tissues. We studied histone effect on survival and angiogenic activity of mature and progenitor endothelial cells. Extracellular histones trigger apoptosis and pyroptosis and reduce angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Histone blockade can be useful as a therapeutic strategy to improve angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. Extracellular histones are highly augmented in sites of neovessel formation, like regeneration tissues. Their cytotoxic effect has been studied in endothelial cells, although the mechanism involved and their action on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) remain unknown. To study the effect of histones on ECFC survival and angiogenic functions and compare it with mature endothelial cells. Nuclear morphology analysis showed that each human recombinant histone triggered both apoptotic-like and necrotic-like cell deaths in both mature and progenitor endothelial cells. While H1 and H2A exerted a weak toxicity, H2B, H3 and H4 were the most powerful. The percentage of apoptosis correlated with the percentage of ECFCs exhibiting caspase-3 activation and was zeroed by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Necrotic-like cell death was also suppressed by this compound and the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK, indicating that histones triggered ECFC pyroptosis. All histones, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, reduced migration and H2B, H3 and H4 induced cell cycle arrest and impaired tubulogenesis via p38 activation. Neutrophil-derived histones exerted similar effects. In vivo blood vessel formation in the quail chorioallantoic membrane was also reduced by H2B, H3 and H4. Their cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effects were suppressed by unfractioned and low-molecular-weight heparins and the combination of TLR2 and TLR4 blocking antibodies. Histones trigger both apoptosis and pyroptosis of ECFCs and inhibit their angiogenic functions. Their cytotoxic and

  17. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  18. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H; Simons, Benjamin D; Livesey, Frederick J

    2016-04-07

    Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month......The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...

  20. Wnt signaling induces differentiation of progenitor cells in organotypic keratinocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bob Y

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interfollicular skin develops normally only when the activity of the progenitor cells in the basal layer is counterbalanced by the exit of cells into the suprabasal layers, where they differentiate and cornify to establish barrier function. Distinct stem and progenitor compartments have been demonstrated in hair follicles and sebaceous glands, but there are few data to describe the control of interfollicular progenitor cell activity. Wnt signaling has been shown to be an important growth-inducer of stem cell compartments in skin and many other tissues. Results Here, we test the effect of ectopic Wnt1 expression on the behavior of interfollicular progenitor cells in an organotypic culture model, and find that Wnt1 signaling inhibits their growth and promotes terminal differentiation. Conclusion These results are consistent with the phenotypes reported for transgenic mice engineered to have gain or loss of function of Wnt signaling in skin, which would recommend our culture model as an accurate one for molecular analysis. Since it is known that canonical ligands are expressed in skin, it is likely that this pathway normally regulates the balance of growth and differentiation, and suggests it could be important to pathogenesis.

  1. Meis1 regulates Foxn4 expression during retinal progenitor cell differentiation

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    Mohammed M. Islam

    2013-09-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box N4 (Foxn4 is a key regulator in a variety of biological processes during development. In particular, Foxn4 plays an essential role in the genesis of horizontal and amacrine neurons from neural progenitors in the vertebrate retina. Although the functions of Foxn4 have been well established, the transcriptional regulation of Foxn4 expression during progenitor cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report that an evolutionarily conserved 129 bp noncoding DNA fragment (Foxn4CR4.2 or CR4.2, located ∼26 kb upstream of Foxn4 transcription start site, functions as a cis-element for Foxn4 regulation. CR4.2 directs gene expression in Foxn4-positive cells, primarily in progenitors, differentiating horizontal and amacrine cells. We further determined that the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2 is modulated by Meis1 binding motif, which is bound and activated by Meis1 transcription factor. Deletion of the Meis1 binding motif or knockdown of Meis1 expression abolishes the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2. In addition, knockdown of Meis1 expression diminishes the endogenous Foxn4 expression and affects cell lineage development. Together, we demonstrate that CR4.2 and its interacting Meis1 transcription factor play important roles in regulating Foxn4 expression during early retinogenesis. These findings provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that govern gene regulation in retinal progenitors and specific cell lineage development.

  2. Knockdown of HSPA9 induces TP53-dependent apoptosis in human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

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    Tuoen Liu

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q compared to non-del(5q MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q-associated MDS.

  3. Successful immortalization of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human placenta and the differentiation abilities of immortalized cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaohong; Soda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji; Bai, Yuansong; Mitsuru, Ayako; Igura, Koichi; Satoh, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tani, Kenzaburo; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Tsuneo A.

    2006-01-01

    We reported previously that mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from chorionic villi of the human placenta could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes under proper induction conditions and that these cells should be useful for allogeneic regenerative medicine, including cartilage tissue engineering. However, similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), though these placental cells can be isolated easily, they are difficult to study in detail because of their limited life span in vitro. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the life span of human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) by modifying hTERT and Bmi-1, and investigated whether these modified hPDMCs retained their differentiation capability and multipotency. Our results indicated that the combination of hTERT and Bmi-1 was highly efficient in prolonging the life span of hPDMCs with differentiation capability to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cells in vitro. Clonal cell lines with directional differentiation ability were established from the immortalized parental hPDMC/hTERT + Bmi-1. Interestingly, hPDMC/Bmi-1 showed extended proliferation after long-term growth arrest and telomerase was activated in the immortal hPDMC/Bmi-1 cells. However, the differentiation potential was lost in these cells. This study reports a method to extend the life span of hPDMCs with hTERT and Bmi-1 that should become a useful tool for the study of mesenchymal stem cells

  4. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche) and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche). However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes. PMID:26761002

  5. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saishu Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche. However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes.

  6. Regulatory Systems in Bone Marrow for Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Mobilization and Homing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell release, migration, and homing from the bone marrow (BM and of the mobilization pathway involves a complex interaction among adhesion molecules, cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, stromal cells, and hematopoietic cells. The identification of new mechanisms that regulate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs cells has important implications, not only for hematopoietic transplantation but also for cell therapies in regenerative medicine for patients with acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and stroke, among others. This paper reviews the regulation mechanisms underlying the homing and mobilization of BM hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, investigating the following issues: (a the role of different factors, such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, among other ligands; (b the stem cell count in peripheral blood and BM and influential factors; (c the therapeutic utilization of this phenomenon in lesions in different tissues, examining the agents involved in HSPCs mobilization, such as the different forms of G-CSF, plerixafor, and natalizumab; and (d the effects of this mobilization on BM-derived stem/progenitor cells in clinical trials of patients with different diseases.

  7. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikanai, Mima; Asahina, Kinji; Iseki, Sachiko; Teramoto, Kenichi; Nishida, Tomohiro; Shimizu-Saito, Keiko; Ota, Masato; Eto, Kazuhiro; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    2009-01-01

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or α-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

  8. Proneurotrophin-3 promotes cell cycle withdrawal of developing cerebellar granule cell progenitors via the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Juan Pablo; Abercrombie, Elizabeth; Friedman, Wilma J

    2016-07-19

    Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury. Here we demonstrate a novel function for p75(NTR) in regulating proper cell cycle exit of neuronal progenitors in the developing rat and mouse EGL, which is stimulated by proNT3. In the absence of p75(NTR), GCPs continue to proliferate beyond their normal period, resulting in a larger cerebellum that persists into adulthood, with consequent motor deficits.

  9. Putative oncogene Brachyury (T) is essential to specify cell fate but dispensable for notochord progenitor proliferation and EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjian; Kwan, Kin Ming; Mackem, Susan

    2016-04-05

    The transcription factor Brachyury (T) gene is expressed throughout primary mesoderm (primitive streak and notochord) during early embryonic development and has been strongly implicated in the genesis of chordoma, a sarcoma of notochord cell origin. Additionally, T expression has been found in and proposed to play a role in promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various other types of human tumors. However, the role of T in normal mammalian notochord development and function is still not well-understood. We have generated an inducible knockdown model to efficiently and selectively deplete T from notochord in mouse embryos. In combination with genetic lineage tracing, we show that T function is essential for maintaining notochord cell fate and function. Progenitors adopt predominantly a neural fate in the absence of T, consistent with an origin from a common chordoneural progenitor. However, T function is dispensable for progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and EMT, which has implications for the therapeutic targeting of T in chordoma and other cancers.

  10. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Christopher S; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-05-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3 + TCR-αβ + single-positive CD8 + or CD4 + cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naive phenotypes, a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen-specific cytotoxicity and near-complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ-encoding loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell differentiation and for the future development of stem-cell-based engineered T cell therapies.

  11. Characterization of CD133+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells as cancer stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nagaki, Masahito; Aoki, Hitomi; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Kunisada, Takahiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2006-01-01

    The CD133 antigen, identified as a hematopoietic stem cell marker, appears in various human embryonic epithelia including the neural tube, gut, and kidney. We herein investigated whether CD133 + cells isolated from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines possess cancer stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Among the three cell lines studied, the CD133 antigen was found to be expressed only on the surface of Huh-7 cells. CD133 + cells from Huh-7 performed a higher in vitro proliferative potential and lower mRNA expressions of mature hepatocyte markers, glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 3A4, than CD133 - population of Huh-7 cells. When either CD133 + or CD133 - cells were subcutaneously injected into SCID mice, CD133 + cells formed tumors, whereas CD133 - cells induced either a very small number of tumors or none at all. Taken together, the identification of CD133 + cells could thus be a potentially powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the hepatoma system and to also develop effective therapies targeted against hepatocellular carcinoma

  12. Effects of topography on the functional development of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Kisaalita, William S; Wang, Lina; Zachman, Angela L; Zhao, Yiping; Hasneen, Kowser; Machacek, Dave; Stice, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated a topographical substrate with a packed polystyrene bead array for the development of cell-based assay systems targeting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Human neural progenitor cells (H945RB.3) cultured on both flat and topographical substrates were analyzed in terms of morphological spreading, neuronal commitment, resting membrane potential (V(m)) establishment and VGCC function development. We found, by SEM imaging, that arrayed substrates, formed with both sub-micrometer (of 0.51 microm in mean diameter) and micrometer (of 1.98 microm in mean diameter) beads, were capable of promoting the spreading of the progenitor cells as compared with the flat polystyrene surfaces. With the micrometer beads, it was found that arrayed substrates facilitated the neural progenitor cells' maintenance of less negative V(m) values upon differentiation with bFGF starvation, which favored predominant neuronal commitment. Almost all the progenitor cells were responsive to 50 mM K(+) depolarization with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) either before or upon differentiation, suggesting the expression of functional VGCCs. Compared to the flat polystyrene surfaces, microbead arrayed substrates facilitated the development of higher VGCC responsiveness by the progenitor cells upon differentiation. The enhancement of both VGCC responsiveness and cell spreading by arrays of micrometer beads was most significant on day 14 into differentiation, which was the latest time point of measurement in this study. This study thus rationalized the possibility for future substrate topography engineering to manipulate ion channel function and to meet the challenge of low VGCC responsiveness found in early drug discovery.

  13. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify...... combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well...

  14. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  15. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, Benjamin N; Flenner, Eva; Flörcken, Anne; Westermann, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  16. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Ostendorf

    Full Text Available Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  17. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Füllgrabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF, sebaceous gland (SG, and interfollicular epidermis (IFE of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments.

  18. Enhancement of myocardial regeneration through genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells expressing Pim-1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Wu, Weitao; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie A; Avitabile, Daniele; Quijada, Pearl; Collins, Brett L; Fransioli, Jenna; Sussman, Mark A

    2009-11-24

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the efficacy of cellular adoptive transfer for therapeutic myocardial regeneration, problems remain for donated cells with regard to survival, persistence, engraftment, and long-term benefits. This study redresses these concerns by enhancing the regenerative potential of adoptively transferred cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) via genetic engineering to overexpress Pim-1, a cardioprotective kinase that enhances cell survival and proliferation. Intramyocardial injections of CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 were given to infarcted female mice. Animals were monitored over 4, 12, and 32 weeks to assess cardiac function and engraftment of Pim-1 CPCs with echocardiography, in vivo hemodynamics, and confocal imagery. CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 showed increased proliferation and expression of markers consistent with cardiogenic lineage commitment after dexamethasone exposure in vitro. Animals that received CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 also produced greater levels of cellular engraftment, persistence, and functional improvement relative to control CPCs up to 32 weeks after delivery. Salutary effects include reduction of infarct size, greater number of c-kit(+) cells, and increased vasculature in the damaged region. Myocardial repair is significantly enhanced by genetic engineering of CPCs with Pim-1 kinase. Ex vivo gene delivery to enhance cellular survival, proliferation, and regeneration may overcome current limitations of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches.

  19. Identification and characterization of adult mouse meniscus stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Shi, Rui Rui; Gendelman, Ashira; Mathewson, Dylan; Gamer, Jackson; Rosen, Vicki

    Meniscal damage is a common problem that accelerates the onset of knee osteoarthritis. Stem cell-based tissue engineering treatment approaches have shown promise in preserving meniscal tissue and restoring meniscal function. The purpose of our study was to identify meniscus-derived stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) from mouse, a model system that allows for in vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying meniscal injury and healing. MSPCs were isolated from murine menisci grown in explant culture and characterized for stem cell properties. Flow cytometry was used to detect the presence of surface antigens related to stem cells, and qRT-PCR was used to examine the gene expression profile of MSPCs. Major proteins associated with MSPCs were localized in the adult mouse knee using immunohistochemistry. Our data show that MSPCs have universal stem cell-like properties including clonogenicity and multi-potentiality. MSPCs expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, Sca-1, CD90, and CD73 and when cultured had elevated levels of biglycan and collagen type I, important extracellular matrix components of adult meniscus. MSPC also expressed significant levels of Lox and Igf-1, genes associated with the embryonic meniscus. Localization studies showed staining for these same proteins in the superficial and outer zones of the adult mouse meniscus, regions thought to harbor endogenous repair cells. MSPCs represent a novel resident stem cell population in the murine meniscus. Analysis of MSPCs in mice will allow for a greater understanding of the cell biology of the meniscus, essential information for enhancing therapeutic strategies for treating knee joint injury and disease.

  20. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G Franco

    Full Text Available Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  1. Opportunities and Challenges for Repair of Macrovascular Disease using Circulating Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Loeken, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    There are currently few solutions for diabetic vascular disease that involve repair of damaged tissues. The manuscript by Porat, et al., suggests a possible method to use a patient’s own circulating blood cells to provide progenitors to repair damaged vascular tissues.

  2. ATP Binding cassette transporter gene expression in rat liver progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.E.; Roskams, T.A.D.; Geuken, M.; Havinga, R.; Splinter, P.L.; Petersen, B.E.; LaRusso, N.F.; Kolk, van der D.M.; Kuipers, F.; Faber, K.N.; Müller, M.R.; Jansen, P.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background and aim: Liver regeneration after severe liver damage depends in part on proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). Under these conditions they must be able to withstand the toxic milieu of the damaged liver. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are

  3. ATP binding cassette transporter gene expression in rat liver progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J. E.; Roskams, T. A. D.; Geuken, M.; Havinga, R.; Splinter, P. L.; Petersen, B. E.; LaRusso, N. F.; van der Kolk, D. M.; Kuipers, F.; Faber, K. N.; Müller, M.; Jansen, P. L. M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver regeneration after severe liver damage depends in part on proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). Under these conditions they must be able to withstand the toxic milieu of the damaged liver. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are

  4. ATP binding cassette transporter gene expression in rat liver progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.E.; Roskams, TAD; Geuken, M; Havinga, R; Splinter, PL; Petersen, BE; LaRusso, NF; van der Kolk, D.M.; Kuipers, F; Faber, KN; Muller, M; Jansen, PLM

    Background and aim: Liver regeneration after severe liver damage depends in part on proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). Under these conditions they must be able to withstand the toxic milieu of the damaged liver. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are

  5. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  6. Expression of cytochrome P450 genes in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, P.; Anzenbacher, P.; Skoumalová, I.; Dvořák, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2005), s. 1417-1422 ISSN 1066-5099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : CD34+ stem/progenitor cells * cytochrome P450 isoforms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.094, year: 2005

  7. Characterization of calcium responses and electrical activity in differentiating mouse neural progenitor cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Dingemans, Milou M L; Rus, Katinka H; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S

    In vitro methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing have the potential to reduce animal use and increase insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying chemical-induced alterations in the development of functional neuronal networks. Mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs)

  8. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Drouven, Johannes W.; Waanders, Femke; Franssen, Casper F. M.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Popa, Eliane R.

    Krenning G, Dankers PY, Drouven JW, Waanders F, Franssen CF, van Luyn MJ, Harmsen MC, Popa ER. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1314-F1322, 2009. First published April 1, 2009; doi:

  9. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn...

  10. Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Jacobsen, J.; Gunnarsson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis......Production of hemizygous and homozygous embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from the transgenic alszheimer göttingen minipis...

  11. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = ±7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 ± 4.18 vs. 4.5 ± 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands

  12. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Activation during the Granulopoietic Response to Systemic Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Wei, Shengcai; Simms, Kevin J; Cumpston, Devan N; Ewing, Thomas J; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Activation and reprogramming of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells play a critical role in the granulopoietic response to bacterial infection. Our current study determined the significance of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the regulation of hematopoietic precursor cell activity during the host defense response to systemic bacterial infection. Bacteremia was induced in male Balb/c mice via intravenous injection (i.v.) of Escherichia coli (5 × 10 7 CFUs/mouse). Control mice received i.v. saline. SHH protein level in bone marrow cell (BMC) lysates was markedly increased at both 24 and 48 h of bacteremia. By contrast, the amount of soluble SHH ligand in marrow elutes was significantly reduced. These contrasting alterations suggested that SHH ligand release from BMCs was reduced and/or binding of soluble SHH ligand to BMCs was enhanced. At both 12 and 24 h of bacteremia, SHH mRNA expression by BMCs was significantly upregulated. This upregulation of SHH mRNA expression was followed by a marked increase in SHH protein expression in BMCs. Activation of the ERK1/2-SP1 pathway was involved in mediating the upregulation of SHH gene expression. The major cell type showing the enhancement of SHH expression in the bone marrow was lineage positive cells. Gli1 positioned downstream of the SHH receptor activation serves as a key component of the hedgehog (HH) pathway. Primitive hematopoietic precursor cells exhibited the highest level of baseline Gli1 expression, suggesting that they were active cells responding to SHH ligand stimulation. Along with the increased expression of SHH in the bone marrow, expression of Gli1 by marrow cells was significantly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels following bacteremia. This enhancement of Gli1 expression was correlated with activation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell proliferation. Mice with Gli1 gene deletion showed attenuation in activation of marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell proliferation and inhibition

  13. Circulating CD34+ progenitor cells and risk of mortality in a population with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riyaz S; Li, Qunna; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Eapen, Danny J; Moss, Lauren D; Janjua, A Umair; Manocha, Pankaj; Kassem, Hatem Al; Veledar, Emir; Samady, Habib; Taylor, W Robert; Zafari, A Maziar; Sperling, Laurence; Vaccarino, Viola; Waller, Edmund K; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-01-16

    Low circulating progenitor cell numbers and activity may reflect impaired intrinsic regenerative/reparative potential, but it remains uncertain whether this translates into a worse prognosis. To investigate whether low numbers of progenitor cells associate with a greater risk of mortality in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Patients undergoing coronary angiography were recruited into 2 cohorts (1, n=502 and 2, n=403) over separate time periods. Progenitor cells were enumerated by flow cytometry as CD45(med+) blood mononuclear cells expressing CD34, with additional quantification of subsets coexpressing CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4. Coefficient of variation for CD34 cells was 2.9% and 4.8%, 21.6% and 6.5% for the respective subsets. Each cohort was followed for a mean of 2.7 and 1.2 years, respectively, for the primary end point of all-cause death. There was an inverse association between CD34(+) and CD34(+)/CD133(+) cell counts and risk of death in cohort 1 (β=-0.92, P=0.043 and β=-1.64, P=0.019, respectively) that was confirmed in cohort 2 (β=-1.25, P=0.020 and β=-1.81, P=0.015, respectively). Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios in the pooled cohort (n=905) were 3.54 (1.67-7.50) and 2.46 (1.18-5.13), respectively. CD34(+)/CD133(+) cell counts improved risk prediction metrics beyond standard risk factors. Reduced circulating progenitor cell counts, identified primarily as CD34(+) mononuclear cells or its subset expressing CD133, are associated with risk of death in individuals with coronary artery disease, suggesting that impaired endogenous regenerative capacity is associated with increased mortality. These findings have implications for biological understanding, risk prediction, and cell selection for cell-based therapies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Temporal Progression of Retinal Progenitor Cell Identity: Implications in Cell Replacement Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Javed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal degenerative diseases, which lead to the death of rod and cone photoreceptor cells, are the leading cause of inherited vision loss worldwide. Induced pluripotent or embryonic stem cells (iPSCs/ESCs have been proposed as a possible source of new photoreceptors to restore vision in these conditions. The proof of concept studies carried out in mouse models of retinal degeneration over the past decade have highlighted several limitations for cell replacement in the retina, such as the low efficiency of cone photoreceptor production from stem cell cultures and the poor integration of grafted cells in the host retina. Current protocols to generate photoreceptors from stem cells are largely based on the use of extracellular factors. Although these factors are essential to induce the retinal progenitor cell (RPC fate from iPSCs/ESCs, developmental studies have shown that RPCs alter fate output as a function of time (i.e., their temporal identity to generate the seven major classes of retinal cell types, rather than spatial position. Surprisingly, current stem cell differentiation protocols largely ignore the intrinsic temporal identity of dividing RPCs, which we argue likely explains the low efficiency of cone production in such cultures. In this article, we briefly review the mechanisms regulating temporal identity in RPCs and discuss how they could be exploited to improve cone photoreceptor production for cell replacement therapies.

  15. Nephron progenitor cell death elicits a limited compensatory response associated with interstitial expansion in the neonatal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Deepthi Muthukrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The final nephron number in an adult kidney is regulated by nephron progenitor cell availability and collecting duct branching in the fetal period. Fetal environmental perturbations that cause reductions in cell numbers in these two compartments result in low nephron endowment. Previous work has shown that maternal dietary factors influence nephron progenitor cell availability, with both caloric restriction and protein deprivation leading to reduced cell numbers through apoptosis. In this study, we evaluate the consequences of inducing nephron progenitor cell death on progenitor niche dynamics and on nephron endowment. Depletion of approximately 40% of nephron progenitor cells by expression of diphtheria toxin A at embryonic day 15 in the mouse results in 10-20% nephron reduction in the neonatal period. Analysis of cell numbers within the progenitor cell pool following induction of apoptosis reveals a compensatory response in which surviving progenitor cells increase their proliferation and replenish the niche. The proliferative response is temporally associated with infiltration of macrophages into the nephrogenic zone. Colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 has a mitogenic effect on nephron progenitor cells, providing a potential explanation for the compensatory proliferation. However, CSF1 also promotes interstitial cell proliferation, and the compensatory response is associated with interstitial expansion in recovering kidneys which can be pharmacologically inhibited by treatment with clodronate liposomes. Our findings suggest that the fetal kidney employs a macrophage-dependent compensatory regenerative mechanism to respond to acute injury caused by death of nephron progenitor cells, but that this regenerative response is associated with neonatal interstitial expansion.

  16. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zahidul; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas; Juliusson, Bengt; Almqvist, Per M.; Ekstroem, Tomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levels were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer

  17. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  18. Differential proliferation rhythm of neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the young adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs are a unique type of glial cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitors while constantly proliferating in the normal condition from rodents to humans. However, the functional roles they play in the adult brain are largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the manner of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus of the young adult mice. Here we report that there are oscillatory dynamics in OPC proliferation that differ from neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ; the former showed S-phase and M-phase peaks in the resting and active periods, respectively, while the latter only exhibited M-phase peak in the active period. There is coincidence between different modes of proliferation and expression of cyclin proteins that are crucial for cell cycle; cyclin D1 is expressed in OPCs, while cyclin D2 is observed in neural stem cells. Similar to neurogenesis, the proliferation of hippocampal OPCs was enhanced by voluntary exercise that leads to an increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus. These data suggest an intriguing control of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus.

  19. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anne K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains enigmatic. Based on its structural features and kinase properties, LRRK2 may interact with other proteins involved in signalling pathways. Here, we show a widespread LRRK2 mRNA and/or protein expression in expanded or differentiated human mesencephalic neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs and in post-mortem substantia nigra PD patients. Using small interfering RNA duplexes targeting LRRK2 in hmNPCs following their differentiation into glia and neurons, we observed a reduced number of dopaminergic neurons due to apoptosis in LRRK2 knockdown samples. LRRK2-deficient hmNPCs exhibited elevated cell cycle- and cell death-related markers. In conclusion, a reduction of LRRK2 expression in hmNPCs severely impaired dopaminergic differentiation and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons most likely via preserving or reactivating the cell cycle.

  20. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Ni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway.

  1. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone

  2. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  3. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Culture of Choroid Plexuses from Neonate Rats Containing Progenitor Cells Capable of Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choroid plexuses, which could secrete a number of neurotrophins, have recently been used in transplantation in central nervous system diseases. Aims: To study the mechanism of nerve regeneration in the central nervous system by grafting choroid plexus tissues. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The choroid plexuses from the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats were cultured in adherent culture, and immunocytochemical methods were used to analyse the progenitor cells on days 2, 6, and 10 after seeding. Results: Expression of both nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in small cell aggregates on day 2 in primary culture. Most of the nestin-positive cells on day 6 were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. No cells expressing nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein were seen on day 10. Conclusion: These experimental results indicate that the choroid plexus contains a specific cell population – progenitor cells. Under in vitro experimental conditions, the progenitor cells differentiated into choroid plexus epithelial cells but did not form neurons or astrocytes.

  5. Endothelial Cells Promote Expansion of Long-Term Engrafting Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Jennifer L; Butler, Jason M; Kunar, Balvir; Poulos, Michael G; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J; Norgaard, Zachary K; Adair, Jennifer E; Rafii, Shahin; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-01

    Successful expansion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) would benefit many HSPC transplantation and gene therapy/editing applications. However, current expansion technologies have been limited by a loss of multipotency and self-renewal properties ex vivo. We hypothesized that an ex vivo vascular niche would provide prohematopoietic signals to expand HSPCs while maintaining multipotency and self-renewal. To test this hypothesis, BM autologous CD34 + cells were expanded in endothelial cell (EC) coculture and transplanted in nonhuman primates. CD34 + C38 - HSPCs cocultured with ECs expanded up to 17-fold, with a significant increase in hematopoietic colony-forming activity compared with cells cultured with cytokines alone (colony-forming unit-granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-monocyte; p < .005). BM CD34 + cells that were transduced with green fluorescent protein lentivirus vector and expanded on ECs engrafted long term with multilineage polyclonal reconstitution. Gene marking was observed in granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes. Whole transcriptome analysis indicated that EC coculture altered the expression profile of 75 genes in the BM CD34 + cells without impeding the long-term engraftment potential. These findings show that an ex vivo vascular niche is an effective platform for expansion of adult BM HSPCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:864-876. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  6. The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may be associated with the occurrence and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

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    Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The onset of chronic subdural hematoma may be associated with direct or indirect minor injuries to the head or a poorly repaired vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells happen to be one of the key factors involved in hemostasis and vascular repair. This study was designed to observe the levels of endothelial progenitor cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other indicators in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma to determine the possible relationship between the endothelial progenitor cells and the occurrence, development, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma. METHOD: We enrolled 30 patients with diagnosed chronic subdural hematoma by computer tomography scanning and operating procedure at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2009 to July 2011. Meanwhile, we collected 30 cases of peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers over the age of 50. Approximately 2 ml of blood was taken from veins of the elbow to test the peripheral blood routine and coagulation function. The content of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The level of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower in preoperational patients with chronic subdural hematomas than in controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the blood routine and coagulation function. However, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were significantly different between the recurrent group and the non-recurrent group. CONCLUSIONS: The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic subdural hematoma patients was significantly lower than the level in healthy controls. Meanwhile, the level of endothelial progenitor cells in recurrent patients was significantly lower than the level in patients without recurrence. Endothelial progenitor cells may be related to the

  7. In vitro expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cell population by xanthosine treatment

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    Choudhary Ratan K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary stem cells are critical for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and therefore are of considerable interest for improving productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine treatment has been demonstrated to promote expansion of putative mammary stem cells in vivo, and hepatic and hair follicle stem cells in vitro. In the latter, xanthosine promoted the symmetrical division of hepatic and hair follicle stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine if treating primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC with xanthosine increases the stem/progenitor cell population by promoting symmetrical division of mammary stem cells. Results In vitro treatment with xanthosine increased the population of MEC during the exponential phase of cell growth, reducing the doubling time from 86 h in control cultures to 60 h in xanthosine-treated cultures. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling index and the proportion of MEC in S-phase both were increased by xanthosine treatment, indicating that increased cell accretion was due to increased cell proliferation. Analysis of daughter-pairs indicated that xanthosine promoted a shift from asymmetric to symmetric cell division. Moreover, the 30 % increase in symmetric cell division was concomitant with an increase in the proportion of MEC that were positive for a putative stem cell marker (FNDC3B and a trend toward increased telomerase activity. These results suggest that xanthosine treatment in vitro can increase cell proliferation, promote symmetric cell division and enhance stem/progenitor cell activity. Conclusions Xanthosine treatment increased the proliferation rate of bovine MEC in vitro. This was likely to be mediated by an increase in the proportion of stem/progenitor cells in the MEC population due to promotion of symmetrical stem cell division by xanthosine.

  8. Connexin 50 Expression in Ependymal Stem Progenitor Cells after Spinal Cord Injury Activation

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    Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels included in the family of Connexins (Cx help to control cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors. Here we explored the role of Connexin 50 (Cx50 in cell fate modulation of adult spinal cord derived neural precursors located in the ependymal canal (epSPC. epSPC from non-injured animals showed high expression levels of Cx50 compared to epSPC from animals with spinal cord injury (SCI (epSPCi. When epSPC or epSPCi were induced to spontaneously differentiate in vitro we found that Cx50 favors glial cell fate, since higher expression levels, endogenous or by over-expression of Cx50, augmented the expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP and impaired the neuronal marker Tuj1. Cx50 was found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte-derived cells. Similar expression patterns were found in primary cultures of mature astrocytes. In addition, opposite expression profile for nuclear Cx50 was observed when epSPC and activated epSPCi were conducted to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, suggesting a different role for this ion channel in spinal cord beyond cell-to-cell communication. In vivo detection of Cx50 by immunohistochemistry showed a defined location in gray matter in non-injured tissues and at the epicenter of the injury after SCI. epSPCi transplantation, which accelerates locomotion regeneration by a neuroprotective effect after acute SCI is associated with a lower signal of Cx50 within the injured area, suggesting a minor or detrimental contribution of this ion channel in spinal cord regeneration by activated epSPCi.

  9. Progenitor cells from the porcine neural retina express photoreceptor markers after transplantation to the subretinal space of allorecipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassen, Henry; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Zahir, Tasneem

    2007-01-01

    Work in rodents has shown that cultured retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) integrate into the degenerating retina, thus suggesting a potential strategy for treatment of similar degenerative conditions in humans. To demonstrate the relevance of the rodent work to large animals, we derived progenitor...

  10. Heterogenic final cell cycle by chicken retinal Lim1 horizontal progenitor cells leads to heteroploid cells with a remaining replicated genome.

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    Shahrzad Shirazi Fard

    Full Text Available Retinal progenitor cells undergo apical mitoses during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration and newly generated post-mitotic neurons migrate to their prospective retinal layer. Whereas this is valid for most types of retinal neurons, chicken horizontal cells are generated by delayed non-apical mitoses from dedicated progenitors. The regulation of such final cell cycle is not well understood and we have studied how Lim1 expressing horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs exit the cell cycle. We have used markers for S- and G2/M-phase in combination with markers for cell cycle regulators Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1 to characterise the final cell cycle of HPCs. The results show that Lim1+ HPCs are heterogenic with regards to when and during what phase they leave the final cell cycle. Not all horizontal cells were generated by a non-apical (basal mitosis; instead, the HPCs exhibited three different behaviours during the final cell cycle. Thirty-five percent of the Lim1+ horizontal cells was estimated to be generated by non-apical mitoses. The other horizontal cells were either generated by an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis or by a cell cycle with an S-phase that was not followed by any mitosis. Such cells remain with replicated DNA and may be regarded as somatic heteroploids. The observed heterogeneity of the final cell cycle was also seen in the expression of Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1. Phosphorylated Rb1-Ser608 was restricted to the Lim1+ cells that entered S-phase while cyclin B1 and cdc25C were exclusively expressed in HPCs having a basal mitosis. Only HPCs that leave the cell cycle after an apical mitosis expressed p27Kip1. We speculate that the cell cycle heterogeneity with formation of heteroploid cells may present a cellular context that contributes to the suggested propensity of these cells to generate cancer when the retinoblastoma gene is mutated.

  11. Isoform-specific potentiation of stem and progenitor cell engraftment by AML1/RUNX1.

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    Shinobu Tsuzuki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo.The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo.These data demonstrate that the "a" isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of leukaemia and also in cord blood

  12. Tissue engineering and the use of stem/progenitor cells for airway epithelium repair

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    GM Roomans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells can be used to repair defects in the airway wall, resulting from e.g., tumors, trauma, tissue reactions following long-time intubations, or diseases that are associated with epithelial damage. Several potential sources of cells for airway epithelium have been identified. These can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of endogenous progenitor cells present in the respiratory tract. This group can be subdivided according to location into (a a ductal cell type in the submucosal glands of the proximal trachea, (b basal cells in the intercartilaginous zones of the lower trachea and bronchi, (c variant Clara cells (Clarav-cells in the bronchioles and (d at the junctions between the bronchioles and the alveolar ducts, and (e alveolar type II cells. This classification of progenitor cell niches is, however, controversial. The second group consists of exogenous stem cells derived from other tissues in the body. This second group can be subdivided into: (a embryonic stem (ES cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, or amniotic fluid stem cells, (b side-population cells from bone marrow or epithelial stem cells present in bone marrow or circulation and (c fat-derived mesenchymal cells. Airway epithelial cells can be co-cultured in a system that includes a basal lamina equivalent, extracellular factors from mesenchymal fibroblasts, and in an air-liquid interface system. Recently, spheroid-based culture systems have been developed. Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema.

  13. Physiology of natural killer cells. In vivo regulation of progenitors by interleukin 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalland, T.

    1987-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells to syngeneic lethally irradiated C57BL/6 mice was used to study the maturation of natural killer (NK) cells from their progenitors. The NK progenitor cell was found to be asialomonoganglioside-negative, (aGM1-) Thy-1-, NK-1-, Ly-1-, Ly-2-, and L3T4-. The NK cells emerging from the bone marrow grafts were aGM1+, NK-1+, Thy-1+/-, Ly-1-, Ly-2-, and L3T4- and to have a target specter similar to that of NK cells isolated from the spleen of normal mice. The regulatory role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) for the maturation of NK cells was examined by exposure of the bone marrow cells to the lymphokines in vitro before bone marrow grafting or by treatment of bone marrow-grafted mice with lymphokines through s.c. implanted miniosmotic pumps. IL-3 antagonized the IL-2-induced maturation of NK cells in vitro and strongly inhibited the generation of NK cells after adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells in vivo. The suppressive effect of IL-3 was evident throughout the treatment period (8 or 16 days) but was apparently reversible because NK activity returned to control levels within 8 days after cessation of treatment. The inhibition of cytotoxic activity was accompanied by a reduced appearance of cells with the NK phenotypic markers aGM1 or NK-1, indicating that not only the cytotoxic activity of NK cells but also their actual formation was inhibited. Concomitantly, a moderate increase in cells expressing the T cell marker L3T4 and an increased proliferative response to the T cell mitogen concanavalin A was observed. A direct estimate of the effect of IL-3 on the frequency of NK cell progenitors was obtained by limiting dilution analysis of bone marrow cells at day 8 after bone marrow transplantation

  14. Age-specific bone tumour incidence rates are governed by stem cell exhaustion influencing the supply and demand of progenitor cells.

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    Richardson, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    Knudson's carcinogenic model, which simulates incidence rates for retinoblastoma, provides compelling evidence for a two-stage mutational process. However, for more complex cancers, existing multistage models are less convincing. To fill this gap, I hypothesize that neoplasms preferentially arise when stem cell exhaustion creates a short supply of progenitor cells at ages of high proliferative demand. To test this hypothesis, published datasets were employed to model the age distribution of osteochondroma, a benign lesion, and osteosarcoma, a malignant one. The supply of chondrogenic stem-like cells in femur growth plates of children and adolescents was evaluated and compared with the progenitor cell demand of longitudinal bone growth. Similarly, the supply of osteoprogenitor cells from birth to old age was compared with the demands of bone formation. Results show that progenitor cell demand-to-supply ratios are a good risk indicator, exhibiting similar trends to the unimodal and bimodal age distributions of osteochondroma and osteosarcoma, respectively. The hypothesis also helps explain Peto's paradox and the finding that taller individuals are more prone to cancers and have shorter lifespans. The hypothesis was tested, in the manner of Knudson, by its ability to convincingly explain and demonstrate, for the first time, a bone tumour's bimodal age-incidence curve. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Species diversity regarding the presence of proximal tubular progenitor cells of the kidney

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    J. Hansson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular source for tubular regeneration following kidney injury is a matter of dispute, with reports suggesting a stem or progenitor cells as the regeneration source while linage tracing studies in mice seemingly favor the classical theory, where regeneration is performed by randomly surviving cells. We, and others have previously described a scattered cell population localized to the tubules of human kidney, which increases in number following injury. Here we have characterized the species distribution of these proximal tubular progenitor cells (PTPCs in kidney tissue from chimpanzee, pig, rat and mouse using a set of human PTPC markers. We detected PTPCs in chimpanzee and pig kidneys, but not in mouse tissue. Also, subjecting mice to the unilateral urethral obstruction model, caused clear signs of tubular injury, but failed to induce the PTPC phenotype in renal tubules.

  16. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  17. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  18. Exosomes from Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate Angiogenesis Via EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Krijn R; Maring, Janita A; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Verhage, Vera; Mol, Emma A; Deddens, Janine C; Metz, Corina H G; Lodder, Kirsten; van Eeuwijk, Esther C M; van Dommelen, Susan M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Smits, Anke M; Goumans, Marie-José; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-10-01

    To date, cellular transplantation therapy has not yet fulfilled its high expectations for cardiac repair. A major limiting factor is lack of long-term engraftment of the transplanted cells. Interestingly, transplanted cells can positively affect their environment via secreted paracrine factors, among which are extracellular vesicles, including exosomes: small bi-lipid-layered vesicles containing proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. An exosome-based therapy will therefore relay a plethora of effects, without some of the limiting factors of cell therapy. Since cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce vessel formation and are frequently investigated for cardiac-related therapies, the pro-angiogenic properties of CMPC and MSC-derived exosome-like vesicles are investigated. Both cell types secrete exosome-like vesicles, which are efficiently taken up by endothelial cells. Endothelial cell migration and vessel formation are stimulated by these exosomes in in vitro models, mediated via ERK/Akt-signaling. Additionally, these exosomes stimulated blood vessel formation into matrigel plugs. Analysis of pro-angiogenic factors revealed high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN). Knockdown of EMMPRIN on CMPCs leads to a diminished pro-angiogenic effect, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CMPC and MSC exosomes have powerful pro-angiogenic effects, and this effect is largely mediated via the presence of EMMPRIN on exosomes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Activation of cardiac progenitor cells through paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Chiaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamahara, Kenichi; Hagino, Ikuo; Mori, Hidezo; Sawa, Yoshiki; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Nagaya, Noritoshi

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation has been proved to be promising strategy to treat the failing heart. The effect of MSC transplantation is thought to be mediated mainly in a paracrine manner. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) reside in the heart. In this study, we investigated whether MSC had paracrine effects on CPC in vitro. CPC were isolated from the neonatal rat heart using an explant method. MSC were isolated from the adult rat bone marrow. MSC-derived conditioned medium promoted proliferation of CPC and inhibited apoptosis of CPC induced by hypoxia and serum starvation. Chemotaxis chamber assay demonstrated that MSC-derived conditioned medium enhanced migration of CPC. Furthermore, MSC-derived conditioned medium upregulated expression of cardiomyocyte-related genes in CPC such as β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In conclusion, MSC-derived conditioned medium had protective effects on CPC and enhanced their migration and differentiation

  20. Fetal progenitor cell transplantation treats methylmalonic aciduria in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Nicole E., E-mail: nicole.buck@mcri.edu.au [Metabolic Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052 (Australia); Pennell, Samuel D.; Wood, Leonie R. [Metabolic Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052 (Australia); Pitt, James J. [Victorian Clinical Genetics Services, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Allen, Katrina J. [Gastro and Food Allergy, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville (Australia); Peters, Heidi L. [Metabolic Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052 (Australia)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fetal cells were transplanted into a methylmalonic acid mouse model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell engraftment was detected in liver, spleen and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical disease correction was measured in blood samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) proved more effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher levels of engraftment may be required for greater disease correction. -- Abstract: Methylmalonic aciduria is a rare disorder caused by an inborn error of organic acid metabolism. Current treatment options are limited and generally focus on disease management. We aimed to investigate the use of fetal progenitor cells to treat this disorder using a mouse model with an intermediate form of methylmalonic aciduria. Fetal liver cells were isolated from healthy fetuses at embryonic day 15-17 and intravenously transplanted into sub-lethally irradiated mice. Liver donor cell engraftment was determined by PCR. Disease correction was monitored by urine and blood methylmalonic acid concentration and weight change. Initial studies indicated that pre-transplantation sub-lethal irradiation followed by transplantation with 5 million cells were suitable. We found that a double dose of 5 million cells (1 week apart) provided a more effective treatment. Donor cell liver engraftment of up to 5% was measured. Disease correction, as defined by a decrease in blood methylmalonic acid concentration, was effected in methylmalonic acid mice transplanted with a double dose of cells and who showed donor cell liver engraftment. Mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentration decreased from 810 {+-} 156 (sham transplanted) to 338 {+-} 157 {mu}mol/L (double dose of 5 million cells) while mean blood C3 carnitine concentration decreased from 20.5 {+-} 4 (sham transplanted) to 5.3 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/L (double dose of 5 million cells). In conclusion, higher levels of engraftment may

  1. A defined, feeder-free, serum-free system to generate in vitro hematopoietic progenitors and differentiated blood cells from hESCs and hiPSCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Salvagiotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human ESC and iPSC are an attractive source of cells of high quantity and purity to be used to elucidate early human development processes, for drug discovery, and in clinical cell therapy applications. To efficiently differentiate pluripotent cells into a pure population of hematopoietic progenitors we have developed a new 2-dimensional, defined and highly efficient protocol that avoids the use of feeder cells, serum or embryoid body formation. Here we showed that a single matrix protein in combination with growth factors and a hypoxic environment is sufficient to generate from pluripotent cells hematopoietic progenitors capable of differentiating further in mature cell types of different lineages of the blood system. We tested the differentiation method using hESCs and 9 iPSC lines generated from different tissues. These data indicate the robustness of the protocol providing a valuable tool for the generation of clinical-grade hematopoietic cells from pluripotent cells.

  2. Endothelial Cells Promote Expansion of Long‐Term Engrafting Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Jennifer L.; Butler, Jason M.; Kunar, Balvir; Poulos, Michael G.; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J.; Norgaard, Zachary K.; Adair, Jennifer E.; Rafii, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Successful expansion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) would benefit many HSPC transplantation and gene therapy/editing applications. However, current expansion technologies have been limited by a loss of multipotency and self‐renewal properties ex vivo. We hypothesized that an ex vivo vascular niche would provide prohematopoietic signals to expand HSPCs while maintaining multipotency and self‐renewal. To test this hypothesis, BM autologous CD34+ cells were expanded in endothelial cell (EC) coculture and transplanted in nonhuman primates. CD34+C38− HSPCs cocultured with ECs expanded up to 17‐fold, with a significant increase in hematopoietic colony‐forming activity compared with cells cultured with cytokines alone (colony‐forming unit‐granulocyte‐erythroid‐macrophage‐monocyte; p < .005). BM CD34+ cells that were transduced with green fluorescent protein lentivirus vector and expanded on ECs engrafted long term with multilineage polyclonal reconstitution. Gene marking was observed in granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes. Whole transcriptome analysis indicated that EC coculture altered the expression profile of 75 genes in the BM CD34+ cells without impeding the long‐term engraftment potential. These findings show that an ex vivo vascular niche is an effective platform for expansion of adult BM HSPCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:864–876 PMID:28297579

  3. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Culture conditions have an impact on the maturation of traceable, transplantable mouse embryonic stem cell-derived otic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Nesrine; Fontbonne, Arnaud; Watabe, Isabelle; Tonetto, Alain; Brezun, Jean Michel; Feron, François; Zine, Azel

    2017-09-01

    The generation of replacement inner ear hair cells (HCs) remains a challenge and stem cell therapy holds the potential for developing therapeutic solutions to hearing and balance disorders. Recent developments have made significant strides in producing mouse otic progenitors using cell culture techniques to initiate HC differentiation. However, no consensus has been reached as to efficiency and therefore current methods remain unsatisfactory. In order to address these issues, we compare the generation of otic and HC progenitors from embryonic stem (ES) cells in two cell culture systems: suspension vs. adherent conditions. In the present study, an ES cell line derived from an Atoh1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse was used to track the generation of otic progenitors, initial HCs and to compare these two differentiation systems. We used a two-step short-term differentiation method involving an induction period of 5 days during which ES cells were cultured in the presence of Wnt/transforming growth factor TGF-β inhibitors and insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 to suppress mesoderm and reinforce presumptive ectoderm and otic lineages. The generated embryoid bodies were then differentiated in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for an additional 5 days using either suspension or adherent culture methods. Upon completion of differentiation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunostaining monitored the expression of otic/HC progenitor lineage markers. The results indicate that cells differentiated in suspension cultures produced cells expressing otic progenitor/HC markers at a higher efficiency compared with the production of these cell types within adherent cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a fraction of these cells can incorporate into ototoxin-injured mouse postnatal cochlea explants and express MYO7A after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Distinct roles of neuroepithelial-like and radial glia-like progenitor cells in cerebellar regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslin, Jan; Kroehne, Volker; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael

    2017-04-15

    Zebrafish can regenerate after brain injury, and the regenerative process is driven by resident stem cells. Stem cells are heterogeneous in the vertebrate brain, but the significance of having heterogeneous stem cells in regeneration is not understood. Limited availability of specific stem cells might impair the regeneration of particular cell lineages. We studied regeneration of the adult zebrafish cerebellum, which contains two major stem and progenitor cell types: ventricular zone and neuroepithelial cells. Using conditional lineage tracing we demonstrate that cerebellar regeneration depends on the availability of specific stem cells. Radial glia-like cells are thought to be the predominant stem cell type in homeostasis and after injury. However, we find that radial glia-like cells play a minor role in adult cerebellar neurogenesis and in recovery after injury. Instead, we find that neuroepithelial cells are the predominant stem cell type supporting cerebellar regeneration after injury. Zebrafish are able to regenerate many, but not all, cell types in the cerebellum, which emphasizes the need to understand the contribution of different adult neural stem and progenitor cell subtypes in the vertebrate central nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  7. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

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    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  8. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Renata Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes that show levels of glutamate uptake and calcium activation comparable with those observed in human primary astrocytes. Stimulation of stem cell-derived astrocytes with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor α elicits a strong and rapid pro-inflammatory response. RNA-sequencing transcriptome profiling confirmed that similar gene expression changes occurred in iPSC-derived and primary astrocytes upon stimulation with interleukin-1β. This protocol represents an important tool for modeling in-a-dish neurological diseases with an inflammatory component, allowing for the investigation of the role of diseased astrocytes in neuronal degeneration.

  9. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Santos, Renata; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Mei, Arianna; Lefcochilos-Fogelquist, Sabrina; Mendes, Ana P D; Erikson, Galina; Shokhirev, Maxim; Randolph-Moore, Lynne; Fredlender, Callie; Dave, Sonia; Oefner, Ruth; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Pena, Monique; Barron, Jerika J; Ku, Manching; Denli, Ahmet M; Kerman, Bilal E; Charnay, Patrick; Kelsoe, John R; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2017-06-06

    Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes