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  1. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  2. Decreased Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and increased Natural Killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood as possible early markers of preeclampsia: a case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Giordano, Domenico; Loddo, Saverio; Zoccali, Giuseppe; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Santamaria, Angelo; Buemi, Michele; D'Anna, Rosario

    2017-04-01

    Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and Natural Killer (NK) cells were recently advocates in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE), since they can be mobilized into the bloodstream and may orchestrate vascular endothelium function. The aim of our study was to evaluate in early pregnancy circulating EPCs and NK cells in peripheral blood in women who later developed PE compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. We prospectively enrolled pregnant women at 9+0-11+6 weeks of gestation at the time of first-trimester integrated screening for trisomy 21, who underwent peripheral venous blood (20 mL) sample. We included only women who later developed PE (cases) and women with uncomplicated pregnancy (controls), matched for maternal age, parity, and Body Mass Index. In these groups, we evaluated the levels of CD16+CD45+CD56+ NK cells and CD34+CD133+VEGF-R2+ EPCs in peripheral blood samples previously stored. EPCs were significantly lower (p < 0.001), whereas NK cells were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in PE group compared to uncomplicated pregnancies during the first trimester. The evaluation of EPCs and NK cells in peripheral blood during the first trimester may be considered an effective screening for the early identification of women at risk of developing PE.

  3. The biocompatibility of titanium cardiovascular devices seeded with autologous blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells: EPC-seeded antithrombotic Ti implants.

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    Achneck, Hardean E; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Jantzen, Alexandra E; Haseltine, Justin M; Lane, Whitney O; Huang, Jessica K; Galinat, Lauren J; Serpe, Michael J; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Li, Madison; Parikh, Amar; Ma, Liqiao; Chen, Tao; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Milano, Carmelo A; Wallace, Charles S; Stabler, Thomas V; Allen, Jason D; Truskey, George A; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    Implantable and extracorporeal cardiovascular devices are commonly made from titanium (Ti) (e.g. Ti-coated Nitinol stents and mechanical circulatory assist devices). Endothelializing the blood-contacting Ti surfaces of these devices would provide them with an antithrombogenic coating that mimics the native lining of blood vessels and the heart. We evaluated the viability and adherence of peripheral blood-derived porcine endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), seeded onto thin Ti layers on glass slides under static conditions and after exposure to fluid shear stresses. EPCs attached and grew to confluence on Ti in serum-free medium, without preadsorption of proteins. After attachment to Ti for 15 min, less than 5% of the cells detached at a shear stress of 100 dyne / cm(2). Confluent monolayers of EPCs on smooth Ti surfaces (Rq of 10 nm), exposed to 15 or 100 dyne/cm(2) for 48 h, aligned and elongated in the direction of flow and produced nitric oxide dependent on the level of shear stress. EPC-coated Ti surfaces had dramatically reduced platelet adhesion when compared to uncoated Ti surfaces. These results indicate that peripheral blood-derived EPCs adhere and function normally on Ti surfaces. Therefore EPCs may be used to seed cardiovascular devices prior to implantation to ameliorate platelet activation and thrombus formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, O.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have altered levels and function of (bone marrow-derived) vascular progenitor cells (endothelial progenitor cells-EPC, smooth muscle progenitor cells-SPC) which may contribute to their accelerated atherosclerosis. The results from clinical and experimental studies in this

  5. Functional endothelial progenitor cells from cryopreserved umbilical cord blood

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    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Dreyzin, Alexandra; Aamodt, Kristie; Dudley, Andrew C.; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is recognized as an enriched source of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with potential therapeutic value. Because cryopreservation is the only reliable method for long-term storage of UCB cells, the clinical application of EPCs depends on our ability to acquire them from cryopreserved samples; however, the feasibility of doing so remains unclear. In this study we demonstrate that EPCs can be isolated from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs). The number of outgrowth EPC colonies that emerged in culture from cryopreserved samples was similar to that obtained from fresh UCB. Furthermore, EPCs obtained from cryopreserved MNCs were phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from freshly isolated ones, including the ability to form blood vessels in vivo. Our results eliminate the necessity of performing cell isolation procedures ahead of future clinical needs and suggest that EPCs derived from cryopreserved UCB may be suitable for EPC-related therapies. PMID:20887663

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    King, Thomas F J

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.

  7. Dysfunctional Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and confers an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key early event in atherosclerosis is endothelial dysfunction. Numerous groups have reported endothelial dysfunction in MetS. However, the measurement of endothelial function is far from optimum. There has been much interest recently in a subtype of progenitor cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), that can circulate, proliferate, and dfferentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs can be characterized by the assessment of surface markers, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, VEGFR-2 (KDR). The CD34+KDR+ phenotype has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. MetS patients without diabetes or cardiovascular diseases have decreased EPC number and functionality as evidenced by decreased numbers of colony forming units, decreased adhesion and migration, and decreased tubule formation. Strategies that have been shown to upregulate and enhance EPC number and functionality include statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and peroxisome-proliferator-activating-receptor gamma agonists. Mechanisms by which they affect EPC number and functionality need to be studied. Thus, EPC number and/or functionality could emerge as novel cellular biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk in MetS. PMID:21941528

  8. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development

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    M.T. Abd El Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1. EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  9. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

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    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  10. Endothelial progenitor cell biology in ankylosing spondylitis.

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    Verma, Inderjeet; Syngle, Ashit; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to healthy controls (CD34(+) /CD133(+) : 0.027 ± 0.010% vs. 0.044 ± 0.011%, P < 0.001). EPC depletions were significantly associated with disease duration (r = -0.52, P = 0.01), BASDAI (r = -0.45, P = 0.04) and C-reactive protein (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cell depletion in AS patients. EPC depletions inversely correlate with disease duration, disease activity and inflammation, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Cross talk with hematopoietic cells regulates the endothelial progenitor cell differentiation of CD34 positive cells.

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    Kwon, Sang-Mo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Jung, Seok-Yun; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kang, Song-Hwa; Yoo, So-Young; Hong, Jong-Kyu; Park, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Sun-Jin; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Asahara, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular regeneration, the specific interactions between EPCs and hematopoietic cells remain unclear. In EPC colony forming assays, we first demonstrated that the formation of EPC colonies was drastically increased in the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells, and determined the optimal concentrations of CD34+ cells and CD34- cells for spindle-shaped EPC differentiation. Functionally, the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells resulted in a significant enhancement of adhesion, tube formation, and migration capacity compared with culture of CD34+ cells alone. Furthermore, blood flow recovery and capillary formation were remarkably increased by the coculture of CD34+ and CD34- cells in a murine hind-limb ischemia model. To elucidate further the role of hematopoietic cells in EPC differentiation, we isolated different populations of hematopoietic cells. T lymphocytes (CD3+) markedly accelerated the early EPC status of CD34+ cells, while macrophages (CD11b+) or megakaryocytes (CD41+) specifically promoted large EPC colonies. Our results suggest that specific populations of hematopoietic cells play a role in the EPC differentiation of CD34+ cells, a finding that may aid in the development of a novel cell therapy strategy to overcome the quantitative and qualitative limitations of EPC therapy.

  12. [Effect of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 on Adherence Between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells].

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    Guo, Jun; Xia, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Hou, Ji-Xue; Chen, Xue-Ling; Wu, Xiang-Wei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) on the adherence between mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). MSC and EPC were isolated, cultured and expanded from the 6-8 weeks aged C57BL/6 murine bone marrow by in vitro. Immuno-fluorescence was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 in MSC group, EPC group and co-cultured MSC and EPC group. The mRNA and protein levels of ICAM-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively, then, the ICAM-1 adherence between MSC and EPC was observed by adding different concentration of neutralizing antibody. The expression of ICAM-1 on surface of MSC and EPC could be detected by cell immunofluorescence method. According to results of the semiquantitative fluorescene detection, the fluorescence strength of MSC+EPC co-cultured group (89.02 ± 24.52) was higher than that of MSC group (31.25 ± 2.95) and EPC group (34.32 ± 5.02), and there was statistical difference between them (P 0.05). RT-PCR detection showed that the expression levels of ICAM-1 in MSC+EPC co-cultured group were higher than that in MSC group and that in EPC group (P adhesion capability of MSC and EPC was gradually decreasing. The ICAM-1 can mediate the adherence process between MSC and EPC.

  13. Focus on biological identity of endothelial progenitors cells.

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    Zaccone, V; Flore, R; Santoro, L; De Matteis, G; Giupponi, B; Li Puma, D D; Santoliquido, A

    2015-11-01

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) were discovered by Asahara et al in 1997 and defined as bone marrow CD34+/KDR+ cells endowed with angiogenic potentialities in vitro and in vivo. The most likely assumption is that EPCs consist of several cell subpopulations with functions targeted at accomplishing the post-natal neovascularization process in a synergic and complementary fashion. Indeed, the subsequent identification of numerous and differentiated hematic populations, characterized by the capacity to develop an endothelial phenotype, has posed a number of questions as to the real identity of EPCs. This concept does not represent a sterile speculation but rather it suggests important implications for the future practice of stem cell therapy. The aim of this report was to explore through a critical analysis the two main experimental methodologies, in vitro culture and flow cytometry, applied to EPCs, followed by a brief revaluation of the endothelial progenitors employing a globally functional approach.

  14. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle modifications.

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    Di Stefano, Rossella; Felice, Francesca; Feriani, Roberto; Balbarini, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute substantially to preservation of a structurally and functionally intact endothelium. EPCs home in to the sites of endothelial injury and ischemia, where they proliferate, differentiate and integrate into the endothelial layer or exert a paracrine function by producing vascular growth factors. This review will focus on successful lifestyle interventions that aim to maintain vascular health through beneficial actions on cell populations with vasculogenic potential. The results of the studies proving the role of healthy lifestyle are particularly emphasized.

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

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    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  16. Antiviral activity produced by an IPNV-carrier EPC cell culture confers resistance to VHSV infection.

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    Jurado, María Teresa; García-Valtanen, Pablo; Estepa, Amparo; Perez, Luis

    2013-10-25

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a fish birnavirus, can establish a persistent infection on epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells producing a carrier state where a small fraction of IPNV-infected cells is maintained in the culture after continuous subculture. The EPC(IPNV) cells are resistant to challenge with IPNV as well as to challenge with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus. In this work, the antiviral effect of the IPNV carrier culture conditioned medium (EPC(IPNV)-CM) was tested and analyzed in detail. EPC cells treated with the carrier culture supernatant become protected against VHSV challenge. Size-fractionation by filtration and acid and heat treatment showed that the IPNV persistently infected cells release an acid-resistant soluble factor in the molecular weight fraction bellow 50 kDa. The capacity of the EPC(IPNV)-CM to induce cytokine genes in EPC cells was also determined by real-time RT-PCR. We found that there is a positive correlation between up-regulation of mx gene expression in EPC cells treated with EPC(IPNV)-CM and protection against VHSV challenge. Our findings indicate that the control of IPNV multiplication in the carrier culture as well as the interference with rhabdovirus replication are connected to the production and release of an antiviral (interferon-like) factor to the medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells derived from the peripheral blood of halfpipe- snowboarding athletes display specific functional properties.

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    Zhao, Y H; Kan, J C; Wang, Y F; Guan, W J; Zhu, Z Q

    2016-12-19

    In this study, we compared the functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from halfpipe-snowboarding athletes who train under hyperoxic conditions with those derived from normal subjects who lived under normoxic conditions. Peripheral blood-derived EPCs were isolated from both halfpipe-snowboarding athletes and normal humans. Cellular growth dynamics, lipoprotein transport, and gene expression of cultured EPCs were compared between the two groups of cells. Results indicate that cytoactivity of EPCs from athletes was higher than that of EPCs from control subjects. This study suggests that function of EPCs from snowboarding athletes may be better than that of EPCs from normal humans, which demonstrates the benefits of training under hyperoxic conditions.

  18. Multifactorial treatment increases endothelial progenitor cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, H; Jacobsen, P Karl; Lajer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) augment vascular repair and neovascularisation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced EPC and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is reduced by multifactorial intervention. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate in type 2 diabetic patients...

  19. A comparison of the tube forming potentials of early and late endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Mukai, Nana; Akahori, Taichi; Komaki, Motohiro; Li, Qin; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Abe, Mayumi; Amagasa, Teruo; Morita, Ikuo

    2008-02-01

    The identification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has revolutionized approaches to cell-based therapy for injured and ischemic tissues. However, the mechanisms by which EPCs promote the formation of new vessels remain unclear. In this study, we obtained early EPCs from human peripheral blood and late EPCs from umbilical cord blood. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also used. Cells were evaluated for their tube-forming potential using our novel in vitro assay system. Cells were seeded linearly along a 60 mum wide path generated by photolithographic methods. After cells had established a linear pattern on the substrate, they were transferred onto Matrigel. Late EPCs formed tubular structures similar to those of HUVECs, whereas early EPCs randomly migrated and failed to form tubular structures. Moreover, late EPCs participate in tubule formation with HUVECs. Interestingly, late EPCs in Matrigel migrated toward pre-existing tubular structures constructed by HUVECs, after which they were incorporated into the tubules. In contrast, early EPCs promote sprouting of HUVECs from tubular structures. The phenomena were also observed in the in vivo model. These observations suggest that early EPCs cause the disorganization of pre-existing vessels, whereas late EPCs constitute and orchestrate vascular tube formation.

  20. Overexpression of Angiopoietin-1 Potentiates Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Treatment of Aneurysm.

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    Lu, Ziming; Wang, Qiujing; Chen, Chengwei; Gao, Yuyuan; He, Jian; Liu, Wenchao; Li, Zhenjun; Zhao, Zhenghui

    2017-11-29

    To investigate whether angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) could regulate the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) survival and the effect of accelerating intra-aneurysmal organization and occlusion of the aneurysm neck. EPCs were isolated from Wistar rats. EPCs were cultured and transfected with lentivirus-Ang-1-endothelial progenitor cells (Ang-1-EPCs) and lentivirus-NC-endothelial progenitor cells (NC-EPCs). The effects of Ang-1 on viability and functioning of EPCs were explored via tube formation, migration, and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Eighteen bare coils were inserted into the ligated external carotid artery (ECA) sacs of rats. The ECA sacs were removed 2 weeks after the coils were implanted and examined by histology assay. Ang-1 significantly promoted EPCs tube formation, migration, and proliferation ability in vitro. Histology analyses revealed that the organized areas in the ECA sacs in the Ang-1-EPCs group are higher than NC-EPCs group and control group at 2 weeks. Immunofluorescence revealed that organized tissues were characterized by an accumulation of cells positive for α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in aneurysm sacs. Overexpression of Ang-1 enhanced the tube formation, migration, and proliferation ability of EPCs. Ang-1 gene-modified EPCs accelerated organization within the aneurysms and occlusion of aneurysm neck. Transplantation of Ang-1-transfected EPCs may be a new method for the treatment of aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

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    Wang Q

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Wang,1,* Qi Wu,2,* Jing Feng,3,4 Xin Sun5 1The Second Respiratory Department of the First People's Hospital of Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 3Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Department of Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods: We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion: Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has

  2. The Use of Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal and Neural Tissues

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    Naosuke Kamei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal and neural tissues including the bone, skeletal muscle, ligaments, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. EPCs can be mobilized from bone marrow and recruited to injured tissue to contribute to neovascularization and tissue repair. In addition, EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs promote neovascularization and tissue repair through their differentiation to endothelial cells or tissue-specific cells, the upregulation of growth factors, and the induction and activation of endogenous stem cells. Human peripheral blood CD34(+ cells containing EPCs have been used in clinical trials of bone repair. Thus, EPCs are a promising cell source for the treatment of musculoskeletal and neural tissue injury.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells display clonal restriction in multiple myeloma

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    Dai Kezhi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In multiple myeloma (MM, increased neoangiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and disease progression. Increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neoangiogenesis in MM, and, importantly, covary with disease activity and response to treatment. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for increased EPC levels and neoangiogenic function in MM, we investigated whether these cells were clonal by determining X-chromosome inactivation (XCI patterns in female patients by a human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA. In addition, EPCs and bone marrow cells were studied for the presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH gene rearrangement, which indicates clonality in B cells; thus, its presence in EPCs would indicate a close genetic link between tumor cells in MM and endothelial cells that provide tumor neovascularization. Methods A total of twenty-three consecutive patients who had not received chemotherapy were studied. Screening in 18 patients found that 11 displayed allelic AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and these patients were further studied for XCI patterns in EPCs and hair root cells by HUMARA. In 2 patients whose EPCs were clonal by HUMARA, and in an additional 5 new patients, EPCs were studied for IGH gene rearrangement using PCR with family-specific primers for IGH variable genes (VH. Results In 11 patients, analysis of EPCs by HUMARA revealed significant skewing (≥ 77% expression of a single allele in 64% (n = 7. In 4 of these patients, XCI skewing was extreme (≥ 90% expression of a single allele. In contrast, XCI in hair root cells was random. Furthermore, PCR amplification with VH primers resulted in amplification of the same product in EPCs and bone marrow cells in 71% (n = 5 of 7 patients, while no IGH rearrangement was found in EPCs from healthy controls. In addition, in patients with XCI skewing in EPCs, advanced age was associated with poorer clinical status

  4. Potential manipulation of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes and its complications.

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    Fadini, G P; Avogaro, A

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk through its negative impact on vascular endothelium. Although glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity account for endothelial cell damage, endothelial repair is also affected by diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. For these reasons, EPCs are thought to have a protective impact within the cardiovascular system. In addition, EPCs appear to modulate the functioning of other organs, providing neurotropic signals and promoting repair of the glomerular endothelium. The exact mechanisms by which EPCs provide cardiovascular protection are unknown and the definition of EPCs is not standardized. Notwithstanding these limitations, the literature consistently indicates that EPCs are altered in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and in virtually all diabetic complications. Moreover, experimental models suggest that EPC-based therapies might help prevent or reverse the features of end-organ complications. This identifies EPCs as having a novel pathogenic role in diabetes and being a potential therapeutic target. Several ways of favourably modulating EPCs have been identified, including lifestyle intervention, commonly used medications and cell-based approaches. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of EPC pathophysiology and the potential for EPC modulation in diabetes.

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells and hypertension: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengyuan; Xia, Wenhao; Chen, Cong; Robinson, Eric A; Tao, Jun

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a group of cells that play important roles in angiogenesis and the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity, has led to considerable improvements in our understanding of the circulatory system and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular homoeostasis. Despite lingering disputes over where EPCs actually originate and how they facilitate angiogenesis, extensive research in the past decade has brought about significant advancements in this field of research, establishing EPCs as an essential element in the pathogenesis of various diseases. EPC and hypertensive disorders, especially essential hypertension (EH, also known as primary hypertension), represent one of the most appealing branches in this area of research. Chronic hypertension remains a major threat to public health, and the exact pathologic mechanisms of EH have never been fully elucidated. Is there a relationship between EPC and hypertension? If so, what is the nature of such relationship-is it mediated by blood pressure alterations, or other factors that lie in between? How can our current knowledge about EPCs be utilized to advance the prevention and clinical management of hypertension? In this review, we set out to answer these questions by summarizing the current concepts about EPC pathophysiology in the context of hypertension, while attempting to point out directions for future research on this subject. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function via Akt/FOXO3a Pathway.

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    Liya Huang

    Full Text Available Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1 has been suggested to enhance the functional activities of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. The Forkhead homeobox type O transcription factors (FOXOs, a key substrate of the survival kinase Akt, play important roles in regulation of various cellular processes. We previously have shown that FOXO3a is the main subtype of FOXOs expressed in EPCs. Here, we aim to determine whether FGF1 promotes EPC function through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Human peripheral blood derived EPCs were transduced with adenoviral vectors either expressing a non-phosphorylable, constitutively active triple mutant of FOXO3a (Ad-TM-FOXO3a or a GFP control (Ad-GFP. FGF1 treatment improved functional activities of Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, including cell viability, proliferation, antiapoptosis, migration and tube formation, whereas these beneficial effects disappeared by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. Moreover, EPC function was declined by Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduction and failed to be attenuated even with FGF1 treatment. FGF1 upregulated phosphorylation levels of Akt and FOXO3a in Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, which were repressed by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. However, FGF1 failed to recover Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduced EPCs from dysfunction. These data indicate that FGF1 promoting EPC function is at least in part mediated through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Our study may provide novel ideas for enhancing EPC angiogenic ability and optimizing EPC transplantation therapy in the future.

  7. Endothelial progenitor cells as a new marker of endothelial function with respect to risk of cardiovascular disorders

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    Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, over a decade ago, has refuted the previous belief that vasculogenesis only occurs during embryogenesis. The results of several studies revealed altered number and impaired function of EPC in hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, obesity as well as in rheumatoid arthritis. The population of developmental age is characterized by higher counts of EPC compared to adults. However, among young patients with chronic disorders that affect the vascular system, the number of EPC decreases. The reduced circulating concentration of EPC has become a surrogate marker of endothelial function and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many vascular diseases. This article aims to review the biology and pathophysiology of EPC in the conditions of cardiovascular risk factors. The potential possibilities of increasing EPC number and function as well as the use of EPC in the treatment of vascular pathology will also be discussed.

  8. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

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    Cai-Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on “VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide” and “competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2” mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics.

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase expression in endothelial progenitor cells accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice.

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    Marrotte, Eric J; Chen, Dan-Dan; Hakim, Jeffrey S; Chen, Alex F

    2010-12-01

    Amputation as a result of impaired wound healing is a serious complication of diabetes. Inadequate angiogenesis contributes to poor wound healing in diabetic patients. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) normally augment angiogenesis and wound repair but are functionally impaired in diabetics. Here we report that decreased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in EPCs contributes to impaired would healing in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. A decreased frequency of circulating EPCs was detected in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice, and when isolated, these cells exhibited decreased expression and activity of MnSOD. Wound healing and angiogenesis were markedly delayed in diabetic mice compared with normal controls. For cell therapy, topical transplantation of EPCs onto excisional wounds in diabetic mice demonstrated that diabetic EPCs were less effective than normal EPCs at accelerating wound closure. Transplantation of diabetic EPCs after MnSOD gene therapy restored their ability to mediate angiogenesis and wound repair. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MnSOD in normal EPCs reduced their activity in diabetic wound healing assays. Increasing the number of transplanted diabetic EPCs also improved the rate of wound closure. Our findings demonstrate that cell therapy using diabetic EPCs after ex vivo MnSOD gene transfer accelerates their ability to heal wounds in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

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    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  11. Pharmacologically active microcarriers for endothelial progenitor cell support and survival.

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    Musilli, Claudia; Karam, Jean-Pierre; Paccosi, Sara; Muscari, Claudio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Parenti, Astrid

    2012-08-01

    The regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapies is limited due to poor cell viability and minimal retention following application. Neovascularization can be improved by means of scaffolds supporting EPCs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human early EPCs (eEPCs) could be efficiently cultured on pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made with poly(d,l-lactic-coglycolic acid) and coated with adhesion/extracellular matrix molecules. They may serve as a support for stem cells and may be used as cell carriers providing a controlled delivery of active protein such as the angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). eEPC adhesion to fibronectin-coated PAMs (FN-PAMs) was assessed by means of microscopic evaluation and by means of Alamar blue assay. Phospho ERK(1/2) and PARP-1 expression was measured by means of Western blot to assess the survival effects of FN-PAMs releasing VEGF-A (FN-VEGF-PAMs). The Alamar blue assay or a modified Boyden chamber assay was employed to assess proliferative or migratory capacity, respectively. Our data indicate that eEPCs were able to adhere to empty FN-PAMs within a few hours. FN-VEGF-PAMs increased the ability of eEPCs to adhere to them and strongly supported endothelial-like phenotype and cell survival. Moreover, the release of VEGF-A by FN-PAMs stimulated in vitro HUVEC migration and proliferation. These data strongly support the use of PAMs for supporting eEPC growth and survival and for stimulating resident mature human endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the reparative mechanisms of stable ischemic myocardium.

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    Morrone, D; Felice, F; Scatena, C; De Martino, A; Picoi, M L E; Mancini, N; Blasi, S; Menicagli, M; Di Stefano, R; Bortolotti, U; Naccarato, A G; Balbarini, A

    2017-09-14

    Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into circulation from bone marrow in patients with acute myocardial infarction has strong scientific evidence; less is known about EPC mobilization in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of stable ischemic heart disease with EPC levels in tissue and blood. Fifty-five consecutive patients admitted to a single treatment center for valve or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgeries were included in the study. Blood samples were collected in the morning before surgery and analyzed by flow-cytometry to determine peripheral EPC levels (EPC/ml). Tissue EPC (CD34+VEGFR2+) levels were assessed on a right atrial appendage segment. Mean age was 76±5years, 48% were men, and 53% had CAD The number of CD34+ VEGFR2+ cells in the tissue of patients with CAD was significantly higher (p<0.005) and circulating EPC showed a tendency to be reduced by approximately 20% in peripheral blood of patients with CAD when compared to those without CAD. Patients with stable CAD had higher EPC density values (EPC/mm2) and were more likely to have lower EPC blood levels when compare with normal controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

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    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  14. MicroRNA-22 Induces Endothelial Progenitor Cell Senescence by Targeting AKT3

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    Yue Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in postnatal neovascularization. The number and function of EPCs declines as part of aging-associated senescence, thereby potentially contributing to vascular pathologies. Here, we investigated the significance and molecular mechanisms of microRNA-22 (miR-22 governing EPC senescence. Methods: EPCs were isolated from human circulating mononuclear cells from healthy young and aged volunteers. Cell senescence, proliferation, migration and tube formation ability were detected by SA-β-gal staining assay, MTT assay, transwell assay and Matrigel-based angiogenesis assay. Gene and protein expression were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results: We found that miR-22 was upregulated in aged EPCs. Overexpression of miR-22 in young EPCs induced cell senescence, decreased proliferation and migration, and impaired angiogenesis in vitro. Conversely, silencing of endogenous miR-22 led to decreased cell senescence, increased proliferation and migration, and improved angiogenesis. AKT3 was identified as a direct target of miR-22, and restoration of AKT3 expression attenuated the effects of miR-22 in young EPCs. Conclusion: Our results indicate that miR-22 induces EPC senescence by downregulating AKT3 expression, providing a potential novel target for the reversal of EPC dysfunction in angiogenesis.

  15. Optical characterization of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in endothelial progenitor cells

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    Fu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have quantitatively analyzed the confocal spectra of colloidal quantum dots (QDs in rat endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs by using Leica TCS SP5 Confocal Microscopy System. Comparison of the confocal spectra of QDs located inside and outside EPCs revealed that the interaction between the QDs and EPCs effectively reduces the radius of the exciton confinement inside the QDs so that the excitonic energy increases and the QD fluorescence peak blueshifts. Furthermore, the EPC environment surrounding the QDs shields the QDs so that the excitation of the QDs inside the cells is relatively weak, whereas the QDs outside the cells can be highly excited. At high excitations, the occupation of the ground excitonic state in the QD outside the cells becomes saturated and high-energy states excited, resulting in a large relaxation energy and a broad fluorescence peak. This permits, in concept, to use QD biomarkers to monitor EPCs by characterizing QD fluorescence spectra.

  16. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

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    Hammer, Yoav; Soudry, Alissa; Levi, Amos; Talmor-Barkan, Yeela; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Singer, Joel; Kornowski, Ran; Lev, Eli I

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function. To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes. Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8%) and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs), their viability (measured by MTT assay), KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture. In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0) vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9), p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93) vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62), p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46) vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39), p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers. In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  17. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

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    Yoav Hammer

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function.To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes.Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8% and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs, their viability (measured by MTT assay, KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture.In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0 vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9, p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93 vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62, p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46 vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39, p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers.In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  18. Endothelial progenitor cells in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

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    Quaranta, Nicola; Ramunni, Alfonso; De Luca, Concetta; Brescia, Paola; Dambra, Porzia; De Tullio, Giacomina; Vacca, Angelo; Quaranta, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a unique subtype of circulating cells with properties similar to those of embryonal angioblasts. They have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs are reduced in patients with vascular risk factors due to a decreased mobilization, an increased consumption at the site of damage or a reduced half-life. The results of this study confirm the existence of an endothelial dysfunction in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and support the vascular involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of EPCs in patients affected by SSHL. Twenty-one patients affected by SSHL were evaluated. The number of EPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells. Circulating levels of EPCs were significantly lower in SSHL patients compared with controls. In particular, CD34+KDR+ cells and CD34+CD133+KDR+ cells were significantly reduced (p < 0.05).

  19. MeCP2 mediated dysfunction in senescent EPCs

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    Wang, Chunli; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhen; Huang, Liya; Cao, Qing; Chen, Shuyan

    2017-01-01

    Aging endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) exhibit functional impairment in terms of proliferation, migration and survival. SIRT1 plays an important role in improving EPCs function. MeCP2, another important epigenetic regulator, is involved in regulating many life-related activities such as cell growth, death and senescence. Here we aim to explore the effect of MeCP2 on the functional activities of senescent EPCs and the underlying mechanisms. By using western blot and real-time PCR, we found that the expression levels of MeCP2 were up-regulated and SIRT1 were down-regulated with replicative senescence and H2O2-induced senescence. Through transduction with adenoviral vectors, EPCs overexpressing MeCP2 had significantly reduced EPCs function, and silencing MeCP2 improved EPCs function. In addition, the protein and mRNA levels of SIRT1 were decreased with MeCP2 overexpression and increased with MeCP2 knockdown. Through co-transfection of EPCs with MeCP2 and SIRT1, we observed that SIRT1 could reverse the effects of MeCP2 on EPCs. In summary, our work demonstrated that MeCP2 inhibited SIRT1 in senescent EPCs. PMID:29108229

  20. Endothelial progenitor cells express PAF receptor and respond to PAF via Ca(2+)-dependent signaling.

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    Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Giovane, Alfonso; Milone, Lara; Servillo, Luigi

    2010-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) therapy is a promising approach to promote angiogenesis and endothelial repair in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, their release of proinflammatory mediators may compromise the therapeutic efficacy. Little is known about the role of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) in EPC functional response. Here, we investigated the expression of PAF receptor (PAF-R) in early EPC and the release of PAF under stimulation with factors involved in endothelial dysfunction. Results indicated that early EPC express the PAF-R and respond to PAF signaling via a transient increase of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. EPC release PAF in a time dependent manner upon stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or high-glucose concentration with a peak at 30 min and 10 min (pPAF, starting at concentration of 50 ng/ml, exerted a detrimental effect on EPC number with a concomitant increase of p38 activity. Furthermore, both the reduction of early EPC number and the enhanced p38 activity induced by PAF were abolished by CV3988, a PAF receptor antagonist. These novel findings, revealing that early EPC respond to PAF signaling, unveil an inflammatory pathway that may play a crucial role in the outcome of cardiovascular cell therapy with EPC. Copyright @ 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

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    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  2. Endothelial progenitor cells from human fetal aorta cure diabetic foot in a rat model.

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    Zhao, Wan-Ni; Xu, Shi-Qing; Liang, Jian-Feng; Peng, Liang; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Zai; Fang, Qing; Wang, Meng; Yin, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Lou, Jin-Ning

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can repair the arterial endothelium during vascular injury. However, a reliable source of human EPCs is needed for therapeutic applications. In this study, we isolated human fetal aorta (HFA)-derived EPCs and analyzed the capacity of EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells. In addition, because microvascular dysfunction is considered to be the major cause of diabetic foot (DF), we investigated whether transplantation of HFA-derived EPCs could treat DF in a rat model. EPCs were isolated from clinically aborted fetal aorta. RT-PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine the expressions of CD133, CD34, CD31, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 (ELAM-1). Morphology and Dil-uptake were used to assess function of the EPCs. We then established a DF model by injecting microcarriers into the hind-limb arteries of Goto-Kakizaki rats and then transplanting the cultured EPCs into the ischemic hind limbs. Thermal infrared imaging, oxygen saturation apparatus, and laser Doppler perfusion imaging were used to monitor the progression of the disease. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the microvascular tissue formed by HFA-derived EPCs. We found that CD133, CD34, and VEGFR2 were expressed by HFA-derived EPCs. After VEGF induction, CD133 expression was significantly decreased, but expression levels of vWF and ELAM-1 were markedly increased. Furthermore, tube formation and Dil-uptake were improved after VEGF induction. These observations suggest that EPCs could differentiate into endothelial cells. In the DF model, temperature, blood flow, and oxygen saturation were reduced but recovered to a nearly normal level following injection of the EPCs in the hind limb. Ischemic symptoms also improved. Injected EPCs were

  3. Determination of Early and Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Circulation and Their Clinical Association with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Shotoku Tagawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical implications of early and late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in coronary artery disease (CAD remain unclear. We investigated endothelial dysfunction in CAD by simultaneously examining early and late EPC colony formation and gene expression of specific surface markers in EPCs. EPCs were extracted from a total of 83 subjects with (n=47 and without (n=36 CAD. Early and late EPC colonies were formed from mononuclear cells extracted from peripheral blood. We found that fewer early EPC colonies were produced in the CAD group (7.2 ± 3.l/well than those in the control group (12.4 ± 1.4/well, p<0.05, and more late EPC colonies were produced in the CAD group (0.8 ± 0.2/well than those in the control group (0.25 ± 0.02/well, p<0.05. In the CAD group, the relative expression of CD31 and KDR of early and late EPCs was lower than in the control group. These results demonstrate that CAD patients could have increased late EPC density and that early and late EPCs in CAD patients exhibited immature endothelial characteristics. We suggest that changes in EPC colony count and gene expression of endothelial markers may have relation with development of CAD.

  4. Number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with primary Budd-Chiari syndrome.

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    Huang, Rui; Zhang, Qingqiao; Huang, Qianxin; Zu, Maoheng; Xu, Hao; Zeng, Lingyu

    2017-03-01

    Primary Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is associated with vascular endothelial injury. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) provide an endogenous mechanism to repair endothelial injury. This study investigated the levels and functionality of EPCs in patients with primary BCS. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) were quantified in 82 patients with primary BCS (inferior vena cava type: n=19; hepatic vein type: n=22; and mixed type: n=41), 10 cirrhosis controls (CC group) and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HC group), using flow cytometry. EPCs proliferation was detected by MTT assay, adhesion by adhesion activity assay, and migration capacity by Transwell assay. EPCs levels were significantly lower in the BCS group (0.020±0.005%) than in the CC and HC groups (0.260±0.201%, 0.038±0.007%; PRMF), each PRMF, each P<0.001) than in the HC group. EPCs functionality did not significantly differ between the BCS and CC groups. The numbers and functions of EPCs did not significantly differ among patients with inferior vena cava type, hepatic vein type and mixed type of BCS. Patients with primary BCS had lower EPCs levels, with less proliferation, adhesion and migration activities. These findings suggest that lower levels of less functional EPCs may be associated with venous occlusion in primary BCS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of endothelial progenitor cells in transient ischemic attack patients for future cerebrovascular events

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    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in the maintenance of vascularization following ischemic brain after experimental stroke has been established. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of circulating EPCs in transient ischemic attack (TIA patients for future cerebrovascular (CV events. Materials and Methods: The level of circulating EPCs (staining markers: CD34, CD309 were determined using flow cytometry at 24 h after TIA in thirty consecutive patients. The EPCs level was also evaluated once in thirty healthy volunteers. Over a period of 12 months, all patients were evaluated by an experienced neurologist for recurrent TIA, stroke or death induced by CV disorders. Results: Circulating EPCs increased in patients group following the first attack of TIA when compared with controls. By analysis of covariance, cardiovascular event history, hyperlipidemia, and statin therapy remained significant independent predictors of EPCs. The mean (standard deviation duration of follow-up was 10.5 (3.1 months (range, 2–12 months. During follow-up, a total of three patients died due to CV accident and four patients experienced again recurrent TIA. By analyzing data with Cox regression, EPC did not predict the future CV events in TIA patients. Conclusion: Increased incidence of future CV events did not occur in those patients with elevated EPCs in the first attack of TIA. The significant predicting factors of EPCs were cardiovascular event history, hyperlipidemia, and statin therapy.

  6. Cathepsin L is required for endothelial progenitor cell-induced neovascularization

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    Urbich, Carmen; Heeschen, Christopher; Aicher, Alexandra; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Bruhl, Thomas; Hofmann, Wolf K.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2004-01-15

    Infusion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but not of mature endothelial cells (ECs), promotes neovascularization after ischemia. We performed a gene expression profiling of EPCs and ECs to identify genes, which might be important for the neovascularization capacity of EPCs. Intriguingly, the protease cathepsin L (CathL) was highly expressed in EPCs as opposed to ECs and is essential for matrix degradation and invasion by EPCs in vitro. CathL deficient mice showed impaired functional recovery after hind limb ischemia supporting the concept for an important role of CathL in postnatal neovascularization. Infused CathL deficient progenitor cells failed to home to sites of ischemia and to augment neovascularization. In contrast, over expression of CathL in mature ECs significantly enhanced their invasive activity and induced their neovascularization capacity in vivo. Taken together, CathL plays a crucial role for the integration of circulating EPCs into the ischemic tissue and is required for neovascularization mediated by EPCs.

  7. Endothelial progenitor cells as a therapeutic option in intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Juan Pías-Peleteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is the most severe cerebrovascular disease, which represents a leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. However, therapeutic options are limited, so is mandatory to investigate repairing processes after stroke in order to develop new therapeutic strategies able to promote brain repair processes. Therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis hold promise to improve outcome of ICH patients. In this regard, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have recently been suggested to be a marker of vascular risk and endothelial function. Moreover, EPC levels have been associated with good neurological and functional outcome as well as reduced residual hematoma volume in ICH patients. Finally, experimental and clinical studies indicate that EPC might mediate endothelial cell regeneration and neovascularization. Therefore, EPC-based therapy could be an excellent therapeutic option in ICH. In this mini-review, we discuss the present status of knowledge about the possible therapeutic role of EPCs in ICH, molecular mechanisms, and the future perspectives and strategies for their use in clinical practice.

  8. Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells by dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression in mice.

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    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC have therapeutic potentials in promoting tissue regeneration, but how these cells are modulated in vivo has been elusive. Here, we report that RBP-J, the critical transcription factor mediating Notch signaling, modulates EPC through CXCR4. In a mouse partial hepatectomy (PHx model, RBP-J deficient EPC showed attenuated capacities of homing and facilitating liver regeneration. In resting mice, the conditional deletion of RBP-J led to a decrease of BM EPC, with a concomitant increase of EPC in the peripheral blood. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of CXCR4 on EPC in BM, although CXCR4 expression on EPC in the circulation was up-regulated in the absence of RBP-J. PHx in RBP-J deficient mice induced stronger EPC mobilization. In vitro, RBP-J deficient EPC showed lowered capacities of adhering, migrating, and forming vessel-like structures in three-dimensional cultures. Over-expression of CXCR4 could at least rescue the defects in vessel formation by the RBP-J deficient EPC. These data suggested that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization and function, at least partially through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression. Our findings not only provide new insights into the regulation of EPC, but also have implications for clinical therapies using EPC in diseases.

  9. [Effect of Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus on the functions of bone marrow-derived and circulating endothelial progenitor cells].

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    Tan, Q; Li, G P; Wang, Q S; Zheng, C H; Zhang, S Y

    2017-07-25

    Objective: To explore whether diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs functions of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC) and circulating EPC. Methods: Diabetic model of rabbit was induced by Alloxan injection and the rabbits were then randomly divided into three groups: BM-EPC group, circulating EPC group, and DM group, with six rabbits in each group. Another 6 normal rabbits were enrolled as normal control group as well. 8 weeks later, BM-EPC and circulating EPC from diabetic and healthy rabbits were isolated and cultured. Colony number, proliferation, adhesion and tube formation function were detected. Exogenous diabetic BM-EPC and circulating EPC were analyzed for therapeutic efficacy in acute ischemia model of diabetic rabbits. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed using Echocardiography. Capillary density and fibrosis area were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and Masson-trichrome staining. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was analyzed using real-time quantitive PCR. Results: Colony number, proliferation, adhesion and tube formation function of diabetic circulating EPC were significantly reduced compared with healthy rabbits. DM impaired tube-forming ability of BM-EPC, but did not influence colony number, proliferation and adhesion function. Compared with circulating EPC and control group, BM-EPC group had fewer fibrosis area (6.98%±0.94% vs 13.03%±2.97% and 15.84%±4.74%, both P=0.001), higher capillary density [(792±87) vs (528±71) and (372±77) vessels/mm(2,) both Pfunctions of circulating EPC, but also influenced tube formation function of BM-EPC. Auto transplantation of BM-EPC may rescue the ischemic myocardium by neovascularization and paracrine effect in diabetic rabbits.

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of endothelial progenitor cells derived from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood: Implications for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells

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    Xiugong Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs offer the potential to generate tissues with ethnic diversity enabling toxicity testing on selected populations. Recently, it has been reported that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood (CB or adult peripheral blood (PB afford a practical and efficient cellular substrate for iPSC generation. However, differences between EPCs from different blood sources have rarely been studied. In the current study, we derived EPCs from blood mononuclear cells (MNCs and reprogrammed EPCs into iPSCs. We also explored differences between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs at the molecular and cellular levels through a combination of transcriptomic analysis and cell biology techniques. EPC colonies in CB-MNCs emerged 5–7 days earlier, were 3-fold higher in number, and consistently larger in size than in PB-MNCs. Similarly, iPSC colonies generated from CB-EPCs was 2.5-fold higher in number than from PB-EPCs, indicating CB-EPCs have a higher reprogramming efficiency than PB-EPCs. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays found a total of 1133 genes differentially expressed in CB-EPCs compared with PB-EPCs, with 675 genes upregulated and 458 downregulated. Several canonical pathways were impacted, among which the human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway was of particular interest. The differences in the gene expression pattern between CB-EPCs and PB-EPCs provide a molecular basis for the discrepancies seen in their derivation and reprogramming efficiencies, and highlight the advantages of using CB as the cellular source for the generation of iPSCs and their derivative tissues for ethnic-related toxicological applications.

  11. Growth factors enhance endothelial progenitor cell proliferation under high-glucose conditions.

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    Li, Wei; Yang, Shiyu Y; Hu, Zhong F; Winslet, Marc C; Wang, Wen; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of growth regulators, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and mechano growth factor (MGF), on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation at different glucose concentrations. EPCs were isolated and cultured from peripheral blood samples of healthy volunteers and immunocytochemically characterized after 7 days. The effects of glucose and growth regulators on EPC proliferation were determined with the Alamar Blue and Trypan Blue assays. The effect of glucose supplementation at 2.5, 11.1, and 25.0 mM was examined using cells seeded at densities of 15000, 30000, and 45000 cells/ml. For the GH-treated cells, enhancement of EPC proliferation was detected in the samples supplemented with 11.1 and 25.0 mM glucose. A slight elevation in EPC proliferation was only observed in the IGF-1-treated cells supplemented with 25.0 mM glucose. Significant enhancement of EPC proliferation was observed in MGF-treated cells supplemented with 11.1 and 25.0 mM glucose. All three growth factors demonstrated enhancement of cellular proliferation when the cells were supplemented with 25.0 mM glucose. No enhancement of EPC proliferation by the growth factors was detected in any of the cells supplemented with 2.5 mM glucose. GH, IGF-1, and MGF enhance EPC proliferation under 25.0 mM glucose conditions. The presence of these growth regulators in EPC culture may contribute to protecting EPCs from high-glucose conditions. This action may be of therapeutic relevance contributing to beneficial cardiovascular effects for diabetic patient.

  12. Oligonucleotide biofunctionalization enhances endothelial progenitor cell adhesion on cobalt/chromium stents.

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    Barsotti, Maria Chiara; Al Kayal, Tamer; Tedeschi, Lorena; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Losi, Paola; Sbrana, Silverio; Briganti, Enrica; Giorgi, Rodorico; Chiellini, Federica; Di Stefano, Rossella; Soldani, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    As the endothelium still represents the ideal surface for cardiovascular devices, different endothelialization strategies have been attempted for biocompatibility and nonthrombogenicity enhancement. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could accelerate endothelialization, preventing thrombosis and restenosis, the aim of this study was to use oligonucleotides (ONs) to biofunctionalize stents for EPC binding. In order to optimize the functionalization procedure before its application to cobalt-chromium (Co/Cr) stents, discs of the same material were preliminarily used. Surface aminosilanization was assessed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A fluorescent endothelial-specific ON was immobilized on aminosilanized surfaces and its presence was visualized by confocal microscopy. Fluorescent ON binding to porcine blood EPCs was assessed by flow cytometry. Viability assay was performed on EPCs cultured on unmodified, nontargeting ON or specific ON-coated discs; fluorescent staining of nuclei and F-actin was then performed on EPCs cultured on unmodified or specific ON-coated discs and stents. Disc biofunctionalization significantly increased EPC viability as compared to both unmodified and nontargeting ON-coated surfaces; cell adhesion was also significantly increased. Stents were successfully functionalized with the specific ON, and EPC binding was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, stent biofunctionalization for EPC binding was successfully achieved in vitro, suggesting its use to obtain in vivo endothelialization, exploiting the natural regenerative potential of the human body. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase modulate endothelial progenitor cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Brenner Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, which are key cells in vascular repair, is impaired in diabetes mellitus. Nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species can regulate EPC functions. EPCs tolerate oxidative stress by upregulating superoxide dismutase (SOD, the enzyme that neutralizes superoxide anion (O2-. Therefore, we investigated the roles of NO and SOD in glucose-stressed EPCs. Methods The functions of circulating EPCs from patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to those from healthy individuals. Healthy EPCs were glucose-stressed, and then treated with insulin and/or SOD. We assessed O2- generation, NO production, SOD activity, and their ability to form colonies. Results EPCs from diabetic patients generated more O2-, had higher NAD(PH oxidase and SOD activity, but lower NO bioavailability, and expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of p22-phox, and manganese SOD and copper/zinc SOD than those from the healthy individuals. Plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients were correlated negatively with the NO production from their EPCs. SOD treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs attenuated O2- generation, restored NO production, and partially restored their ability to form colonies. Insulin treatment of glucose-stressed EPCs increased NO production, but did not change O2- generation and their ability to form colonies. However, their ability to produce NO and to form colonies was fully restored after combined SOD and insulin treatment. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SOD may play an essential role in EPCs, and emphasize the important role of antioxidant therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  14. CD34+ cells represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells in murine bone marrow.

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    Junjie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs were shown to have angiogenic potential contributing to neovascularization. However, a clear definition of mouse EPCs by cell surface markers still remains elusive. We hypothesized that CD34 could be used for identification and isolation of functional EPCs from mouse bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD34(+ cells, c-Kit(+/Sca-1(+/Lin(- (KSL cells, c-Kit(+/Lin(- (KL cells and Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs using fluorescent activated cell sorting. EPC colony forming capacity and differentiation capacity into endothelial lineage were examined in the cells. Although CD34(+ cells showed the lowest EPC colony forming activity, CD34(+ cells exhibited under endothelial culture conditions a more adherent phenotype compared with the others, demonstrating the highest mRNA expression levels of endothelial markers vWF, VE-cadherin, and Flk-1. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in immediate recruitment of cells to the myocardium following myocardial infarction and systemic cell injection was observed for CD34(+ cells comparing with others, which could be explained by the highest mRNA expression levels of key homing-related molecules Integrin β2 and CXCR4 in CD34(+ cells. Cell retention and incorporation into the vasculature of the ischemic myocardium was also markedly increased in the CD34(+ cell-injected group, giving a possible explanation for significant reduction in fibrosis area, significant increase in neovascularization and the best cardiac functional recovery in this group in comparison with the others. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mouse CD34(+ cells may represent a functional EPC population in bone marrow, which could benefit the investigation of therapeutic EPC biology.

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells in vascular health: focus on lifestyle.

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    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Conraads, Viviane M

    2010-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, which is considered the functional equivalent of a disrupted balance between endothelial injury and repair, precedes overt atherosclerosis by many years. Although this phenomenon is part of the normal aging process, prevention of early and progressive endothelial dysfunction has become an important therapeutic target. Evidence has accumulated to show that endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), contribute substantially to preservation of a structurally and functionally intact endothelium. There has been considerable progress in our understanding of the various cell types that were in the past all covered by the term "EPC." EPC home to sites of endothelial injury and ischemia, where they proliferate, differentiate and integrate into the endothelial layer or exert a paracrine function by producing vascular growth factors. Although more emphasis has been put on the pharmacological approach of endothelial dysfunction, the effect of a healthy lifestyle, via mobilization and functional improvement of EPC, is increasingly recognized. This review will focus on successful lifestyle interventions that aim to maintain vascular health through beneficial actions on cell populations with vasculogenic potential ("EPC"). The role of physical activity and dietary recommendations, which are considered essential elements of a healthy lifestyle, will be particularly emphasized. A thorough understanding of the physiology of endothelial benefits, derived from such interventions, may help to implement these measures on top of classical drug therapy, but also provides a solid basis for primary prevention. The effects of additional elements of a comprehensive lifestyle advice, such as smoking cessation, weight and stress reduction, also comprise a modulation of EPC function and circulating numbers and are therefore included in this review as well. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Constitutive Expression of Adiponectin in Endothelial Progenitor Cells Protects a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia

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    Renwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, as precursors to endothelial cells, play a significant part in the process of endogenous blood vessel repair and maintenance of endothelial integrity. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine. In this study, we aim to test whether we transplant a combined graft of EPCs transfected with the adiponectin gene into a rat model of cerebral ischemia could improve functional recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into a MCAO control group, a MCAO EPC treatment group, and a MCAO LV-APN-EPC treatment group. A focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion model was induced by the intraluminal suture method. After 2 h of reperfusion, EPCs were transplanted by injection through the tail vein. A rotarod test was conducted to assess behavioral function before MCAO and on days 1, 7, and 14 after MCAO. After 14 d, TTC staining, CD31 immunofluorescence, and TUNEL staining were used to evaluate infarct volume, microvessel density, and cell apoptosis. Results revealed that behavioral function, infarct area percentage, microvessel density, and cell apoptosis rates were more favorable in the LV-APN-EPC treatment group than in the EPC treatment group. These data suggested that gene-modified cell therapy may be a useful approach for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  17. Fabrication of endothelial progenitor cell capture surface via DNA aptamer modifying dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film

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    Li, Xin; Deng, Jinchuan; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Juan; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2016-11-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mainly located in bone marrow and circulate, and play a crucial role in repairmen of injury endothelium. One of the most promising strategies of stents designs were considered to make in-situ endothelialization in vivo via EPC-capture biomolecules on a vascular graft to capture EPCs directly from circulatory blood. In this work, an EPC specific aptamer with a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence was conjugated onto the stent surface via dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film as a platform and linker. The assembled density of DNA aptamer could be regulated by controlling dopamine percentage in this copolymer film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle (WCA) and fluorescence test confirmed the successful immobilization of DNA aptamer. To confirm its biofunctionality and cytocompatibility, the capturing cells ability of the aptamer modified surface and the effects on the growth behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated. The aptamer functionalized sample revealed a good EPC-capture ability, and had a cellular friendly feature for both EPC and EC growth, while not stimulated the hyperplasia of SMCs. And, the co-culture experiment of three types of cells confirmed the specificity capturing of EPCs to aptamer modified surface, rather than ECs and SMCs. These data suggested that this aptamer functionalized surface may have a large potentiality for the application of vascular grafts with targeted endothelialization.

  18. Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Type 1 Diabetic Patients: Relation with Patients’ Age and Disease Duration

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    Adolfo Arcangeli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesCirculating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs have been reported to be dysfunctional in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, accounting for the vascular damage and the ensuing high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD characteristic of this disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the number of circulating cEPCs in type 1 DM (T1DM patients, without clinical vascular damage, of different ages and with different disease duration.MethodsAn observational, clinical-based prospective study was performed on T1DM patients enrolled in two clinical centers. cEPCs were determined by flow cytometry, determining the number of CD34/CD133/VEGFR2-positive cells within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs.ResultsThe number of cEPCs was lower in adult T1DM patients, whilst higher in childhood/young patients, compared to controls of the same age range. When patients were grouped into two age groups (≥ or <20 years (and categorized on the basis of the duration of the disease, the number of cEPCs in young (<20 years patients was higher compared with older subjects, regardless of disease duration. A subset of patients with very high cEPCs was identified in the <20 years group.ConclusionThere is an association between the number of cEPCs and patients’ age: childhood/young T1DM patients have significantly higher levels of cEPCs, respect to adult T1DM patients. Such difference is maintained also when the disease lasts for more than 10 years. The very high levels of cEPCs, identified in a subset of childhood/young patients, might protect vessels against endothelial dysfunction and damage. Such protection would be less operative in older subjects, endowed with lower cEPC numbers, in which complications are known to develop more easily.

  19. High Calcium Bioglass Enhances Differentiation and Survival of Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Inducing Early Vascularization in Critical Size Bone Defects

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    Nguyen Ngoc, Christina; Meier, Simon; Nau, Christoph; Schaible, Alexander; Marzi, Ingo; Henrich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA) and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with β-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n = 12). Controls (n = 6) received BG40 and the treatment group (n = 6) received BG40 seeded with 5×105 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects. PMID:24244419

  20. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  1. Bradykinin preconditioning improves therapeutic potential of human endothelial progenitor cells in infarcted myocardium.

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    Zulong Sheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Stem cell preconditioning (PC is a powerful approach in reducing cell death after transplantation. We hypothesized that PC human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs with bradykinin (BK enhance cell survival, inhibit apoptosis and repair the infarcted myocardium. METHODS: The hEPCs were preconditioned with or without BK. The hEPCs apoptosis induced by hypoxia along with serum deprivation was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide staining. Cleaved caspase-3, Akt and eNOS expressions were determined by Western blots. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF levels were assessed in hEPCs. For in vivo studies, the survival and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of transplanted hEPCs were assessed using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodi- carbocyanine,4-chlorobenzenesul-fonate salt labeled hEPCs and TUNEL staining. Infarct size and cardiac function were measured at 10 days after transplantation, and the survival of transplanted hEPCs were visualized using near-infrared optical imaging. RESULTS: In vitro data showed a marked suppression in cell apoptosis following BK PC. The PC reduced caspase-3 activation, increased the Akt, eNOS phosphorylation and VEGF levels. In vivo data in preconditioned group showed a robust cell anti-apoptosis, reduction in infarct size, and significant improvement in cardiac function. The effects of BK PC were abrogated by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE140, the Akt and eNOS antagonists LY294002 and L-NAME, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The activation of B2 receptor-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway by BK PC promotes VEGF secretion, hEPC survival and inhibits apoptosis, thereby improving cardiac function in vivo. The BK PC hEPC transplantation for stem cell-based therapies is a novel approach that has potential for clinical used.

  2. Effective Mobilization of Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells but Not Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Therapy

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    Monika Zbucka-Kretowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, murine hematopoietic progenitor stem cells (HSCs and very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs were demonstrated to express receptors for sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH. This raised the question of whether FSH therapy at clinically applied doses can mobilize stem/progenitor cells in humans. Here we assessed frequencies of VSELs (referred to as Lin−CD235a−CD45−CD133+ cells, HSPCs (referred to as Lin−CD235a−CD45+CD133+ cells, and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, identified as CD34+CD144+, CD34+CD133+, and CD34+CD309+CD133+ cells in fifteen female patients subjected to the FSH therapy. We demonstrated that FSH therapy resulted in statistically significant enhancement in peripheral blood (PB number of both VSELs and HSPCs. In contrast, the pattern of responses of EPCs delineated by different cell phenotypes was not uniform and we did not observe any significant changes in EPC numbers following hormone therapy. Our data indicate that FSH therapy mobilizes VSELs and HSPCs into peripheral blood that on one hand supports their developmental origin from germ lineage, and on the other hand FSH can become a promising candidate tool for mobilizing HSCs and stem cells with VSEL phenotype in clinical settings.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

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    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  4. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

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    Doyle, Margaret F; Tracy, Russell P; Parikh, Megha A; Hoffman, Eric A; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H M; Smith, Benjamin M; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema.

  5. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

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    Chen, Wan-Yu; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2010-12-15

    The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

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    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  7. A critical role of CXCR2 PDZ-mediated interactions in endothelial progenitor cell homing and angiogenesis

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    Yuning Hou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neovessel formation in response to growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its cognate ligands are reported to mediate EPC recruitment and angiogenesis. CXCR2 possesses a consensus PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ motif which has been reported to modulate cellular signaling and functions. Here we examined the potential role of the PDZ motif in CXCR2-mediated EPC motility and angiogenesis. We observed that exogenous CXCR2 C-tail significantly inhibited in vitro EPC migratory responses and angiogenic activities, as well as in vivo EPC angiogenesis. However, the CXCR2 C-tail that lacks the PDZ motif (ΔTTL did not cause any significant changes of these functions in EPCs. In addition, using biochemical assays, we demonstrated that the PDZ scaffold protein NHERF1 specifically interacted with CXCR2 and its downstream effector, PLC-β3, in EPCs. This suggests that NHERF1 might cluster CXCR2 and its relevant signaling molecules into a macromolecular signaling complex modulating EPC cellular functions. Taken together, our data revealed a critical role of a PDZ-based CXCR2 macromolecular complex in EPC homing and angiogenesis, suggesting that targeting this complex might be a novel and effective strategy to treat angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

  8. In vivo serial MR imaging of magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells homing to the endothelium injured artery in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence of histopathological analyses suggests that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in vascular diseases. Neointimal hyperplasia can be reduced by intravenous transfusion of EPCs after vascular injury in mice. Therefore, it would be advantageous to develop an in vivo technique that can explore the temporal and spatial migration of EPCs homing to the damaged endothelium noninvasively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The left carotid common artery (LCCA was injured by removal of endothelium with a flexible wire in Kunming mice. EPCs were collected by in vitro culture of spleen-derived mouse mononuclear cells (MNCs. EPCs labeling was carried out in vitro using Fe₂O₃-poly-L-lysine (Fe₂O₃-PLL. In vivo serial MR imaging was performed to follow-up the injured artery at different time points after intravenous transfusion of EPCs. Vessel wall areas of injured artery were computed on T₂WI. Larger MR signal voids of vessel wall on T₂WI was revealed in all 6 mice of the labeled EPC transfusion group 15 days after LCCA injury, and it was found only in 1 mouse in the unlabeled EPC transfusion group (p = 0.015. Quantitative analyses of vessel wall areas on T₂WI showed that the vessel wall areas of labeled EPC transfusion group were less than those of unlabeled EPC transfusion group and control group fifteen days after artery injury (p<0.05. Histopathological analyses confirmed accumulation and distribution of transfused EPCs at the injury site of LCCA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that MR imaging might be used as an in vivo method for the tracking of EPCs homing to the endothelium injured artery.

  9. Influence of depression and anxiety on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Francesca; Di Stefano, Rossella; Pini, Stefano; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Bovenzi, Francesco M; Bertoli, Daniele; Abelli, Marianna; Borelli, Lucia; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Gesi, Camilla; Michi, Paola; Morrone, Doralisa; Gnudi, Luigi; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are related to endothelial function and progression of coronary artery disease. There is evidence of decreased numbers of circulating EPCs in patients with a current episode of major depression. We investigated the relationships between the level of circulating EPCs and depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS admitted to three Cardiology Intensive Care Units were evaluated by the SCID-I to determine the presence of lifetime and/or current mood and anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. The EPCs were defined as CD133(+) CD34(+) KDR(+) and evaluated by flow cytometry. All patients underwent standardized cardiological and psychopathological evaluations. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed where appropriate. Out of 111 ACS patients, 57 were found to have a DSM-IV lifetime or current mood or anxiety disorder at the time of the inclusion in the study. The ACS group with mood or anxiety disorders showed a significant decrease in circulating EPC number compared with ACS patients without affective disorders. In addition, EPC levels correlated negatively with severity of depression and anxiety at index ACS episode. The current study indicates that EPCs circulate in decreased numbers in ACS patients with depression or anxiety and, therefore, contribute to explore new perspectives in the pathophysiology of the association between cardiovascular disorders and affective disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. TNFα-Damaged-HUVECs Microparticles Modify Endothelial Progenitor Cell Functional Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Carmona, Andrés; Alique, Matilde; Carracedo, Julia; Ramirez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have an important role in the maintenance of vascular integrity and homeostasis. While there are many studies that explain EPCs mechanisms action, there are few studies that demonstrate how they interact with other emerging physiological elements such as Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs). EMPs are membranous structures with a size between 100 and 1000 nm that act as molecular information transporter in biological systems and are known as an important elements in develop different pathologies; moreover a lot of works explains that are novel biomarkers. To elucidate these interactions, we proposed an in vitro model of endothelial damage mediated by TNFalpha, in which damaged EMPs and EPCs are in contact to assess EPCs functional effects. We have observed that damaged EMPs can modulate several EPCs classic factors as colony forming units (CFUs), contribution to repair a physically damaged endothelium (wound healing), binding to mature endothelium, and co-adjuvants to the formation of new vessels in vitro (angiogenesis). All of these in a dose-dependent manner. Damaged EMPs at a concentration of 103 MPs/ml have an activating effect of these capabilities, while at concentrations of 105 MPs/ml these effects are attenuated or reduced. This in vitro model helps explain that in diseases where there is an imbalance between these two elements (EPCs and damaged EMPs), the key cellular elements in the regeneration and maintenance of vascular homeostasis (EPCs) are not fully functional, and could explain, at least in part, endothelial dysfunction associated in various pathologies. PMID:26733886

  11. The secretome of endothelial progenitor cells promotes brain endothelial cell activity through PI3-kinase and MAP-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie; Fuchs, Anna-Lena; Staudigl, Jennifer; Widmer, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular remodelling are crucial events in tissue repair mechanisms promoted by cell transplantation. Current evidence underscores the importance of the soluble factors secreted by stem cells in tissue regeneration. In the present study we investigated the effects of paracrine factors derived from cultured endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) on rat brain endothelial cell properties and addressed the signaling pathways involved. Endothelial cells derived from rat brain (rBCEC4) were incubated with EPC-derived conditioned medium (EPC-CM). The angiogenic response of rBCEC4 to EPC-CM was assessed as effect on cell number, migration and tubular network formation. In addition, we have compared the outcome of the in vitro experiments with the effects on capillary sprouting from rat aortic rings. The specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 were used to study the involvement of these two signaling pathways in the transduction of the angiogenic effects of EPC-CM. Viable cell number, migration and tubule network formation were significantly augmented upon incubation with EPC-CM. Similar findings were observed for aortic ring outgrowth with significantly longer sprouts. The EPC-CM-induced activities were significantly reduced by the blockage of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Similarly to the outcome of the rBCEC4 experiments, inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways significantly interfered with capillary sprouting induced by EPC-CM. The present study demonstrates that EPC-derived paracrine factors substantially promote the angiogenic response of brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, our findings identified the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways to play a central role in mediating these effects.

  12. Endothelial progenitor cells in long-standing asymptomatic type 1 diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Lajer, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in the number and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may increase the risk for progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our aim was to evaluate EPC numbers in asymptomatic CVD type 1 diabetic patients...... with or without DN and to study the effect of CVD and medication on EPC numbers. Methods: We examined EPC numbers in 37 type 1 diabetic patients with DN and 35 type 1 diabetic patients with long-standing normoalbuminuria. Patients were without symptoms of CVD and the prevalence of CVD was previously shown...... patients with DN had EPC numbers similar to normoalbuminuric patients, which was related to aggressive CVD intervention therapy. This may have contributed to the low prevalence of CVD....

  13. Restoration of erectile function with intracavernous injections of endothelial progenitor cells after bilateral cavernous nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C H; Wu, Y N; Lin, Y H; Syu Huang, R F; Liu, S P; Chiang, H S

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived endothelial cells capable of circulating, proliferating, and differentiating into mature endothelial cells. Circulating EPCs can be directly recruited to some extent at sites of injury, and their administration could accelerate repair or endothelialization of the damaged tissue. We investigated the effects of intracavernous injections of EPCs into the corpora cavernosa of rats with erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Overall, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: sham surgery, vehicle-only, or EPC treatment. Rats in the EPC treatment and vehicle-only groups were subjected to bilateral CN injury before injection of EPCs or vehicle, respectively, into the corpora cavernosa. Four weeks after surgery, erectile function was assessed by measuring maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP), change in ICP, area under the ICP curve, and ratio of change in ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP; ΔICP/MAP). Penile tissue was histomorphometrically analyzed for the expression of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), neurofilament-1 (NF-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and smooth muscle cell content. Maximum ICP and all other functional parameters of erectile function were significantly reduced in the vehicle-only group vs. the sham and EPC treatment groups (all p corpus cavernosum. These findings elucidate the therapeutic potential of EPCs for treating ED in humans. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Coaction of Spheroid-Derived Stem-Like Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells Promotes Development of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Shi; Zheng, Zong-Heng; Huang, Yong; Chen, Tu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Although some studies described the characteristics of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in neovascularization, it is still controversial whether an interaction exists or not between CSCs and EPCs. In the present study, HCT116 and HT29 sphere models, which are known to be the cells enriching CSCs, were established to investigate the roles of this interaction in development and metastasis of colon cancer. Compared with their parental counterparts, spheroid cells demonstrated higher capacity of invasion, higher tumorigenic and metastatic potential. Then the in vitro and in vivo relationship between CSCs and EPCs were studied by using capillary tube formation assay and xenograft models. Our results showed that spheroid cells could promote the proliferation, migration and tube formation of EPCs through secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Meanwhile, the EPCs could increase tumorigenic capacity of spheroid cells through angiogenesis. Furthermore, higher microvessel density was detected in the area enriching cancer stem cells in human colon cancer tissue. Our findings indicate that spheroid cells possess the characteristics of cancer stem cells, and the coaction of CSCs and EPCs may play an important role in the development of colon cancer. PMID:22745705

  15. Tracking of CFSE-labeled endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Yang, Wei; Cui, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Ling-Ling; Song, E

    2011-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic retinopathy. The current study aimed to establish a simple, reliable and fluorescent labeling method for tracking EPCs with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in laser-injured mouse retina. EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, cultivated, and labeled with various concentrations of CFSE. Based on fluorescence intensity and cell morphology, a 15 minutes incubation with 5 µmol/L CFSE at 37°C was selected as the optimal labeling condition. The survival capability and the apoptosis rate of CFSE-labeled EPCs were measured by Trypan blue staining and Annexin V/PI staining assay respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the label stability during the extended culture period. Labeled EPCs were transplanted into the vitreous cavity of pigmented mice injured by retinal laser photocoagulation. Evans Blue angiography and flat mounted retinas were examined to track the labeled cells. EPCs labeled with 5 µmol/L CFSE presented an intense green fluorescence and maintained normal morphology, with no significant changes in the survival capability or apoptosis rate after being labeled for 2 days, 1 and 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity gradually decreased in the cells at the end of 4 weeks. Evans Blue angiography of the retina displayed the retinal capillarity network clearly and fluorescence leakage was observed around photocoagulated spots in the laser-injured mouse model. One week after transplantation of labeled EPCs, the fluorescent cells were identified around the photocoagulated lesions. Four weeks after transplantation, fluorescent tube-like structures were observed in the retinal vascular networks. EPCs could be labeled by CFSE in vitro and monitored in vivo for at least 4 weeks, and participate in the repair of injured retinal vessels.

  16. Fabrication of endothelial progenitor cell capture surface via DNA aptamer modifying dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin; Deng, Jinchuan; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Juan; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The dopamine/PEI film with controlled amine density was successfully prepared. • The DNA aptamer was assembled onto the film via electrostatic incorporation. • The A@DPfilmscanspecificallyandeffectivelycaptureEPCs. • The A@DP film can support the survival of ECs, control the hyperplasia of SMCs. • The dynamic/co-culture models are useful for studying cells competitive adhesion. - Abstract: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mainly located in bone marrow and circulate, and play a crucial role in repairmen of injury endothelium. One of the most promising strategies of stents designs were considered to make in-situ endothelialization in vivo via EPC-capture biomolecules on a vascular graft to capture EPCs directly from circulatory blood. In this work, an EPC specific aptamer with a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence was conjugated onto the stent surface via dopamine/polyethyleneimine copolymer film as a platform and linker. The assembled density of DNA aptamer could be regulated by controlling dopamine percentage in this copolymer film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle (WCA) and fluorescence test confirmed the successful immobilization of DNA aptamer. To confirm its biofunctionality and cytocompatibility, the capturing cells ability of the aptamer modified surface and the effects on the growth behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated. The aptamer functionalized sample revealed a good EPC-capture ability, and had a cellular friendly feature for both EPC and EC growth, while not stimulated the hyperplasia of SMCs. And, the co-culture experiment of three types of cells confirmed the specificity capturing of EPCs to aptamer modified surface, rather than ECs and SMCs. These data suggested that this aptamer functionalized surface may have a large potentiality for the application of vascular grafts with targeted endothelialization.

  17. Ambient particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular diseases: a focus on progenitor and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuqi; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution is a major challenge to public health. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) is the key component for air pollution, and associated with significant mortality. The majority of the mortality following PM exposure is related to cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms for the adverse effects of PM exposure on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown and under active investigation. Endothelial dysfunction or injury is considered one of the major factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of vasculature. Particulate matter exposure significantly suppressed the number and function of EPCs in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms for the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs remain to be fully defined. One of the important mechanisms might be related to increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. Bone marrow (BM) is a major source of EPCs. Thus, the number and function of EPCs could be intimately associated with the population and functional status of stem cells (SCs) in the BM. Bone marrow stem cells and other SCs have the potential for cardiovascular regeneration and repair. The present review is focused on summarizing the detrimental effects of PM exposure on EPCs and SCs, and potential mechanisms including ROS formation as well as clinical implications. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Effect of hypoxia on integrin-mediated adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ralf; Friedrich, Denise; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Böhm, Michael; Friedrich, Erik B

    2012-10-01

    Homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is crucial for neoangiogenesis, which might be negatively affected by hypoxia. We investigated the influence of hypoxia on fibronectin binding integrins for migration and cell-matrix-adhesion. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were examined as possible effectors of hypoxia. Human EPCs were expanded on fibronectin (FN) and integrin expression was profiled by flow cytometry. Cell-matrix-adhesion- and migration-assays on FN were performed to examine the influence of hypoxia and AMPK-activation. Regulation of AMPK and ILK was shown by Western blot analysis. We demonstrate the presence of integrin β(1), β(2) and α(5) on EPCs. Adhesion to FN is reduced by blocking β(1) and α(5) (49% and 2% of control, P effect. Corresponding effects were shown for migration. Hypoxia and AMPK-activation decrease adhesion on FN. Although total AMPK-expression remains unchanged, phospho-AMPK increases eightfold. The EPCs require α(5) for adhesion on FN. Hypoxia and AMPK-activation decrease adhesion. As α(5) is the major adhesive factor for EPCs on FN, this suggests a link between AMPK and α(5)-integrins. We found novel evidence for a connection between hypoxia, AMPK-activity and integrin activity. This might affect the fate of EPCs in ischaemic tissue. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells as an early risk factor of subclinical atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Raquel; Jimenez-Ortiz, Carlos; Valero-Gonzalez, Sara; Rosado, Silvia; Mellor, Susana; Yebra-Bango, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in vascular damage repair and it has been suggested that a decreased number of these cells is associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis. Our study aim was to evaluate whether the number of circulating EPCs in patients with SLE is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the presence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and SLE-specific factors. Forty-six female SLE patients were included. At the time of each patient's appointment, CV risk factors, SLE-specific factors and EPCs were assessed in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, atherosclerosis was assessed by measuring the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) by Doppler velocimetry, intima media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque by B-mode US scanning. Patients were classificated according to PWV following the reference values adjusted by age and blood pressure published by the European Society of Cardiology. Patients with pathological values of PWV showed a significant decrease of circulating EPC percentage compared with normal PWV patients. Decreased EPC counts were also associated with certain risk factors, including hypertension, tobacco use, impaired glucose metabolism, and metabolic syndrome, and correlate with high levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) or fibrinogen. The presence of carotid plaque and IMT measurement were unrelated with EPC quantification. Patients with a reduced percentage of EPCs showed pathological arterial stiffness and association with certain CV risk factors, suggesting that the measurement of circulating EPCs can be used as a biological marker to determine subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE.

  20. {sup 13}C dynamic nuclear polarization for measuring metabolic flux in endothelial progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Nathalie; Laustsen, Christoffer; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde, E-mail: Lotte@clin.au.dk

    2016-11-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population that is believed to be involved in vasculogenesis. With the purpose of enhancing endothelial repair, EPCs could have a potential for future cell therapies. Due to the low amount of EPCs in the peripheral circulating blood, in vitro expansion is needed before administration to recipients and the effects of in vitro culturing is still an under-evaluated field with little knowledge of how the cells change over time in culture. The aim of this study was to use hyperpolarised carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy to profile important metabolic pathways in a population of progenitor cells and to show that cell culturing in 3D scaffolds seem to block the metabolic processes that leads to cell senescence. The metabolic breakdown of hyperpolarized [1-{sup 13}C]pyruvate was followed after injection of the substrate to a bioreactor system with EPCs either adhered to 3D printed scaffolds or kept in cell suspension. The pyruvate-to-lactate conversion was elevated in suspension of EPCs compared to the EPCs adhered to scaffolds. Furthermore in the setup with EPCs in suspension, an increase in lactate production was seen over time indicating that the older the cultures of EPCs was before using the cells for cell suspension experiments, the more lactate they produce, compared to a constant lactate level in the cells adhered to scaffolds. It could therefore be stated that cells grown first in 2D culture and subsequent prepared for cell suspension show a metabolism with higher lactate production consistent with cells senescence processes compared to cells grown first at 2D culture and subsequent in the 3D printed scaffolds, where metabolism shows no sign of metabolic shifting during the monitored period. - Highlights: • Hyperpolarized 13C MRS detects EPCs metabolic changes associated with ageing and cultivating conditions. • Increased lactate production in EPC’s correlates positively with aging.

  1. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization in Preterm Infants With Sepsis Is Associated With Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavashi, Vahid; Asadian, Simin; Taheri-Asl, Masoud; Keshavarz, Samaneh; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Microvascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathology of sepsis, leading to multi-organ failure, and death. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are critically involved in the maintenance of the vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, concentration of cEPCs in preterm infants with sepsis was determined to recognize whether the EPC mobilization would affect the clinical outcome of infantile sepsis. One hundred and thirty-three preterm infants (81 with sepsis and 52 without sepsis) were enrolled in this study. The release of EPCs in circulation was first quantified. Thereafter, these cells were cultivated and biological features of these cells such as, proliferation and colony forming efficiency were analyzed. The levels of chemoattractant cytokines were also measured in infants. In mouse models of sepsis, effects of VEGF and SDF-1 as well as anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 were evaluated in order to shed light upon the role which the EPC mobilization plays in the overall survival of septic animals. Circulating EPCs were significantly higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in the non-sepsis group. Serum levels of VEGF, SDF-1, and Angiopoietin-2 were also higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in control non-sepsis. In the animal experiments, injection of VEGF and SDF-1 prompted the mobilization of EPCs, leading to an improvement in survival whereas injection of anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 was associated with significant deterioration of survival. Overall, our results demonstrated the beneficial effects of EPC release in preterm infants with sepsis, with increased mobilization of these cells was associated with improved survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3299-3307, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells for tissue engineering: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kunming; Zhou, Zheng; Ju, Xinxin; Zhou, Yang; Lan, Jiaojiao; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Hongzhi; Liu, Manli; Pang, Lijuan

    2016-10-10

    Combined cell implantation has been widely applied in tissue engineering in recent years. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to establish whether the combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promotes angiogenesis and tissue repair, compared with transplantation of a single cell type, following tissue injury or during tissue regeneration. The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen controlled preclinical studies involving MSC and EPC transplantation in animal models of disease, or in coculture in vitro, were included in this review. The vessel density and other functional indexes, which were classified according to the organ source, were used to evaluate the efficiency of cotransplantation. Publication bias was assessed. There was no obvious difference in angiogenesis following combined cell transplantation (EPCs and MSCs) and transplantation of EPCs alone; however, an improvement in the function of damaged organs was observed following cotransplantation. In addition, combined cell transplantation significantly promoted tissue recovery in cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and during bone regeneration. Compared with combined transplantation (EPCs and MSCs) and transplantation of MSCs alone, cotransplantation significantly promoted angiogenesis and bone regeneration, as well as vessel revascularization and tissue repair in cerebrovascular disease; however, no obvious effects on cardiovascular disease were observed. As an exploratory field in the discipline of tissue engineering, MSC and EPC cotransplantation offers advantages, although it is essential to assess the feasibility of this approach before clinical trials can be performed.

  3. Intratracheal transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells attenuates smoking-induced COPD in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhihui Shi,1 Yan Chen,1 Jun Cao,2 Huihui Zeng,1 Yue Yang,1 Ping Chen,1 Hong Luo,1 Hong Peng,1 Shan Cai,1 Chaxiang Guan3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central-South University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The People’s Hospital of Hunan Province, 3Department of Physiology, Xiangya Medical School, Central-South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs might play a protective role in COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratracheal allogeneic transplantation of bone-marrow-derived EPCs would attenuate the development of smoking-induced COPD in mice.Methods: Isolated mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of C57BL/6J mice were cultured in endothelial cell growth medium-2 for 10 days, yielding EPCs. A murine model of COPD was established by passive 90-day exposure of cigarette smoke. On day 30, EPCs or phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea. On day 90, EPCs or 30 µL phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea, and on day 120, inflammatory cells, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured.Results: After EPC treatment, the lung function of the mice had improved compared with the untreated mice. Mean linear intercept and destructive index were reduced in the EPCs-treated group compared with the untreated group. In addition, the EPCs-treated mice exhibited less antioxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the untreated mice. Moreover, decreased activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TUNEL-positive cells in lung tissues were detected in EPCs-treated mice.Conclusion: Intratracheal transplantation of EPCs attenuated the development of pulmonary emphysema and lung function disorder probably by alleviating inflammatory infiltration, decelerating apoptosis

  4. The Secretome of Hydrogel-Coembedded Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Instructs Macrophage Polarization in Endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Joseph A; Nadel, Ellen P; Rabadi, May M; Baskind, Matthew J; Rajdev, Maharshi A; Demaree, Cameron M; Vasko, Radovan; Chugh, Savneek S; Lamba, Rajat; Goligorsky, Michael S; Ratliff, Brian B

    2015-07-01

    : We previously reported the delivery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) embedded in hyaluronic acid-based (HA)-hydrogels protects renal function during acute kidney injury (AKI) and promotes angiogenesis. We attempted to further ameliorate renal dysfunction by coembedding EPCs with renal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), while examining their paracrine influence on cytokine/chemokine release and proinflammatory macrophages. A live/dead assay determined whether EPC-MSC coculturing improved viability during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, and HA-hydrogel-embedded delivery of cells to LPS-induced AKI mice was assessed for effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), circulating cytokines/chemokines, serum creatinine, proteinuria, and angiogenesis (femoral ligation). Cytokine/chemokine release from embedded stem cells was examined, including effects on macrophage polarization and release of proinflammatory molecules. EPC-MSC coculturing improved stem cell viability during LPS exposure, an effect augmented by MSC hypoxic preconditioning. The delivery of coembedded EPCs with hypoxic preconditioned MSCs to AKI mice demonstrated additive improvement (compared with EPC delivery alone) in medullary RBF and proteinuria, with comparable effects on serum creatinine, MAP, and angiogenesis. Exposure of proinflammatory M1 macrophages to EPC-MSC conditioned medium changed their polarization to anti-inflammatory M2. Incubation of coembedded EPCs-MSCs with macrophages altered their release of cytokines/chemokines, including enhanced release of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. EPC-MSC delivery to endotoxemic mice elevated the levels of circulating M2 macrophages and reduced the circulating cytokines/chemokines. In conclusion, coembedding EPCs-MSCs improved their resistance to stress, impelled macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 while altering their cytokine/chemokines release, reduced circulating cytokines/chemokines, and improved renal and

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas F J; Bergin, David A; Kent, Etaoin M; Manning, Fiona; Reeves, Emer P; Dicker, Patrick; McElvaney, Noel G; Sreenan, Seamus; Malone, Fergal D; McDermott, John H

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in mothers of low-birthweight infants. This was a prospective cohort study in a general antenatal department of a university maternity hospital. Twenty-three mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (birthweight ≥ 10th centile) were recruited. Maternal EPC number and function, conventional cardiovascular risk markers, and cord blood adiponectin were measured. Median EPC count was lower (294 vs. 367, P = 0.005) and EPC migration was reduced (0.91 vs. 1.59, P < 0.001) in SGA compared with AGA infants, with no difference in EPC adhesion (0.221 vs. 0.284 fluorescence units, P = 0.257). Maternal triglyceride levels were higher in SGA than AGA infants (0.98 vs. 0.78 mmol/liter, P = 0.006), but there was no difference in cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, adiponectin, or blood pressure. There was a moderate monotone (increasing) relationship between birthweight and umbilical cord blood adiponectin (r = 0.475, P = 0.005). Giving birth to an SGA infant was associated with lower maternal EPC number and reduced migratory function. Cord blood adiponectin was significantly correlated with birthweight.

  6. The Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N.

    Introduction. Particulate air pollution, specifically nickel found on or in particulate matter, has been associated with an increased risk of mortality in human population studies and can cause increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiate atherosclerosis in murine exposures. With the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a door has been opened which may explain these observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled air particles and nickel exposure. In order to further quantify the effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles and attempt to elucidate how the observed findings from other studies may occur, several whole body inhalation exposure experiments to nickel nanoparticles were performed. Methods. Following whole body exposure to approximately 500mug/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells, circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the inhalation exposure. Plasma proteins were assessed using the 2D DIGE proteomic approach and commercially available ELISAs. Results and Conclusions. Exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation. CECs were significantly upregulated suggesting that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. This decrease in EPC function

  7. Immobilization of DNA aptamers via plasma polymerized allylamine film to construct an endothelial progenitor cell-capture surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengkai; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ying; Li, Yalong; Fan, Yi; Chen, Junying; Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-01

    The endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) capture stent has drawn increasing attentions and become one of the most promising concepts for the next generation vascular stent. In this regard, it is of great significance to immobilize a molecule with the ability to bind EPC for rapid in vivo endothelialization with high specificity. In this work, a facile two-step method aimed at constructing a coating with specific EPC capturing aptamers is reported. The processes involves as the first-step deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) on a substrate to introduce amine groups, followed by the electrostatic adsorption of a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence to the PPAam surface as a second step (PPAam-DNA). Grazing incidence attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful immobilization of the aptamers. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) real time monitoring result shows that about 175 ng/cm(2) aptamers were conjugated onto the PPAam surface. The interactions between the modified surfaces and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and murine induced EPCs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were also investigated. It was demonstrated that PPAam-DNA samples could capture more EPCs, and present a cellular friendly surface for the proliferation of both EPCs and ECs but no effect on the hyperplasia of SMCs. Also, the co-culture results of 3 types of cells confirmed that the aptamer could specifically bond EPCs rather than ECs and SMCs, suggesting the competitive adhesion advantage of EPCs to ECs and SMCs. These data demonstrate that the EPC aptamer has large potential for designing an EPC captured stent and other vascular grafts with targeted in situ endothelialization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Injectable shear-thinning hydrogels used to deliver endothelial progenitor cells, enhance cell engraftment, and improve ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Ann C; Chen, Minna H; Venkataraman, Chantel M; Trubelja, Alen; Rodell, Christopher B; Dinh, Patrick V; Hung, George; MacArthur, John W; Soopan, Renganaden V; Burdick, Jason A; Atluri, Pavan

    2015-11-01

    The clinical translation of cell-based therapies for ischemic heart disease has been limited because of low cell retention (myocardium. To address these issues, we developed an injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) shear-thinning hydrogel (STG) and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) construct (STG-EPC). The STG assembles as a result of interactions of adamantine- and β-cyclodextrin-modified HA. It is shear-thinning to permit delivery via a syringe, and self-heals upon injection within the ischemic myocardium. This directed therapy to the ischemic myocardial border zone enables direct cell delivery to address adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that this system will enhance vasculogenesis to improve myocardial stabilization in the context of a clinically translatable therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells (DiLDL(+) VEGFR2(+) CD34(+)) were harvested from adult male rats, cultured, and suspended in the STG. In vitro viability was quantified using a live-dead stain of EPCs. The STG-EPC constructs were injected at the border zone of ischemic rat myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation). The migration of the enhanced green fluorescent proteins from the construct to ischemic myocardium was analyzed using fluorescent microscopy. Vasculogenesis, myocardial remodeling, and hemodynamic function were analyzed in 4 groups: control (phosphate buffered saline injection); intramyocardial injection of EPCs alone; injection of the STG alone; and treatment with the STG-EPC construct. Hemodynamics and ventricular geometry were quantified using echocardiography and Doppler flow analysis. Endothelial progenitor cells demonstrated viability within the STG. A marked increase in EPC engraftment was observed 1-week postinjection within the treated myocardium with gel delivery, compared with EPC injection alone (17.2 ± 0.8 cells per high power field (HPF) vs 3.5 cells ± 1.3 cells per HPF, P = .0002). A

  9. Myocardial regeneration by transplantation of modified endothelial progenitor cells expressing SDF-1 in a rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, A.; Kroh, A.; Konschalla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell based therapy has been shown to attenuate myocardial dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in different acute and chronic animal models. It has been further shown that stromal-cell derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) facilitates proliferation and migration of endogenous progenitor cells...... into injured tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of exogenously applied and endogenously mobilized cells in a regenerative strategy for MI therapy. Lentivirally SDF-1a-infected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were injected after 90 min. of ligation and reperfusion of the left...... anterior descending artery (LAD) intramyocardial and intracoronary using a new rodent catheter system. Eight weeks after transplantation, echocardiography and isolated heart studies revealed a significant improvement of LV function after intramyocardial application of lentiviral with SDF-1 infected EPCs...

  10. Involvement of endothelial progenitor cells in the formation of plexiform lesions in broiler chickens: possible role of local immune/inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun; Juan, Fan-Guo; Shah, Ali Q

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), which are often accompanied by perivascular infiltrates of mononuclear cells, represent the hallmark lesions of pulmonary arteries in humans suffering from severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been recently implicated in the formation of PLs in human patients. PLs rarely develop in rodent animal models of PAH but can develop spontaneously in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of EPCs in the PLs in broilers. The immune mechanisms involved in EPC dysfunction were also evaluated. Lungs were collected from commercial broilers at 1 to 4 weeks of age. The right/total ventricle ratios indicated normal pulmonary arterial pressures for all sampled birds. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expressions of EPC markers (CD133 and VEGFR-2) and proangiogenic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the lung samples. An EPC/lymphocyte co-culture system was used to investigate the functional changes of EPCs under the challenge of immune cells. PLs with different cellular composition were detected in the lungs of broilers regardless of age, and they were commonly surrounded by moderate to dense perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of CD133+ and VEGFR-2+ cells in PLs. These structures also exhibited a strong expression of HGF. Lymphocyte co-culture enhanced EPC apoptosis and completely blocked HGF-stimulated EPC survival and in vitro tube formation. Taken together, this work provides evidence for the involvement of EPCs in the development of PLs in broilers. It is suggested that the local immune cell infiltrate might serve as a contributor to EPC dysfunction by inducing EPC death and limiting their response to angiogenic stimuli. Broiler chickens may be valuable for investigating reversibility of plexogenic arteriopathy using gene-modified inflammation-resistant EPCs.

  11. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells after endovascular interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Marina Sergeevna Michurova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate the mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM after endovascular interventions for coronary and peripheral arteries.Materials and MethodsThe levels of EPC in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry in 42 patients prior to endovascular intervention and 2–4 days after surgery. EPC were defined as CD34+ VEGFR2+ CD45- and CD34+ CD133+CD45- cells. Twenty-three patients with T2DM were included in group 1, and 19 patients without metabolic disorders were included in group 2.ResultsThe levels of EPC in the peripheral blood of patients with T2DM before and after endovascular interventions were not significantly different. In the subgroup of patients without TDM2, the levels of CD34+VEGFR2 +CD45- cells increased after surgery to 55,5% (p <0,01, and the levels of CD34 + CD133 + CD45- cells increased to 27,7% (p <0,05. After endovascular intervention for the subgroup of patients with T2DM and with the levels of HbA1c ≤7,5%, the levels of CD34+VEGFR2+CD45- cells increased to 46,6% (p=0,01, and the levels of CD34+CD133+CD45- cells increased to 40,3 % (p=0,006 compared with the subgroup of patients with T2DM and with HbA1c levels of ≥7,5%.ConclusionThe patients with T2DM displayed alterations in EPC mobilisation after endovascular interventions. In addition, the EPC level changes were dependent on glycaemic control. Thus, in the subgroup of patients with T2DM and with good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤7,5%, the EPC levels were significantly higher after endovascular interventions.

  13. Cilostazol Improves Proangiogenesis Functions in Human Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells through the Stromal Cell-Derived Factor System and Hybrid Therapy Provides a Synergistic Effect In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Ya; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Li, Yi-Heng; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cilostazol on proangiogenesis functions in human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro and the therapeutic implication of hybrid therapy with cilostazol and human early EPCs in vivo. Cilostazol significantly increased colony-forming units and enhanced differentiation of EPCs toward endothelial lineage. Treatments resulted in antiapoptotic effects and stimulated proliferation and migration and in vitro vascular tube formation through activation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Blood flow recovery and capillary density in murine ischemic hindlimbs were significantly improved in cilostazol-treated, human early EPCs-treated, and cotreatment groups. The effects were attenuated with SDF-1α inhibition. Plasma SDF-1α levels were significantly higher in 3 active treatment groups after surgery, with greatest effects observed in hybrid therapy. The angiogenic effects of transplanted EPCs pretreated with cilostazol ex vivo were superior to untreated EPCs using in vivo Matrigel assay. Implanted EPCs were incorporated into the capillary, with pretreatment or cotreatment with cilostazol resulting in enhanced effects. Taken together, cilostazol promotes a large number of proangiogenic functions in human early EPCs through activation of SDF-1/CXCR4/PI3K/Akt signaling, and hybrid therapy provides a synergistic effect in vivo. Cotreatment may be beneficial in ischemic disease.

  14. [Isolation, culture and identification of two types of endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Yi; Zhang, Huai-Qin; Yu, Hua; Yang, De-Ye; Huang, Wei-Jian; Zhou, Hao

    2007-04-01

    To investigate how to isolate, culture and identify two types of endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood in rabbits. Mononuclear cells(MNCs) were isolated from rabbit peripheral blood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) were obtained from MNCs through different ways of isolation and culture. Two types of cells were assessed by DiI-ac-LDL uptake and lectin binding, and then they were identified by immunofluorescence of flk-1, immunocytochemistry of CD34 and VIII factor related antigen and vasculogenesis activity in vitro. Two types of endothelial progenitor cells were obtained from rabbit peripheral blood through different ways of isolation and culture. EPCs on the seventh day and EOCs on the sixteenth day were positive for ac-LDL uptake and lectin binding, and both of them expressed CD34, flk-1 and VIII factor related antigen. EOCs were assembled into primitive vascular tube-like structures when plated in matrigel. EPCs and EOCs could be obtained from rabbit peripheral blood when different ways of isolation and culture were performed. The system of cell culture can be applied to subsequent experiments in cell transplantation.

  15. The possible role of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 in the senescence of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus

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    Yin Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decrease and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs has been assumed as an important cause/consequence of diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications, in which the senescence of EPCs induced by hyperglycemia may play an immensurable role. However, the mechanisms of EPCs senescence has not been fully investigated. Recently, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4, a member of serine/threomine (Ser/Thr kinase family and p53-related gene, is reported to regulate the replicative and stress-induced senescence of different cells. Presentation of the hypothesis These above lead to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis that RSK4 may serve as a mediator of EPCs senescence in DM. Testing the hypothesis EPCs of healthy subjects and DM patients are isolated from peripheral blood and incubated with high glucose (HG. Then, the EPCs senescence would be detected by senescence associated β-galactosides (SA-β-gal staining. Meanwhile, the RSK4 expression is assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Moreover, overexpressing or RNA interfering of RSK4 in EPCs to investigate the relationship between RSK4 expression and the senescence of EPCs are necessary to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on possible upstream and downstream factors of RSK4 would be explored to reveal the RSK4-mediated senescence pathway in EPCs. Implications of the hypothesis If proved, this hypothesis will provide another mediator of EPCs senescence, and may establish a novel pathogenesis for DM and further benefit to the management of DM.

  16. Shear stress regulates late EPC differentiation via mechanosensitive molecule-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement.

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    Min Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, in particular late EPCs, play important roles in endothelial maintenance and repair. Recent evidence has revealed shear stress as a key regulator for EPC differentiation. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the shear stress-induced EPC differentiation have not been understood completely. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of shear stress on the late EPC differentiation, and to elucidate the signal mechanism involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that cytoskeletal remodeling was involved in the shear stress-upregulated expression of endothelial markers vWF and CD31 in late EPCs, with subsequently increased in vivo reendothelialization after arterial injury. Moreover, shear stress activated several mechanosensitive molecules including integrin β1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK, which were all involved in both cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell differentiation in response to shear stress in late EPCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shear stress is a key regulator for late EPC differentiation into endothelial cells, which is important for vascular repair, and the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by the activation of the cascade of integrin β1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK is crucial in this process.

  17. Exercise-induced mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with premature coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierski, Maciej; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Michalewska-Włudarczyk, Aleksandra; Podolecka, Ewa; Kotowski, Maciej; Machaliński, Bogusław; Tendera, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) derive from bone marrow and participate in both endothelial regeneration and development of new blood vessels. EPC also play a role in the atherosclerotic process, and their number correlates negatively with the presence of classical risk factors. To evaluate circulating EPC count and their exercise-induced mobilisation in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The study group included 60 patients with stable CAD diagnosed before 45 years of age. The control group consisted of 33 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers. Venous blood was sampled 3 times in order to assess circulating EPC count immediately before an exercise test (EPC 0) and at 15 min (EPC 15) and 60 min (EPC 60) after the exercise test. Circulating EPC count in the study group at rest and at 15 min after exercise was comparable (2.1 vs. 2.1 cell/μL, p = 0.35) and increased significantly at 60 min after exercise in comparison to resting values (2.1 vs. 3.2 cell/μL, p group, circulating EPC count increased significantly at 15 min after exercise (2.0 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise, although it remained greater than at rest (2.7 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p exercise was comparable in the two groups (2.1 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p = 0.96; and 3.2 vs. 2.7 cell/μL, p = 0.13, respectively) but it was significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group at 15 min after exercise (2.1 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise did not correlate with the number of stenosed coronary arteries but at 60 min after exercise it was greater in patients with one-vessel disease compared to those with two- or three-vessel disease (4.2 vs. 3.4 cell/μL, p = 0.01; and 4.2 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.00003). However, no difference in circulating EPC count was seen at 60 min after exercise between patients with two- or three-vessel disease (3.4 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.3). 1. Circulating EPC count at rest is comparable between subjects with premature atherosclerosis and healthy volunteers

  18. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chai, Han-Tan; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Yen, Chia-Hung; Leu, Steve; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2012-07-02

    This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat) was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8) for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1). Another age-matched group (n = 8) were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2). The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all pObesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  19. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

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    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  20. Successful in vitro expansion and differentiation of cord blood derived CD34+ cells into early endothelial progenitor cells reveals highly differential gene expression.

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    Ingo Ahrens

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP, PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15 or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3 properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP was the most up-regulated gene.

  1. Successful In Vitro Expansion and Differentiation of Cord Blood Derived CD34+ Cells into Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reveals Highly Differential Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcic, Denijal; Haviv, Izhak; Merivirta, Ruusu-Maaria; Agrotis, Alexander; Leitner, Ephraem; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bode, Christoph; Lappas, Martha; Peter, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU) assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP), PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15) or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3) properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP) was the most up-regulated gene. PMID:21858032

  2. Myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: role of endothelial progenitor cells and oxidative stress

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    Zhao Chun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are responsible for angiogenesis and maintenance of microvascular integrity, the number of EPCs is correlated with oxidative stress. Their relation to myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is nonetheless unknown. Methods Eighty-seven patients with T2DM and no history of coronary artery disease were recruited. Transthoracic echocardiography and detailed evaluation of left ventricular (LV systolic function by 2-dimensional (2D speckle tracking derived strain analysis in 3 orthogonal directions was performed. Four subpopulations of EPCs, including CD34+, CD133+, CD34+/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR + and CD133+/KDR + EPCs, were measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD. Results The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 9 years and 39.6% were male. Those with an impaired longitudinal strain had a lower number of CD34+ EPCs (2.82 ± 1.87% vs. 3.74 ± 2.12%, P  Conclusions LV global circumferential strain was independently associated with number of CD34+ EPCs and SOD. These findings suggest that myocardial dysfunction in patients with T2DM is related to depletion of EPCs and increased oxidative stress.

  3. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

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    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  4. High calcium bioglass enhances differentiation and survival of endothelial progenitor cells, inducing early vascularization in critical size bone defects.

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    Karam Eldesoqi

    Full Text Available Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with β-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n = 12. Controls (n = 6 received BG40 and the treatment group (n = 6 received BG40 seeded with 5×10(5 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca(2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects.

  5. Molecular evaluation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in children undergoing hemodialysis and after kidney transplantation.

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    Metsuyanim, Sally; Levy, Ran; Davidovits, Miriam; Dekel, Benjamin

    2009-02-01

    Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been explained by accelerated atherosclerosis and impaired angiogenesis, in which endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may play key roles. Circulating cells with endothelial progenitor phenotype have not been evaluated in children with ESRD. Using a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, we measured endothelial-specific and progenitor-associated genes VE-cadherin (VE-C), CD146, CD31, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (Tie-2), Flk1, CD133, and growth factors promoting EPC function, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the blood of pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis and after transplantation. Patients' metabolic parameters were correlated with EPC marker gene levels. Compared with controls, circulating VE-cadherin, CD146, Flk1, VEGF, and EPO RNA levels were decreased in ESRD and normalized in transplanted patients. Levels of VE-cadherin, which were the most significantly reduced in ESRD (p = 0.001) inversely correlated in all of the patient population with serum urea and creatinine concentration, whereas among the ESRD group showed an inverse correlation with diastolic blood pressure (BP), interventricular septum thickness (IVST), and left ventricular mass index. Pediatric ESRD patients may have lower angiogenic potential and increased cardiovascular morbidity, because of decreased expression of circulating endothelial cell specific transcripts. Prospective studies are required to link this expression pattern and its restoration in transplanted patients to cardiovascular outcome.

  6. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  7. Effect of co-culture human endothelial progenitor cells with porcine oocytes during maturation subsequent embryo development of parthenotes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2018-02-14

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been applied to regenerative medicine for their roles in angiogenesis as well as neovascularization, and these angiogenetic functions have beneficial effects on maturation of ovarian follicles. However, little information is available on whether EPCs on culture systems affect oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EPC co-culture on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development, and to examine gene expression in cumulus cells, oocytes and blastocysts. The effect of co-culture using EPC on porcine oocyte IVM was investigated. Oocytes were activated using electrical stimulation and embryo developmental competence was estimated. The expression of the genes related to cumulus expansion, oocyte maturation, embryo development and apoptosis were analyzed. In result, there was a significantly increased maturation rate in EPC group compared with control (p cultured with EPCs exhibited significantly improved blastocyst formation rates (p culture group showed significantly higher SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG levels. In conclusion, co-culturing porcine oocytes with EPCs improves their maturation by regulating genes involved in cumulus cell expansion, oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Moreover, EPC co-culture during IVM enhanced embryo development as shown by increased blastocyst formation rate and pluripotency-related gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Amlodipine Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization in Diabetic Rats through Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization

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    Jiayin Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether amlodipine could improve angiogenic responses in a diabetic rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI through improving bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (EPC mobilization, in the same way as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods. After induction of AMI by coronary artery ligation, diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive perindopril (2 mgkg−1 day−1, amlodipine (2.5 mgkg−1 day−1, or vehicle by gavage (n=20 per group. Circulating EPC counts before ligation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 after AMI were measured in each group. Microvessel density, cardiac function, and cardiac remodeling were assessed 4 weeks after treatment. The signaling pathway related to EPC mobilization was also measured. Results. Circulating EPC count in amlodipine- and perindopril-treated rats peaked at day 7, to an obvious higher level than the control group peak which was reached earlier (at day 5. Rats treated with amlodipine showed improved postischemia neovascularization and cardiac function, together with reduced cardiac remodeling, decreased interstitial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Amlodipine treatment also increased cardiac SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and gave rise to activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling in bone marrow. Conclusions. Amlodipine promotes neovascularization by improving EPC mobilization from bone marrow in diabetic rats after AMI, and activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling may in part contribute to this.

  9. NOTCH4 signaling controls EFNB2-induced endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Luo, Qingqing; Zheng, Yanfang; Liu, Xiaoping; Hu, Ying; Liu, Weifang; Luo, Minglian; Zhao, Yin; Zou, Li

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy and is closely related to endothelial dysfunction, which can be repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 (ephrinB2) cascade may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by inhibiting the biological activity of EPCs. In addition, both NOTCH1 and NOTCH4, which are specific receptors for DLL4/NOTCH, play critical roles in the various steps of angiogenesis. However, it has not been determined which receptor (NOTCH1, NOTCH4, or both) is specific for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Accordingly, we performed a series of investigations to evaluate it. EFNB2 expression was examined when NOTCH4 or NOTCH1 was downregulated, with or without DLL4 treatment. Then, the effects of NOTCH4 on EPC function were detected. Additionally, we analyzed NOTCH4 and EFNB2 expression in the EPCs from preeclampsia and normal pregnancies. Results showed that NOTCH4 downregulation led to decreased expression of EFNB2, which maintained the same level in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. By contrast, NOTCH1 silencing resulted in a moderate increase in EFNB2 expression, which further increased in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. The downregulation of NOTCH4 resulted in an increase of EPC biological activity, which was similar to EFNB2 silencing. NOTCH4 expression, consistent with the EFNB2 level, increased notably in preeclampsia EPCs compared with the controls. These findings suggest that NOTCH4, not NOTCH1, is the specific receptor for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Blockade of this cascade may enhance the angiogenic property of EPCs, and act as a potential target to promote angiogenesis in patients with preeclampsia. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. TNF-TNFR2/p75 Signaling Inhibits Early and Increases Delayed Nontargeted Effects in Bone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Song, Jin; Park, Daniel; Enderling, Heiko; McDonald, J. Tyson; Gee, Hannah; Garrity, Brittany; Shtifman, Alexander; Yan, Xinhua; Walsh, Kenneth; Natarajan, Mohan; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2014-01-01

    TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed after being irradiated (IR) and is implicated in mediating radiobiological bystander responses (RBRs). Little is known about specific TNF receptors in regulating TNF-induced RBR in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). Full body γ-IR WT BM-EPCs showed a biphasic response: slow decay of p-H2AX foci during the initial 24 h and increase between 24 h and 7 days post-IR, indicating a significant RBR in BM-EPCs in vivo. Individual TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling in RBR was evaluated in BM-EPCs from WT, TNFR1/p55KO, and TNFR2/p75KO mice, in vitro. Compared with WT, early RBR (1–5 h) were inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed RBR (3–5 days) were amplified in p55KO EPCs, suggesting a possible role for TNFR2/p75 signaling in delayed RBR. Neutralizing TNF in γ-IR conditioned media (CM) of WT and p55KO BM-EPCs largely abolished RBR in both cell types. ELISA protein profiling of WT and p55KO EPC γ-IR-CM over 5 days showed significant increases in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1α (Interleukin-1 alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and MCP-1. In vitro treatments with murine recombinant (rm) TNF-α and rmIL-1α, but not rmMCP-1 or rmRANTES, increased the formation of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated p55KO EPCs. We conclude that TNF-TNFR2 signaling may induce RBR in naïve BM-EPCs and that blocking TNF-TNFR2 signaling may prevent delayed RBR in BM-EPCs, conceivably, in bone marrow milieu in general. PMID:24711449

  11. Impact of adipose tissue or umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on the immunogenicity of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Kefang Tan

    Full Text Available The application of autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC transplantation is a promising approach in therapeutic cardiovascular diseases and ischemic diseases. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity of EPCs, adipose tissue (AD-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and umbilical cord (UC-derived MSCs by flow cytometry and the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The impact of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs on the immunogenicity of EPCs was analyzed by the mixed lymphocyte reaction and cytokine secretion in vitro and was further tested by allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC induced immuno-rejection on a cell/matrigel graft in an SCID mouse model. EPCs and AD-MSCs express higher levels of MHC class I than UC-MSCs. All three kinds of cells are negative for MHC class II. UC-MSCs also express lower levels of IFN-γ receptor mRNA when compared with EPCs and AD-MSCs. EPCs can stimulate higher rates of proliferation of lymphocytes than AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs. Furthermore, AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs can modulate immune response and inhibit lymphocyte proliferation induced by EPCs, mainly through inhibition of the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Compared with UC-MSCs, AD-MSCs can significantly improve vessel formation and maintain the integrity of neovascular structure in an EPC+MSC/matrigel graft in SCID mice, especially under allo-PBMC induced immuno-rejection. In conclusion, our study shows that AD-MSC is a powerful candidate to minimize immunological rejection and improve vessel formation in EPC transplantation treatment.

  12. Enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains of APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyang; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Cuntai; Zheng, Miao; Liang, Huifang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jie; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the repair function of exogenous Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for brain microvascular damage of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study used a density-gradient centrifugation method to isolate mononuclear cells (MNCs) from mouse bone marrow, which were subsequently seeded and cultured. Cells were characterized by morphology and detection of the surface markers CD34 and CD133 at different time points by immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry (FCM). Then, EPCs were transfected with GFP adenoviral vectors (GFP-EPCs). Wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 transgenic mice both received GFP-EPCs injection through the tail vein, and using a PBS buffer injection as the control. Seven days later, the animals’ brain tissue was isolated. Expression of GFP was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western-blot (WB), while the fluorescence of GFP within the brains of mice was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Higher mRNA and protein expression of GFP, accompanied with increased green fluorescence, were detected in the brain of GFP-EPCs-injected APP/PS1 mice, as compared with GFP-EPCs-injected WT mice. The results show that the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD exhibited enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains than the WT mice. PMID:27186272

  13. Resistance exercise increases endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark D; Wekesa, Antony L; Phelan, John P; Harrison, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are involved in vascular growth and repair. They increase in the circulation after a single bout of aerobic exercise, potentially related to muscle ischemia. Muscular endurance resistance exercise (MERE) bouts also have the potential to induce muscle ischemia if appropriately structured. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of a single bout of MERE on circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors. Thirteen trained men age 22.4 ± 0.5 yr (mean ± SEM) performed a bout of MERE consisting of three sets of six exercises at participants' 15-repetition maximum without resting between repetitions or exercises. The MERE bout duration was 12.1 ± 0.6 min. Blood lactate and HR were 11.9 ± 0.9 mmol·L and 142 ± 5 bpm, respectively, at the end of MERE. Blood was sampled preexercise and at 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h postexercise. Circulating EPC and serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D), granulocyte colony stimulating factor, soluble Tie-2, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-9) were higher (P < 0.05) in the postexercise period. Circulating EPC levels were unchanged at 10 min postexercise but higher at 2 h postexercise (P < 0.05). The concentration of most angiogenic factors and metalloproteinases were higher at 10 min postexercise (VEGF-A, +38%; VEGF-C, +40%; VEGF-D, +9%; soluble Tie-2, +15%; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, +24%; MMP-1, +62%; MMP-2, +3%; MMP-3, +54%; and MMP-9, +45%; all P < 0.05). Soluble E-selectin was lower (P < 0.05) at 2 and 24 h postexercise, with endothelial microparticles and thrombomodulin unchanged. Short intense bouts of MERE can trigger increases in circulating EPC and related angiogenic factors, potentially contributing to vascular adaptation and vasculoprotection.

  14. TNF-α increases endothelial progenitor cell adhesion to the endothelium by increasing bond expression and affinity.

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    Prisco, Anthony R; Prisco, Michael R; Carlson, Brian E; Greene, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a rare population of cells that participate in angiogenesis. To effectively use EPCs for regenerative therapy, the mechanisms by which they participate in tissue repair must be elucidated. This study focused on the process by which activated EPCs bind to a target tissue. It has been demonstrated that EPCs can bind to endothelial cells (ECs) through the tumore necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-regulated vascular cell adhesion molecule 1/very-late antigen 4 (VLA4) interaction. VLA4 can bind in a high or low affinity state, a process that is difficult to experimentally isolate from bond expression upregulation. To separate these processes, a new parallel plate flow chamber was built, a detachment assay was developed, and a mathematical model was created that was designed to analyze the detachment assay results. The mathematical model was developed to predict the relative expression of EPC/EC bonds made for a given bond affinity distribution. EPCs treated with TNF-α/vehicle were allowed to bind to TNF-α/vehicle-treated ECs in vitro. Bound cells were subjected to laminar flow, and the cellular adherence was quantified as a function of shear stress. Experimental data were fit to the mathematical model using changes in bond expression or affinity as the only free parameter. It was found that TNF-α treatment of ECs increased adhesion through bond upregulation, whereas TNF-α treatment of EPCs increased adhesion by increasing bond affinity. These data suggest that injured tissue could potentially increase recruitment of EPCs for tissue regeneration via the secretion of TNF-α. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Pristimerin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Targeting PC-3 Stem Cell Characteristics and VEGF-Induced Vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs

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    Shuai Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most common malignant cancers and a major leading cause of cancer deaths in men. Cancer stem-like cells are shown to be highly tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and can significantly contribute to tumor new vessel formation and bone marrow derived-EPCs (BM-EPCs are shown to recruit to the angiogenic switch in tumor growth and metastatic progression, suggesting the importance of targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs and EPCs for novel tumor therapies. Pristimerin, an active component isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects in some cell lines in previous studies. However, the effect and mechanism of Pristimerin on CSCs and EPCs in PCa bone metastasis are not well studied. Methods: The effect of Pristimerin on PC-3 stem cell characteristics and metastasis were detected by spheroid formation, CD133 and CD44 protein expression, matrix-gel invasive assay and colony-formation assay in vitro, VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression by ELISA assay, and tumor tumorigenicity by X-ray and MR in NOD-SCID mice model in vivo. In addition, we also detected the effect of Pristimerin on VEGF-induced vasculogenesis and protein expression of BM-EPCs. Results: Pristimerin could significantly inhibit spheroid formation and protein expression of CD133 and CD44, reduce VEGF and pro-inflammation cytokines expression of PC-3 cell, and prevent the xenografted PC-3 tumor growth in the bone of nude mice. The present data also showed that Pristimerin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs by suppressing the EPCs functions including proliferation, adhesion, migration, tube formation and inactivation the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, Akt and eNOS. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that Pristimerin has strong potential for development as a novel agent against prostate bone metastasis by suppressing PC-3 stem cell characteristics and VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs.

  16. The Relationship between Endothelial Progenitor Cell Populations and Epicardial and Microvascular Coronary Disease—A Cellular, Angiographic and Physiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim H.; Simpson, Philippa J. L.; Yong, Andy S.; Dunn, Louise L.; Chawantanpipat, Chirapan; Hsu, Chijen; Yu, Young; Keech, Anthony C.; Celermajer, David S.; Ng, Martin K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are implicated in protection against vascular disease. However, studies using angiography alone have reported conflicting results when relating EPCs to epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) severity. Moreover, the relationship between different EPC types and the coronary microcirculation is unknown. We therefore investigated the relationship between EPC populations and coronary epicardial and microvascular disease. Methods Thirty-three patients with a spectrum of isolated left anterior descending artery disease were studied. The coronary epicardial and microcirculation were physiologically interrogated by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR), index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). Two distinct EPC populations (early EPC and late outgrowth endothelial cells [OECs]) were isolated from these patients and studied ex vivo. Results There was a significant inverse relationship between circulating OEC levels and epicardial CAD severity, as assessed by FFR and angiography (r = 0.371, p = 0.04; r = -0.358, p = 0.04; respectively). More severe epicardial CAD was associated with impaired OEC migration and tubulogenesis (r = 0.59, p = 0.005; r = 0.589, p = 0.004; respectively). Patients with significant epicardial CAD (FFRcoronary microvascular disease. PMID:24736282

  17. The relationship between endothelial progenitor cell populations and epicardial and microvascular coronary disease-a cellular, angiographic and physiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim H; Simpson, Philippa J L; Yong, Andy S; Dunn, Louise L; Chawantanpipat, Chirapan; Hsu, Chijen; Yu, Young; Keech, Anthony C; Celermajer, David S; Ng, Martin K C

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are implicated in protection against vascular disease. However, studies using angiography alone have reported conflicting results when relating EPCs to epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) severity. Moreover, the relationship between different EPC types and the coronary microcirculation is unknown. We therefore investigated the relationship between EPC populations and coronary epicardial and microvascular disease. Thirty-three patients with a spectrum of isolated left anterior descending artery disease were studied. The coronary epicardial and microcirculation were physiologically interrogated by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR), index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). Two distinct EPC populations (early EPC and late outgrowth endothelial cells [OECs]) were isolated from these patients and studied ex vivo. There was a significant inverse relationship between circulating OEC levels and epicardial CAD severity, as assessed by FFR and angiography (r=0.371, p=0.04; r=-0.358, p=0.04; respectively). More severe epicardial CAD was associated with impaired OEC migration and tubulogenesis (r=0.59, p=0.005; r=0.589, p=0.004; respectively). Patients with significant epicardial CAD (FFRcoronary microvascular disease.

  18. Adherence to lifestyle modifications after a cardiac rehabilitation program and endothelial progenitor cells. A six-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, F; Marcucci, R; Gori, A M; Burgisser, C; Francini, S; Roberts, A T; Sofi, F; Gensini, G F; Abbate, R; Fattirolli, F

    2014-07-03

    An increase of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program has been reported, but no data on the impact of adherence to lifestyle recommendations provided during a CR program on EPCs are available. It was our aim to investigate the effect of adherence to lifestyle recommendations on EPCs, inflammatory and functional parameters after six months of a CR program in AMI patients. In 110 AMI patients (90 male/20 female; mean age 57.9 ± 9.4 years) EPCs, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) levels, and cardiopulmonary testings were determined at the end of the CR (T1) and at a six-month follow-up (T2). At T2 we administered a questionnaire assessing dietary habits and physical activity. At T2, we observed a decrease of EPCs (pLifestyle (HL) score (none/low, moderate and high adherence to lifestyle recommendations). We observed a significant association between adherence to lifestyle recommendations, increase in EPCs and exercise capacity between T1 and T2 (Δ EPCs p for trend lifestyle recommendations provided during a CR program positively influences EPC levels and exercise capacity.

  19. Role of endothelial progenitor cells and inflammatory cytokines in healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

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    Francesco Tecilazich

    Full Text Available To evaluate changes in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and cytokines in patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU in association with wound healing.We studied healthy subjects, diabetic patients not at risk of DFU, at risk of DFU and with active DFU. We prospectively followed the DFU patients over a 12-week period. We also investigated similar changes in diabetic rabbit and mouse models of wound healing.All EPC phenotypes except the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR(+CD133(+ were reduced in the at risk and the DFU groups compared to the controls. There were no major EPC differences between the control and not at risk group, and between the at risk and DFU groups. Serum stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and stem cell factor (SCF were increased in DFU patients. DFU patients who healed their ulcers had lower CD34(+KDR(+ count at visits 3 and 4, serum c-reactive protein (CRP and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF at visit 1, interleukin-1 (IL-1 at visits 1 and 4. EPCs tended to be higher in both diabetic animal models when compared to their non-diabetic counterparts both before and ten days after wounding.Uncomplicated diabetes does not affect EPCs. EPCs are reduced in patients at risk or with DFU while complete wound healing is associated with CD34(+KDR(+ reduction, suggesting possible increased homing. Low baseline CRP, IL-1α and GM-CSF serum levels were associated with complete wound healing and may potentially serve as prognostic markers of DFU healing. No animal model alone is representative of the human condition, indicating the need for multiple experimental models.

  20. Construction of a multifunctional coating consisting of phospholipids and endothelial progenitor cell-specific peptides on titanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huiqing; Li, Xiaojing [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhao, Yuancong, E-mail: zhaoyc7320@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, Jingan; Chen, Jiang [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangping8@263.net [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Leibniz of Polymer Research Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Huang, Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: The phospholipid groups of PMMDP can inhibit platele adhesion, and the EPCs-specific peptide of the PMMDP showed special recognition and capture for EPCs. The catechol groups of PMMDP play a critical role as molecular anchor for balancing the binding between the coating and the substrate. - Highlights: • The uniform coating of PMMDP can be constructed on titanium surface successfully through the catechol groups. • The phospholipid groups of PMMDP can inhibit platele adhesion, fibrinogen denaturation and improve the hydrophilicity of substrate. • The EPCs-specific peptide of the PMMDP showed special recognition and capture for EPCs. - Abstract: A phospholipid/peptide polymer (PMMDP) with phosphorylcholine groups, endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-specific peptides and catechol groups was anchored onto a titanium (Ti) surface to fabricate a biomimetic multifunctional surface. The PMMDP coating was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The amount of PMMDP coating on the Ti surface was quantified by using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Interactions between blood components and the coated and bare Ti substrates were evaluated by platelet adhesion and activation assays and fibrinogen denaturation test using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The results revealed that the PMMDP-modified surface inhibited fibrinogen denaturation and reduced platelet adhesion and activation. EPC cell culture on the PMMDP-modified surface showed increased adhesion and proliferation of EPCs when compared to the cells cultured on untreated Ti surface. The inhibition of fibrinogen denaturation and platelet adhesion and support of EPCs attachment and proliferation indicated that this coating might be beneficial for future applications in blood-contacting implants, such as vascular stents.

  1. Lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells and airway vascularization is only partially dependant on eosinophils in a house dust mite-exposed mouse model of allergic asthma.

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    Nirooya Sivapalan

    Full Text Available Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.Wild-type (WT BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR.Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor improves direct reprogramming of fibroblasts towards endothelial progenitor cells via ETV2 transduction

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    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human fibroblasts can be differentiated into endothelial progenitor cells by direct reprogramming via ETV-2 transfection. Previously, we have shown that the efficacy of direct reprogramming can be enhanced by hypoxia treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs via Ets variant gene 2 (ETV2 transfection can be increased with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF treatment. Foreskin-derived fibroblasts were cultured in standard medium (DMEM/F12 supplemented with fetal bovine serum. They were then transduced with a viral vector expressing ETV2 in culture medium supplemented with HGF. The transduced fibroblasts were cultured in endothelial cell medium supplemented with HGF for 28 days. The efficacy of direct reprogramming was evaluated based on expression of CD31 and VEGFR2 markers by transduced cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of induced EPCs were also confirmed by expression of particular genes and in vitro angiogenesis assays. Our results showed that HGF significantly increased the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts towards EPCs via ETV2 transcription factors; efficiency increased from 5.41+/-1.51% for ETV2 transduction alone to 12.31+/-2.15% for ETV2 transduction combined with HGF treatment. These findings suggest the rationale for combined use of ETV2 and HGF in direct in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 836-843

  3. Circulating Progenitor Cell Response to Exercise in Wheelchair Racing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiro, Grace M; Edwards, Thomas; Barfield, J P; Beals, Joseph W; Broad, Elizabeth M; Motl, Robert W; Burd, Nicholas A; Pilutti, Lara A; De Lisio, Michael

    2017-08-11

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood that participate in tissue repair. CPC mobilization has been well characterized in able-bodied persons, but has not been previously investigated in wheelchair racing athletes. The purpose of this study was to characterize CPC and CPC sub-population mobilization in elite wheelchair racing athletes in response to acute, upper-extremity aerobic exercise to determine if CPC responses are similar to ambulatory populations. Eight participants (3 female; age=27.5±4.0 years; supine height=162.5±18.6cm; weight=53.5±10.9kg, VO2peak=2.4±0.62 L/min; years post injury=21.5±6.2 years) completed a 25 km time trial on a road course. Blood sampling occurred before (Pre) and immediately post (Post) exercise for quantification of CPCs (CD34), HSPCs (CD34/CD45), HSCs (CD34/CD45/CD38), CD34 adipose tissue-derived (AT)-MSCs (CD45/CD34/CD105/CD31), CD34 bone marrow-derived (BM)-MSCs (CD45/CD34/CD105/CD31), and EPCs (CD45/CD34/VEGFR2) via flow cytometry. Blood lactate was measured Pre- and Post-trial as an indicator of exercise intensity. CPC concentration increased 5.7 fold post-exercise (P=0.10). HSPCs, HSCs, EPCs, and both MSC populations were not increased post exercise. Baseline HSPCs were significantly positively correlated to absolute VO2peak (Rho = 0.71, Pracing athletes is related to cardiorespiratory fitness and responses to exercise are positively related to exercise intensity.

  4. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

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    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  5. Improving the characterization of endothelial progenitor cell subsets by an optimized FACS protocol.

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    Karin Huizer

    Full Text Available The characterization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is fundamental to any study related to angiogenesis. Unfortunately, current literature lacks consistency in the definition of EPC subsets due to variations in isolation strategies and inconsistencies in the use of lineage markers. Here we address critical points in the identification of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs, circulating endothelial cells (CECs, and culture-generated outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs from blood samples of healthy adults (AB and umbilical cord (UCB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were enriched using a Ficoll-based gradient followed by an optimized staining and gating strategy to enrich for the target cells. Sorted EPC populations were subjected to RT-PCR for tracing the expression of markers beyond the limits of cell surface-based immunophenotyping. Using CD34, CD133 and c-kit staining, combined with FSC and SSC, we succeeded in the accurate and reproducible identification of four HPC subgroups and found significant differences in the respective populations in AB vs. UCB. Co-expression analysis of endothelial markers on HPCs revealed a complex pattern characterized by various subpopulations. CECs were identified by using CD34, KDR, CD45, and additional endothelial markers, and were subdivided according to their apoptotic state and expression of c-kit. Comparison of UCB-CECs vs. AB-CECs revealed significant differences in CD34 and KDR levels. OECs were grown from PBMC-fractions We found that viable c-kit+ CECs are a candidate circulating precursor for CECs. RT-PCR to angiogenic factors and receptors revealed that all EPC subsets expressed angiogenesis-related molecules. Taken together, the improvements in immunophenotyping and gating strategies resulted in accurate identification and comparison of better defined cell populations in a single procedure.

  6. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

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    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bone tissue engineering (TE endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+ were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+ or medium containing platelet lysate (PL. MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs.

  7. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells do not contribute to regeneration of endothelium after murine arterial injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette; Raarup, Merete Krog; Mortensen, Martin Bødtker

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelial regeneration after vascular injury, including percutaneous coronary intervention, is essential for vascular homeostasis and inhibition of neointima formation. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been implicated to contribute by homing and differentiating...... into endothelial cells (ECs). We tested this theory in a murine arterial injury model using carotid artery transplants and fluorescent reporter mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wire-injured carotid artery segments from wild-type mice were transplanted into TIE2-GFP transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein...... recipient mouse. Among 1186 ECs identified in re-endothelialized transplants (n= 5) by staining for von Willebrand Factor or vascular endothelial-cadherin, we did not find any blood-derived (GFP(+)) cells. CONCLUSION: Endothelial regeneration after vascular injury did not involve circulating EPCs...

  8. Differentiation of Mouse Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells Is Controlled by Endothelin 3 and Requires Regulation of Ednrb by SOX10 and ZEB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuli; Stanchina, Laure; Lecerf, Laure; Gacem, Nadjet; Conidi, Andrea; Baral, Viviane; Pingault, Veronique; Huylebroeck, Danny; Bondurand, Nadege

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance and differentiation of progenitor cells in the developing enteric nervous system are controlled by molecules such as the signaling protein endothelin 3 (EDN3), its receptor (the endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB]), and the transcription factors SRY-box 10 (SOX10) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2). We used enteric progenitor cell (EPC) cultures and mice to study the roles of these proteins in enteric neurogenesis and their cross regulation. We performed studies in mice with a Zeb2 loss-of-function mutation (Zeb2(Δ)) and mice carrying a spontaneous recessive mutation that prevents conversion of EDN3 to its active form (Edn3(ls)). EPC cultures issued from embryos that expressed only wild-type Zeb2 (Zeb2(+/+) EPCs) or were heterozygous for the mutation (Zeb2(Δ/+) EPCs) were exposed to EDN3; we analyzed the effects on cell differentiation using immunocytochemistry. In parallel, Edn3(ls) mice were crossed with Zeb2(Δ/+)mice; intestinal tissues were collected from embryos for immunohistochemical analyses. We investigated regulation of the EDNRB gene in transactivation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays; results were validated in functional rescue experiments using transgenes expression in EPCs from retroviral vectors. Zeb2(Δ/+) EPCs had increased neuronal differentiation compared to Zeb2(+/+) cells. When exposed to EDN3, Zeb2(+/+) EPCs continued expression of ZEB2 but did not undergo any neuronal differentiation. Incubation of Zeb2(Δ/+) EPCs with EDN3, on the other hand, resulted in only partial inhibition of neuronal differentiation. This indicated that 2 copies of Zeb2 are required for EDN3 to prevent neuronal differentiation. Mice with combined mutations in Zeb2 and Edn3 (double mutants) had more severe enteric anomalies and increased neuronal differentiation compared to mice with mutations in either gene alone. The transcription factors SOX10 and ZEB2 directly activated the EDNRB promoter. Overexpression of EDNRB in Zeb2(Δ/+) EPCs

  9. Parvovirus B19 Replication and Expression in Differentiating Erythroid Progenitor Cells.

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    Gloria Bua

    Full Text Available The pathogenic Parvovirus B19 (B19V is characterized by a strict adaptation to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs, a heterogeneous population of differentiating cells with diverse phenotypic and functional properties. In our work, we studied the dynamics of B19V infection in EPCs in dependence on the cell differentiation stage, in terms of distribution of infected cells, synthesis of viral nucleic acids and production of infectious virus. EPCs at early differentiation stage led to an abortive infection, without viral genome replication and a very low transcriptional activity. EPCs at later stages were permissive, with highest levels of viral replicative activity at day 9 (+3.0 Log from 2 to 48 hpi and lower levels at day 18 (+1.5 Log from 2 to 48 hpi. B19V DNA increment was in accordance with the percentage of cells positive to flow-FISH assay (41.4% at day 9, 1.1% at day 18. Quantitation of total RNA indicated a close association of genome replication and transcription with viral RNA accumulation within infected cells related to viral DNA increase during the course of infection. Analysis of the different classes of mRNAs revealed two distinct pattern of genome expression profile with a fine regulation in the frequency utilization of RNA processing signals: an early phase, when cleavage at the proximal site leading to a higher relative production of mRNA for NS protein, and a late phase, when cleavage at the distal site was more frequent leading to higher relative abundance of mRNA for VP and 11 kDA proteins. Infectious virus was released from cells at day 6-15, but not at day 18. Our results, providing a detailed description of B19V replication and expression profile in differentiating EPCs, highlight the very tight adaptation of B19V to a specific cellular target defined both by its erythroid lineage and its differentiation stage.

  10. Perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction by ERβ suppression in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiguo; Ren, Mingming; Li, Ling; Zhu, Yin; Chu, Zhigang; Zhu, Zhigang; Ruan, Qiongfang; Lou, Wenting; Zhang, Haimou; Han, Zhen; Huang, Xiaodong; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Yao, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect. Further investigation showed that ERβ suppression is due to perinatal testosterone exposure-induced epigenetic changes with altered DNA methylation on the ERβ promoter. During aging, EPCs with ERβ suppression mobilize to the vascular wall, differentiate into ERβ-suppressed mouse endothelial cells (MECs) with downregulated expression of SOD2 (mitochondrial superoxide dismutase) and ERRα (estrogen-related receptor α). This results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, and the dysfunction of mitochondria and fatty acid metabolism, subsequently potentiating vascular dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation of EPCs that overexpressed with either ERβ or a SIRT1 single mutant SIRT1-C152(D) that could modulate SIRT1 phosphorylation significantly ameliorated vascular dysfunction, while ERβ knockdown worsened the problem. We conclude that perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction through ERβ suppression in EPCs.

  11. Analysis of CD45- [CD34+/KDR+] endothelial progenitor cells as juvenile protective factors in a rat model of ischemic-hemorrhagic stroke.

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    Julius L Decano

    Full Text Available Identification of juvenile protective factors (JPFs which are altered with age and contribute to adult-onset diseases could identify novel pathways for reversing the effects of age, an accepted non-modifiable risk factor to adult-onset diseases. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been observed to be altered in stroke, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, said EPCs are candidate JPFs for adult-onset stroke. A priori, if EPC aging plays a 'master-switch JPF-role' in stroke pathogenesis, juvenile EPC therapy alone should delay stroke-onset. Using a hypertensive, transgenic-hyperlipidemic rat model of spontaneous ischemic-hemorrhagic stroke, spTg25, we tested the hypothesis that freshly isolated juvenile EPCs are JPFs that can attenuate stroke progression and delay stroke onset.FACS analysis revealed that CD45- [CD34+/KDR+] EPCs decrease with progression to stroke in spTg25 rats, exhibit differential expression of the dual endodthelin-1/VEGFsp receptor (DEspR and undergo differential DEspR-subtype specific changes in number and in vitro angiogenic tube-incorporation. In vivo EPC infusion of male, juvenile non-expanded cd45-[CD34+/KDR+] EPCs into female stroke-prone rats prior to stroke attenuated progression and delayed stroke onset (P<0.003. Detection of Y-chromosome DNA in brain microvessels of EPC-treated female spTg25 rats indicates integration of male EPCs into female rat brain microvessels. Gradient-echo MRI showed delay of ischemic-hemorrhagic lesions in EPC-treated rats. Real-time RT-PCR pathway-specific array-analysis revealed age-associated gene expression changes in CD45-[CD34+/KDR]EPC subtypes, which were accelerated in stroke-prone rats. Pro-angiogenic genes implicated in intimal hyperplasia were increased in stroke-prone rat EPCs (P<0.0001, suggesting a maladaptive endothelial repair system which acts like a double-edged sword repairing while predisposing to age-associated intimal hyperplasia.Altogether, the data

  12. Magnetic Resonance Tracking of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Labeled with Alkyl-Polyethylenimine 2 kDa/Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide in a Mouse Lung Carcinoma Xenograft Model

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    Cong Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in novel anticancer therapy and the repair of vascular injury has been increasingly recognized. In the present study, EPCs were labeled with N-alkyl-polyethylenimine 2 kDa (PEI2k-stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO to facilitate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of EPCs in a mouse lung carcinoma xenograft model. EPCs derived from human peripheral blood were labeled with alkyl-PEI2k/SPIO. The viability and activity of labeled cells were evaluated using proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis assays. Alkyl-PEI2k/SPIO-labeled EPCs were injected intravenously (group 1 or mixed and injected together with A549 cells subcutaneously (group 2 into groups of six mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. The labeling efficiency with alkyl-PEI2k/SPIO at 7 mg Fe/mL concentration was approximately 100%. Quantitative analysis of cellular iron was 6.062 ± 0.050 pg/cell. No significant effects on EPC proliferation, migration, or tubulogenesis were seen after labeling. Seventesla micro-MRI showed the presence of schistic or linear hypointense regions at the tumor margins starting from days 7 to 8 after EPC administration. This gradually extended into the inner tumor layers in group 1. In group 2, tumor growth was accompanied by dispersion of low-signal intensity regions inside the tumor. Iron-positive cells identified by Prussian blue dye were seen at the sites identified using MRI. Human CD31-positive cells and mouse CD31-positive cells were present in both groups. Labeling EPCs with alkyl-PEI2k/SPIO allows noninvasive magnetic resonance investigation of EPC involvement in tumor neovasculature and is associated with excellent biocompatibility and MRI sensitivity.

  13. Concurrent hypermulticolor monitoring of CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD146 endothelial progenitor cell markers for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yumi [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myung Hyun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Hyuk, Song Woo [Cardiology College of Medicine, Korea University (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Myong, E-mail: jmsong@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We observe EPCs and HPCs in patient for AMI diagnosis. • We detect two EPC subtypes using quantum dot and AOTF. • Quantum dot has narrower emission wavelength range than fluorescence dye. • AOTF provide smaller spectral interference than bandpass filters. • Quantum dot and AOTF are suitable for detecting large number of molecular markers concurrently. - Abstract: The circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in blood of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patient have been monitored in many previous studies. The number of circulating EPC increases in the blood of patients at onset of the AMI. EPC is originated from bone marrow. It performs vessel regeneration. There are many markers used for detecting EPC. Four of these markers, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146, were concurrently detected at the single cell level for the identification of EPC in the present preliminary study. The CD45 negative cell sorting was performed to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) acquired from four AMI patients with a magnetic bead sorter, since, EPCs expressed CD45 negative or dim. The resultant PBMC eluents were treated with quantum-antibody conjugates for the probing four different markers of EPCs and then applied to a high-content single cell imaging cytometer using acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The use of quantum dot, with narrow emission wavelength range and AOTF enabling cellular image at a particular single wavelength, is very advantageous for accurate high-content AMI diagnosis based on simultaneous monitoring of many markers. The number of EPC increased as compared with control in three of four AMI patients. In this approach, two EPC subtypes were found, CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(−) as early outgrowth EPCs and CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(+) as late outgrowth EPCs. Patient 1 had CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(−/dim), CD146(+) cells whose percentage was 4.21% of cells. Patient 2 had 2.38% of CD31(+), CD34(+), CD45(

  14. Valsartan reduces AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through suppression oxidative stress mediated ER stress in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-C; Qi, J; Liu, L-M; Li, J; Xu, H-Y; Liang, B; Li, B

    2017-03-01

    Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were cultured. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. EPCs apoptosis was determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium concentration and calpain activity were measured using Fluostar Omega Spectrofluorimeter. The expression of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a, CHOP, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. MTT assays showed valsartan significantly inhibited AT1-AA- induced decline of the viability of EPCs. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated valsartan inhibited AT1-AA-induced decline of the viability of EPCs via inhibiting AT1-AA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increasing of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain activity induced by AT1-AA in EPCs were also recovered after pre-treated with valsartan. Meanwhile, the upregulation of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a and CHOP, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3 caused by AT1-AA were reversed after pre-incubated with valsartan. Valsartan could inhibit AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated ER stress in EPCs.

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells induce transplant arteriosclerosis via VEGFR-1/2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaohua; Wang, Can; Yang, Shouguo; Hong, Tao; Wang, Fangshun; Xia, Limin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Acute rejection (AR) after organ transplantation results in transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in tissue repair and blood vessel formation but are suspected to be a cause of TA. In this study, we introduced a syngeneic and allogeneic abdominal aortic transplant model with C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Syngeneic and allogeneic grafts were histopathologically analyzed after transplantation. Bone marrow-derived EPCs were injected into transplant model animals to observe their distribution and temporal concentration changes. Changes of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), phosphorylated VEGFR-1 (pVEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, pVEGFR-2, protein kinase B (Akt), pAkt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (Erk1), pErk1 levels in EPCs upon VEGF165 and the VEGFR inhibitor Vandetanib exposure were analyzed in vitro with western blotting. In the allogeneic transplant group, two weeks after transplantation, formations of new intima layers could be observed, and its proliferation gradually increased to four and six weeks post-transplantation (p arteriosclerosis induced by abdominal aorta transplantation by blocking VEGFRs in EPCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic engineering with endothelial nitric oxide synthase improves functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with coronary artery disease: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Kumar, T R Santhosh; Uruno, Akira; Sugawara, Akira; Jayakumar, Karunakaran; Kartha, Chandrasekharan Cheranellore

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies have reported a marked impairment in the number and functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In view of an important role of eNOS in angiogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of eNOS gene transfer in ex vivo expanded EPCs isolated from patients with CAD. The expanded EPCs were transfected with mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1-eNOS containing the full-length human eNOS gene using lipofectamine. About 35-40% of the eNOS-EPCs had higher expression of eNOS as compared to untransfected EPCs. EPCs transfected with pcDNA3.0-EGFP, the plasmid vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used as control. The untransfected, GFP-transfected and eNOS-transfected EPCs were compared in terms of important functional attributes of angiogenesis such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and adhesion/integration into tube-like structures in vitro. Functional studies revealed that in the presence of defined growth conditions, compared to the untransfected and GFP-transfected cells, eNOS-EPCs from patients with CAD have a significant increase in [3H] thymidine-labeled DNA (P < 0.01), migration (14.6 +/- 1.8 and 16.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 23.5 +/- 3.4 cells/field, P < 0.01), ability to differentiate into endothelial-like spindle-shaped cells (46 +/- 4.5 and 56.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 93.2 +/- 6.6 cells/field, P < 0.001) and also incorporation into tube-like structures on the matrigel (GFP-EPCs: 21.25 +/- 2.9 vs. GFP-eNOS-EPCs: 34.5 +/- 5.5 cells/field, P < 0.05). We conclude that eNOS gene transfection is a valuable approach to augment angiogenic properties of ex vivo expanded EPCs and eNOS-modified EPCs may offer significant advantages than EPCs alone in terms of their clinical use in patients with myocardial ischemia.

  17. Overexpression or silencing of FOXO3a affects proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

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    Tiantian Sang

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been considered to be of great significance in therapeutic angiogenesis. Furthermore, the Forkhead box O (FOXO transcription factors are known to be important regulators of cell cycle. Therefore, we investigated the effects of changes in FOXO3a activity on cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins in EPCs. The constructed recombinant adenovirus vectors Ad-TM (triple mutant-FOXO3a, Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a and the control Ad-GFP were transfected into EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Assessment of transfection efficiency using an inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry indicated a successful transfection. Additionally, the expression of FOXO3a was markedly increased in the Ad-TM-FOXO3a group but was inhibited in the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group as seen by western blotting. Overexpression of FOXO3a suppressed EPC proliferation and modulated expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins including upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1 and downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. In the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group, the results were counter-productive. Furthermore, flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis suggested that the active mutant of FOXO3a caused a noticeable increase in G1- and S-phase frequencies, while a decrease was observed after FOXO3a silencing. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that FOXO3a could possibly inhibit EPC proliferation via cell cycle arrest involving upregulation of p27(kip1 and downregulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and PCNA.

  18. Bone Marrow Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are the Cellular Mediators of Pulmonary Hypertension in the Murine Monocrotaline Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Jason M; Pereira, Mandy; Wen, Sicheng; Dooner, Mark S; Del Tatto, Michael; Papa, Elaine; Cheng, Yan; Goldberg, Laura; Ventetuolo, Corey E; Liang, Olin; Klinger, James R; Quesenberry, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    The role of bone marrow (BM) cells in modulating pulmonary hypertensive responses is not well understood. Determine if BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and if this is attenuated by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Three BM populations were studied: (a) BM from vehicle and monocrotaline (MCT)-treated mice (PH induction), (b) BM from vehicle-, MCT-treated mice that received MSC-EV infusion after vehicle, MCT treatment (PH reversal, in vivo), (c) BM from vehicle-, MCT-treated mice cultured with MSC-EVs (PH reversal, in vitro). BM was separated into EPCs (sca-1+/c-kit+/VEGFR2+) and non-EPCs (sca-1-/c-kit-/VEGFR2-) and transplanted into healthy mice. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was assessed by RV-to-left ventricle+septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and pulmonary vascular remodeling by blood vessel wall thickness-to-diameter (WT/D) ratio. EPCs but not non-EPCs from mice with MCT-induced PH (MCT-PH) increased RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH induction). EPCs from MCT-PH mice treated with MSC-EVs did not increase RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH reversal, in vivo). Similarly, EPCs from MCT-PH mice treated with MSC-EVs pre-transplantation did not increase RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH reversal, in vitro). MSC-EV infusion reversed increases in BM-EPCs and increased lung tissue expression of EPC genes and their receptors/ligands in MCT-PH mice. These findings suggest that the pulmonary hypertensive effects of BM are mediated by EPCs and those MSC-EVs attenuate these effects. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PH and offer a potential target for development of novel PH therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1595-1606. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  19. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. It Is All in the Blood: The Multifaceted Contribution of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo Fadini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a worldwide growing disease and represents a huge social and healthcare problem owing to the burden of its complications. Micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications arise from excess damage through well-known biochemical pathways. Interestingly, microangiopathy hits the bone marrow (BM microenvironment with features similar to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The BM represents a reservoir of progenitor cells for multiple lineages, not limited to the hematopoietic system and including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteogenic cells. All these multiple progenitor cell lineages are profoundly altered in the setting of diabetes in humans and animal models. Reduction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs along with excess smooth muscle progenitor (SMP and osteoprogenitor cells creates an imbalance that promote the development of micro- and macroangiopathy. Finally, an excess generation of BM-derived fusogenic cells has been found to contribute to diabetic complications in animal models. Taken together, a growing amount of literature attributes to circulating progenitor cells a multi-faceted role in the pathophysiology of DM, setting a novel scenario that puts BM and the blood at the centre of the stage.

  1. [Effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin treatment on the functions of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in children with Kawasaki disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Guo; Men, Li-Na; Zu, Ying; Zhao, Chun-Yu; Meng, Xiang-Chun

    2011-12-01

    To study the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin treatment on the functions of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) and possible mechanisms. Blood samples were obtained in 10 children with KD before and 7 days after the treatment by IVIG and aspirin. MTT method, modified Boyden chamber method and cell culture plate adhesion method were used to assess the functions of EPCs, including proliferation, adhension and migration activities. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were also measured. The functions of circulating EPCs 7 days after IVIG and aspirin treatment were significantly improved. IVIG and aspirin treatment significantly reduced plasma TNF-α and hs-CRP concentrations. There was a significant linear regression relationship between the reduced plasma TNF-α and hs-CRP levels and the increased functions of circulating EPCs. IVIG and aspirin treatment can improve the functions of circulating EPCs, possibly through reducing plasma concentrations of TNF-α and hs-CRP.

  2. Indoxyl Sulfate Impairs Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Might Contribute to Vascular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Cheng-Jui Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Indoxyl sulfate (IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin that accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We explored the effect of IS on human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and analyzed the correlation between serum IS levels and parameters of vascular function, including endothelial function in a CKD-based cohort. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 128 stable CKD patients was conducted. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV, ankle brachial index, serum IS and other biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed. In parallel, the activity of early EPCs was also evaluated after exposure to IS. Results: In human EPCs, a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of IS on chemotactic motility and colony formation was observed. Additionally, serum IS levels were significantly correlated with CKD stages. The total IS (T-IS and free IS (F-IS were strongly associated with age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, PWV, blood urea nitrogen, creatine and phosphate but negatively correlated with FMD, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and calcium. A multivariate linear regression analysis also showed that FMD was significantly associated with IS after adjusting for other confounding factors. Conclusions: In humans, IS impairs early EPCs and was strongly correlated with vascular dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that this adverse effect of IS may partly result from the inhibition of early EPCs.

  3. Myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: role of endothelial progenitor cells and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun Ting; Wang, Mei; Siu, Chung Wah; Hou, Ying Long; Wang, Tian; Tse, Hung Fat; Yiu, Kai Hang

    2012-12-05

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are responsible for angiogenesis and maintenance of microvascular integrity, the number of EPCs is correlated with oxidative stress. Their relation to myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is nonetheless unknown. Eighty-seven patients with T2DM and no history of coronary artery disease were recruited. Transthoracic echocardiography and detailed evaluation of left ventricular (LV) systolic function by 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking derived strain analysis in 3 orthogonal directions was performed. Four subpopulations of EPCs, including CD34+, CD133+, CD34+/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) + and CD133+/KDR + EPCs, were measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 9 years and 39.6% were male. Those with an impaired longitudinal strain had a lower number of CD34+ EPCs (2.82 ± 1.87% vs. 3.74 ± 2.12%, P oxidative stress.

  4. Aging, progenitor cell exhaustion, and atherosclerosis.

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    Rauscher, Frederick M; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Davis, Bryce H; Wang, Tao; Gregg, David; Ramaswami, Priya; Pippen, Anne M; Annex, Brian H; Dong, Chunming; Taylor, Doris A

    2003-07-29

    Atherosclerosis is largely attributed to chronic vascular injury, as occurs with excess cholesterol; however, the effect of concomitant vascular aging remains unexplained. We hypothesize that the effect of time in atherosclerosis progression is related to obsolescence of endogenous progenitor cells that normally repair and rejuvenate the arteries. Here we show that chronic treatment with bone marrow-derived progenitor cells from young nonatherosclerotic ApoE-/- mice prevents atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- recipients despite persistent hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, treatment with bone marrow cells from older ApoE-/- mice with atherosclerosis is much less effective. Cells with vascular progenitor potential are decreased in the bone marrow of aging ApoE-/- mice, but cells injected from donor mice engraft on recipient arteries in areas at risk for atherosclerotic injury. Our data indicate that progressive progenitor cell deficits may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  5. Spartathlon, a 246 kilometer foot race: effects of acute inflammation induced by prolonged exercise on circulating progenitor reparative cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Tsironi, Maria; Skenderi, Katerina; Margeli, Alexandra; Graphakos, Stelios; Baltopoulos, Panayiotis; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the recently described circulating fibrocytes (CFs) are strongly associated with tissue repair. We investigated the kinetics of both "repair" progenitor cells in healthy athletes who participated in the "Spartahlon" ultradistance foot race (246 km continuous running exercise), which provides a unique model of inducing dramatic systemic inflammatory changes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 10 volunteer athletes, who completed successfully the race, before, at the end, and at 48 h post-race. EPCs and CFs were detected as endothelial colony-forming units (CFU-ECs) and as the number of adherent with a spindle-shaped morphology Collagen I(+) cells detected after 6-day culture of PBMCs, respectively. The marked increase of plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, SAA, MCP-1, IL-8, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, thrombomodulin (sTM) and NT-pro-BNP at the end of race established acute inflammation and tissue injury. EPCs increased by nearly eleven-fold in peripheral blood at the end of the race from 44.5+/-2.5/ml to 494.6+/-27.9/ml and remained increased 428.5+/-31.5/ml at 48 h post-race (prace did not reveal any significant difference. These findings indicate that bone marrow responses to acute inflammatory damage, induced by exhausting exercise, with a rapid release of EPCs but not CFs into circulation. Given the ability of EPCs to promote angiogenesis and vascular regeneration, we may suggest that this kind of cell mobilization may serve as a physiologic repair mechanism in acute inflammatory tissue injury.

  6. Transfusion of CXCR4-primed endothelial progenitor cells reduces cerebral ischemic damage and promotes repair in db/db diabetic mice.

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    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 axis in brain and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and explored the efficacy of CXCR4 primed EPCs in treating ischemic stroke in diabetes. The db/db diabetic and db/+ mice were used in this study. Levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were measured. Brain SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression were quantified at basal and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. In in vitro study, EPCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying null (Ad-null or CXCR4 (Ad-CXCR4 followed with high glucose (HG treatment for 4 days. For pathway block experiments, cells were pre-incubated with PI3K inhibitor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor for two hours. The CXCR4 expression, function and apoptosis of EPCs were determined. The p-Akt/Akt and p-eNOS/eNOS expression in EPCs were also measured. In in vivo study, EPCs transfected with Ad-null or Ad-CXCR4 were infused into mice via tail vein. On day 2 and 7, the cerebral blood flow, neurologic deficit score, infarct volume, cerebral microvascular density, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were determined. We found: 1 The levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were decreased in db/db mice; 2 The basal level of SDF-1α and MCAO-induced up-regulation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis were reduced in the brain of db/db mice; 3 Ad-CXCR4 transfection increased CXCR4 expression in EPCs and enhanced EPC colonic forming capacity; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection prevented EPCs from HG-induced dysfunction (migration and tube formation and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection enhanced the efficacy of EPC infusion in attenuating infarct volume and promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Our data suggest that Ad-CXCR4 primed EPCs have better therapeutic effects for ischemia stroke in diabetes than unmodified EPCs do.

  7. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    exploring alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for cell based therapy in diabetes. Since in vitro culture of islet β-cells demonstrates loss in insulin (Beattie et al. 1999), several attempts have been made to identify stem / progenitor cells capable of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells, which ...

  8. Vildagliptin, but not glibenclamide, increases circulating endothelial progenitor cell number: a 12-month randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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    Dei Cas, Alessandra; Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ridolfi, Valentina; Marchesi, Elisabetta; Marina, Michela; Derlindati, Eleonora; Aloe, Rosalia; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2017-02-23

    Fewer circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and increased plasma (C-term) stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), a substrate of DPP-4, are biomarkers, and perhaps mediators, of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Short-term/acute treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors improve EPC bioavailability; however, long-term effects of DPP-4i on EPCs bioavailability/plasma (C-term) SDF-1α are unknown. Randomized (2:1) open-label trial to compare the effects of vildagliptin (V) (100 mg/day) vs glibenclamide (G) (2.5 mg bid to a maximal dose of 5 mg bid) on circulating EPC levels at 4 and 12 months of treatment in 64 patients with type 2 diabetes in metformin failure. At baseline, and after 4 and 12 months, main clinical/biohumoral parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, concomitant therapies, EPC number (CD34+/CD133+/KDR+/106 cytometric events) and plasma (C-term) SDF-1α (R&D system) were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. V and G similarly and significantly (p < 0.0001) improved glucose control. At 12 months, V significantly increased EPC number (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (C-term) SDF-1α plasma levels (p < 0.01) compared to G, with no differences in inflammatory biomarkers. V exerts a long-term favorable effect on EPC and (C-term) SDF-1α levels at glucose equipoise, thereby implying a putative beneficial effect on vascular integrity. Trial registration Clinical Trials number: NCT01822548; name: Effect of Vildagliptin vs. Glibenclamide on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number Type 2 Diabetes. Registered 28 March, 2013.

  9. The GroEL protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerates tumor growth by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell function and neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F-Y; Huang, C-Y; Lu, H-Y; Shih, C-M; Tsao, N-W; Shyue, S-K; Lin, C-Y; Chang, Y-J; Tsai, C-S; Lin, Y-W; Lin, S-J

    2015-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterial species that causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Additionally, previous evidence indicates that GroEL from P. gingivalis may possess biological activities involved in systemic inflammation, especially inflammation involved in the progression of periodontal diseases. The literature has established a relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. However, it is unclear whether P. gingivalis GroEL enhances tumor growth. Here, we investigated the effects of P. gingivalis GroEL on neovasculogenesis in C26 carcinoma cell-carrying BALB/c mice and chick eggs in vivo as well as its effect on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in vitro. We found that GroEL treatment accelerated tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and increased the mortality rate in C26 cell-carrying BALB/c mice. GroEL promoted neovasculogenesis in chicken embryonic allantois and increased the circulating EPC level in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, GroEL effectively stimulated EPC migration and tube formation and increased E-selectin expression, which is mediated by eNOS production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Additionally, GroEL may enhance resistance against paclitaxel-induced cell cytotoxicity and senescence in EPC. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to the neovasculogenesis of tumor cells and resulting in accelerated tumor growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Salidroside exerts angiogenic and cytoprotective effects on human bone marrowderived endothelial progenitor cells via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K and MAPK signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yubo; Vater, Corina; Jacobi, Angela; Liebers, Cornelia; Zou, Xuenong; Stiehler, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose With the increase of age, increased susceptibility to apoptosis and senescence may contribute to proliferative and functional impairment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether salidroside (SAL) can induce angiogenic differentiation and inhibit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in bone marrow-derived EPCs (BM-EPCs), and if so, through what mechanism. Experimental Approach BM-EPCs were isolated and treated with different concentrations of SAL for up to 4 days. Cell proliferation, migration and tube formation ability were detected by DNA content quantification, transwell assay and Matrigel-based angiogenesis assay. Gene and protein expression were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Key Results Treatment with SAL promoted cellular proliferation and angiogenic differentiation of BM-EPCs, and increased VEGF and NO secretion, which in turn mediated the enhanced angiogenic differentiation of BM-EPCs. Furthermore, SAL significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell apoptosis, reduced the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential of BM-EPCs. Moreover, SAL stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 S6 kinase, as well as ERK1/2, which is associated with cell migration and capillary tube formation. Additionally, SAL reversed the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK induced by H2O2 and suppressed the changes in the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio observed after stimulation with H2O2. Conclusions and Implications These findings identify novel mechanisms that regulate EPC function and suggest that SAL has therapeutic potential as a new agent to enhance vasculogenesis as well as protect against oxidative endothelial injury. PMID:24471788

  11. Multipotent progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benjamin P J; Ferre, François C; Couty, Ludovic; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Gourven, Murielle; Naveau, Adrien; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine; Gogly, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    The gum has an exceptional capacity for healing. To examine the basis for this property and explore the potential of conferring it to organs with inferior healing capacity, we sought the presence of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue. Colony-forming units of fibroblast-enriched cells from gingival fibroblast cultures were assessed for expression of membrane markers of mesenchymal stem cells; capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocytes; and engraftment efficiency after in vivo transfer. On the basis of their ability to differentiate into several lineages, proliferate from single cells, induce calcium deposits, and secrete collagen in vivo after transfer on hydroxyapatite carriers, we suggest that this population represents gingival multipotent progenitor cells. The discovery of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue may help improve our understanding of how the wounded gum is capable of almost perfect healing and opens the prospect of cellular therapy for wound healing using readily available cells at limited risk to the patient.

  12. The effects of low-dose Nepsilon-(carboxymethyllysine (CML and Nepsilon-(carboxyethyllysine (CEL, two main glycation free adducts considered as potential uremic toxins, on endothelial progenitor cell function

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    Zhu Jinzhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs dysfunction plays a key role in this pathogenesis. Uremic retention toxins have been reported to be in associated with EPC dysfunction. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs free adducts, including Nepsilon-(carboxymethyllysine (CML and Nepsilon-(carboxyethyllysine (CEL, are formed by physiological proteolysis of AGEs and released into plasma for urinary excretion. They are retained in CKD patients and are considered to be potential uremic toxins. Though AGEs have been demonstrated to impair EPC function in various ways, the effect of AGE free adducts on EPC function has not been studied. Thus, we examined the role of CML and CEL in the regulation of growth-factor-dependent function in cultured human EPCs and the mechanisms by which they may affect EPC function. Methods Late outgrowth EPCs were incubated with different concentrations of CML or CEL for up to 72 hours. Cell proliferation was determined using WST-1 and BrdU assays. Cell apoptosis was tested with annexin V staining. Migration and tube formation assays were used to evaluate EPC function. Results Though CML and CEL were determined to have anti-proliferative effects on EPCs, cells treated with concentrations of CML and CEL in the range found in CKD patients had no observable impairment on migration or tube formation. CML and CEL did not induce EPC apoptosis. The reduced growth response was accompanied by significantly less phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Conclusions Our study revealed that CML and CEL at uremic concentrations have low biological toxicity when separately tested. The biologic effects of AGE free adducts on the cardiovascular system merit further study.

  13. The functions of endothelial progenitor cells were significantly improved after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin in children with Kawasaki disease.

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    Xu, Ming Guo; Men, Li Na; Zu, Ying; Zhao, Chun Yu; Meng, Xiang Chun; Wang, Tao

    2011-04-01

    We sought to determine the effects of treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin on the functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) as well as its relationship with concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Ten KD patients in the acute phase of their disease were recruited. We investigated EPC functions in children with KD before and after treatment with IVIG and aspirin. In vitro assays were used to measure the functions, including proliferation, adhesion, and migration activities, of EPCs. Plasma levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP were also assessed. All of the data were assessed before and at 7 days after treatment initiation. EPC functions after 7 days of treatment with IVIG and aspirin were significantly improved than they were before treatment with IVIG and aspirin. Treatment with IVIG and aspirin significantly decreased TNF-α and hs-CRP concentrations. There was a significant linear regression relationship between decreased plasma TNF-α levels, hs-CRP levels, and increased functions of circulating EPCs. The results of our study indicate that the functions of circulating EPCs improved after treatment with IVIG and aspirin, which may be related to decreased concentrations of TNF-α and hs-CRP.

  14. A reversal of age-dependent proliferative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells from different species origin in in vitro condition.

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    Hassanpour, Mehdi; Cheraghi, Omid; Siavashi, Vahid; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A large number of cardiovascular disorders and abnormalities, notably accelerated vascular deficiencies could be related to aging changes and increased length of life. During the past decades, the discovery of different stem cells facilitates ongoing attempts for attenuating many disorders, especially in vascular beds. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells that have potent capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs). However, some documented studies reported an age-related decline in proliferation and function of many stem cells. There is no data on aging effect upon proliferation and morphological feature of EPCs. Methods: To show aging effect on EPCs proliferation and multipotentiality, bone marrow samples were provided from old and young cases in three different species; human, mouse and dog. After 7 days of culture, the cell morphology and clonogenic capacity were evaluated. We also calculated the mean number of colonies both in bone marrow samples from old and young subjects. To confirm the cell phenotype, isolated cells were immune-phenotyped by a panel of antibodies against Tie-2, CD133 and CD309 markers. Results: Our results showed that EPCs exhibited prominent spindle form in all bone marrow samples from young cases while the cell shape became more round by aging. Notably, the number of colonies was reduced in aged samples as compared to parallel young subject samples (P < 0.05). We also detected that the expression of endothelial related markers diminished by aging. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the age-related vascular abnormalities could be presumably related to the decline in stemness capacity of EPCs.

  15. Mast cell progenitor trafficking and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from the hematopoietic progenitors found in bone marrow and spleen. Committed mast cell progenitors are rare in bone marrow suggesting they are rapidly released into the blood where they circulate and move out into the peripheral tissues. This migration is controlled in a tissue specific manner. Basal trafficking to the intestine requires expression of α4β7 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR2 by the mast cell progenitors and expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the intestinal endothelium; and is also controlled by dendritic cells expressing the transcriptional regulatory protein T-bet. None of these play a role in basal trafficking to the lung. With the induction of allergic inflammation in the lung, there is marked recruitment of committed mast cell progenitors to lung and these cells must express α4β7 and α4β1 integrins. Within the lung there is a requirement for expression of VCAM-1 on the endothelium that is regulated by CXCR2, also expressed on the endothelium. There is a further requirement for expression of the CCR2/CCL2 pathways for full recruitment of the mast cell progenitors to the antigen-inflamed lung.

  16. Kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients undergoing carotid artery surgery

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    Kalender G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available G Kalender,1 A Kornberger,2 M Lisy,1 Andres Beiras-Fernandez,2 UA Stock2 1Deparment of General, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Hoechst Hospital, 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are primitive cells found in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (PB. In particular, the potential of EPCs to differentiate into mature endothelial cells remains of high interest for clinical applications such as bio-functionalized patches for autologous seeding after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine EPCs’ kinetics in patients undergoing carotid artery thromboendarterectomy (CTEA and patch angioplasty. Methods: Twenty CTEA patients were included (15 male, mean age 76 years. PB samples were taken at 1 day preoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for CD34, CD133, KDR, and CD45. Expression of KDR, SDF-1α, and G-CSF was analyzed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed 0.031%±0.016% (% of PB mononuclear cells KDR+ cells and 0.052%±0.022% CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells, preoperatively. A 33% decrease of CD45–/CD34+/CD133+ cells was observed at day 1 after surgery. However, a relative number (compared to initial preoperative values of CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells was found on day 3 (82% and on day 5 (94% postoperatively. More profound upregulated levels of CD45–CD34+/CD133+ cells were observed for diabetic (+47% compared to nondiabetic and male (+38% compared to female patients. No significant postoperative time-dependent differences were found in numbers of KDR+ cells and the concentrations of the cytokines KDR and G-CSF. However, the SDF-1α levels decreased significantly on day 1 postoperatively but returned to preoperative levels by day 3. Conclusion: CTEA results in short-term downregulation of circulating

  17. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function

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    Tsai Tzu-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8 for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1. Another age-matched group (n = 8 were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. Results By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p Conclusions Obesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  18. Kallikrein gene-modified EPCs induce angiogenesis in rats with ischemic hindlimb and correlate with integrin αvβ3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shen Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tissue kallikrein (hTK plays an essential role in the physiological and pathological mechanisms of blood vessels. This study aimed to determine whether angiogenesis induced by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs transduced with the adenovirus-mediated hTK gene could improve blood flow in rat hindlimb ischemia in vivo and to establish a promising mechanism in vitro. METHODS: EPCs transduced with adenovirus encoding hTK-162 (i.e., Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs or Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs were administered to Wister rats with hindlimb ischemia through therapeutic neovascularization. Muscular capillary density (MCD, blood flow (BF, and the number of myofibers were measured at days 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were detected on the surface of EPCs. RESULTS: MCD, BF, and the number of myofibers in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs remarkably increased at day 21 after treatment compared with rats with Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs or the control group (P<0.01. Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and eNOS protein on the surface of EPCs also increased in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs. The levels of integrin αvβ3 expression were reduced by PI3K and eNOS blockade, and the inhibitor of integrin αvβ3 abrogated the migration and adhesion of hTK-transduced EPCs (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: hTK gene delivery in vivo improves the natural angiogenic response to ischemia. The ability of hTK gene-transduced EPCs can be enhanced in vitro, in which integrin αvβ3 plays a role in the process.

  19. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mononuclear Cells Exhibit Pericyte-Like Phenotype and Support Network Formation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erica B; Liu, Betty; Christoforou, Nicolas; West, Jennifer L; Truskey, George A

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood represents a promising cell source for pro-angiogenic therapies. The present study examined the potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs) from umbilical cord blood to support endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) microvessel formation. MNCs were isolated from the cord blood of 20 separate donors and selected for further characterization based upon their proliferation potential and morphological resemblance to human vascular pericytes (HVPs). MNCs were screened for their ability to support EPC network formation using an in vitro assay (Matrigel™) as well as a reductionist, coculture system consisting of no additional angiogenic cytokines beyond those present in serum. In less than 15% of the isolations, we identified a population of highly proliferative MNCs that phenotypically resembled HVPs as assessed by expression of PDGFR-β, NG2, α-SMA, and ephrin-B2. Within a Matrigel™ system, MNCs demonstrated pericyte-like function through colocalization to EPC networks and similar effects as HVPs upon total EPC tubule length (p = 0.95) and number of branch points (p = 0.93). In a reductionist coculture system, MNCs served as pro-angiogenic mural cells by supporting EPC network formation to a significantly greater extent than HVP cocultures, by day 14 of coculture, as evidenced through EPC total tubule length (p < 0.0001) and number of branch points (p < 0.0001). Our findings are significant as we demonstrate mural cell progenitors can be isolated from umbilical cord blood and develop culture conditions to support their use in microvascular tissue engineering applications.

  20. Circulating CD133+CD34+ progenitor cells inversely correlate with soluble ICAM-1 in early ischemic stroke patients

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    Frank Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Both endothelial progenitor cells (EPC and markers of neuroinflammation are candidate biomarkers for stroke severity and outcome prediction. A relationship between EPC and neuroinflammatory markers in early stroke is not fully elucidated. The objectives were to investigate correlations between EPC and neuroinflammation markers (adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, endothelin (ET-1, markers of tissue injury (matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 in early stroke patients. Methods We prospectively recruited symptomatic patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We assessed stroke severity by using of acute (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and final lesion volumes (fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR. We measured serum soluble ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and plasma TNF-α, IL-6, ET-1 by ELISA, and quantified EPC in mononuclear fraction of peripheral blood on days 1 and 3 in 17 patients (mean(SD age 62(14, with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS 10(8 selected from 175 patients with imaging confirmed ischemic stroke. Non-parametric statistics, univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results Only ICAM-1 inversely correlated with EPC subset CD133+CD34+ on day 1 (Spearman r = -0.6, p Conclusion Our study showed that high ICAM-1 is associated with low CD133+CD34+subset of EPC. Biomarkers of neuroinflammation may predict tissue injury and stroke severity in early ischemia.

  1. Erythropoietin attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension through interplay between endothelial progenitor cells and heme-oxygenase

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    Rosa L.E. Loon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO1.MethodsRats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the presence or absence of the selective HO-activity-inhibitor tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP. HO-activity, circulating EPCs and pulmonary vascular lesions were assessed after 3 weeks.ResultsIn PAH-rats, circulating EPCs were decreased and HO-activity was increased compared to control. EPO-treatment restored circulating EPCs and improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, as shown by a reduced wall thickness and occlusion rate of the intra-acinar vessels. Inhibition of HO-activity with SnMP aggravated PAH. Moreover, SnMP treatment abrogated EPO-induced amelioration of pulmonary vascular remodeling, while surprisingly further increasing circulating EPCs as compared with EPO alone.ConclusionsIn experimental PAH, EPO treatment restored the number of circulating EPC’s to control level, improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, and showed important interplay with HO-activity. Inhibition of increased HO-activity in PAH-rats exacerbated progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling, despite the presence of restored numbers of circulating EPC’s. We suggest that both EPO-induced HO1 and EPCs are promising targets to ameliorate the pulmonary vasculature in PAH.

  2. β3-Adrenergic Regulation of EPC Features Through Manipulation of the Bone Marrow MSC Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Rana; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Siavashi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in a specific niche in the bone marrow, however, biological features of this niche are still not fully understood. Given the interactions of MSCs with endothelial cells in different tissues, bone marrow MSC niche may influence the biological features of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). To understand the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of the MSC niche, we examined whether the manipulation of the MSC niche via β3-adrenergic signals will affect EPC features. A selective β3 agonist (BRL37344) or a β3 antagonist (SR59230A) was administered in mice for 2 weeks to determine the potential effects of these regimens on the population of CD133(+) stem cells in the bone marrow. Then, bone marrow-derived MSCs and EPCs were harvested and expanded from the mice to examine the effect of changes in the MSC niche on EPC features. Improved MSC colony forming potency with increased bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 [CXCL12]) expression was shown as a result of intensification of the bone marrow adrenergic signals through BRL37344 injection. On the other hand, the blockage of these signals limited the expression level of SDF-1 and resulted in bone marrow enrichment of CD133(+) cells. Manipulation of the MSC niche and decreased SDF-1 expression via SR59230A injection also prompted EPCs to form more colonies with augmented proliferation and differentiation capacity. Overall, our results indicate that the β3-adrenergic signals regulate the MSC niche, thereby resulting in modulation of EPC biological features. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4753-4761, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling inhibits early and increases delayed nontargeted effects in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Sharath P; Song, Jin; Park, Daniel; Enderling, Heiko; McDonald, J Tyson; Gee, Hannah; Garrity, Brittany; Shtifman, Alexander; Yan, Xinhua; Walsh, Kenneth; Natarajan, Mohan; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

    2014-05-16

    TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed after being irradiated (IR) and is implicated in mediating radiobiological bystander responses (RBRs). Little is known about specific TNF receptors in regulating TNF-induced RBR in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). Full body γ-IR WT BM-EPCs showed a biphasic response: slow decay of p-H2AX foci during the initial 24 h and increase between 24 h and 7 days post-IR, indicating a significant RBR in BM-EPCs in vivo. Individual TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling in RBR was evaluated in BM-EPCs from WT, TNFR1/p55KO, and TNFR2/p75KO mice, in vitro. Compared with WT, early RBR (1-5 h) were inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed RBR (3-5 days) were amplified in p55KO EPCs, suggesting a possible role for TNFR2/p75 signaling in delayed RBR. Neutralizing TNF in γ-IR conditioned media (CM) of WT and p55KO BM-EPCs largely abolished RBR in both cell types. ELISA protein profiling of WT and p55KO EPC γ-IR-CM over 5 days showed significant increases in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1α (Interleukin-1 alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and MCP-1. In vitro treatments with murine recombinant (rm) TNF-α and rmIL-1α, but not rmMCP-1 or rmRANTES, increased the formation of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated p55KO EPCs. We conclude that TNF-TNFR2 signaling may induce RBR in naïve BM-EPCs and that blocking TNF-TNFR2 signaling may prevent delayed RBR in BM-EPCs, conceivably, in bone marrow milieu in general. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated that av......-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) individually and in a ternary mixture were examined with the comet assay. Data showed that among the active ingredients only 2,4-D andMCPA induced DNA damage, while both herbicides were genotoxic at high concentrations....... that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2...

  6. Investigation of inhibitory effects on EPC-mediated neovascularization by different bisphosphonates for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZIEBART, THOMAS; ZIEBART, JOHANNA; GAUSS, LEONIE; PABST, ANDREAS; ACKERMANN, MAXIMILIAN; SMEETS, RALF; KONERDING, MORITZ A.; WALTER, CHRISTIAN

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent drugs, used in metastatic cancer-like prostate or breast carcinoma. In recent studies, besides reduced bone remodeling, influences on angiogenesis and neovascularization were reported. Since BPs have the tendency to accumulate in the bones, the biological effect of various nitrogen- and non-nitrogen BPs on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that originated from bone marrow and mobilized under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as tumor neovascularization, was investigated. EPCs subsequent to 72-h treatment with different concentrations of bisphosphonates comprised the non-nitrogen-containing BP clodronate and the nitrogen-containing BPs ibandronate, pamidronate and zoledronate. After incubation, biological activity was measured by using the migration boyden chamber assay and measurement of the colony-forming ability. Nitrogen-containing BPs inhibited the migration ability and differentiation of EPCs in a dose-dependent manner, as compared to the non-treated control groups. More specifically, the nitrogen-containing BP zoledronate significantly inhibited angiogenesis and neovascularization. Clodronate was less distinct on EPC function. To underline the importance of neovascularization in the context of tumor angiogenesis, EPC functions were significantly influenced in a dose-dependent manner by nitrogen-containing BPs. From these findings, we conclude that especially the nitrogen-containing BPs, such as zoledronate, are potential anticancer agents through the inhibition of neovascularization. PMID:24649016

  7. Ischemic preconditioning increases endothelial progenitor cell number to attenuate partial nephrectomy-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in the modulation of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI in a partial nephrectomy (PN rat model using early-phase ischemic preconditioning (IPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups following right-side nephrectomy: Sham-operated rats (surgery without vascular clamping; PN rats (renal blood vessels were clamped for 40 min and PN was performed; and IPC rats (pretreated with 15 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion. At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h, and 3 days after reperfusion, the pool of circulating EPCs and kidneys were harvested. The extent of renal injury was assessed, along with EPC number, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and vascular growth factor expression. RESULTS: Pretreated rats exhibited significant improvements in renal function and morphology. EPC numbers in the kidneys were increased at 12 h following reperfusion in the IPC group as compared to the PN or Sham groups. Cell proliferation (including endothelial and tubular epithelial cells and angiogenesis in peritubular capillaries were markedly increased in kidneys treated with IPC. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α expression in the kidneys of pretreated rats was increased compared to rats subjected to PN. CONCLUSIONS: OUR INVESTIGATION SUGGESTED THAT: (1 the early phase of IPC may attenuate renal IRI induced by PN; (2 EPCs play an important role in renal protection, involving promotion of cell proliferation and angiogenesis through release of several angiogenic factors.

  8. Electronic cigarettes increase endothelial progenitor cells in the blood of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Lukasz; Bosson, Jenny A; Kuhl, Jeanette; Abdel-Halim, Samy M; Kiessling, Anna; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Lundbäck, Magnus

    2016-12-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes is increasing dramatically on a global scale and its effects on human health remain uncertain. In the present study, we measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and microvesicles (MVs) in healthy young volunteers following short-term exposure to inhalation of e-cigarette vapor (ECV) to determine vascular changes. Sixteen healthy seldom smokers were randomized into two groups either exposed or not exposed to 10 puffs of ECV for 10 min, in a crossover design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 1, 4 and 24 h following exposure. EPCs (CD34 + CD309) and MVs were analyzed by flow cytometry. MVs were phenotyped according to origin (platelet (CD41), endothelial (CD144), leukocytes (CD45), monocytes (CD14)) and nuclear content (SYTO 13 dye). In addition, expression of inflammation markers such P-selectin (CD62P), E-selectin (CD62E), CD40-ligand (CD154) and HMGB1 was investigated. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was also measured at baseline and after 24 h. EPC levels in blood were significantly increased 1 h following exposure to ECV and returned to baseline values after 24 h. Only E-selectin positive MVs (endothelial origin) were slightly elevated (p e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in EPCs. This increase was of the same magnitude as following smoking of one traditional cigarette, as we previously demonstrated. Taken together, these results may represent signs of possible vascular changes after short e-cigarette inhalation. Further studies analyzing potential cardiovascular health effects are critical as the e-cigarette market continues to burgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Data regarding association between serum osteoprotegerin level, numerous of circulating endothelial-derived and mononuclear-derived progenitor cells in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Berezin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is defined as cluster of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular (CV abnormalities included abdominal obesity, high-normal blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose tolerance that exhibits has a growing prevalence worldwide. We investigated whether an elevated level of osteoprotegerin (OPG predicts imbalance between different phenotypes of circulating endothelial (EPCs and mononuclear (MPCs progenitor cells in MetS patients. We have analyzed data regarding dysmetabolic disorder subjects without known CV disease, as well as with known type two diabetes mellitus. All patients have given their informed written consent for participation in the study. This article contains data on the independent predictors of depletion in numerous of circulating EPCs and MPCs in MetS patients. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of elevated OPG level in MetS patients with numerous of EPCs and MPCs beyond traditional CV risk factors.

  10. Mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute coronary syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wojakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hypotheses explain the role of adult progenitor cells in myocardial regeneration. Stem cell plasticity which involves mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow and other niches, homing to the area of tissue injury and transdifferentiation into functional cardiomyocytes. Alternative hypothesis is based on the observations that bone marrow harbors a heterogenous population of cells positive for CXCR4 - receptor for chemokine SDF-1. This population of non-hematopoietic cells expresses genes specific for early muscle, myocardial and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC. These tissue-committed stem cells circulate in the peripheral blood at low numbers and can be mobilized by hematopoietic cytokines in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial precursors capable of transforming into mature, functional endothelial cells are present in the pool of peripheral mononuclear cells in circulation. Their number significantly increases in acute myocardial infarction (AMI with subsequent decrease after 1 month, as well as in patients with unstable angina in comparison to stable coronary heart disease (CHD. There are numerous physiological and pathological stimuli which influence the number of circulating EPC such as regular physical activity, medications (statins, PPAR-gamma agonists, estrogens, as well as numerous inflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. Mobilization of stem cells in AMI involves not only the endothelial progenitors but also hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic stem cells and most probably the mesenchymal cells. In healthy subjects and patients with stable CHD, small number of circulating CD34+, CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cells can be detected. In patients with AMI, a significant increase in CD34+/CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cell number the in peripheral blood was demonstrated with parallel increase in mRNA expression for early cardiac, muscle and endothelial markers in peripheral blood mononuclear

  11. Immobilization of serum albumin and peptide aptamer for EPC on polydopamine coated titanium surface for enhanced in-situ self-endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Li, Quanli; Chen, Jialong; Luo, Rifang; Maitz, Manfred F; Huang, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Restenosis and thrombosis are two major complications associated with vascular stents and grafts. The homing of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) onto implant surfaces brings a new strategy to solve these problems by accelerating self -endothelialization in situ. Peptide aptamers with high affinity and specific recognition of EPCs can be immobilized to capture EPCs from the circulating blood. In this study, a biotinylated peptide aptamer (TPSLEQRTVYAK-GGGC-K-Biotin) for EPC, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were co-immobilized onto titanium surface through avidin-biotin recognition to endow the surface with specific affinity for EPC and anti-platelet adhesion properties. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measuring were adopted for coating characterization. EPC affinity and hemocompatibility of the coating were also investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that aptamer and BSA co-immobilized surface significantly reduced platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. Besides, such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion, without affecting the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obviously. The result shows the possibility of utilizing such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  13. Protective Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning-Mediated Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells on Renal Acute Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianxin; Qin, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiao; Cao, Pu; Jia, Ruipeng

    2017-02-07

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) contributed to the protection of renal acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, including sham-operated group, IRI-operated group, IPC-treated group and EPCs-treated group. Subsequently, serum samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion, respectively. In addition, histological examination was utilized to assess changes in renal structure. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis detected the expression levels of CD31, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). RESULTS Rats in the EPCS-treated group had significantly reduced levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine at 24 hours after operation, compared to rats that in the IRI-operated group. At 72 hours after reperfusion, renal function and morphology showed significant improvements in the EPCs-treated group. In addition, CD31+ and CD34+ cells that mostly accumulated in the renal medulla were significantly increased in IPC-treated group at 72 hours (p<0.05). Compared to the IRI-operated group, the number of EPCs in the kidneys was markedly increased at 72 hours following reperfusion in the IPC-treated group. In addition, expression levels of VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2 in the kidneys of the IPC-treated and EPCs-treated rats were significantly increased compared to the IRI-operated group. CONCLUSIONS These results provided evidence that IPC-mediated homing of EPCs played an important role in the protection of renal acute IRI, involving promotion of cell proliferation and angiogenesis through release of several angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2.

  14. Basic fibroblast growth factor induces VEGF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and subsequently promotes endothelial progenitor cell-primed angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Chen, Po-Chun; Lin, Kai-Wei; Lin, Chih-Yang; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Han, Shao-Min; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Hwang, Wen-Li; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a common malignant tumour, develops in bone. Effective adjuvant therapy remains inadequate for treatment, meaning poor prognosis. It is imperative to explore novel remedies. Angiogenesis is a rate-limiting step in progression that explains neovessel formation for blood supply in the tumour microenvironment. Numerous studies indicate that EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) promote angiogenesis and contribute to tumour growth. bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), a secreted cytokine, regulates biological activity, including angiogenesis, and correlates with tumorigenesis. However, the role of bFGF in angiogenesis-related tumour progression by recruiting EPCs in human chondrosarcoma is rarely discussed. In the present study, we found that bFGF induced VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression via the FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1)/c-Src/p38/NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway in chondrosarcoma cells, thereby triggering angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells. Our in vivo data revealed that tumour-secreted bFGF promotes angiogenesis in both mouse plug and chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assays. Xenograft mouse model data, due to bFGF-regulated angiogenesis, showed the bFGF regulates angiogenesis-linked tumour growth. Finally, bFGF was highly expressed in chondrosarcoma patients compared with normal cartilage, positively correlating with VEGF expression and tumour stage. The present study reveals a novel therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma progression.

  15. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  16. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases stromal cell derived factor 1 and the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in high cardiovascular risk subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Condines, Ximena; Magraner, Emma; Roth, Irene; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Casas, Rosa; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk, but fermented beverages seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection due to their polyphenolic content. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone-marrow-derived stem cells with the ability to repair and maintain endothelial integrity and function and are considered as a surrogate marker of vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, no study has been carried out on the effects of moderate beer consumption on the number of circulating EPC in high cardiovascular risk patients. To compare the effects of moderate consumption of beer, non-alcoholic beer and gin on the number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors. In this crossover trial, 33 men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized to receive beer (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of polyphenols in the form of non-alcoholic beer, or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 weeks. Diet and physical exercise were carefully monitored. The number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors were determined at baseline and after each intervention. After the beer and non-alcoholic beer interventions, the number of circulating EPC significantly increased by 8 and 5 units, respectively, while no significant differences were observed after the gin period. In correlation, stromal cell derived factor 1 increased significantly after the non-alcoholic and the beer interventions. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases the number of circulating EPC in peripheral blood from high cardiovascular risk subjects. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95345245 ISRCTN95345245. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Cindy Johanna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Postnatally, Endothelial Progenitor Cells are needed to maintain the integrity of the endothelium (re-endothelialization) and to augment wound healing or vascularize hypoxic areas (neovascularization). Complex networks of different signals and regulators have been identified to be involved in these

  18. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  19. Chronic Treatment with Clenbuterol Modulates Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Circulating Factors in a Murine Model of Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, James E.; Polster, Sean P.; Lee, Sangjin; Charles, Nathan J.; Adhikari, Neeta; Mariash, Ami; Tadros, George; Stangland, Jenna; Ryszard T. Smolenski; Terracciano, Cesare M.; Paul J R Barton; Birks, Emma J.; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Miller, Leslie W.; Hall, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic treatment with the beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in a well-characterized model of heart failure, the muscle LIM protein knockout (MLP−/−) mouse. MLP−/−mice were treated daily with clenbuterol (2 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously for 6 weeks. Clenbuterol led to a 30% increase in CD31+ cells in the bone marrow of MLP−/− heart failure mice (p

  20. Far infra-red therapy promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restores high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Po-Hsun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Far infra-red (IFR therapy was shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular system, but effects of IFR on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC and EPC-related vasculogenesis remain unclear. We hypothesized that IFR radiation can restore blood flow recovery in ischemic hindlimb in diabetic mice by enhancement of EPCs functions and homing process. Materials and methods Starting at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes, unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocine (STZ-induced diabetic mice, which were divided into control and IFR therapy groups (n = 6 per group. The latter mice were placed in an IFR dry sauna at 34°C for 30 min once per day for 5 weeks. Results Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio in the thermal therapy group was significantly increased beyond that in controls, and significantly greater capillary density was seen in the IFR therapy group. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired EPCs (Sca-1+/Flk-1+ mobilization after ischemia surgery in diabetic mice with or without IFR therapy (n = 6 per group. However, as compared to those in the control group, bone marrow-derived EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells defined as GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells were significantly increased in ischemic tissue around the vessels in diabetic mice that received IFR radiation. In in-vitro studies, cultured EPCs treated with IFR radiation markedly augmented high glucose-impaired EPC functions, inhibited high glucose-induced EPC senescence and reduced H2O2 production. Nude mice received human EPCs treated with IFR in high glucose medium showed a significant improvement in blood flow recovery in ischemic limb compared to those without IFR therapy. IFR therapy promoted blood flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Conclusions Administration of IFR therapy promoted collateral flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ

  1. Alcohol consumption negates estrogen-mediated myocardial repair in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alexander R; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Verma, Suresh K; Thorne, Tina; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Abramova, Tatiana; Hamada, Hiromichi; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj

    2013-06-21

    We have shown previously that estrogen (estradiol, E2) supplementation enhances voluntary alcohol consumption in ovariectomized female rodents and that increased alcohol consumption impairs ischemic hind limb vascular repair. However, the effect of E2-induced alcohol consumption on post-infarct myocardial repair and on the phenotypic/functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is not known. Additionally, the molecular signaling of alcohol-estrogen interactions remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of E2-induced increases in ethanol consumption on post-infarct myocardial function/repair. Ovariectomized female mice, implanted with 17β-E2 or placebo pellets were given access to alcohol for 6 weeks and subjected to acute myocardial infarction. Left ventricular functions were consistently depressed in mice consuming ethanol compared with those receiving only E2. Alcohol-consuming mice also displayed significantly increased infarct size and reduced capillary density. Ethanol consumption also reduced E2-induced mobilization and homing of EPCs to injured myocardium compared with the E2-alone group. In vitro, exposure of EPCs to ethanol suppressed E2-induced proliferation, survival, and migration and markedly altered E2-induced estrogen receptor-dependent cell survival signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol-mediated suppression of EPC biology was endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent because endothelial nitric oxide synthase-null mice displayed an exaggerated response to post-acute myocardial infarction left ventricular functions. These data suggest that E2 modulation of alcohol consumption, and the ensuing EPC dysfunction, may negatively compete with the beneficial effects of estrogen on post-infarct myocardial repair.

  2. A vascular patch prepared from Thai silk fibroin and gelatin hydrogel incorporating simvastatin-micelles to recruit endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitiwuthikiat, Piyanuch; Ii, Masaaki; Saito, Takashi; Asahi, Michio; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Delayed re-endothelialization is one of the major disadvantages in synthetic vascular grafts, especially in small-diameter grafts (inner diameter <6 mm), leading to thrombosis and stenosis of the grafts. Simvastatin, a serum cholesterol-lowering drug, has promotional effects on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization from bone marrow and recruitment to sites of vascular injury exhibiting acceleration of re-endothelialization. In this study, we prepared double-layer vascular patches from Thai silk fibroin/gelatin with gelatin hydrogel incorporating simvastatin-micelles (SM) for sustained release of simvastatin to recruit circulation EPCs. To enhance simvastatin solubility, simvastatin was entrapped in micelles of l-lactic acid oligomer-grafted gelatin. The drug loading efficiency was at 4.1 ± 0.5 μg/mg micelles. SM had a chemoattractive effect on EPCs comparable to nonmodified simvastatin. Gelatin hydrogel incorporating SM at 100 μM of simvastatin (GSM100) could enhance in vitro EPC activities of adhesion and proliferation. In vitro results showed the initial cell adhesion of 86%, specific growth rate of 15.33×10(-3) h(-1), and population doubling time of 46.21 h. In vivo implantation of the patches incorporating SM significantly increased the recruitment of circulating EPCs. From the results of immunofluorescence staining, they demonstrated the complete re-endothelialization on the implanted patches containing SM at 2 weeks after implantation in rat carotid arteries. The gelatin hydrogel incorporating SM could be an effective inner layer of multifunctional vascular grafts to accelerate re-endothelialization in vascular tissue engineering.

  3. Effect of aliskiren on circulating endothelial progenitor cells and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Athanasios E; Markakis, Konstantinos P; Mazioti, Maria C; Ikonomidis, Ignantios; Maratou, Eirini P; Vlahakos, Dimitrios V; Kotsifaki, Eleni E; Voumvourakis, Asterios N; Tsirogianni, Alexandra G; Lambadiari, Vaia A; Lekakis, John P; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aliskiren on vascular function and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension. The study enrolled type 2 diabetic patients aged >50 years under stable glycemic control and first diagnosed mild essential hypertension. In phase A (n = 20), patients received aliskiren 150-300 mg daily for 3 months. In phase B (n = 12), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5-25mg daily substituted for aliskiren for 3 more months. At baseline and at the end of each phase, we assessed (i) brachial blood pressure (BBP); (ii) central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), aortic augmentation index (Aix), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as markers of arterial stiffness; (iii) brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) as a marker of endothelial function; (iv) left ventricular (LV) twisting and untwisting as markers of LV function and (v) EPC numbers in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Aliskiren similarly reduced BBP and CSP, increased FMD (P < 0.001) and EPC numbers (P < 0.001), decreased PWV and Aix (P < 0.05), and improved LV twisting and untwisting (P < 0.05). Although substitution of HCTZ sustained BBP at similar levels, CSP and echocardiographic indices nearly returned at baseline levels, and the improvement of FMD, PWV, Aix, and EPC numbers was abolished. Aliskiren had a favorable effect on endothelial function and EPCs, reduced arterial stiffness, and improved LV twisting and untwisting. These effects were independent of BBP lowering, as they were not observed after the achievement of similar values of BBP with HCTZ. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Essential role of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase for ischemia-induced neovascularization via modulation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Jessika; Dussault, Sylvie; Haddad, Paola; Turgeon, Julie; Ménard, Catherine; Chan, John S; Rivard, Alain

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oxidative stress on ischemia-induced neovascularization in copper-zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient mice. In the vascular wall, CuZnSOD is essential for protecting against excessive oxidative stress and maintaining endothelial function. However, its specific role for the development of new vessels in response to ischemia is unknown. After surgically induced hind limb ischemia, CuZnSOD-deficient mice showed impaired neovascularization, as assessed by blood flow recuperation (laser Doppler) and capillary density in the ischemic muscles. This was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress in ischemic tissues and peripheral blood, together with reduced plasmatic NO production. CuZnSOD-deficient mice demonstrated an important reduction in the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow and spleen. Moreover, EPCs isolated from CuZnSOD-deficient mice showed increased oxidative stress levels, decreased NO production, and a reduced ability to migrate and integrate into capillary-like networks. Importantly, the functional activities of CuZnSOD-deficient EPCs were rescued after treatment with the SOD-mimetic Tempol (a membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Moreover, the neovascularization defect in CuZnSOD-deficient mice could be rescued by wild-type (but not CuZnSOD-deficient) EPC supplementation. Protection against oxidative stress by CuZnSOD may be essential for EPC function and reparative neovascularization after ischemia.

  5. GM-CSF Induces Cyclin D1 Expression and Proliferation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling

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    Chaolin Qiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, which can be isolated from the bone marrow or the peripheral blood, have generated interest because of their capacity to migrate to sites of vascularization and endothelialization and differentiate into endothelial cells in a process termed neovasculogenesis. EPCs are therefore possible regenerative tools for the treatment of vascular diseases and potential targets for the inhibition of angiogenesis during tumor development. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF on the acceleration of EPC proliferation and colony formation. Methods: EPCs were isolated, identified and cultured in the presence of GM-CSF. The effect of GM-CSF on endothelial cell colony formation and proliferation was examine by colony formation assay and MTT assay, separately. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E were detected by western bloting. JAK/Stat, PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling were analyzed. Results: GM-CSF accelerated the G1/S phase transition in EPCs by upregulating the expression of cyclins D1 and E. The GM-CSF induced increase in the levels of cyclin D1 and the subsequent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb protein activated E2F-1, resulting in the upregulation of the transcription of cyclin E. Furthermore, the induction of cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression by GM-CSF was mediated by the PI3K/Akt, JNK and ERK signaling pathways through the phosphorylation of GSK3β or the activation of AP-1 transcription factors. Conclusion: Our findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effect of GM-CSF on the modulation of cell cycle progression in EPCs, which is important considering their role in vascular repair and their therapeutic potential in several diseases.

  6. p38 MAPK and JNK antagonistically control senescence and cytoplasmic p16INK4A expression in doxorubicin-treated endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Paolo Spallarossa

    Full Text Available Patients treated with low-dose anthracyclines often show late onset cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that this form of cardiotoxicity is the result of a progenitor cell disease. In this study we demonstrate that Cord Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs exposed to low, sub-apoptotic doses of doxorubicin show a senescence phenotype characterized by increased SA-b-gal activity, decreased TRF2 and chromosomal abnormalities, enlarged cell shape, and disarrangement of F-actin stress fibers accompanied by impaired migratory ability. P16( INK4A localizes in the cytoplasm of doxorubicin-induced senescent EPCs and not in the nucleus as is the case in EPCs rendered senescent by different stimuli. This localization together with the presence of an arrest in G2, and not at the G1 phase boundary, which is what usually occurs in response to the cell cycle regulatory activity of p16(INK4A, suggests that doxorubicin-induced p16( INK4A does not regulate the cell cycle, even though its increase is closely associated with senescence. The effects of doxorubicin are the result of the activation of MAPKs p38 and JNK which act antagonistically. JNK attenuates the senescence, p16( INK4A expression and cytoskeleton remodeling that are induced by activated p38. We also found that conditioned medium from doxorubicin-induced senescent cardiomyocytes does not attract untreated EPCs, unlike conditioned medium from apoptotic cardiomyocytes which has a strong chemoattractant capacity. In conclusion, this study provides a better understanding of the senescence of doxorubicin-treated EPCs, which may be helpful in preventing and treating late onset cardiotoxicity.

  7. Elevated level of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients with cardiac ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Guo, Austin; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Porat, Eyal; Snir, Eitan; Thompson, Carl I.; Abraham, Nader G.; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the blood system to sites of ischemia and endothelial damage, where they contribute to the repair and development of blood vessels. Since numerous eicosanoids including leukotrienes (LTs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) have been shown to exert potent pro-inflammatory activities, we examined their levels in chronic diabetic patients with severe cardiac ischemia in conjunction with the level and function of EPCs. Results Lipidomic analysis revealed a diabetes-specific increase (p<0.05) in inflammatory and angiogenic eicosanoids including the 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 (4.11±1.17 vs 0.96±0.27 ng/ml), the lipoxygenase/CYP-derived 12-HETE (117.08±35.05 vs 24.34±10.03 ng/ml), 12-HETrE (17.56±4.43 vs 4.15±2.07 ng/ml), and the CYP-derived 20-HETE (0.32±0.04 vs 0.06±0.05 ng/ml) the level of which correlated with BMI (p=0.0027). In contrast, levels of the CYP-derived EETs were not significantly (p= 0.36) different between these two groups. EPC levels and their colony forming units were lower (p<0.05) with a reduced viability in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetics. EPC function (Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) and MTT assay) also negatively correlated with the circulating levels of HgA1C. Conclusion This study demonstrates a close association between elevated levels of highly pro-inflammatory eicosonoids, diabetes and EPC dysfunction in patients with cardiac ischemia, indicating that chronic inflammation impact negatively on EPC function and angiogenic capacity in diabetes. PMID:23291334

  8. Cilostazol activates function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell for re-endothelialization in a carotid balloon injury model.

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    Rie Kawabe-Yako

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cilostazol(CLZ has been used as a vasodilating anti-platelet drug clinically and demonstrated to inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and effect on endothelial cells. However, the effect of CLZ on re-endothelialization including bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC contribution is unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that CLZ might accelerate re-endothelialization with EPCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Balloon carotid denudation was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. CLZ group was given CLZ mixed feed from 2 weeks before carotid injury. Control group was fed normal diet. CLZ accelerated re-endothelialization at 2 weeks after surgery and resulted in a significant reduction of neointima formation 4 weeks after surgery compared with that in control group. CLZ also increased the number of circulating EPCs throughout the time course. We examined the contribution of BM-derived EPCs to re-endothelialization by BM transplantation from Tie2/lacZ mice to nude rats. The number of Tie2-regulated X-gal positive cells on injured arterial luminal surface was increased at 2 weeks after surgery in CLZ group compared with that in control group. In vitro, CLZ enhanced proliferation, adhesion and migration activity, and differentiation with mRNA upregulation of adhesion molecule integrin αvβ3, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and growth factor VEGF assessed by real-time RT-PCR in rat BM-derived cultured EPCs. In addition, CLZ markedly increased the expression of SDF-1α that is a ligand of CXCR4 receptor in EPCs, in the media following vascular injury. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CLZ promotes EPC mobilization from BM and EPC recruitment to sites of arterial injury, and thereby inhibited neointima formation with acceleration of re-endothelialization with EPCs as well as pre-existing endothelial cells in a rat carotid balloon injury model. CLZ could be not only an anti-platelet agent but also a promising tool for

  9. Impaired Endothelial Repair Capacity of Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Hypertensive Patients With Primary Hyperaldosteronemia: Role of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin Oxidation and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ding, Mei-Lin; Wu, Fang; He, Wen; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Wen-Li; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Xia, Wen-Hao; Tao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Although hyperaldosteronemia exerts detrimental impacts on vascular endothelium in addition to elevating blood pressure, the effects and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on early endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair after arterial damage are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs (n=20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n=20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=20) was evaluated by transplantation into a nude mouse carotid endothelial denudation model. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in human subjects. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs and flow-mediated dilation were impaired both in PHAs and in essential hypertension patients when compared with age-matched healthy subjects; however, the early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs were impaired more severely than essential hypertension patients. Oral spironolactone improved early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs. Increased oxidative stress, oxidative 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin degradation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and decreased nitric oxide production were found in early EPCs from PHAs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) knockdown or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and enhanced in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs. In conclusion, PHAs exhibited more impaired endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs than did essential hypertension patients independent of blood pressure, which was associated with mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent oxidative stress and subsequently 5

  10. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells: a new approach to anti-aging medicine?

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    Patel Amit N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous age-related conditions. The possibility of preserving or even rejuvenating endothelial function offers a potent means of preventing/treating some of the most fearful aspects of aging such as loss of mental, cardiovascular, and sexual function. Endothelial precursor cells (EPC provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. In this review we discuss the biological relevance of circulating EPC in a variety of pathologies in order to build the case that these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. Factors controlling EPC mobilization, migration, and function, as well as therapeutic interventions based on mobilization of EPC will be reviewed. We conclude by discussing several clinically-relevant approaches to EPC mobilization and provide preliminary data on a food supplement, Stem-Kine, which enhanced EPC mobilization in human subjects.

  11. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

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    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  12. Injectable shear-thinning hydrogels to deliver endothelial progenitor cells, enhance cell engraftment, and improve ischemic myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Ann C.; Chen, Minna H.; Venkataraman, Chantel M.; Trubelja, Alen; Rodell, Christopher B.; Dinh, Patrick V.; Hung, George; MacArthur, John W.; Soopan, Renganaden V.; Burdick, Jason A.; Atluri, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The clinical translation of cell based therapies for ischemic heart disease has been limited due to low cell retention (myocardial borderzone enables direct cell delivery to address adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that this system will enhance vasculogenesis to improve myocardial stabilization in the context of a clinically translatable therapy. METHODS EPCs (DiLDL+ VEGFR2+ CD34+) were harvested from adult male Wistar Rats, cultured, and then suspended in the STG. In vitro viability was quantified using a live-dead stain of EPCs. STG-EPC constructs were injected at the borderzone of ischemic rat myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation). The migration of the eGFP+ EPCs from the construct to ischemic myocardium was analyzed using fluorescent microscopy. Vasculogenesis, myocardial remodeling, and hemodynamic function were analyzed in 4 groups: control (PBS injection), intramyocardial injection of EPCs alone (EPC), injection of the STG alone (STG), and treatment with the gel-EPC construct (STG-EPC). Hemodynamics and ventricular geometry were quantified using echocardiography and Doppler flow analysis. RESULTS EPCs demonstrated viability within the STG. A marked increase in EPC engraftment was observed one-week post-injection within the treated myocardium with gel delivery when compared to EPC injection alone (17.2 ± 0.8 cells/HPF vs. 3.5 cells ± 1.3 cells/HPF, p = 0.0002). A statistically significant increase in vasculogenesis was noted with the STG-EPC construct (15.3 ± 5.8 vessels/HPF) when compared to control (p treatment compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS A novel injectable shear-thinning hyaluronic acid hydrogel seeded with EPCs enhanced cell retention and vasculogenesis after delivery to ischemic myocardium. This therapy limited adverse myocardial remodeling while preserving contractility. PMID:26293548

  13. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  14. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC Inhibitors Down-Regulate Endothelial Lineage Commitment of Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Horia Maniu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB. Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR2 revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA, Trichostatin A (TSA, and Valproic acid (VPA. RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR2, CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment.

  15. Overexpression of Jagged1 Ameliorates Aged Rat-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cell Functions and Improves Its Transfusion Efficiency for Rat Balloon-Induced Arterial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jinxiang; Song, Mingbao; Zhou, Fang; Fu, Dagan; Ruan, Guangping; Bai, Yingying; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Xiangqing; Huang, Lan; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2017-05-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) has significant age-dependent alterations in properties, but the role of Jagged1 in aging-induced decline of EPC functions remains unclear. 2- and 20-month old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in present study. Jagged1 gene transfection was performed in EPC isolated from aged (AEPC) and young rats (YEPC), respectively. Experiments were divided into 4 groups: (1) pIRES2-EGFP (PE) group, (2) PE-combined N-[N-(3, 5-difluoro-phenacetyl)-1- alany1]-S-phenyglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) (PE + D) group, (3) pIRES2 EGFP-Jagged1 (PEJ) group, and (4) PEJ combined DAPT (PEJ + D) group. Notch molecules were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction or Western blotting. CD34, CD133, CD45, and KDR markers were detected by flow cytometry. EPC migration and proliferation were detected with a modified Boyden chamber and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, respectively; the tube formation ability was assayed by in vitro angiogenesis kit; EPC transfusion after Jagged1 gene transfection was performed in rat carotid artery injury models. Jagged1 gene transfection effectively activates notch-signaling pathway. Compared with PE groups, overexpression of Jagged1 significantly promoted AEPC functions including proliferation, migration, the tube formation ability, and cell differentiation, these effects could be reasonably diminished by DAPT. In vivo study demonstrated that Jagged1 overexpressing also significantly promoted AEPC homing to the vascular injury sites and decreases the neointima formation after vascular injury. Overexpression of Jagged1 ameliorates aged rat-derived EPC functions and increases its transfusion efficiency for balloon-induced rat arterial injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo

    2017-02-22

    For many years, myocardial tissue has been considered terminally differentiated and, thus, incapable of regenerating. Recent studies have shown, instead, that cardiomyocytes, at least in part, are slowly substituted by new cells originating by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient. The protocol here reported describes how from auricles a population of multipotent, cardiogenic cells can be isolated, cultured, and differentiated. Further studies are needed to fully exploit this cell population, but, sampling auricles, it could be possible to treat cardiac patients using their own cells circumventing rejection or organ shortage limitations.

  17. Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Progenitor Cells May Be Sustained by a Positive Feedback Loop Involving High Mobility Group Box-1

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    Han Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor in diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 in diabetes-induced oxidative stress. HMGB-1 was upregulated in both serum and bone marrow-derived monocytes from diabetic mice compared with control mice. In vitro, advanced glycation end productions (AGEs induced, expression of HMGB-1 in EPCs and in cell culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. However, inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially inhibited the induction of HMGB-1 induced by AGEs. Furthermore, p66shc expression in EPCs induced by AGEs was abrogated by incubation with glycyrrhizin (Gly, while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in cell culture supernatants was observed in the Gly treated group. Thus, HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in EPCs via a positive feedback loop involving the AGE/reactive oxygen species/HMGB-1 pathway.

  18. Mast cell progenitors: origin, development and migration to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells in tissues are developed from mast cell progenitors emerging from the bone marrow in a process highly regulated by transcription factors. Through the advancement of the multicolor flow cytometry technique, the mast cell progenitor population in the mouse has been characterized in terms of surface markers. However, only cell populations with enriched mast cell capability have been described in human. In naïve mice, the peripheral tissues have a constitutive pool of mast cell progenitors. Upon infections in the gut and in allergic inflammation in the lung, the local mast cell progenitor numbers increase tremendously. This review focuses on the origin and development of mast cell progenitors. Furthermore, the evidences for cells and molecules that govern the migration of these cells in mice in vivo are described. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilization of serum albumin and peptide aptamer for EPC on polydopamine coated titanium surface for enhanced in-situ self-endothelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue, E-mail: 362947953@qq.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); RegeMed Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Li, Quanli [College of Stomology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Chen, Jialong [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); College of Stomology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Luo, Rifang [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Dresden (Germany); Huang, Nan, E-mail: huangnan1956@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Restenosis and thrombosis are two major complications associated with vascular stents and grafts. The homing of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) onto implant surfaces brings a new strategy to solve these problems by accelerating self -endothelialization in situ. Peptide aptamers with high affinity and specific recognition of EPCs can be immobilized to capture EPCs from the circulating blood. In this study, a biotinylated peptide aptamer (TPSLEQRTVYAK-GGGC-K-Biotin) for EPC, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were co-immobilized onto titanium surface through avidin–biotin recognition to endow the surface with specific affinity for EPC and anti-platelet adhesion properties. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measuring were adopted for coating characterization. EPC affinity and hemocompatibility of the coating were also investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that aptamer and BSA co-immobilized surface significantly reduced platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. Besides, such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion, without affecting the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obviously. The result shows the possibility of utilizing such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants. - Highlights: • We construct a multifunctional surface based on immobilization of BSA and aptamer. • It can significantly reduce platelet adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption/activation. • Such functional surface could remarkably enhance EPC adhesion in vitro. • It can induce rapid self-endothelialization of the implant surface in situ in vivo. • It is possible to use such a multifunctional surface in cardiovascular implants.

  20. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  1. Safety Evaluation of a Bioglass–Polylactic Acid Composite Scaffold Seeded with Progenitor Cells in a Rat Skull Critical-Size Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Abeer M.; Arbid, Mahmoud S.; Abd El-Hady, Bothaina M.; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Treating large bone defects represents a major challenge in traumatic and orthopedic surgery. Bone tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic option to improve the local bone healing response. In the present study tissue biocompatibility, systemic toxicity and tumorigenicity of a newly developed composite material consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and 20% or 40% bioglass (BG20 and BG40), respectively, were analyzed. These materials were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and tested in a rat calvarial critical size defect model for 3 months and compared to a scaffold consisting only of PLA. Serum was analyzed for organ damage markers such as GOT and creatinine. Leukocyte count, temperature and free radical indicators were measured to determine the degree of systemic inflammation. Possible tumor occurrence was assessed macroscopically and histologically in slides of liver, kidney and spleen. Furthermore, the concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and sodium oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed as indicators of tumor progression. Qualitative tissue response towards the implants and new bone mass formation was histologically investigated. BG20 and BG40, with or without progenitor cells, did not cause organ damage, long-term systemic inflammatory reactions or tumor formation. BG20 and BG40 supported bone formation, which was further enhanced in the presence of EPCs and MSCs. This investigation reflects good biocompatibility of the biomaterials BG20 and BG40 and provides evidence that additionally seeding EPCs and MSCs onto the scaffold does not induce tumor formation. PMID:24498345

  2. Safety evaluation of a bioglass-polylactic acid composite scaffold seeded with progenitor cells in a rat skull critical-size bone defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Eldesoqi

    Full Text Available Treating large bone defects represents a major challenge in traumatic and orthopedic surgery. Bone tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic option to improve the local bone healing response. In the present study tissue biocompatibility, systemic toxicity and tumorigenicity of a newly developed composite material consisting of polylactic acid (PLA and 20% or 40% bioglass (BG20 and BG40, respectively, were analyzed. These materials were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC and tested in a rat calvarial critical size defect model for 3 months and compared to a scaffold consisting only of PLA. Serum was analyzed for organ damage markers such as GOT and creatinine. Leukocyte count, temperature and free radical indicators were measured to determine the degree of systemic inflammation. Possible tumor occurrence was assessed macroscopically and histologically in slides of liver, kidney and spleen. Furthermore, the concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA and sodium oxide dismutase (SOD were assessed as indicators of tumor progression. Qualitative tissue response towards the implants and new bone mass formation was histologically investigated. BG20 and BG40, with or without progenitor cells, did not cause organ damage, long-term systemic inflammatory reactions or tumor formation. BG20 and BG40 supported bone formation, which was further enhanced in the presence of EPCs and MSCs. This investigation reflects good biocompatibility of the biomaterials BG20 and BG40 and provides evidence that additionally seeding EPCs and MSCs onto the scaffold does not induce tumor formation.

  3. Pinocembrin, a major flavonoid in propolis, improves the biological functions of EPCs derived from rat bone marrow through the PI3K-eNOS-NO signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nana; Qin, Shucun; Wang, Mengzan; Chen, Bin; Yuan, Na; Fang, Yongqi; Yao, Shutong; Jiao, Peng; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jiafu

    2013-08-01

    The number and quality of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are damaged to varying degrees in patients at risk for developing atherosclerosis. The improvement of the quantity and functions of EPCs can enhance repair of injured endothelial monolayer resulting in inhibiting atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pinocembrin (PIN), a major flavonoid in propolis on the differentiation and biological functions of EPCs and the potential mechanisms of these effects. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that PIN treatment increased the number of CD34(+), CD133(+), FLK-1(+), CD133(+)/FLK-1(+) and CD34(+)/FLK-1(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the peripheral blood of apoE(-/-) mice compared to untreated control mice. In vitro PIN treatment significantly increased the number of CD34(+), CD133(+), FLK-1(+) and CD133(+)/FLK-1(+) MNCs derived from SD bone marrow compared to untreated controls by 42.1, 84.6, 165.9 and 23.1 %, respectively. Additionally, PIN can improve biological functions of EPCs, such as proliferation, migration, adhesion, and in vitro tube formation and NO release. All of these improvements were inhibited by LY294002, while L-NAME only inhibited the PIN-induced increase in EPC proliferation and adhesion. We conclude that PIN can both promote the differentiation of EPCs in vitro and ex vivo and improve the biological functions of EPCs. The PI3K-eNOS-NO signaling pathway may be involved in the PIN-induced increase in the proliferation and adhesion of EPCs.

  4. Cyclosporine decreases vascular progenitor cell numbers after cardiac transplantation and attenuates progenitor cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William R; Wang, Shaohua; Oi, Keiji; Bailey, Kent R; Tazelaar, Henry D; Caplice, Noel M; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2005-11-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the neointimal proliferation seen in cardiac allograft vasculopathy may in part derive from recipient progenitor cells. The effect of cyclosporine on these circulating progenitors in the setting of cardiac transplantation is currently unknown. Three surgical series were performed: sham operation alone, sham operation with immunosuppression, and heterotopic porcine cardiac transplantation with immunosuppression. The sham operation involved laparotomy and consecutive clamping of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Post-operative immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine at therapeutic levels (100-300 ng/ml) and 0.5 mg/kg methylprednisolone. Endothelial outgrowth colony numbers (EOC(CFU)) and smooth muscle outgrowth colony numbers (SOC(CFU)) were quantified weekly for 4 weeks post-operatively. A series of in vitro experiments were performed to determine the effect of cyclosporine on the differentiation, migration, and proliferation of EOCs and SOCs. In the sham alone series there were no changes to either EOC(CFU) or SOC(CFU). In the sham with immunosuppression and the transplant series, both EOC(CFU) and SOC(CFU) fell in the first 2 weeks (p Cyclosporine, even at a low dose, prevented differentiation, inhibited proliferation, and attenuated migration of both EOCs and SOCs. Immunosuppression in the setting of cardiac transplantation causes a profound reduction in circulating progenitor cells capable of differentiating into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This effect can in part be explained by the inhibitory effects of cyclosporine on progenitor growth and differentiation seen in this study.

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing , meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...2. Keywords meniscus, meniscal cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing , meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 3. Overall Project Summary...Colonies will be compared for frequency and size. For colony forming assays, meniscus cells (P1) from 8wk old mice were seeded a density of 1000/25cm2

  6. Effect and mechanism of thrombospondin-1 on the angiogenesis potential in human endothelial progenitor cells: an in vitro study.

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    Qing Qin

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation plays a protective role in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. We investigated whether thrombospondin-1(TSP-1 has an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis potential in endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs and tested whether TSP-1 are altered in plasma of patients who had chronic total occlusion (CTO in at least one coronary artery and with different collateral stages(according to Rentrop grading system.We isolated early and late EPCs from human cord blood and investigated a dose-dependent effect of TSP-1 on their angiogenesis potential by Matrigel angiogenesis assay. We found that TSP-1 (5 µg/ml inhibited early EPCs incorporation into tubules after pretreatment for 1, 6 and 12 hours, respectively (83.3±11.9 versus 50.0±10.1 per field for 1 hour,161.7±12.6 versus 124.0±14.4 for 6 hours, 118.3±12.6 versus 68.0±20.1 for 12 hours, p<0.05. TSP-1 also inhibited late EPCs tubule formation at 1 µg/ml (6653.4±422.0 µm/HPFversus 5552.8±136.0 µm/HPF, p<0.05, and the inhibition was further enhanced at 5 µg/ml (6653.4±422.0 µm/HPF versus 2118.6±915.0 µm/HPF p<0.01. To explore the mechanism involved, a small interfering RNA was used. In vitro, CD47 siRNA significantly attenuated TSP-1's inhibition of angiogenesis on late EPCs and similar results were obtained after functional blocking by anti-CD47 antibody. Then we investigated pathways downstream of CD47 and found TSP-1 regulated VEGF-induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation via CD47. Furthermore, we examined plasma TSP-1 levels in patients with CTO who developed different stages of collaterals and found a paradoxical higher level of TSP-1 in patients with good collaterals compared with bad ones (612.9±554.0 ng/ml versus 224.4±132.4 ng/ml, p<0.05.TSP-1 inhibited angiogenesis potential of early and late EPCs in vitro. This inhibition may be regulated by TSP-1's interaction with CD47, resulting in down regulation of VEGFR2 phosphorylation. In patients with CTO, there

  7. Effect of low-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells and its significance in rats after brain injury

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    Bin ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of low-dose methylprednisolone(MP treatment after traumatic brain injury(TBI in rats on the number of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs and injury area of the brain.Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were involved in the present study,and they were randomly divided into normal control group(n=18,TBI control group(n=38,MP control group(n=30,MP+TBI group(n=30 and TBI+MP group(n=38.The TBI model was reproduced by fluid percussion injury(FPI.MP(5mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered once a day for 4 days.Peripheral venous blood samples were taken on day 1,3,7 and 14,and the counts of EPCs were determined by flow cytometry.The rats were sacrificed on day 1 and 3,brain edema was estimated by dry-wet weight method,and the blood-brain barrier(BBB permeability was determined by Evans-blue extravasation.Results The counts of peripheral blood EPCs were significantly higher in MP control group,MP+TBI group and TBI+MP group on day 1,3 and 7 than that in normal control and TBI control group,and it returned to the level of normal control group on day 14.The BBB permeability was improved and brain edema alleviated in MP+TBI and TBI+MP group on day 3.Conclusion The administration of low-dose MP may increase the count of peripheral blood EPCs in rats,decrease BBB damage,and alleviate brain edema.

  8. Effect of onion peel extract on endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Yong; Lee, Hansongyi; Woo, Jong Shin; Jang, Hyun Hee; Hwang, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Young-Seol; Choue, Ryowon; Cha, Yong-Jun; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Weon

    2015-09-01

    Acute or chronic intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been reported to improve endothelial function. Quercetin, found abundantly in onion, is a potent antioxidant flavonoid. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of onion peel extract (OPE) improves endothelial function in healthy overweight and obese individuals. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-two healthy overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to receive a red, soft capsule of OPE (100 mg quercetin/d, 50 mg quercetin twice daily; n = 36 participants) or an identical placebo capsule (n = 36) for 12 wk. Endothelial function, defined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by flow cytometry, and laboratory test were determined at baseline and after treatment. Baseline characteristics and laboratory findings did not significantly differ between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, the OPE group showed significantly improved FMD at 12 wk (from 12.5 ± 5.2 to 15.2 ± 6.1; P = 0.002), whereas the placebo group showed no difference. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation did not change in either group. EPC counts (44.2 ± 25.6 versus 52.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.005) and the percentage of EPCs were significantly increased in the OPE group. When FMD was divided into quartiles, rate of patients with endothelial dysfunction defined as lowest quartile (cutoff value, 8.6%) of FMD improved from 26% to 9% by OPE. Medium-term administration of OPE an improvement in FMD and circulating EPCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergen-Induced Eotaxin-rich Pro-angiogenic Bone Marrow Progenitors: A Blood Borne Cellular Envoy for Lung Eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asosingh, Kewal; Hanson, Jodi D.; Cheng, Georgiana; Aronica, Mark A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic inflammation is closely related to angiogenesis in asthmatic airway remodeling. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, bone marrow-derived pro-angiogenic endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are rapidly recruited into the lungs after ovalbumin aerosol challenge, and promptly followed by mobilization and recruitment of eosinophils. Objective We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived EPCs initiate the recruitment of eosinophils through expression of eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin-1. Methods EPCs were isolated from ovalbumin murine model of allergic airway inflammation and from asthma patients. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells were isolated from mice. Eotaxin-1 expression was analyzed by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR or by ELISA. In vivo recruitment of eosinophils by EPCs was analyzed in mice. Results Circulating EPCs of asthmatic individuals had higher levels of eotaxin-1 as compared to controls. In the murine model, ovalbumin allergen exposure augmented eotaxin-1 mRNA and protein levels in EPCs. The EPCs from ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice released high levels of eotaxin-1 upon contact with lung endothelial cells from sensitized and challenged mice, but not from control animals, and not upon contact with cardiac or hepatic endothelial cells from sensitized and challenged mice. Intranasal administration of the eotaxin-rich media overlying cultures of EPCs caused recruitment into lungs, confirming functional chemoattractant activity. Conclusions Bone marrow-derived EPCs are early responders to environmental allergen exposures, and initiate a parallel switch to a pro-angiogenic and pro-eosinophilic environment in the asthmatic lungs. PMID:20227754

  10. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lavik, Erin B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs.......To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs....

  11. Tanshinone II A Attenuates TNF-α-Induced Expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Blocking Activation of NF-κB

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    Jin-Xiu Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA is effective in the treatment of inflammation and atherosclerosis. The adhesion of inflammatory cells to vascular endothelium plays important role in atherogenic processes. This study examined the effects of Tan IIA on expression of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-induced endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Methods: EPCs were pretreated with Tan IIA and stimulated with TNF-α. Mononuclear cell (MNC adhesion assay was performed to assess the effects of Tan IIA on TNF-α-induced MNC adhesion. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1/intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and activation of Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathway were measured. Results: The results showed that the adhesion of MNCs to TNF-α-induced EPCs and expression of VCAM-1/ICAM-1 in EPCs were promoted by TNF-α, which were reduced by Tan IIA. TNF-α increased the amount of phosphorylation of NF-κB, IκB-α and IKKα/β in cytosolic fractions and NF-κB p65 in nucleus, while Tan IIA reduced its amount. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory/anti-atherosclerotic activity of Tan IIA, which may involve down-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 through partial blockage of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and IκB-α phosphorylation by the inhibition of IKKα/β pathway in EPCs.

  12. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

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    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  13. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-08

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A PEDF-Derived Peptide Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization and Blocks Mobilization of Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Richard Longeras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is characterized by pathological retinal neovascularization, mediated by both angiogenesis (involving mature endothelial cells and vasculogenesis (involving bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF contains an N-terminal 34-amino acid peptide (PEDF-34 that has antiangiogenic properties. Herein, we present a novel finding that PEDF-34 also possesses antivasculogenic activity. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR model using transgenic mice that have Tie2 promoter-driven GFP expression, we quantified Tie2GFP+ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. OIR significantly increased the number of circulating Tie2-GFP+ at P16, correlating with the peak progression of neovascularization. Daily intraperitoneal injections of PEDF-34 into OIR mice decreased the number of Tie2-GFP+ cells in the circulation at P16 by 65% but did not affect the number of Tie2-GFP+ cells in the bone marrow. These studies suggest that PEDF-34 attenuates EPC mobilization from the bone marrow into the blood circulation during retinal neovascularization.

  15. Effects of pioglitazone versus metformin on circulating endothelial microparticles and progenitor cells in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, K; Maiorino, M I; Di Palo, C; Gicchino, M; Petrizzo, M; Bellastella, G; Saccomanno, F; Giugliano, D

    2011-05-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are markers of endothelial injury and repair. We compared the effects of pioglitazone versus metformin on the circulating numbers of EMPs and EPCs in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled, 24-week single-centre trial conducted in a Teaching Hospital in Naples, Italy. One hundred and ten people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who were never treated with antihyperglycaemic drugs and had haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between 7 and 10% were given pioglitazone hydrochloride (15-45 mg/day) (n = 55) or metformin (1000-2000 mg/day) (n = 55) as an active comparator. Absolute change from baseline to final visit in circulating EMPs and EPCs and their ratio were the main outcomes. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the study groups. The decrease in circulating EMPs CD31+ [intergroup difference, -32 counts/µl (95% CI -51 to -9)] and the increase in EPCs CD34+/KDR+ [intergroup difference, 33 cells/10(6) events (95% CI 13 to 55)] were greater with pioglitazone versus metformin. EMPs/EPCs ratio was reduced with pioglitazone and unchanged with metformin [difference, -1.5 (95% CI -2.6 to -0.5), p pioglitazone gained more weight and experienced greater improvements in some coronary risk measures [high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP)] than did those assigned to metformin. Compared with metformin, pioglitazone treatment improved the imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity and led to more favourable changes in coronary risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle

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    Akiyoshi Uezumi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases.

  17. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiece, I; Briddell, R

    2001-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells have the potential for providing benefit in a variety of clinical settings. These include cells for support of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, as a target for replacement gene therapy, and as a source of cells for immunotherapy. The limitation to many of these applications has been the total absolute number of defined target cells. Therefore many investigators have explored methods to culture hematopoietic cells in vitro to increase the numbers of these cells. Studies attempting to expand hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells in vitro have become possible over the past decade due to the availability of recombinant growth factors and cell selection technologies. To date, no studies have demonstrated convincing data on the expansion of true stem cells, and so the focus of this review is the expansion of committed progenitor cells and mature cells. A number of clinical studies have been preformed using a variety of culture conditions, and several studies are currently in progress that explore the use of ex vivo expanded cells. These studies will be discussed in this review. There are evolving data that suggest that there are real clinical benefits associated with the use of the expanded cells; however, we are still at the early stages of understanding how to optimally culture different cell populations. The next decade should determine what culture conditions and what cell populations are needed for a range of clinical applications.

  18. Randomized comparison of endothelial progenitor cells capture stent versus cobalt-chromium stent for treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Six-month clinical, angiographic, and IVUS follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystroň, Marian; Cervinka, Pavel; Spaček, Radim; Kvašňák, Martin; Jakabčin, Jozef; Cervinková, Michaela; Kala, Petr; Widimský, Petr

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of endothelial progenitor cells capture (EPC) stent in the treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when compared with cobalt-chromium stents (CoCr). Between July 2006 and May 2008, 100 patients with single vessel disease undergoing primary PCI for STEMI were randomly assigned to receive either EPC stent (N = 50) or CoCr stent (N = 50). High-pressure stent implantation was carried out in both groups. Dual antiplatelet treatment was administered for 30 days in both groups. All patients underwent 6-month clinical, angiographic, and IVUS follow-up. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 30 days was comparable in both groups. At 6-month follow-up, the rates of MACEs and TLR in the EPC stent group when compared with CoCr stent were 24% vs.10%; P = 0.06 and 14% vs. 4%; P = 0.08, respectively. There were three cases (6%) of stent thrombosis (ST) in the EPC stent group versus none in CoCr group. The use of EPC capture stents in the setting of STEMI is feasible and safe in terms of 30-days outcome. However, at the 6-month follow-up, we found a trend of higher rates of MACE and TLR in the EPC stent capture group compared to CoCr stents. The study does not support the use of EPC capture stents with short duration dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with STEMI. Future randomized studies with large sample sizes would be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such approach. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Co-transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells and pancreatic islets to induce long-lasting normoglycemia in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

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    Paola Quaranta

    Full Text Available Graft vascularization is a crucial step to obtain stable normoglycemia in pancreatic islet transplantation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neoangiogenesis and to the revascularization process during ischaemic events and play a key role in the response to pancreatic islet injury. In this work we co-transplanted EPCs and islets in the portal vein of chemically-induced diabetic rats to restore islet vascularization and to improve graft survival. Syngenic islets were transplanted, either alone or with EPCs derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic rats, into the portal vein of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were monitored and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed. Real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the gene expression of angiogenic factors. Diabetic-induced rats showed long-lasting (6 months normoglycemia upon co-transplantation of syngenic islets and EPCs. After 3-5 days from transplantation, hyperglycaemic levels dropped to normal values and lasted unmodified as long as they were checked. Further, glucose tolerance tests revealed the animals' ability to produce insulin on-demand as indexed by a prompt response in blood glucose clearance. Graft neovascularization was evaluated by immunohistochemistry: for the first time the measure of endothelial thickness revealed a donor-EPC-related neovascularization supporting viable islets up to six months after transplant. Our results highlight the importance of a newly formed viable vascular network together with pancreatic islets to provide de novo adequate supply in order to obtain enduring normoglycemia and prevent diabetes-related long-term health hazards.

  20. Co-transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells and pancreatic islets to induce long-lasting normoglycemia in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Paola; Antonini, Sara; Spiga, Saturnino; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Curcio, Michele; Mulas, Giovanna; Diana, Marco; Marzola, Pasquina; Mosca, Franco; Longoni, Biancamaria

    2014-01-01

    Graft vascularization is a crucial step to obtain stable normoglycemia in pancreatic islet transplantation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to neoangiogenesis and to the revascularization process during ischaemic events and play a key role in the response to pancreatic islet injury. In this work we co-transplanted EPCs and islets in the portal vein of chemically-induced diabetic rats to restore islet vascularization and to improve graft survival. Syngenic islets were transplanted, either alone or with EPCs derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats, into the portal vein of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were monitored and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed. Real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the gene expression of angiogenic factors. Diabetic-induced rats showed long-lasting (6 months) normoglycemia upon co-transplantation of syngenic islets and EPCs. After 3-5 days from transplantation, hyperglycaemic levels dropped to normal values and lasted unmodified as long as they were checked. Further, glucose tolerance tests revealed the animals' ability to produce insulin on-demand as indexed by a prompt response in blood glucose clearance. Graft neovascularization was evaluated by immunohistochemistry: for the first time the measure of endothelial thickness revealed a donor-EPC-related neovascularization supporting viable islets up to six months after transplant. Our results highlight the importance of a newly formed viable vascular network together with pancreatic islets to provide de novo adequate supply in order to obtain enduring normoglycemia and prevent diabetes-related long-term health hazards.

  1. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function Inversely Correlates With Long-term Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients: Association With the Attenuation of the Heme Oxygenase-Adiponectin Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Sharoni, Ram; Vanella, Luca; Puri, Nitin; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G.; Porat, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attenuated, both in number and functionality, in animal models of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This effect has subsequently been linked to the aggravation of long-term morbidity and mortality associated with such disorders. The objective was to examine EPC number and survival in chronic diabetic vs nondiabetic patients in conjunction with the examination of their redox, inflammatory, and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2 genes) status in serum and visceral fat. Methods Visceral adipose tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery was analyzed for Nrf2-dependent genes. Oxidative stress was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay (TBARS). Peripheral blood, collected 1 day prior to surgery, was evaluated for inflammatory cytokines and EPCs. Results When compared with controls (P < 0.05), results of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay were higher in diabetic patients. Although Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin-1 [Trx-1], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] qui-none oxidoreductase [NQO1], glutathione S-transferase [GST]) were upregulated, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and adiponectin protein expression were lower in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of bilirubin were lower (P < 0.005) while the levels of inflammatory cytokines were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.05). EPC levels and their colony forming units were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with reduced viability in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that in diabetic patients, there is an inadequate heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis response, which could compromise the compensatory antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects consequently contributing toward EPC dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22445099

  2. An anti-CD34 antibody-functionalized clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for cardiovascular stent coating applications: a preliminary assessment of endothelial progenitor cell capture and hemocompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Tan

    Full Text Available In situ endothelialization of cardiovascular implants has emerged in recent years as an attractive means of targeting the persistent problems of thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of immobilizing anti-CD34 antibodies onto a POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer surface to sequester endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs from human blood, and to characterize the surface properties and hemocompatibility of this surface. Amine-functionalized fumed silica was used to covalently conjugate anti-CD34 to the polymer surface. Water contact angle, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used for surface characterization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were seeded on modified and pristine POSS-PCU polymer films. After 7 days, adhered cells were immunostained for the expression of EPC and endothelial cell markers, and assessed for the formation of EPC colonies. Hemocompatibility was assessed by thromboelastography, and platelet activation and adhesion assays. The number of EPC colonies formed on anti-CD34-coated POSS-PCU surfaces was not significantly higher than that of POSS-PCU (5.0±1.0 vs. 1.7±0.6, p>0.05. However, antibody conjugation significantly improved hemocompatibility, as seen from the prolonged reaction and clotting times, decreased angle and maximum amplitude (p<0.05, as well as decreased platelet adhesion (76.8±7.8 vs. 8.4±0.7, p<0.05 and activation. Here, we demonstrate that POSS-PCU surface immobilized anti-CD34 antibodies selectively captured CD34+ cells from peripheral blood, although only a minority of these were EPCs. Nevertheless, antibody conjugation significantly improves the hemocompatibility of POSS-PCU, and should therefore continue to be explored in combination with other strategies to improve the specificity of EPC capture to promote in situ endothelialization.

  3. Chronic treatment with clenbuterol modulates endothelial progenitor cells and circulating factors in a murine model of cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, James E; Polster, Sean P; Lee, Sangjin; Charles, Nathan J; Adhikari, Neeta; Mariash, Ami; Tadros, George; Stangland, Jenna; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Terracciano, Cesare M; Barton, Paul J R; Birks, Emma J; Yacoub, Magdi H; Miller, Leslie W; Hall, Jennifer L

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic treatment with the beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in a well-characterized model of heart failure, the muscle LIM protein knockout (MLP(-/-)) mouse. MLP(-/-) mice were treated daily with clenbuterol (2 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously for 6 weeks. Clenbuterol led to a 30% increase in CD31(+) cells in the bone marrow of MLP(-/-) heart failure mice (p Clenbuterol did not improve ejection fraction. Clenbuterol treatment in MLP(-/-) mice was associated with significant changes in the following circulating factors: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-type 1, leukemia inhibitory factor 1, C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein A1, fibroblast growth factor 2, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, macrophage-derived chemokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-3. Clenbuterol treatment in the MLP(-/-) model of heart failure did not rescue heart function, yet did increase CD31(+) cells in the bone marrow. This is the first evidence that a beta 2 agonist increases EPC proliferation in the bone marrow in a preclinical model of heart failure.

  4. Rod progenitor cells in the mature zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ann C; Scholz, Tamera; Fadool, James M

    2008-01-01

    The zebrafish is an excellent model organism in which to study the retina's response to photoreceptor degeneration and/or acute injury. While much has been learned about the retinal stem and progenitor cells that mediate the damage response, several questions remain that cannot be addressed by acute models of injury. The development of genetic models, such as the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, should further efforts to understand the nature of the signals that promote rod progenitor proliferation and differentiation following photoreceptor loss. This in turn may help to refine future approaches in higher vertebrates aimed at enhancing retinal progenitor cell activity for therapeutic purposes.

  5. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection-mediated sequential changes in microRNAs profile of Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Abdellaoui; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and are involved in the regulation of wide biological processes. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the causative agent of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) disease causing a heavy loss in aquaculture farms. In this study, we tried to explore the effect of VHSV infection on microRNAs profile of Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at different points of time (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h post infection). A total of 355 conserved microRNAs and 3 novel microRNAs were identified, and among them, 103 microRNAs were differentially expressed. The number of differentially expressed microRNAs was highly increased at 24 h.p.i compared to 3 h.p.i and 12 h.p.i., suggesting that EPC cells might not actively respond to VHSV infection at an early infection period, which can allow viruses to transcript and translate their genes enough to produce viral particles that can infect to another cells. Among the differentially expressed microRNAs, 2 miRNAs (miR-735 and miR-738) that were reported only in fish species were highly upregulated, and based on the target prediction, they could regulate several immune pathways. Furthermore, the present results showed the upregulation of representative immune regulating microRNAs such as miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-99. The target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs, GO, and KEGG pathways analysis revealed that several biological processes and different pathways were affected by the viral infection. The present dynamical changing patterns of differentially expressed microRNAs in response to the progression of VHSV infection suggest that microRNA profile that was analyzed at one time point cannot provide enough information for the interpretation of the disease mechanism. Considering the wide and complex interactions between microRNAs and genes expression, the present results provide the basis for the understanding of VHSV infection-mediated cellular responses and for future investigations

  6. Commitment of decidual haematopoietic progenitor cells in first trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, Laszlo; Miko, Eva; Meggyes, Matyas; Barakonyi, Aliz; Farkas, Balint; Varnagy, Akos; Bodis, Jozsef; Lynch, Lydia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM  The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotype and commitment of decidual haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in healthy pregnant women and in women with early miscarriage. METHOD OF STUDY  Peripheral blood and decidual tissue from healthy and pathological pregnant women were examined for HPCs and lymphoid progenitors using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS  Compared with peripheral blood, we found a significant increase in decidual HPCs in both healthy pregnant women and women with spontaneous abortion. T/NK, natural killer (NK), gamma-delta and NKT cell progenitors were identified in all peripheral blood and decidual samples. In pathologic pregnant women, the ratios of decidual T/NK and NK cell progenitors were significantly increased compared with healthy pregnant controls. CONCLUSION  We demonstrated decidual cells with haematopoietic progenitor cell phenotype in human decidua. Increased levels of NK progenitors in the decidua of women with early spontaneous abortion suggest a dysregulation of this pathway that may contribute to pregnancy failure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. How to utilize Ca²⁺ signals to rejuvenate the repairative phenotype of senescent endothelial progenitor cells in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular diseases: a useful therapeutic support of surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Dragoni, Silvia; Cinelli, Mariapia; Montagnani, Stefania; Amato, Bruno; Rosti, Vittorio; Guerra, Germano; Tanzi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction or loss is the early event that leads to a host of severe cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, brain stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral artery disease. Ageing is regarded among the most detrimental risk factor for vascular endothelium and predisposes the subject to atheroscleorosis and inflammatory states even in absence of traditional comorbid conditions. Standard treatment to restore blood perfusion through stenotic arteries are surgical or endovascular revascularization. Unfortunately, ageing patients are not the most amenable candidates for such interventions, due to high operative risk or unfavourable vascular involvement. It has recently been suggested that the transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might constitute an alternative and viable therapeutic option for these individuals. Albeit pre-clinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of EPC-based therapy to recapitulate the diseased vasculature of young and healthy animals, clinical studies provided less impressive results in old ischemic human patients. One hurdle associated to this kind of approach is the senescence of autologous EPCs, which are less abundant in peripheral blood and display a reduced pro-angiogenic activity. Conversely, umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived EPCs are more suitable for cellular therapeutics due to their higher frequency and sensitivity to growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is central to EPC activation by VEGF. We have recently demonstrated that the Ca(2+) signalling machinery driving the oscillatory Ca(2+) response to this important growth factor is different in UCB-derived EPCs as compared to their peripheral counterparts. In particular, we focussed on the so-called endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which are the only EPC population belonging to the endothelial lineage and able

  8. Impact of ADMA, endothelial progenitor cells and traditional cardiovascular risk factors on pulse wave velocity among prediabetic individuals

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    Protopsaltis Ioannis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central arterial stiffness represents a well-established predictor of cardiovascular disease. Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, increased asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA levels, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance have all been associated with increased arterial stiffness. The correlations of novel and traditional cardiovascular risk factors with central arterial stiffness in prediabetic individuals were investigated in the present study. Methods The study population consisted of 53 prediabetic individuals. Individuals were divided into groups of isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and combined IGT-IFG. Age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking history, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, lipid profile, levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and history of antihypertensive or statin therapy were obtained from all participants. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR. Carotid -femoral pulse wave velocity was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Circulating EPC count and ADMA serum levels were also determined. Results Among studied individuals 30 (56.6% subjects were diagnosed with isolated IFG, 9 (17% with isolated IGT (17% and 14 with combined IFG-IGT (26.4%. In univariate analysis age, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and ADMA levels positively correlated with pulse-wave velocity while exercise and GFR correlated negatively. EPC count did not correlate with PWV. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis PWV correlated independently and positively with LDL-Cholesterol (low density lipoprotein and ADMA levels and negatively with exercise. Conclusions Elevated ADMA and LDL-C levels are strongly associated with increased arterial stiffness among

  9. Impact of obesity control on circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis in response to ischemic stimulation

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    Chen Yung-Lung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim We tested the hypothesis that obesity reduced circulating number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, angiogenic ability, and blood flow in ischemic tissue that could be reversed after obesity control. Methods 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 27 were equally divided into group 1 (fed with 22-week control diet, group 2 (22-week high fat diet, and group 3 (14-week high fat diet, followed by 8-week control diet. Critical limb ischemia (CLI was induced at week 20 in groups 2 and 3. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 22 weeks. Results Heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum total cholesterol level, and fasting blood sugar were highest in group 2 (all p  Conclusion Obesity suppressed abilities of angiogenesis and recovery from CLI that were reversed by obesity control.

  10. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well......, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages....

  11. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease.

  12. CXCR4 expression in prostate cancer progenitor cells.

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    Anna Dubrovska

    Full Text Available Tumor progenitor cells represent a population of drug-resistant cells that can survive conventional chemotherapy and lead to tumor relapse. However, little is known of the role of tumor progenitors in prostate cancer metastasis. The studies reported herein show that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, a key regulator of tumor dissemination, plays a role in the maintenance of prostate cancer stem-like cells. The CXCL4/CXCR12 pathway is activated in the CD44(+/CD133(+ prostate progenitor population and affects differentiation potential, cell adhesion, clonal growth and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, prostate tumor xenograft studies in mice showed that a combination of the CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100, which targets prostate cancer stem-like cells, and the conventional chemotherapeutic drug Taxotere, which targets the bulk tumor, is significantly more effective in eradicating tumors as compared to monotherapy.

  13. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-04-01

    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  14. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

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    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  15. Mobilization of endothelial progenitors by recurrent bacteremias with a periodontal pathogen.

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    Moritz Kebschull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal infections are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this link are yet unclear. Here, we evaluate the in vivo effects of bacteremia with a periodontal pathogen on endothelial progenitors, bone marrow-derived cells capable of endothelial regeneration, and delineate the critical pathways for these effects. METHODS: 12-week old C57bl6 wildtype or toll-like receptor (TLR-2 deficient mice were repeatedly intravenously challenged with 10⁹ live P. gingivalis 381 or vehicle. Numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, circulating angiogenic cells, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were measured by FACS/culture. Endothelial function was assessed using isolated organ baths, reendothelization was measured in a carotid injury model. RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels were assessed by ELISA/qPCR. RESULTS: In wildtype mice challenged with intravenous P.gingivalis, numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, CAC, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were strongly increased in peripheral circulation and spleen, whereas Sca1+/flk1+ progenitor numbers in bone marrow decreased. Circulating EPCs were functional, as indicated by improved endothelial function and improved reendothelization in infected mice. The osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was increased after P. gingivalis challenge in the bone marrow niche of wildtype mice and late-outgrowth EPC in vitro. Conversely, in mice deficient in TLR2, no increase in progenitor mobilization or osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was detected. CONCLUSION: Recurrent transient bacteremias, a feature of periodontitis, increase peripheral EPC counts and decrease EPC pools in the bone marrow, thereby possibly reducing overall endothelial regeneration capacity, conceivably explaining pro-atherogenic properties of periodontal infections. These effects are seemingly mediated by toll-like receptor (TLR-2.

  16. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  17. Distinguishing Mast Cell Progenitors from Mature Mast Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Ding, Zhoujie; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-07-15

    Mast cells originate from the bone marrow and develop into c-kit(+) FcɛRI(+) cells. Both mast cell progenitors (MCp) and mature mast cells express these cell surface markers, and ways validated to distinguish between the two maturation forms with flow cytometry have been lacking. Here, we show that primary peritoneal MCp from naïve mice expressed high levels of integrin β7 and had a low side scatter (SSC) light profile; whereas mature mast cells expressed lower levels of integrin β7 and had a high SSC light profile. The maturation statuses of the cells were confirmed using three main strategies: (1) MCp, but not mature mast cells, were shown to be depleted by sublethal whole-body γ-irradiation. (2) The MCp were small and immature in terms of granule formation, whereas the mature mast cells were larger and had fully developed metachromatic granules. (3) The MCp had fewer transcripts of mast cell-specific proteases and the enzyme responsible for sulfation of heparin than mature mast cells. Moreover, isolated peritoneal MCp gave rise to mast cells when cultured in vitro. To summarize, we have defined MCp and mature mast cells in naïve mice by flow cytometry. Using this strategy, mast cell maturation can be studied in vivo.

  18. Endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+KDR+) and monocytes may provide the development of good coronary collaterals despite the vascular risk factors and extensive atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Yalçın, Mehmet Rıdvan; Yağcı, Münci; Sahinarslan, Asife; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Arslan, Uğur; Kurşunluoğlu, Nevruz; Ozdemir, Murat; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cemri, Mustafa; Abacı, Adnan; Boyacı, Bülent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) have a regenerative role in the vascular system. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simultaneously the effects of EPC and inflammatory cells on the presence and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the grade of coronary collateral growth in patients with clinical suspicion of CAD. This study has a cross-sectional and observational design. We enrolled 112 eligible patients who underwent coronary angiography consecutively (mean age: 59±9 years). The association of circulating inflammatory cells and EPC (defined by CD34+KDR+ in the lymphocyte and monocyte gate) with the presence, severity and extent of CAD and the degree of collateral growth were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to define the predictors of collateral flow. Of 112 patients 30 had normal coronary arteries (NCA, 27%, 55±9 years) and 82 had CAD (73%, 61±8 years). Among the patients with CAD, the percent degree of luminal stenosis was <50% in 12 patients; 50-90% in 35 patients; and ≥90% in the other 35 patients. Circulating inflammatory cells were higher (leukocytes, 7150±1599 vs 8163±1588 mm(-3), p=0.001; neutrophils, 4239±1280 vs 4827±1273 mm(-3), p=0.021; monocytes, 512±111 vs 636±192 mm(-3), p=0.001) and EPCs were lower (0.27±0.15% vs 0.17±0.14%, p<0.001; 21±15 vs 13±12 mm(-3), p=0.004) in CAD group than NCA group. When we investigated the collateral growth in patients having ≥90% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery, we found that the patients with good collateral growth had significantly higher EPC (0.22±0.17% vs 0.10±0.05%, p=0.009; 18±15 vs 7±3 mm(-3), p=0.003) in comparison to patients with poor collateral growth. Presence of EPC was associated with reduced risk for coronary artery disease (OR: 0.934, 95%CI: 0.883-0.998, p=0.018) and was an independent predictor for good collateral growth (OR: 1.295, 95%CI: 1.039-1.615, p=0.022). A sum of CD34+KDR-, CD34+KDR+ and CD34-KDR+ cells (192±98 mm(-3)), and a

  19. Cellular therapy after spinal cord injury using neural progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury are explored. Particularly, the potential of adult derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) grafts to function as a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration was investigated. It was found that syngenic

  20. Effect of a Mediterranean diet on endothelial progenitor cells and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: Follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Gicchino, Maurizio; Caputo, Mariangela; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Background We assessed the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet on circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design This was a parallel, two-arm, single-centre trial. Methods Two hundred and fifteen men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet ( n = 108) or a low-fat diet ( n = 107). The primary outcome measures were changes in the EPC count and the CIMT of the common carotid artery after the treatment period defined as the end of trial (EOT). Results At the EOT, both the CD34(+)KDR(+) and CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+) counts had increased with the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet ( p Mediterranean diet. Compared with the low-fat diet, the rate of regression in the CIMT was higher in the Mediterranean diet group (51 vs. 26%), whereas the rate of progression was lower (25 vs. 50%) ( p = 0.032 for both). Changes in the CIMT were inversely correlated with the changes in EPC levels (CD34(+)KDR(+), r = -0.24, p = 0.020; CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+), r = -0.28, p = 0.014). At the EOT, changes in levels of HbA1c, HOMA, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater with the Mediterranean diet than with the low-fat diet. Conclusion Compared with a low-fat diet, a long-term trial with Mediterranean diet was associated with an increase in circulating EPCs levels and prevention of the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  1. Mobilization of endogenous bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells and therapeutic potential of parathyroid hormone after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wang

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major neurovascular disorder threatening human life and health. Very limited clinical treatments are currently available for stroke patients. Stem cell transplantation has shown promising potential as a regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke. The present investigation explores a new concept of mobilizing endogenous stem cells/progenitor cells from the bone marrow using a parathyroid hormone (PTH therapy after ischemic stroke in adult mice. PTH 1-34 (80 µg/kg, i.p. was administered 1 hour after focal ischemia and then daily for 6 consecutive days. After 6 days of PTH treatment, there was a significant increase in bone marrow derived CD-34/Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1 positive endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in the peripheral blood. PTH treatment significantly increased the expression of trophic/regenerative factors including VEGF, SDF-1, BDNF and Tie-1 in the brain peri-infarct region. Angiogenesis, assessed by co-labeled Glut-1 and BrdU vessels, was significantly increased in PTH-treated ischemic brain compared to vehicle controls. PTH treatment also promoted neuroblast migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ and increased the number of newly formed neurons in the peri-infarct cortex. PTH-treated mice showed significantly better sensorimotor functional recovery compared to stroke controls. Our data suggests that PTH therapy improves endogenous repair mechanisms after ischemic stroke with functional benefits. Mobilizing endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells/progenitor cells using PTH and other mobilizers appears an effective and feasible regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke.

  2. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  3. Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells: a short history of nearly everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Patrick; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2012-08-01

    The high occurrence of cardiac disease in the Western world has driven clinicians and cardiovascular biologists to look for alternative strategies to treat patients. A challenging approach is the use of stem cells to repair the heart, in itself an inspiring thought. In the past 10 years, stem cells from different sources have been under intense investigation and, as a result, a multitude of studies have been published on the identification, isolation, and characterization, of cardiovascular progenitor cells and repair in different animal models. However, relatively few cardiovascular progenitor populations have been identified in human hearts, including, but not limited to, cardiosphere-derived cells, cKit+ human cardiac stem cells , Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors, and, in our lab, cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs). Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of the past findings and present challenges for future therapeutic potential of CMPCs. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mechanisms of temporal identity regulation in mouse retinal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Pierre; Cayouette, Michel

    2015-01-01

    While much progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the transcription factor codes controlling how neural progenitor cells generate the various glial and neuronal cell types in a particular spatial domain, much less is known about how these progenitors alter their output over time. In the past years, work in the developing mouse retina has provided evidence that a transcriptional cascade similar to the one used in Drosophila neuroblasts might control progenitor temporal identity in vertebrates. The zinc finger transcription factor Ikzf1 (Ikaros), an ortholog of Drosophila hunchback, was reported to confer early temporal identity in retinal progenitors and, more recently, the ortholog of Drosophila castor, Casz1, was found to function as a mid/late temporal identity factor that is negatively regulated by Ikzf1. The molecular mechanisms by which these temporal identity factors function in retinal progenitors, however, remain unknown. Here we briefly review previous work on the vertebrate temporal identity factors in the retina, and propose a model by which they might operate.

  5. Cell cycle regulation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sha; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The highly regulated process of blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets and their progenies, which differ in self-renewal and differentiation potential. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that cell cycle is tightly controlled by the complex interplay between extrinsic cues and intrinsic regulatory pathways involved in HSC self-renewal and differentiation. Deregulation of these cellular programs may transform HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-initiating stem cells, and can result in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia. While previous studies have shown roles for some cell cycle regulators and related signaling pathways in HSCs and HPCs, a more complete picture regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in HSCs or HPCs is lacking. Based on accumulated studies in this field, the present review introduces the basic components of the cell cycle machinery and discusses their major cellular networks that regulate the dormancy and cell cycle progression of HSCs. Knowledge on this topic would help researchers and clinicians to better understand the pathogenesis of relevant blood disorders and to develop new strategies for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs.

  6. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Simon N; van Os, Ronald P; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have added significantly to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. Such models suggest that changes in the interaction between the HSPC and the hematopoietic microenvironmental 'niche' (cellular and extracellular components)

  7. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...

  8. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127394,SRX127396,SRX127409,SRX127407,SRX127383,SRX127381 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315278,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238868,SRX238870 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Adipocyte Adipose progenitor ...cells SRX127409,SRX127394,SRX127396,SRX127407,SRX127383,SRX127381 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX802060,SRX109471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315277,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX109471,SRX802060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progen...itor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose progen...itor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Adipose prog...enitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua DENG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara cells, variant Clara cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced krt5+ cells in bronchioles, type II alveolar cells and type II alveolar progenitor cells in alveoli. The research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were mainly focused on lung injury models, lineage-tracing experiments, three dimensional culture, transplantation, chronic labeled cells and single-cell transcriptome analysis. Lastly, the potential relationship between lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and lung cancer as well as lung cancer stem cell-targeted drug development were briefly reviewed.

  6. [Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minhua; Li, Jinhua; Gan, Ye; Chen, Ping

    2017-02-20

    Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara cells, variant Clara cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced krt5+ cells in bronchioles, type II alveolar cells and type II alveolar progenitor cells in alveoli. The research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were mainly focused on lung injury models, lineage-tracing experiments, three dimensional culture, transplantation, chronic labeled cells and single-cell transcriptome analysis. Lastly, the potential relationship between lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and lung cancer as well as lung cancer stem cell-targeted drug development were briefly reviewed.

  7. Prostate progenitor cells proliferate in response to castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Shi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Androgen-deprivation is a mainstay of therapy for advanced prostate cancer but tumor regression is usually incomplete and temporary because of androgen-independent cells in the tumor. It has been speculated that these tumor cells resemble the stem/progenitor cells of the normal prostate. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of slow-cycling progenitor cells in the adult mouse prostate to castration. Proliferating cells in the E16 urogenital sinus were pulse labeled by BrdU administration or by doxycycline-controlled labeling of the histone-H2B GFP mouse. A small population of labeled epithelial cells in the adult prostate localized at the junction of the prostatic ducts and urethra. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS showed that GFP label-retaining cells were enriched for cells co-expressing stem cell markers Sca-1, CD133, CD44 and CD117 (4- marker cells; 60-fold enrichment. FACS showed, additionally, that 4-marker cells were androgen receptor positive. Castration induced proliferation and dispersal of E16 labeled cells into more distal ductal segments. When naïve adult mice were administered BrdU daily for 2 weeks after castration, 16% of 4-marker cells exhibited BrdU label in contrast to only 6% of all epithelial cells (P < 0.01. In sham-castrated controls less than 4% of 4-marker cells were BrdU labeled (P < 0.01. The unexpected and admittedly counter-intuitive finding that castration induced progenitor cell proliferation suggests that androgen deprivation therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer could not only exert pleiotrophic effects on tumor sub-populations but may induce inadvertent expansion of tumor stem cells.

  8. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. Ovarian monocyte progenitor cells: phenotypic and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cherry J; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Haraguchi, Soichi; Lerner, Danika; Baldwin, Margi; El-Badri, Nagwa S

    2005-04-01

    Leukocytes of the macrophage lineage are abundant in the ovarian tissues and have an important function in both follicular development and regression of postovulatory follicles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that continuous production of macrophages in the ovarian stroma is maintained by a resident population of progenitors. We established a long-term culture of ovarian follicular stromal cells from BALB/c and green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP-TG) C57BL/6 mice. Nonadherent cells were collected and tested for hematopoietic function in vitro and in vivo. Histological and ultrastructural analyses revealed a homogenous population of monocyte-like rounded cells. Nonadherent cells continued to proliferate in culture for several months without senescence. When plated at very low density in methylcellulose, these cells formed colonies consisting of monocyte-like cells. Ovarian monocyte-like cells reacted with CD45, CD11b, CD11c, and Ly6-Gr-1 cell surface markers. A distinct CD45low population within these cells reacted with CD117 (C-kit) surface marker, suggestive of a primitive hematopoietic progenitor. Fifty thousand nonadherent cells failed to provide radioprotection to lethally irradiated mice and thus were not considered to be equivalent to pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Ovarian nonadherent stromal cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase but lacked embryonic cell antigens stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA-1) and Oct-4. We conclude that in the ovaries, a higher requirement for macrophages is provided by a resident stromal population of progenitors whose progeny is restricted to the production of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage.

  13. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  14. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin on Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Reactive Hyperemia, and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization: Insights From the Atherosclerosis Lesion Progression Intervention Using Niacin Extended Release in Saphenous Vein Grafts (ALPINE-SVG) Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Andres; Rangan, Bavana V; Coleman, Ameka; Xu, Hao; Kotsia, Anna; Christopoulos, Georgios; Sosa, Alan; Chao, Howard; Han, Henry; Abdurrahim, Guthbudeen; Roesle, Michele; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K; Packer, Milton; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-eight patients with intermediate (30%-60% diameter stenosis) saphenous vein graft lesions were randomized to extended-release niacin (ER-niacin) or placebo for 12 months. We sought to evaluate the impact of ER-niacin on carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), endothelial function, and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization. Carotid B-mode ultrasound was used to image the common and internal carotid arteries, at baseline and at 12 months after enrollment. Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry, as assessed with EndoPAT 2000 (Itamar Medical, Inc) and EPC mobilization assessed with flow cytometry, were measured at enrollment, and at 1 and 12 months. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in the two study groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels tended to increase more in the ER-niacin group (5.9 ± 8.7 mg/dL vs 1.4 ± 7.1 mg/dL; P=.14). Between baseline and 12 months, right common carotid artery (0.96 ± 0.44 mm vs 0.70 ± 0.24 mm; P=.04), and left common carotid artery (0.80 ± 0.30 mm vs 0.70 ± 0.20 mm; P=.08) CIMT tended to decrease in the ER-niacin group, compared with no change in the placebo group. The change in logarithmic reactive hyperemia index between 1 month and 12 months was similar in patients receiving ER-niacin vs placebo (0.003 ± 0.12 vs -0.058 ± 0.12; P=.39), whereas EPC mobilization increased in the ER-niacin group and decreased in the placebo group (8.65 ± 28.41 vs -5.87 ± 30.23 EPC colony forming units/mL of peripheral blood; P=.02). ER-niacin did not have a significant impact on CIMT or endothelial function, but increased EPC mobilization.

  15. Derivation and characterization of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Zhao

    Full Text Available The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were generated by activating FGF and BMP pathways and were then purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting using a newly identified surface marker, N-cadherin. After co-culture with STO feeder cells, these purified hepatic endoderm cells yielded hepatic progenitor colonies, which possessed the proliferation potential to be cultured for an extended period of more than 100 days. With extensive expansion, they co-expressed the hepatic marker AFP and the biliary lineage marker KRT7 and maintained bipotential differentiation capacity. They were able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which expressed ALB and AAT, and into cholangiocyte-like cells, which formed duct-like cyst structures, expressed KRT19 and KRT7, and acquired epithelial polarity. In conclusion, this is the first report of the generation of proliferative and bipotential hepatic progenitor cells from hES cells. These hES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells could be effectively used as an in vitro model for studying the mechanisms of hepatic stem/progenitor cell origin, self-renewal and differentiation.

  16. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pediatric Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohamad; Elsayh, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Hassan, Gamal Mohamad; Abdou, Madleen Adel A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in pediatric patients with sepsis and correlating it with the severity of the disease and its outcome. The study included 19 children with sepsis, 26 with complicated sepsis, and 30 healthy controls. The patients were investigated within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit admission together with flow cytometric detection of CECs and CEPs. The levels of both CECs and CEPs were significantly higher in patient with sepsis and complicated sepsis than the controls. The levels of CECs were higher in patients with complicated sepsis, whereas the levels of CEPs were lower in patients with complicated sepsis. Comparing the survival and nonsurvival septic patients, the levels of CEPs were significantly higher in the survival than in nonsurvival patients, whereas the levels of CECs were significantly lower in the survival than in nonsurvival patients. Serum albumin was higher in survival than in nonsurvival patients. Estimation of CECs and CEPs and their correlation with other parameters such as serum albumen could add important information regarding prognosis in septic pediatric patients.

  17. Transplantation of Airway Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Future for Cell-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moumita; Ahmad, Shama; White, Carl W; Reynolds, Susan D

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to cure disease through replacement of malfunctioning cells. Although the tissue stem cell (TSC) is thought to be the optimal therapeutic cell, transplantation of TSC/progenitor cell mixtures has saved lives. We previously purified the mouse tracheobronchial epithelial TSCs and reported that in vitro amplification generated numerous TSCs. However, these cultures also contained TSC-derived progenitor cells and TSC repurification by flow cytometry compromised TSC self-renewal. These limitations prompted us to determine if a TSC/progenitor cell mixture would repopulate the injured airway epithelium. We developed a cell transplantation protocol and demonstrate that transplanted mouse and human tracheobronchial epithelial TSC/progenitor cell mixtures are 20-25% of airway epithelial cells, actively contribute to epithelial repair, and persist for at least 43 days. At 2 weeks after transplantation, TSCs/progenitor cells differentiated into the three major epithelial cell types: basal, secretory, and ciliated. We conclude that cell therapy that uses adult tracheobronchial TSCs/progenitor cells is an effective therapeutic option.

  18. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Paiva, Artur; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cell count and endothelial activation in a pediatric population with obesity. Observational and transversal study, including 120 children and adolescents with primary obesity of both sexes, aged 6-17 years, who were recruited at this Cardiovascular Risk Clinic. The control group was made up of 41 children and adolescents with normal body mass index. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, E-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine and circulating progenitor endothelial cell count. Insulin resistance was correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ρ=0.340; p=0.003), which was directly, but weakly correlated to E-selectin (ρ=0.252; p=0.046). High sensitivity C-reactive protein was not found to be correlated to markers of endothelial activation. Systolic blood pressure was directly correlated to body mass index (ρ=0.471; p<0.001) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (ρ=0.230; p=0.012), and inversely correlated to adiponectin (ρ=-0.331; p<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ρ=-0.319; p<0.001). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count was directly, but weakly correlated, to body mass index (r=0.211; p=0.016), leptin (ρ=0.245; p=0.006), triglyceride levels (r=0.241; p=0.031), and E-selectin (ρ=0.297; p=0.004). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count is elevated in obese children and adolescents with evidence of endothelial activation, suggesting that, during infancy, endothelial repairing mechanisms are present in the context of endothelial activation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  20. Advances in Classification and Research Methods of Lung Epithelial Stem 
and Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deng,Minhua; Li, Jinhua; Gan, Ye; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells and understanding of their specific role in lung physiopathology are critical for preventing and controlling lung diseases including lung cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances in classification and research methods of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells were region-specific, which primarily included basal cells and duct cells in proximal airway, Clara ce...

  1. Fetal hepatic progenitors support long-term expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Flygare, Johan; Lodish, Harvey F

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a coculture system that establishes DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors as the authentic supportive cells for expansion of hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and progenitor cells. In 1-week cultures supplemented with serum and supportive cytokines, both cocultured DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors and their conditioned medium supported rapid expansion of hematopoietic progenitors and a small increase in HSC numbers. In 2- and 3-week cultures DLK(+) cells, but not their conditioned medium, continuously and significantly (>20-fold) expanded both hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Physical contact between HSCs and DLK(+) cells was crucial to maintaining this long-term expansion. Similar HSC expansion (approximately sevenfold) was achieved in cocultures using a serum-free, low cytokine- containing medium. In contrast, DLK(-) cells are incapable of expanding hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that hepatic progenitors are the principle supportive cells for HSC expansion in the fetal liver. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a 12-week alpine skiing intervention on endothelial progenitor cells, peripheral arterial tone and endothelial biomarkers in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederseer, David; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Mayr, Matthias; Müller, Edith E; Cadamuro, Janne; Patsch, Wolfgang; Dela, Flemming; Müller, Erich; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs early during atherogenesis and it can be normalized by exercise training. Unfortunately, patients' compliance with exercise prescription remains low, often because the given choices do not appeal to them. In Alpine regions, skiing is a popular mode of exercise, and therefore we set out to assess whether it can induce antiatherogenic effects. We randomized 42 subjects into a group of 12weeks of guided skiing (intervention group, IG, n=22; 12 males/10 females; age: 66.6±2.1years) or a control group (CG, n=20; 10 males/10 females; age: 67.3±4.4years). Early (CD3-CD34+CD45+) and late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs; CD45dimCD34+KDR+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs), peripheral arterial tonometry and endothelial biomarkers were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. In the IG, participants completed 28.5±2.6 skiing days at an average heart rate of 72.7±8.5% of their maximum heart rate. Changes in early (IG: +0.001±0.001% PBMC; CG: -0.001±0.001% PBMC; IG vs. CG: pskiing induces several beneficial effects on markers of atherogenesis including EPCs, peripheral arterial tone and homocysteine. Our findings suggest that recreational alpine skiing may serve as a further mode of preventive exercise training, which might result in improved compliance with current recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Netrin-1 Promotes Inflammation Resolution to Achieve Endothelialization of Small-Diameter Tissue Engineering Blood Vessels by Improving Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhao; Wan, Simin; Liu, Ge; Cai, Wang; Huo, Da; Li, Gang; Yang, Mingcan; Wang, Yuxin; Guan, Ge; Ding, Ning; Liu, Feila; Zeng, Wen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2017-12-01

    The transplant of small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessels (small-diameter TEBVs) (vascular replacement therapy often fails because of early onset thrombosis and long-standing chronic inflammation. The specific inflammation state involved in small-diameter TEBVs transplants remains unclear, and whether promoting inflammation resolution would be useful for small-diameter TEBVs therapy need study. The neural protuberant orientation factor 1 (Netrin-1) is found present in endothelial cells of natural blood vessels and has anti-inflammatory effects. This work generates netrin-1-modified small-diameter TEBVs by using layer-by-layer self-assembly to resolve the inflammation. The results show that netrin-1 reprograms macrophages (MΦ) to assume an anti-inflammatory phenotype and promotes the infiltration and subsequent efflux of MΦ from inflamed sites over time, which improves the local microenvironment and the function of early homing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Small-diameter TEBVs modified by netrin-1 achieve endothelialization after 30 d and retain patency at 14 months. These findings suggest that promoting the resolution of inflammation in time is necessary to induce endothelialization of small-diameter TEBVs and prevent early thrombosis and problems associated with chronic inflammation. Furthermore, this work finds that the MΦ-derived exosomes can target and regulate EPCs, which may serve as a useful treatment for other inflammatory diseases.

  4. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... has ensued; understanding the natural history of the targeted disease; defining the optimal cell phenotype for each disorder; achieving safe and scalable cellular compositions; designing age-appropriate controlled clinical trials; and for autologous therapy of genetic disorders, achieving the safe...

  5. Identification of Novel Human NK Cell Progenitor Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sathe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the pathways and regulation of human haematopoiesis, in particular, lymphopoiesis, is vital to manipulation of these processes for therapeutic purposes. However, although haematopoiesis has been extensively characterised in mice, translation of these findings to human biology remains rudimentary. Here, we describe the isolation of three progenitor subsets from human foetal bone marrow that represent differential stages of commitment to the natural killer (NK cell lineage based on IL-15 responsiveness. We identify CD7 as a marker of IL-15 responsive progenitors in human bone marrow and find that this expression is maintained throughout commitment and maturation. Within the CD7+ fraction, we focussed on the lineage potential of three subsets based on CD127 and CD117 expression and observed restricted lymphoid and biased NK cell potential amongst subsets. We further demonstrate the presence of subsets similar in both phenotype and function in umbilical cord blood and the bone marrow of humanised mice, validating these as appropriate sources of progenitors for the investigation of human haematopoiesis. Overall, we describe several stages in the process of lymphopoiesis that will form the basis of investigating the regulators of this process in humans.

  6. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  7. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  8. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  9. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...... mononuclear infiltration in the choroid with graft rejection occurring over 2-5 weeks. Serum analysis confirmed that mice and pigs are discordant species; however, a cell-mediated acute mechanism appears to be responsible, rather than an antibody-mediated rejection....

  10. An improved design method for EPC middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Guohuan; Xu, Ran; Yang, Chunming

    2014-04-01

    For currently existed problems and difficulties during the small and medium enterprises use EPC (Electronic Product Code) ALE (Application Level Events) specification to achieved middleware, based on the analysis of principle of EPC Middleware, an improved design method for EPC middleware is presented. This method combines the powerful function of MySQL database, uses database to connect reader-writer with upper application system, instead of development of ALE application program interface to achieve a middleware with general function. This structure is simple and easy to implement and maintain. Under this structure, different types of reader-writers added can be configured conveniently and the expandability of the system is improved.

  11. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  12. Biology of the Adult Hepatic Progenitor Cell: “Ghosts in the Machine”

    OpenAIRE

    Darwiche, Houda; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews some of the basic biological principles governing adult progenitor cells of the liver and the mechanisms by which they operate. If scientists were better able to understand the conditions that govern stem cell mechanics in the liver, it may be possible to apply that understanding in a clinical setting for use in the treatment or cure of human pathologies. This chapter gives a basic introduction to hepatic progenitor cell biology and explores what is known about progenitor...

  13. Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs) and introduces a novel definition of EPC semantics. EPCs became popular in the 1990s as a conceptual business process modeling language in the context of reference modeling. Reference modeling refers to the documentation of generic business operations in a model such as service processes in the telecommunications sector, for example. It is claimed that reference models can be reused and adapted as best-practice recommendations in individual companies (see [230, 168, 229, 131, 400, 401, 446, 127, 362, 126]). The roots of reference modeling can be traced back to the Kölner Integrationsmodell (KIM) [146, 147] that was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1990s, the Institute of Information Systems (IWi) in Saarbrücken worked on a project with SAP to define a suitable business process modeling language to document the processes of the SAP R/3 enterprise resource planning system. There were two results from this joint effort: the definition of EPCs [210] and the documentation of the SAP system in the SAP Reference Model (see [92, 211]). The extensive database of this reference model contains almost 10,000 sub-models: 604 of them non-trivial EPC business process models. The SAP Reference model had a huge impact with several researchers referring to it in their publications (see [473, 235, 127, 362, 281, 427, 415]) as well as motivating the creation of EPC reference models in further domains including computer integrated manufacturing [377, 379], logistics [229] or retail [52]. The wide-spread application of EPCs in business process modeling theory and practice is supported by their coverage in seminal text books for business process management and information systems in general (see [378, 380, 49, 384, 167, 240]). EPCs are frequently used in practice due to a high user acceptance [376] and extensive tool support. Some examples of tools that support EPCs are ARIS Toolset by IDS

  14. Transplantation of mouse fetal liver cells for analyzing the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn Orri; Stull, Steven W; Keller, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate through progenitor cell stages into all types of mature blood cells. Gene-targeting studies in mice have demonstrated that many genes are essential for the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. For definitively analyzing the function of these cells, transplantation studies have to be performed. In this chapter, we describe methods to isolate and transplant fetal liver cells as well as how to analyze donor cell reconstitution. This protocol is tailored toward mouse models where embryonic lethality precludes analysis of adult hematopoiesis or where it is suspected that the function of fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is compromised.

  15. Microtubules CLASP to Adherens Junctions in epidermal progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahbazi, Marta N; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    and cellular compartments are still not completely understood. Here, we comment on our recent findings showing that the MT plus-end binding protein CLASP2 interacts with the AJ component p120-catenin (p120) specifically in progenitor epidermal cells. Absence of either protein leads to alterations in MT...... of epithelial tissues. We hypothesize the existence of adaptation mechanisms that regulate the formation and stability of AJs in different cellular contexts to allow the dynamic behavior of these complexes during tissue homeostasis and remodeling....

  16. Development and application of human adult stem or progenitor cell organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Schutgens, Frans; Verhaar, Marianne C; Clevers, Hans

    Adult stem or progenitor cell organoids are 3D adult-organ-derived epithelial structures that contain self-renewing and organ-specific stem or progenitor cells as well as differentiated cells. This organoid culture system was first established in murine intestine and subsequently developed for

  17. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  18. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  19. Occludin as a functional marker of vascular endothelial cells on tube-forming activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Hiroko; Suzuki, Hiroko; Tamura, Hiroomi; Tada, Minoru; Suzuki, Takuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2018-02-01

    Cell therapy using endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is a promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic diseases. Two types of EPCs have been identified: early EPCs and late EPCs. Late EPCs are able to form tube structure by themselves, and have a high proliferative ability. The functional marker(s) of late EPCs, which relate to their therapeutic potential, have not been fully elucidated. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of several human cord blood derived late EPC lines which exhibit different tube formation activity, and we observed that the expression of occludin (OCLN) in these lines correlated with the tube formation ability, suggesting that OCLN is a candidate functional marker of late EPCs. When OCLN was knocked down by transfecting siRNA, the tube formation on Matrigel, the S phase + G2 /M phase in the cell cycle, and the spheroid-based sprouting of late EPCs were markedly reduced, suggesting the critical role of OCLN in tube formation, sprouting, and proliferation. These results indicated that OCLN plays a novel role in neovascularization and angiogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors increase neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Mix, Eilhard; Frahm, Jana; Glass, Anne; Müller, Jana; Schmitt, Oliver; Schmöle, Anne-Caroline; Klemm, Kristin; Ortinau, Stefanie; Hübner, Rayk; Frech, Moritz J; Wree, Andreas; Rolfs, Arndt

    2011-01-13

    Human neural progenitor cells provide a source for cell replacement therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, there is great interest in mechanisms and tools to direct the fate of multipotent progenitor cells during their differentiation to increase the yield of a desired cell type. We tested small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) for their functionality and their influence on neurogenesis using the human neural progenitor cell line ReNcell VM. Here we report the enhancement of neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells by treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors. We tested different small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 i.e. LiCl, sodium-valproate, kenpaullone, indirubin-3-monoxime and SB-216763 for their ability to inhibit GSK-3 in human neural progenitor cells. The highest in situ GSK-3 inhibitory effect of the drugs was found for kenpaullone and SB-216763. Accordingly, kenpaullone and SB-216763 were the only drugs tested in this study to stimulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is antagonized by GSK-3. Analysis of human neural progenitor differentiation revealed an augmentation of neurogenesis by SB-216763 and kenpaullone, without changing cell cycle exit or cell survival. Small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 enhance neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells and may be used to direct the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells in therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda LoGuidice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in

  2. Electrically Induced Calcium Handling in Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs. It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking. We have identified a novel property of CPCs to respond to electrical stimulation by initiating intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We used confocal microscopy and intracellular calcium imaging to determine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ca2+ signal and the key proteins involved in this process using pharmacological inhibition and confocal Ca2+ imaging. Our results provide valuable insights into mechanisms to enhance the therapeutic potential in stem cells and further our understanding of human CPC physiology.

  3. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...... inflammatory cells in the choroid near the transplantation site. Large choroidal infiltrates were evident at 2-5 weeks. Serum from naive and RPC-xenografted pigs contained significant levels of preformed IgG and IgM antibodies against murine antigens. Xenogeneic RPCs transplanted to the porcine SRS induced...... mononuclear infiltration in the choroid with graft rejection occurring over 2-5 weeks. Serum analysis confirmed that mice and pigs are discordant species; however, a cell-mediated acute mechanism appears to be responsible, rather than an antibody-mediated rejection....

  4. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  5. Generation of Induced Progenitor-like Cells from Mature Epithelial Cells Using Interrupted Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A suitable source of progenitor cells is required to attenuate disease or affect cure. We present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to generate “induced progenitor-like (iPL cells” using carefully timed expression of induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc; OSKM from non-proliferative Club cells. Interrupted reprogramming allowed controlled expansion yet preservation of lineage commitment. Under clonogenic conditions, iPL cells expanded and functioned as a bronchiolar progenitor-like population to generate mature Club cells, mucin-producing goblet cells, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-expressing ciliated epithelium. In vivo, iPL cells can repopulate CFTR-deficient epithelium. This interrupted reprogramming process could be metronomically applied to achieve controlled progenitor-like proliferation. By carefully controlling the duration of expression of OSKM, iPL cells do not become pluripotent, and they maintain their memory of origin and retain their ability to efficiently return to their original phenotype. A generic technique to produce highly specified populations may have significant implications for regenerative medicine. : In this article Waddell, Nagy, and colleagues present an “interrupted reprogramming” strategy to produce highly specified functional “induced progenitor-like cells” from mature quiescent cells. They propose that careful control of the duration of transient expression of iPSC reprogramming factors (OSKM allows controlled expansion yet preservation of parental lineage without traversing the pluripotent state. Keywords: generation of induced progenitor-like cells

  6. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  7. Development of Advanced Dressings for the Delivery of Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Giles T S; Mills, Stuart J; Vandenpoel, Liesbeth; Pinxteren, Jef; Ting, Anthony; Short, Robert D; Cowin, Allison J; Michelmore, Andrew; Smith, Louise E

    2017-02-01

    Culture surfaces that substantially reduce the degree of cell manipulation in the delivery of cell sheets to patients are described. These surfaces support the attachment, culture, and delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC). It was essential that the processes of attachment/detachment to the surface did not affect cell phenotype nor the function of the cultured cells. Both acid-based and amine-based surface coatings were generated from acrylic acid, propanoic acid, diaminopropane, and heptylamine precursors, respectively. While both functional groups supported cell attachment/detachment, amine coated surfaces gave optimal performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that at a primary amine to carbon surface ratio of between 0.01 and 0.02, greater than 90% of attached cells were effectively transferred to a model wound bed. A dependence on primary amine concentration has not previously been reported. After 48 h of culture on the optimized amine surface, PCR, functional, and viability assays showed that MAPC retained their stem cell phenotype, full metabolic activity, and biological function. Consequently, in a proof of concept experiment, it was shown that this amine surface when coated onto a surgical dressing provides an effective and simple technology for the delivery of MAPC to murine dorsal excisional wounds, with MAPC delivery verified histologically. By optimizing for cell delivery using a combination of in vitro and in vivo techniques, we developed an effective surface for the delivery of MAPC in a clinically relevant format.

  8. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  9. Yap controls stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse postnatal epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverdam, Annemiek; Claxton, Christina; Zhang, Xiaomeng; James, Gregory; Harvey, Kieran F; Key, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Tissue renewal is an ongoing process in the epithelium of the skin. We have begun to examine the genetic mechanisms that control stem/progenitor cell activation in the postnatal epidermis. The conserved Hippo pathway regulates stem cell turnover in arthropods through to vertebrates. Here we show that its downstream effector, yes-associated protein (YAP), is active in the stem/progenitor cells of the postnatal epidermis. Overexpression of a C-terminally truncated YAP mutant in the basal epidermis of transgenic mice caused marked expansion of epidermal stem/progenitor cell populations. Our data suggest that the C-terminus of YAP controls the balance between stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the postnatal interfollicular epidermis. We conclude that YAP functions as a molecular switch of stem/progenitor cell activation in the epidermis. Moreover, our results highlight YAP as a possible therapeutic target for diseases such as skin cancer, psoriasis, and epidermolysis bullosa.

  10. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  12. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, C.J.; Casas-Selves, M.; Kim, J.; Zaberezhnyy, V.; Aghili, L.; Daniel, A.E.; Jimenez, L.; Azam, T.; McNamee, E.N.; Clambey, E.T.; Klawitter, J.; Serkova, N.J.; Tan, A.C.; Dinarello, C.A.; DeGregori, J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed

  13. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  14. Interleukin-1 regulates Hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia); M. Peeters (Marian); E. Haak (Esther); K. van der Horn (Karin); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground Hematopoietic progenitors are generated in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region during early mouse development. At embryonic day 10.5 the first hematopoietic stem cells emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros. Subsequently, hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors are

  15. Effects of hematopoietic growth factors on purified bone marrow progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bot (Freek)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells and in-vitro culture to examine the following questions: 1. The effects of recombinant lL-3 and GM-CSF on proliferation and differentiation of enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells have not been clearly defined: - how do IL~3

  16. Osteopontin neutralisation abrogates the liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J D; Swiderska-Syn, M; Dollé, L; Reid, D; Eksteen, B; Claridge, L; Briones-Orta, M A; Shetty, S; Oo, Y H; Riva, A; Chokshi, S; Papa, S; Mi, Z; Kuo, P C; Williams, R; Canbay, A; Adams, D H; Diehl, A M; van Grunsven, L A; Choi, S S; Syn, W K

    2015-07-01

    Chronic liver injury triggers a progenitor cell repair response, and liver fibrosis occurs when repair becomes deregulated. Previously, we reported that reactivation of the hedgehog pathway promotes fibrogenic liver repair. Osteopontin (OPN) is a hedgehog-target, and a cytokine that is highly upregulated in fibrotic tissues, and regulates stem-cell fate. Thus, we hypothesised that OPN may modulate liver progenitor cell response, and thereby, modulate fibrotic outcomes. We further evaluated the impact of OPN-neutralisation on murine liver fibrosis. Liver progenitors (603B and bipotential mouse oval liver) were treated with OPN-neutralising aptamers in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, to determine if (and how) OPN modulates liver progenitor function. Effects of OPN-neutralisation (using OPN-aptamers or OPN-neutralising antibodies) on liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis were assessed in three models of liver fibrosis (carbon tetrachloride, methionine-choline deficient diet, 3,5,-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet) by quantitative real time (qRT) PCR, Sirius-Red staining, hydroxyproline assay, and semiquantitative double-immunohistochemistry. Finally, OPN expression and liver progenitor response were corroborated in liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic liver disease. OPN is overexpressed by liver progenitors in humans and mice. In cultured progenitors, OPN enhances viability and wound healing by modulating TGF-β signalling. In vivo, OPN-neutralisation attenuates the liver progenitor cell response, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in Sox9+ cells, and abrogates liver fibrogenesis. OPN upregulation during liver injury is a conserved repair response, and influences liver progenitor cell function. OPN-neutralisation abrogates the liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis in mouse models of liver fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  17. Osteopontin Neutralization Abrogates the Liver Progenitor Cell Response and Fibrogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J; Swiderska-Syn, M; Dollé, L; Reid, D; Eksteen, B; Claridge, L; Briones-Orta, MA; Shetty, S; Oo, YH; Riva, A; Chokshi, S; Papa, S; Mi, Z; Kuo, PC; Williams, R; Canbay, A; Adams, DH; Diehl, AM; van Grunsven, LA; Choi, SS; Syn, WK

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic liver injury triggers a progenitor-cell repair-response, and liver fibrosis occurs when repair becomes de-regulated. Previously, we reported that reactivation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes fibrogenic liver-repair. Osteopontin (OPN) is a Hh-target, and a cytokine that is highly upregulated in fibrotic tissues, and regulates stem-cell fate. Thus, we hypothesized that OPN may modulate liver progenitor-cell response, and thereby, modulate fibrotic outcomes. We further evaluated the impact of OPN-neutralization on murine liver fibrosis. Methods Liver progenitors (603B and BMOL) were treated with OPN-neutralizing aptamers in the presence or absence of TGF–β, to determine if (and how) OPN modulates liver progenitor function. Effects of OPN-neutralization (using OPN-aptamers or OPN-neutralizing antibodies) on liver progenitor-cell response and fibrogenesis were assessed in three models of liver fibrosis (carbon tetrachloride, methionine-choline deficient diet, 3, 5,-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet) by qRTPCR, Sirius-Red staining, hydroxyproline assay, and semi-quantitative double-immunohistochemistry. Finally, OPN expression and liver progenitor response were corroborated in liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic liver disease. Results OPN is over-expressed by liver progenitors in humans and mice. In cultured progenitors, OPN enhances viability and wound-healing by modulating TGF-β signaling. In vivo, OPN-neutralization attenuates the liver progenitor-cell response, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in Sox9+ cells, and abrogates liver fibrogenesis. Conclusions OPN upregulation during liver injury is a conserved repair-response, and influences liver progenitor-cell function. OPN-neutralization abrogates the liver progenitor-cell response and fibrogenesis in mouse models of liver fibrosis. PMID:24902765

  18. Quercetin inhibits adipogenesis of muscle progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Funakoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors capable of contributing to myogenesis to maintain adult muscle mass and function. Several experiments have demonstrated that muscle satellite cells can differentiate into adipocytes in vitro, supporting the mesenchymal differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, muscle satellite cells may be a source of ectopic muscle adipocytes, explaining the lipid accumulation often observed in aged skeletal muscle (sarcopenia and in muscles of patients` with diabetes. Quercetin, a polyphenol, is one of the most abundant flavonoids distributed in edible plants, such as onions and apples, and possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro with primary cells from rat limbs by culture in the presence of quercetin under adipogenic conditions. Morphological observations, Oil Red-O staining results, triglyceride content analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that quercetin was capable of inhibiting the adipogenic induction of muscle satellite cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner by suppressing the transcript levels of adipogenic markers, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and fatty acid binding protein 4. Our results suggested that quercetin inhibited the adipogenesis of muscle satellite cells in vitro by suppressing the transcription of adipogenic markers.

  19. Viral-mediated gene transfer to mouse primary neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie M; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Sauter, Sybille L; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells may provide for cell replacement or gene delivery vehicles in neurodegen-erative disease therapies. The expression of therapeutic proteins by neural progenitors would be enhanced by viral-mediated gene transfer, but the effects of several common recombinant viruses on primary progenitor cell populations have not been tested. To address this issue, we cultured cells from embryonic day 16-18 mouse brain in serum-free medium containing epidermal growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor, and investigated how transduction with recombinant viral vectors affected maintenance and differentiation properties of progenitor cells. Neurosphere cultures were incubated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), adeno-associated virus (AAV) or ade-noviral (Ad) constructs expressing either beta-galactosidase or enhanced green fluorescent protein at low multiplicity of infection. Nestin-positive neurospheres were regenerated after incubation of single progenitor cells with FIV, indicating that FIV-mediated gene transfer did not inhibit progenitor cell self-renewal. In contrast, adenovirus induced differentiation into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. The AAV serotypes tested did not effectively transduce progenitor cells. FIV-transduced progenitors retained the potential for differentiation into neurons and glia in vitro, and when transplanted into the striatum of normal adult C57BL/6 mice differentiated into glia, or remained undifferentiated. In the presence of tumor cells, FIV-transduced progenitors migrated significantly from the injection site. Our results suggest that FIV-based vectors can transduce progenitor cell populations in vitro, with maintenance of their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types or to respond to injury within the central nervous system. These results hold promise for the use of genetically manipulated stem cells for CNS therapies.

  20. Leukemic cells create bone marrow niches that disrupt the behavior of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmone, Angela; Amorim, Maria; Pontier, Andrea L; Wang, Sheng; Jablonski, Elizabeth; Sipkins, Dorothy A

    2008-12-19

    The host tissue microenvironment influences malignant cell proliferation and metastasis, but little is known about how tumor-induced changes in the microenvironment affect benign cellular ecosystems. Applying dynamic in vivo imaging to a mouse model, we show that leukemic cell growth disrupts normal hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) bone marrow niches and creates abnormal microenvironments that sequester transplanted human CD34+ (HPC-enriched) cells. CD34+ cells in leukemic mice declined in number over time and failed to mobilize into the peripheral circulation in response to cytokine stimulation. Neutralization of stem cell factor (SCF) secreted by leukemic cells inhibited CD34+ cell migration into malignant niches, normalized CD34+ cell numbers, and restored CD34+ cell mobilization in leukemic mice. These data suggest that the tumor microenvironment causes HPC dysfunction by usurping normal HPC niches and that therapeutic inhibition of HPC interaction with tumor niches may help maintain normal progenitor cell function in the setting of malignancy.

  1. Collection of peripheral hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihenescikova, V Rimajova; Mistrik, M; Martinka, J; Zwiewka, M; Bizikova, I; Batorova, A

    2015-01-01

    Several variables possibly affecting collection of peripheral hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (PBSC) were evaluated: type of apheresis machine (Amicus version 2.5, Baxter vs Cobe Spectra version 7.0, Terumo BCT), venous access (peripheral vein vs central venous catheter, i.g. CVC), and apheresis regimen (standard vs large volume leukapheresis, i.g. SVL vs LVL) with the objective to increase collection efficacy at the site. Peripheral blood represents the currently preferred source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) for transplantation. Data regarding 169 collection procedures performed in healthy donors and patients between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Clinics of Haematology and Transfusiology in St Cyril and Method Hospital in Bratislava (Slovakia) were analysed. With Cobe Spectra apheresis machine it was possible to process larger blood volumes per procedure with higher CD34+ cell collection efficiency (p = 0.0229) and lower RBC contamination of the harvest than with Amicus (p = 0.0116). On the other hand, Amicus helped to limit PLT contamination of the harvest (p < 0.0001), thus minimizing post-procedural decrease in patient´s PLT count. The highest detected advantage of CVC usage was higher flow rate of procedure, thus processing larger blood volumes per unit of time. Interesting finding was the tendency to lower harvest PLT contamination (p = 0.054). When LVL was performed, significantly higher HSCs yields were collected, even in "poor mobilizers" when the pre-run parameters were low. Management of PBSC collection requires a particular approach in each subject. Institutionally and individually optimized collection may help to improve the transplantation outcome and decrease the financial costs (Tab. 8, Ref. 15).

  2. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

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  9. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Histone Neural Fetal neural pro...genitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. Cardiac progenitor-cell derived exosomes as cell-free therapeutic for cardiac repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, E. A.; Goumans, Marie-Jose; Sluijter, J. P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as potential therapy to improve cardiac repair and prevent damage in cardiac diseases. CPCs are a promising cell source for cardiac therapy as they can generate all cardiovascular lineages in vitro and in vivo. Originating from the heart itself, CPCs may

  1. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  2. Low immunogenicity of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Go; Ozaki, Masahiro; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kawabata, Soya; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Rei; Ookubo, Toshiki; Yastake, Kaori; Matsubayashi, Kohei; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-10-11

    Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord. In contrast, an allogeneic transplantation into subcutaneous tissue was rejected in all mice, and allogeneic cells transplanted into intact and injured spinal cords survived for 3 months in approximately 20% of mice. In addition, cell survival was increased after co-treatment with an immunosuppressive agent. Thus, the immunogenicity and post-transplantation immunological dynamics of iPSC-NSPCs resemble those of fetus-NSPCs.

  3. Concise review: chemical approaches for modulating lineage-specific stem cells and progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Mingliang; Laurent, Timothy; Xie, Min; Ding, Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Generation and manipulation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and/or in vivo are critical for the development of stem cell-based clinical therapeutics. Lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells have many advantageous qualities, including being able to efficiently engraft and differentiate into desirable cell types in vivo after transplantation, and they are much less tumorigenic than pluripotent cells. Generation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells can be achieved by directed differentiation from pluripotent stem cells or lineage conversion from easily obtained somatic cells. Small molecules can be very helpful in these processes since they offer several important benefits. For example, the risk of tumorigenesis is greatly reduced when small molecules are used to replace integrated transcription factors, which are widely used in cell fate conversion. Furthermore, small molecules are relatively easy to apply, optimize, and manufacture, and they can more readily be developed into conventional pharmaceuticals. Alternatively, small molecules can be used to expand or selectively control the differentiation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells for desirable therapeutics purposes in vitro or in vivo. Here we summarize recent progress in the use of small molecules for the expansion and generation of desirable lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and for selectively controlling cell fate of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vivo, thereby facilitating stem cell-based clinical applications.

  4. Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Micha; Tang, Chad; Ardehali, Reza; Rinkevich, Yuval; Seita, Jun; Lee, Andrew S; Mosley, Adriane R; Weissman, Irving L; Soen, Yoav

    2012-05-27

    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

  5. Quality assurance and good manufacturing practices for processing hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J

    1995-12-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell processing is now only a part of somatic cell and gene therapy. As these new therapies become used increasingly, it is essential that the new products used to treat patients be as safe and effective as possible. Although progenitor cell processing is still an evolving activity, it is appropriate to introduce standardization and product and process control into the routine laboratory activities. Initial suggestions for quality assurance and good manufacturing practices to accomplish this are presented here. These will need to be modified as experience is gained with progenitor, somatic cell, and gene therapy.

  6. Interleukin 17 inhibits progenitor cells in rheumatoid arthritis cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schminke, Boris; Trautmann, Sandra; Mai, Burkhard; Miosge, Nicolai; Blaschke, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are known to exert immunomodulatory effects in inflammatory diseases. Immuneregulatory cells lead to progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukins (ILs) are the main players. Here, we studied progenitor cells from RA cartilage (RA-CPCs) that are positive for IL-17 receptors to determinate the effects of inflammation on their chondrogenic potenial. IL-17A/F reduced the chondrogenic potential of these cells via the upregulation of RUNX2 protein and enhanced IL-6 protein and MMP3 mRNA levels. Blocking antibodies against IL-17 positively influenced their repair potential. Furthermore, treating the RA-CPCs with the anti-human IL-17 antibody secukinumab or the anti-TNF-α antibody adalimumab reduced the proinflammatory IL-6 protein level and positively influenced the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 protein. Additionally, adalimumab and secukinumab in particular reduced RUNX2 protein to promote chondrogenesis. The amelioration of inflammation, particularly via IL-17 antagonism, might be a new therapeutic approach for enhancing intrinsic cartilage repair mechanisms in RA patients. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Transcriptomic Signature of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver progenitor cells (LPCs can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies. A transcriptomic meta-analysis of over 400 microarrays was undertaken to compare LPC lines against datasets of muscle and embryonic stem cell lines, embryonic and developed liver (DL, and HCC. Three gene clusters distinguishing LPCs from other liver cell types were identified. Pathways overrepresented in these clusters denote the proliferative nature of LPCs and their association with HCC. Our analysis also revealed 26 novel markers, LPC markers, including Mcm2 and Ltbp3, and eight known LPC markers, including M2pk and Ncam. These markers specified the presence of LPCs in pathological liver tissue by qPCR and correlated with LPC abundance determined using immunohistochemistry. These results showcase the value of global transcript profiling to identify pathways and markers that may be used to detect LPCs in injured or diseased liver.

  8. Wnt5a regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells of the periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lusai; Chen, Mo; He, Ling; Cai, Bin; Du, Yu; Zhang, Xinchun; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Chenglin; Mao, Jeremy J; Ling, Junqi

    2014-12-15

    Dental follicle gives rise to one or several tissues of the periodontium including the periodontal ligament, cementum and/or alveolar bone. Whether Wnt5a is expressed in the postnatal periodontium or regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells is unknown. Dental follicle stem/progenitor cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (p1) to p11 from rat mandibular first molars. Immunolocalization mapped Wnt5a expression in the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and the developing ameloblast and odontoblast layers. Mononucleated and adherent cells were isolated from p7 dental follicle. Wnt5a was overexpressed in dental follicle stem/progenitor cells to study their proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and migration behavior, with subpopulations of native dental follicle stem/progenitor cells as controls, using real-time PCR (Taqman), Lenti-viral transfection, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Wnt5a was expressed consistently in p1 to p11 rat peridontium. Native, p7 dental follicle stem/progenitor cells had modest ability to mineralize in the tested 14 days. Even in chemically defined osteogenesis medium, dental follicle stem/progenitor cells only showed modest mineralization. Upon addition of 300 ng/mL Wnt5a protein in osteogenesis medium, dental follicle stem/progenitor cells displayed mineralization that was still unremarkable. Chemically induced or Wnt5a-induced mineralization of dental follicle cells only occurred sparsely. Combination of Wnt5a with 100 ng/mL BMP2 finally prompted dental follicle stem/progenitor cells to produce robust mineralization with elevated expression of Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, collagen 1α1 and osteocalcin. Thus, native dental follicle stem/progenitor cells or some of their fractions may be somewhat modest in mineralization. Strikingly, Wnt5a protein significantly augmented RANKL ligand, suggesting putative regulatory roles of dental follicle stem/progenitor cells for the monocyte/osteoclast lineage and potential

  9. Seeding neural progenitor cells on silicon-based neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Erdrin; Gobbel, Glenn T; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-09-01

    Chronically implanted neural electrode arrays have the potential to be used as neural prostheses in patients with various neurological disorders. While these electrodes perform well in acute recordings, they often fail to function reliably in clinically relevant chronic settings because of glial encapsulation and the loss of neurons. Surface modification of these implants may provide a means of improving their biocompatibility and integration within host brain tissue. The authors proposed a method of improving the brain-implant interface by seeding the implant's surface with a layer of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine subependyma. Neural progenitor cells may reduce the foreign body reaction by presenting a tissue-friendly surface and repair implant-induced injury and inflammation by releasing neurotrophic factors. In this study, the authors evaluated the growth and differentiation of NPCs on laminin-immobilized probe surfaces and explored the potential impact on transplant survival of these cells. Laminin protein was successfully immobilized on the silicon surface via covalent binding using silane chemistry. The growth, adhesion, and differentiation of NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) on laminin-modified silicon surfaces were characterized in vitro by using immunocytochemical techniques. Shear forces were applied to NPC cultures in growth medium to evaluate their shearing properties. In addition, neural probes seeded with GFP-labeled NPCs cultured in growth medium for 14 days were implanted in murine cortex. The authors assessed the adhesion properties of these cells during implantation conditions. Moreover, the tissue response around NPC-seeded implants was observed after 1 and 7 days postimplantation. Significantly improved NPC attachment and growth was found on the laminin-immobilized surface compared with an unmodified control before and after shear force application. The NPCs grown on the laminin-immobilized surface

  10. Classification and Functional Characterization of Vasa Vasorum-Associated Perivascular Progenitor Cells in Human Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Billaud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the microcirculation, pericytes are believed to function as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. We hypothesized that the vasa vasorum harbor progenitor cells within the adventitia of human aorta. Pericytes, endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell subpopulations were detected among freshly isolated adventitial cells using flow cytometry. Purified cultured pericytes were enriched for the MSC markers CD105 and CD73 and depleted of the endothelial markers von Willebrand factor and CD31. Cultured pericytes were capable of smooth muscle lineage progression including inducible expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, and α-smooth muscle actin, and adopted a spindle shape. Pericytes formed spheroids when cultured on Matrigel substrates and peripherally localized with branching endothelial cells in vitro. Our results indicate that the vasa vasorum form a progenitor cell niche distinct from other previously described progenitor populations in human adventitia. These findings could have important implications for understanding the complex pathophysiology of human aortic disease.

  11. Progenitor cells in liver regeneration: molecular responses controlling their activation and expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Jelnes, Peter; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2005-01-01

    on hepatic progenitor cells have focused on their origin and phenotypic characterization, recent attention has focused on the influence of the hepatic microenvironment on their activation and proliferation. This microenvironment comprises the extracellular matrix, epithelial and non-epithelial resident liver......, including hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and stromal cells. However, if the regenerative capacity of mature cells is impaired by liver-damaging agents, hepatic progenitor cells are activated and expand into the liver parenchyma. Upon transit amplification, the progenitor cells may generate new hepatocytes...... and biliary cells to restore liver homeostasis. In recent years, hepatic progenitor cells have been the subject of increasing interest due to their therapeutic potential in numerous liver diseases as alternative or supportive/complementary tools to liver transplantation. While the first investigations...

  12. Oct4+ stem/progenitor swine lung epithelial cells are targets for influenza virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Mahesh; Goyal, Sagar M; Saif, Yehia M

    2012-06-01

    We isolated stem/progenitor epithelial cells from the lungs of 4- to 6-week-old pigs. The epithelial progenitor colony cells were surrounded by mesenchymal stromal cells. The progenitor epithelial colony cells expressed stem cell markers such as octamer binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), as well as the epithelial markers pancytokeratin, cytokeratin-18, and occludin, but not mesenchymal (CD44, CD29, and CD90) and hematopoietic (CD45) markers. The colony cells had extensive self-renewal potential and had the capacity to undergo differentiation to alveolar type I- and type II-like pneumocytes. Additionally, these cells expressed sialic acid receptors and supported the active replication of influenza virus, which was accompanied by cell lysis. The lysis of progenitor epithelial cells by influenza virus may cause a marked reduction in the potential of progenitor cells for self renewal and for their ability to differentiate into specialized cells of the lung. These observations suggest the possible involvement of lung stem/progenitor cells in influenza virus infection.

  13. Alantolactone selectively ablates acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells

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    Yahui Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are largely attributed to leukemia stem cells (LSCs which are difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and responsible for relapse. Thus, new therapeutic strategies which could selectively target LSCs in clinical leukemia treatment and avoid drug resistance are urgently needed. However, only a few small molecules have been reported to show anti-LSCs activity. Methods The aim of the present study was to identify alantolactone as novel agent that can ablate acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells from AML patient specimens and evaluate the anticancer activity of alantolactone in vitro and in vivo. Results The present study is the first to demonstrate that alantolactone, a prominent eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, could specifically ablate LSCs from AML patient specimens. Furthermore, in comparison to the conventional chemotherapy drug, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, alantolactone showed superior effects of leukemia cytotoxicity while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Alantolactone induced apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner by suppression of NF-kB and its downstream target proteins. DMA-alantolactone, a water-soluble prodrug of alantolactone, could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Based on these results, we propose that alantolactone may represent a novel LSCs-targeted therapy and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones offer a new scaffold for drug discovery towards anti-LSCs agents.

  14. Impact of Lipid Nutrition on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Nobuyuki Sakayori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural system originates from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs. Embryonic NSPCs first proliferate to increase their numbers and then produce neurons and glial cells that compose the complex neural circuits in the brain. New neurons are continually produced even after birth from adult NSPCs in the inner wall of the lateral ventricle and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These adult-born neurons are involved in various brain functions, including olfaction-related functions, learning and memory, pattern separation, and mood control. NSPCs are regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Diet is one of such important extrinsic factors. Of dietary nutrients, lipids are important because they constitute the cell membrane, are a source of energy, and function as signaling molecules. Metabolites of some lipids can be strong lipid mediators that also regulate various biological activities. Recent findings have revealed that lipids are important regulators of both embryonic and adult NSPCs. We and other groups have shown that lipid signals including fat, fatty acids, their metabolites and intracellular carriers, cholesterol, and vitamins affect proliferation and differentiation of embryonic and adult NSPCs. A better understanding of the NSPCs regulation by lipids may provide important insight into the neural development and brain function.

  15. Bmp signaling maintains a mesoderm progenitor cell state in the mouse tailbud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Shafer, Maxwell E R; Bareke, Eric; Tremblay, Mathieu; Majewski, Jacek; Bouchard, Maxime

    2017-08-15

    Caudal somites are generated from a pool of progenitor cells located in the tailbud region. These progenitor cells form the presomitic mesoderm that gradually differentiates into somites under the action of the segmentation clock. The signals responsible for tailbud mesoderm progenitor pool maintenance during axial elongation are still elusive. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is sufficient to activate the entire mesoderm progenitor gene signature in primary cultures of caudal mesoderm cells. Bmp signaling acts through the key regulatory genes brachyury (T) and Nkx1-2 and contributes to the activation of several other regulators of the mesoderm progenitor gene network. In the absence of Bmp signaling, tailbud mesoderm progenitor cells acquire aberrant gene expression signatures of the heart, blood, muscle and skeletal embryonic lineages. Treatment of embryos with the Bmp inhibitor noggin confirmed the requirement for Bmp signaling for normal T expression and the prevention of abnormal lineage marker activation. Together, these results identify Bmp signaling as a non-cell-autonomous signal necessary for mesoderm progenitor cell homeostasis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Ticagrelor Versus Prasugrel for Inflammation, Vascular Function, and Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Requiring Coronary Stenting: A Prospective, Randomized, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Cho, Sang-A; Kim, Jong-Ho; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2017-08-28

    This study compared adenosine-associated pleiotropic effects of the 2 P2Y12 receptor antagonists on vascular function, systemic inflammation, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Both ticagrelor and prasugrel have potent antiplatelet effects. However, only ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine. Using a randomized, crossover design with 10-week follow-up ticagrelor or prasugrel was administered to type 2 diabetic patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome requiring stent implantation. A total of 62 patients underwent randomization in a 1:1 ratio to receive ticagrelor or prasugrel for 5 weeks followed by a direct cross over to the alternative treatment for 5 additional weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, inflammatory markers, and number of circulating EPCs were compared. Improvement in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was greater in the ticagrelor group (0.15 ± 0.19 mm vs. -0.03 ± 0.18 mm; p ticagrelor compared with prasugrel decreased interleukin 6 (-0.58 ± 0.43 pg/ml vs. -0.05 ± 0.24 pg/ml; p Ticagrelor compared with prasugrel significantly increased absolute numbers of circulating EPCs CD34+/KDR+ (42.5 ± 37.8 per μl vs. -28.2 ± 23.7 per μl; p ticagrelor significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha and increased circulating EPCs, contributing to improved arterial endothelial function in diabetic non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, data support that pleiotropic effects of ticagrelor beyond its potent antiplatelet effects could contribute to additional clinical benefits. (Comparison of Ticagrelor vs. Prasugrel on Inflammation, Arterial Stiffness, Endothelial Function, and Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Patients With Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome [NSTE-ACS] Requiring Coronary Stenting; NCT02487732). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  17. Umbilical Cord Blood Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Are Decreased in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, Diane L; Black, Claudine P; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Winn, Virginia D; Baker, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Mothers with PE are known to develop endothelial dysfunction, but its effect on infants has been understudied, as newborns are often asymptomatic. Recent studies indicate that infants born from preeclamptic pregnancies develop endothelial dysfunction including higher blood pressure during childhood and an increased risk of stroke later in life. We hypothesize that PE reduces the number and function of fetal angiogenic progenitor cells and may contribute to this increased risk. We quantified 2 distinct types of angiogenic progenitors, pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), from the umbilical cord blood of preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive controls. Pro-angiogenic and nonangiogenic CPCs were enumerated via flow cytometry and ECFCs by cell culture. Additionally, we studied the growth, migration, and tube formation of ECFCs from PE and gestational age-matched normotensive control pregnancies. We found that PE resulted in decreased cord blood pro-angiogenic CPCs and ECFCs. Nonangiogenic CPCs were also decreased. Preeclamptic ECFCs demonstrated decreased growth and migration but formed tube-like structures in vitro similar to controls. Our results suggest that the preeclamptic environment alters the number and function of angiogenic progenitor cells and may increase the risk of later vascular disease.

  18. Distinct progenitor origin distinguishes a lineage of dendritic-like cells in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petvises, Sawang; O'Neill, Helen Christine

    2014-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) compartment comprises subsets of cells with distinct phenotypes. Previously this lab reported methodology for hematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells in vitro dependent on a murine splenic stromal cell line (5G3). Co-cultures of lineage-depleted bone marrow (Lin(-) BM) over 5G3 continuously produced a distinct population of dendritic-like "L-DC" for up to 35 days. Here the progenitor of L-DC is investigated in relation to known BM-derived hematopoietic progenitors. It is shown here that L-DC-like cells also derive from the CD150(+)Flt3(-) long-term reconstituting-hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and also from the Flt3(+) multipotential progenitor subset in BM. Lin(-) BM co-cultures also produce a transient population of cells resembling conventional (c) DC. Production of cDC-like cells is shown here to be transient and M-CSF dependent, and also appears following co-culture of described common dendritic progenitors or monocyte dendritic progenitors over 5G3. BM cells from C57BL/6-flt3L(tm1lmx) and C57BL/6-Csf2(tm1Ard) mice which lack cDC precursors and monocytes, are shown here to contain L-DC progenitors which can seed 5G3 co-cultures. L-DC are functionally distinct cells, in that they arise independently of M-CSF, and by direct differentiation from HSC.

  19. Distinct progenitor origin distinguishes a lineage of dendritic-like cells in spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawang ePetvises

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dendritic cell (DC compartment comprises subsets of cells with distinct phenotypes. Previously this lab reported methodology for hematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells in vitro dependent on a murine splenic stromal cell line (5G3. Co-cultures of lineage-depleted bone marrow (Lin- BM over 5G3 continuously produced a distinct population of dendritic-like ‘L-DC’ for up to 35 days. Here the progenitor of L-DC is investigated in relation to known BM-derived hematopoietic progenitors. It is shown here that L-DC-like cells also derive from the CD150+Flt3- longterm reconstituting-hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, and also from the Flt3+ multipotential progenitor subset in BM. Lin- BM co-cultures also produce a transient population of cells resembling conventional (c DC. Production of cDC-like cells is shown here to be transient and M-CSF dependent, and also appears following co-culture of described common dendritic progenitors or monocyte dendritic progenitors over 5G3. BM cells from C57BL/6-flt3Ltm1lmx and C57BL/6-Csf2tm1Ard mice which lack cDC precursors and monocytes, are shown here to contain L-DC progenitors which can seed 5G3 co-cultures. L-DC are functionally distinct cells, in that they arise independently of M-CSF, and by direct differentiation from HSC.

  20. Raman spectroscopy for discrimination of neural progenitor cells and their lineages (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keren; Ong, William; Chew, Sing Yian; Liu, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Neurological diseases are one of the leading causes of adult disability and they are estimated to cause more deaths than cancer in the elderly population by 2040. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential in treating neurological diseases. However, before cell therapy can be widely adopted in the long term, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including the fundamental research about cellular development of neural progenitor cells. To facilitate the fundamental research of neural progenitor cells, many methods have been developed to identify neural progenitor cells. Although great progress has been made, there is still lack of an effective method to achieve fast, label-free and noninvasive differentiation of neural progenitor cells and their lineages. As a fast, label-free and noninvasive technique, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been conducted to characterize many types of stem cells including neural stem cells. However, to our best knowledge, it has not been studied for the discrimination of neural progenitor cells from specific lineages. Here we report the differentiation of neural progenitor cell from their lineages including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of system parameters during spectral acquisition on the quality of measured Raman spectra and the accuracy of classification using the spectra, which yield a set of optimal system parameters facilitating future studies.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitors differentiate to cardiomyocytes and form biosynthetic tissues.

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    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available The mammalian heart has little capacity to regenerate, and following injury the myocardium is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. Consequently, increased wall stress and workload on the remaining myocardium leads to chamber dilation, dysfunction, and heart failure. Cell-based therapy with an autologous, epigenetically reprogrammed, and cardiac-committed progenitor cell source could potentially reverse this process by replacing the damaged myocardium with functional tissue. However, it is unclear whether cardiac progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of attaining levels of structural and functional maturity comparable to that of terminally-fated cardiomyocytes. Here, we first describe the derivation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, which once differentiated allow for the enrichment of Nkx2-5(+ cardiac progenitors, and the cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein. We show that the cardiac progenitors are multipotent and capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac progenitor selection corresponds to cKit(+ cell enrichment, while cardiomyocyte cell-lineage commitment is concomitant with dual expression of either cKit/Flk1 or cKit/Sca-1. We proceed to show that the cardiac progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of forming electrically and mechanically coupled large-scale 2D cell cultures with mature electrophysiological properties. Finally, we examine the cell progenitors' ability to form electromechanically coherent macroscopic tissues, using a physiologically relevant 3D culture model and demonstrate that following long-term culture the cardiomyocytes align, and form robust electromechanical connections throughout the volume of the biosynthetic tissue construct. We conclude that the iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitors are a robust cell source for tissue engineering applications and a 3D culture platform for pharmacological

  2. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  3. The interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche exhibits an unique microheterogeneous composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2013-06-28

    Repair of parenchyma by stem/progenitor cells is seen as a possible alternative to cure acute and chronic renal failure in future. To learn about this therapeutic purpose, the formation of nephrons during organ growth is under focus of present research. This process is triggered by numerous morphogenetic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Recent data demonstrate that an astonishingly wide interstitial interface separates both types of stem/progenitor cells probably controlling coordinated cell-to-cell communication. Since conventional fixation by glutaraldehyde (GA) does not declare in transmission electron microscopy the spatial separation, improved contrasting procedures were applied. As a consequence, the embryonic cortex of neonatal rabbit kidneys was fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To obtain a comparable view to the renal stem/progenitor cell niche, the specimens had to be orientated along the cortico-medullary axis of lining collecting ducts. Analysis of tissue samples fixed with GA, in combination with cupromeronic blue, demonstrates demasked extracellular matrix. Numerous braces of proteoglycans cover, as well, the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells as projections of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells crossing the interstitial interface. Fixation with GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid illustrates strands of extracellular matrix that originate from the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells and line through the interstitial interface. Thus, for the first time, improved contrasting techniques make it possible to analyze in detail a microheterogeneous composition of the interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

  4. The Interstitial Interface within the Renal Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche Exhibits an Unique Microheterogeneous Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will W. Minuth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parenchyma by stem/progenitor cells is seen as a possible alternative to cure acute and chronic renal failure in future. To learn about this therapeutic purpose, the formation of nephrons during organ growth is under focus of present research. This process is triggered by numerous morphogenetic interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. Recent data demonstrate that an astonishingly wide interstitial interface separates both types of stem/progenitor cells probably controlling coordinated cell-to-cell communication. Since conventional fixation by glutaraldehyde (GA does not declare in transmission electron microscopy the spatial separation, improved contrasting procedures were applied. As a consequence, the embryonic cortex of neonatal rabbit kidneys was fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To obtain a comparable view to the renal stem/progenitor cell niche, the specimens had to be orientated along the cortico-medullary axis of lining collecting ducts. Analysis of tissue samples fixed with GA, in combination with cupromeronic blue, demonstrates demasked extracellular matrix. Numerous braces of proteoglycans cover, as well, the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells as projections of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells crossing the interstitial interface. Fixation with GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid illustrates strands of extracellular matrix that originate from the basal lamina of epithelial stem/progenitor cells and line through the interstitial interface. Thus, for the first time, improved contrasting techniques make it possible to analyze in detail a microheterogeneous composition of the interstitial interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

  5. The WTX Tumor Suppressor Regulates Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Fate Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Akhavanfard, Sara; Coffman, Erik J.; Cook, Edward B.; Stoykova, Svetlana; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Schoonmaker, Jesse A.; Burger, Alexa; Kim, Woo Jae; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland; Haber, Daniel A.; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY WTX is an X-linked tumor suppressor targeted by somatic mutations in Wilms tumor, a pediatric kidney cancer, and by germline inactivation in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis, a bone overgrowth syndrome. Here, we show that Wtx deletion in mice causes neonatal lethality, somatic overgrowth, and malformation of multiple mesenchyme-derived tissues, including bone, fat, kidney, heart, and spleen. Inactivation of Wtx at different developmental stages and in primary mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) reveals that bone mass increase and adipose tissue deficiency are due to altered lineage fate decisions coupled with delayed terminal differentiation. Specification defects in MPCs result from aberrant β-catenin activation, whereas alternative pathways contribute to the subsequently delayed differentiation of lineage-restricted cells. Thus, Wtx is a regulator of MPC commitment and differentiation with stage-specific functions in inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, the constellation of anomalies in Wtx null mice suggests that this tumor suppressor broadly regulates MPCs in multiple tissues. PMID:21571217

  6. CD34+ circulating progenitor cells after different training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, O; Balague, N; Aragones, D; Blasi, J; Alamo, J M; Corral, L; Javierre, C; Miguel, M; Viscor, G; Ventura, J L

    2015-04-01

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) are bone marrow-derived cells that are mobilized into the circulation. While exercise is a powerful mediator of hematopoiesis, CPC levels increase, and reports of their activation after different types of exercise are contradictory. Moreover, few studies have compared the possible effects of different training programs on CPC concentrations. 43 physically active healthy male subjects (age 22±2.4 years) were assigned to 4 different training groups: aerobic, resistance, mixed and control. Except for the control group, all participants trained for 6 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected through an antecubital vein, and CPC CD34(+) was analyzed on different days: pre-training, post-training, and 3 weeks after finishing the training period. While no significant differences in CPC were observed either within or between the different training groups, there was a tendency towards higher values post-training and large intra- and intergroup dispersion. We detected an inverse linear relationship between pre-training values and % of CPC changes post-training (pdifferent training groups, or after 3 weeks of follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  8. Transplantation of adipocyte-derived stem cells in a hydrogel scaffold for the repair of cortical contusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Sha; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Hong-tian; Guo, Yan-wu; Zou, Yu-xi; Zhou, Zhen-jun; Jiang, Xiao-dan; Ke, Yi-quan; Xu, Ru-xiang

    2015-04-01

    Adipocyte-derived stem cells have emerged as a novel source of stem cell therapy for their autologous and readily accessible and pluripotent potential to differentiate into different lineages such as neural stem cells (NSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Transplantation of NSCs and EPCs has been promising for the repair of brain injury. We explored using co-transplanted hydrogel scaffold to improve the survival of the transplanted cells and recovery of neurological function. Adult Wistar rats were transplanted with EPC-hydrogel, NSC-hydrogel, NSC-EPC-hydrogel, EPC only, or NSC only 7 days after cortical contusion injury. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate neurological function before, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after transplantation. Size of injury, extent of vascularization, as well as the survival and differentiation of the transplanted EPCs and NSCs, were evaluated at week 5. All transplantation groups displayed significantly better neurological function compared with the control groups. Improved neurological function correlated with significantly smaller injury volumes than that of the saline group. Using immunostaining, we have shown that while transplanted NSCs differentiated into both neurons and astrocytes, the EPCs were incorporated into vessel epithelia. The extent of reactive gliosis (based on glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining) was significantly reduced in all treatment groups (NSC-EPC-hydrogel, NSC-hydrogel, and EPC-hydrogel) when compared with the saline group, with the highest reduction in the NSC-EPC-hydrogel transplantation group. Thus, co-transplantation of hydrogel scaffold provides a more conducive environment for the survival and differentiation of NSCs and EPCs at the site of brain injury, leading to improved vascularization and better recovery of neurological function.

  9. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes.

  10. Increased number of endothelial progenitors in peripheral blood as a possible early marker of tumour growth in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, P; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, B; Celmer, M; Brkic, A; Bielawski, K; Boinska, J; Zarychta, E; Rosc, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circulating EPCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast cancer and to make an attempt at finding associations with the number of circulating EPCs and selected clinic-pathological factors; TNM and histological grading, molecular subtype of breast cancer, hormonal status, the expression of Ki-67 and the size of tumour. The study involved 96 Caucasian ethnicity post-menopausal women. Sixty-six women aged 48 - 63 (mean age 55) with breast cancer diagnosis without distant metastases (M0). The median value of the tumour diameter was 1.51 cm. The control group consisted of 30 healthy, non-smoking, post-menopausal women, mean age 49, range 44 - 54 years of age. The exclusion criteria for all the participants were hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia, acute and chronic infection. With regard to the fresh blood samples the number of circulating endothelial progenitors was determined using flow cytometry. The fluorescence of 100,000 cells was measured during the analysis. Circulating EPCs were identified with the immune-phenotype CD45 - , CD34 + , CD133 + , CD31 + . A significantly higher number of circulating EPCs in the study group, as compared to the controls (P = 0.0001) and a significantly higher number of circulating EPCs in women over 60 with breast cancer than in the younger women (P = 0.0029) were reported. A positive correlation was noted between circulating EPCs and age as well as between circulating EPCs and HER-2 (P = 0.0231, P = 0.0414, respectively), and a negative correlation between circulating EPCs and histological grading of breast cancer (P = 0.0272). The study has shown a higher number of circulating EPCs in breast cancer patients, which indicates stimulation of neovascularization. Additionally, since bone morrow-derived circulating EPCs are more intensively mobilised in older and overweight breast cancer patients, we can speculate that more

  11. Mobilization of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: General Principles and Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonig, Halvard; Papayannopoulou, Thalla

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization can be achieved by a variety of bone marrow niche modifications, although efficient mobilization requires simultaneous expansion of the stem/progenitor cell pool and niche modification. Many of the mechanisms involved in G-CSF-induced mobilization have been described. With regard to mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, challenges for the future include the analysis of genetic factors responsible for the great variability in mobilization responses, and the identification of predictors of mobilization efficiency, as well as the development of mobilizing schemes for poor mobilizers. Moreover, improved regimens for enhanced or even preferential mobilization of nonhematopoietic stem/progenitor cell types, and their therapeutic potential for endogenous tissue repair will be questions to be vigorously pursued in the near future. PMID:22890918

  12. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn......% of breast cancers arise in TDLUs and more than 90% are also cytokeratin 19-positive, we suggest that this cell population contains a breast-cancer progenitor.......The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value...... of knowing the cellular origin of individual tumours is clear and should aid in designing effective therapies. To do this, however, we need strategies aimed at defining the nature of stem and progenitor cell populations in the normal breast. In this review, we will discuss our technical approach...

  13. Diabetes irreversibly depletes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cell subpopulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Januszyk, Michael; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P; Vial, Ivan N; Maan, Zeshaan N; Rennert, Robert C; Duscher, Dominik; Thangarajah, Hariharan; Longaker, Michael T; Butte, Atul J; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs) that have previously been shown to be important for new blood vessel formation and demonstrate significant deficits in the context of diabetes...

  14. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  15. Whole-Somite Rotation Generates Muscle Progenitor Cell Compartments in the Developing Zebrafish Embryo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollway, Georgina E; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Berger, Silke; Cole, Nicholas J; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    ... to the progenitors for skeletal muscle of the axis (the myotome) and to progenitors at limb levels, which are precursors of the appendicular muscles. The dermomyotome is also the source of resident adult skeletal muscle stem cells, the satellite cells ( Christ and Ordahl, 1995; Gros et al., 2005; Relaix et al., 2005; Kassar-Duchossoy et al., 2005; Schien...

  16. Wnt5a regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells of the periodontium

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Lusai; Chen, Mo; He, Ling; Cai, Bin; Du, Yu; Zhang, Xinchun; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Chenglin; Mao, Jeremy J.; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental follicle gives rise to one or several tissues of the periodontium including the periodontal ligament, cementum and/or alveolar bone. Whether Wnt5a is expressed in the postnatal periodontium or regulates dental follicle stem/progenitor cells is unknown. Methods Dental follicle stem/progenitor cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (p1) to p11 from rat mandibular first molars. Immunolocalization mapped Wnt5a expression in the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and the de...

  17. Characteristic of c-Kit+ progenitor cells in explanted human hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszczak, Sybilla; Czapla, Justyna; Jarosz-Biej, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Cichoń, Tomasz; Smolarczyk, Ryszard; Kobusińska, Magdalena; Gajda, Karolina; Wilczek, Piotr; Śliwka, Joanna; Zembala, Michał; Zembala, Marian; Szala, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    According to literature data, self-renewing, multipotent, and clonogenic cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells occur within human myocardium. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize c-Kit+ progenitor cells from explanted human hearts. Experimental material was obtained from 19 adult and 7 pediatric patients. Successful isolation and culture was achieved for 95 samples (84.1 %) derived from five different regions of the heart: right and left ventricles, atrium, intraventricular septum,...

  18. Profibrotic potential of Prominin-1+ epithelial progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüscher Thomas F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis loss of alveolar epithelium induces inflammation of the pulmonary tissue followed by accumulation of pathogenic myofibroblasts leading eventually to respiratory failures. In animal models inflammatory and resident cells have been demonstrated to contribute to pulmonary fibrosis. Regenerative potential of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary stem and progenitor cells raised the hope for successful treatment option against pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, we addressed the contribution of lung microenvironment and prominin-1+ bone marrow-derived epithelial progenitor cells in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Prominin-1+ bone marrow-derived epithelial progenitors were expanded from adult mouse lungs and differentiated in vitro by cytokines and growth factors. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Prominin-1+ progenitors were administered intratracheally at different time points after bleomycin challenge. Green fluorescence protein-expressing cells were used for cell tracking. Cell phenotypes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Prominin-1+ cells expanded from healthy lung represent common progenitors of alveolar type II epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, and macrophages. Administration of prominin-1+ cells 2 hours after bleomycin instillation protects from pulmonary fibrosis, and some of progenitors differentiate into alveolar type II epithelial cells. In contrast, prominin-1+ cells administered at day 7 or 14 lose their protective effects and differentiate into myofibroblasts and macrophages. Bleomycin challenge enhances accumulation of bone marrow-derived prominin-1+ cells within inflamed lung. In contrast to prominin-1+ cells from healthy lung, prominin-1+ precursors isolated from inflamed organ lack regenerative

  19. Enrichment of oral mucosa and skin keratinocyte progenitor/stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of human oral mucosa/skin keratinocytes progenitor/stem cells is clinically important to regenerate epithelial tissues for the treatment of oral mucosa/skin defects. Researchers have attempted to isolate a keratinocyte progenitor/stem cell population using cell markers, rapid adherence to collagen type IV, and other methods. In this regard, one of the specific characteristics of keratinocyte progenitor/stem cells is that these cells have a smaller diameter than differentiated cells. This chapter describes methods used in our laboratory to set up primary human oral mucosa and skin keratinocytes in a chemically defined culture system devoid of animal derived products. We utilized the cells in a FDA-approved human clinical trial that involved the intraoral grafting of an ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent to increase keratinized tissue around teeth. We also provide two protocols on how to sort keratinocytes using physical criterion, cell size, using a cell sorter and a serial filtration system.

  20. Distinct tissue formation by heterogeneous printing of osteo- and endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E; Wijnberg, Hans M; Dhert, Wouter J A; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    The organ- or tissue-printing approach, based on layered deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, is a new technique in regenerative medicine suitable to investigate whether mimicking the anatomical organization of cells, matrix, and bioactive molecules is necessary for obtaining or improving functional engineered tissues. Currently, data on performance of multicellular printed constructs in vivo are limited. In this study we illustrate the ability of the system to print intricate porous constructs containing two different cell types--endothelial progenitors and multipotent stromal cells--and show that these grafts retain heterogeneous cell organization after subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice. We demonstrate that cell differentiation leading to the expected tissue formation occurs at the site of the deposited progenitor cell type. While perfused blood vessels are formed in the endothelial progenitor cell-laden part of the constructs, bone formation is taking place in the multipotent stromal cell-laden part of the printed grafts.

  1. PV-1 expression could distinguish the subset of caveolae-presenting telocytes that are endothelial progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are stromal cells with characteristic long, thin and moniliform prolongations termed telopodes. They were formerly termed interstitial Cajal-like cells. A characteristic set of markers to identify TCs in light microscopy has not been established until now. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a better tool for identifying TCs. Telocytes display caveolae and can express caveolin-1. On the other hand, endothelial cells (ECs) as well as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have caveolae. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of TCs are in fact EPCs. The distinction of this progenitor subset of TCs can be easily made by a specific set of ultrastructure markers, as follows. Caveolae of endothelial cells present stomatal diaphragms (SDs). The plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV-1), which is identical with the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden endothelium (PAL-E), is specifically identifying the ECs SDs of caveolae. We therefore raise the reasonable hypothesis that the EPCs subset of caveolae-presenting TCs could be accurately identified, without exploration in TEM, by the positive expression of PV-1 or PAL-E in the SDs.

  2. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear supporting cells (SCs have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein–protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  3. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  4. Comparison of culture media for ex vivo cultivation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Renata Ruoco; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Martins, Caio Marques; Covre, Joyce Luciana; Sobrinho, Juliana Aparecida; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Myhailov; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Belfort, Rubens; Nishi, Mauro; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three culture media for growth, proliferation, differentiation, and viability of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Limbal epithelial progenitor cell cultures were established from ten human corneal rims and grew on plastic wells in three culture media: supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), and Epilife. The performance of culturing limbal epithelial progenitor cells in each medium was evaluated according to the following parameters: growth area of epithelial migration; immunocytochemistry for adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette member 2 (ABCG2), p63, Ki67, cytokeratin 3 (CK3), and vimentin (VMT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CK3, ABCG2, and p63, and cell viability using Hoechst staining. Limbal epithelial progenitor cells cultivated in SHEM showed a tendency to faster migration, compared to KSFM and Epilife. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferated cells in the SHEM had lower expression for markers related to progenitor epithelial cells (ABCG2) and putative progenitor cells (p63), and a higher percentage of positive cells for differentiated epithelium (CK3) when compared to KSFM and Epilife. In PCR analysis, ABCG2 expression was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM. Expression of p63 was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM and KSFM. However, CK3 expression was statistically lower for KSFM compared to SHEM. Based on our findings, we concluded that cells cultured in KSFM and Epilife media presented a higher percentage of limbal epithelial progenitor cells, compared to SHEM.

  5. Biology of the adult hepatic progenitor cell: "ghosts in the machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Houda; Petersen, Bryon E

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews some of the basic biological principles governing adult progenitor cells of the liver and the mechanisms by which they operate. If scientists were better able to understand the conditions that govern stem cell mechanics in the liver, it may be possible to apply that understanding in a clinical setting for use in the treatment or cure of human pathologies. This chapter gives a basic introduction to hepatic progenitor cell biology and explores what is known about progenitor cell-mediated liver regeneration. We also discuss the putative stem cell niche in the liver, as well as the signaling pathways involved in stem cell regulation. Finally, the isolation and clinical application of stem cells to human diseases is reviewed, along with the current thoughts on the relationship between stem cells and cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Bouyer, J; Shumsky, J S; Haas, C; Fischer, I

    2016-04-21

    Previous studies demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) transplanted into a subacute contusion injury improve motor, sensory, and bladder function. In this study we tested whether transplanted NPCs can also improve functional recovery after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) alone or in combination with the reduction of glial scar and neurotrophic support. Adult rats received a T10 moderate contusion. Thirteen weeks after the injury they were divided into four groups and received either: 1. Medium (control), 2. NPC transplants, 3. NPC+lentivirus vector expressing chondroitinase, or 4. NPC+lentivirus vectors expressing chondroitinase and neurotrophic factors. During the 8 weeks post-transplantation the animals were tested for functional recovery and eventually analyzed by anatomical and immunohistochemical assays. The behavioral tests for motor and sensory function were performed before and after injury, and weekly after transplantation, with some animals also tested for bladder function at the end of the experiment. Transplant survival in the chronic injury model was variable and showed NPCs at the injury site in 60% of the animals in all transplantation groups. The NPC transplants comprised less than 40% of the injury site, without significant anatomical or histological differences among the groups. All groups also showed similar patterns of functional deficits and recovery in the 12 weeks after injury and in the 8 weeks after transplantation using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating score, the grid test, and the Von Frey test for mechanical allodynia. A notable exception was group 4 (NPC together with chondroitinase and neurotrophins), which showed a significant improvement in bladder function. This study underscores the therapeutic challenges facing transplantation strategies in a chronic SCI in which even the inclusion of treatments designed to reduce scarring and increase neurotrophic support produce only modest functional improvements. Further

  7. Unique responses of stem cell-derived vascular endothelial and mesenchymal cells to high levels of glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keats

    Full Text Available Diabetes leads to complications in selected organ systems, and vascular endothelial cell (EC dysfunction and loss is the key initiating and perpetuating step in the development of these complications. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that hyperglycemia leads to EC dysfunction in diabetes. Vascular stem cells that give rise to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs represent an attractive target for cell therapy for diabetic patients. Whether these vascular stem/progenitor cells succumb to the adverse effects of high glucose remains unknown. We sought to determine whether adult vascular stem/progenitor cells display cellular activation and dysfunction upon exposure to high levels of glucose as seen in diabetic complications. Mononuclear cell fraction was prepared from adult blood and bone marrow. EPCs and MPCs were derived, characterized, and exposed to either normal glucose (5 mmol/L or high glucose levels (25 mmol/L. We then assayed for cell activity and molecular changes following both acute and chronic exposure to high glucose. Our results show that high levels of glucose do not alter the derivation of either EPCs or MPCs. The adult blood-derived EPCs were also resistant to the effects of glucose in terms of growth. Acute exposure to high glucose levels increased caspase-3 activity in EPCs (1.4x increase and mature ECs (2.3x increase. Interestingly, MPCs showed a transient reduction in growth upon glucose challenge. Our results also show that glucose skews the differentiation of MPCs towards the adipocyte lineage while suppressing other mesenchymal lineages. In summary, our studies show that EPCs are resistant to the effects of high levels of glucose, even following chronic exposure. The findings further show that hyperglycemia may have detrimental effects on the MPCs, causing reduced growth and altering the differentiation potential.

  8. Lineage tracing of resident tendon progenitor cells during growth and natural healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel A Dyment

    Full Text Available Unlike during embryogenesis, the identity of tissue resident progenitor cells that contribute to postnatal tendon growth and natural healing is poorly characterized. Therefore, we utilized 1 an inducible Cre driven by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMACreERT2, that identifies mesenchymal progenitors, 2 a constitutively active Cre driven by growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5Cre, a critical regulator of joint condensation, in combination with 3 an Ai9 Cre reporter to permanently label SMA9 and GDF5-9 populations and their progeny. In growing mice, SMA9+ cells were found in peritendinous structures and scleraxis-positive (ScxGFP+ cells within the tendon midsubstance and myotendinous junction. The progenitors within the tendon midsubstance were transiently labeled as they displayed a 4-fold expansion from day 2 to day 21 but reduced to baseline levels by day 70. SMA9+ cells were not found within tendon entheses or ligaments in the knee, suggesting a different origin. In contrast to the SMA9 population, GDF5-9+ cells extended from the bone through the enthesis and into a portion of the tendon midsubstance. GDF5-9+ cells were also found throughout the length of the ligaments, indicating a significant variation in the progenitors that contribute to tendons and ligaments. Following tendon injury, SMA9+ paratenon cells were the main contributors to the healing response. SMA9+ cells extended over the defect space at 1 week and differentiated into ScxGFP+ cells at 2 weeks, which coincided with increased collagen signal in the paratenon bridge. Thus, SMA9-labeled cells represent a unique progenitor source that contributes to the tendon midsubstance, paratenon, and myotendinous junction during growth and natural healing, while GDF5 progenitors contribute to tendon enthesis and ligament development. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the expansion and differentiation of these progenitors may prove crucial to improving future repair strategies.

  9. [Collection of hematopoietic progenitor cells from healthy donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Ines; Cepulić, Branka Golubić; Mazić, Sanja

    2009-06-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation is an established therapy for many hematologic disorders. HPCs may be collected from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. In order to minimize the risk for healthy HPC donors, thorough investigation is required before donation. The donor work-up should include medical history, physical examination, ECG, chest x-ray, blood count, coagulation screening, and testing for infectious disease markers. Donors should be fully informed on the donation procedure and sign an informed consent for donation. HPCs are traditionally collected from bone marrow with the donor in general anesthesia. The procedure includes multiple bone marrow aspirates from pelvic bones and at least overnight hospital stay. Although marrow donation is generally safe and well tolerated, minor complications like pain at the collection site, fatigue and pain on walking or sitting may occur in a relatively small proportion of donors (6%-20%). Major and life-threatening complications such as anesthesia-related events, mechanical injury to the bone, sacroiliac joint and sciatic nerve following marrow donation are relatively rare, being estimated to 0.1%-0.3% of cases. In the last decade, peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) have become an increasingly used altemative to bone marrow. PBPC transplantation offers faster hematopoietic recovery and lower early transplant-related morbidity and mortality. The incidence of acute graft vs. host disease (GvHD) is no greater than in bone marrow transplants. However, there is evidence for increased chronic GvHD, which is in part related to the higher number of T and NK cells that are collected with PBPC and re-infused to the patient. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used to mobilize PBPCs for collection by leukapheresis. Leukapheresis is usually perfomed after 4 to 5 days of G-CSF subcutaneous administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. Vascular access

  10. A Molecular Switch Regulating Cell Fate Choice between Muscle Progenitor Cells and Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yitai; Wang, Gang; Diao, Yarui; Long, Yanyang; Fu, Xinrong; Weng, Mingxi; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Kun; Cheung, Tom H; Ip, Nancy Y; Sun, Hao; Wang, Huating; Wu, Zhenguo

    2017-05-22

    During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7 + /Myf5 + progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA. Consistently, freshly isolated Pax7-null but not wild-type MPCs formed lipid-droplet-containing UCP1 + BA in culture. Mechanistically, MyoD and Myf5, both known transcription targets of Pax7 in MPC, potently repress Prdm16, a BA-specific lineage-determining gene, via the E2F4/p107/p130 transcription repressor complex. Importantly, inducible Pax7 ablation in developing mouse embryos promoted brown fat development. Thus, the MyoD/Myf5-E2F4/p107/p130 axis functions in both the Pax7 + /Myf5 + embryonic progenitor cells and postnatal myoblasts to repress the alternative BA fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  12. Effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of murine cornea limbal epithelial progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Liu, Han-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of mouse corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Mouse corneal epithelial cells(MCEs) were cultured in normoxia (210mL/L O(2) and 50mL/L CO(2)) and hypoxia (20mL/L O(2) and 50mL/L CO(2)), respectively. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) and cell proliferation were determined. The expression of corneal epithelial progenitor cell marker p63 and K19 was investigated by immunostaining. Normoxic colonies were smaller compared with colonies formed in hypoxia. CFE was (12.50±1.50)% in hypoxic cultures, which was similar compared with normoxia cultures [(11.13±1.86)%, P>0.05)]. Cell proliferation was enhanced in hypoxia. Progenitor markers p63 and K19 were expressed in most cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Murine limbal epithelial progenitor cells can be efficiently expanded in hypoxic conditions.

  13. Testosterone Levels Influence Mouse Fetal Leydig Cell Progenitors Through Notch Signaling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Tony; Saraswathula, Anirudh; Briot, Anaïs; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Capel, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leydig cells are the steroidogenic lineage of the mammalian testis that produces testosterone, a key hormone required throughout male fetal and adult life for virilization and spermatogenesis. Both fetal and adult Leydig cells arise from a progenitor population in the testis interstitium but are thought to be lineage-independent of one another. Genetic evidence indicates that Notch signaling is required during fetal life to maintain a balance between differentiated Leydig cells and their progenitors, but the elusive progenitor cell type and ligands involved have not been identified. In this study, we show that the Notch pathway signals through the ligand JAG1 in perivascular interstitial cells during fetal life. In the early postnatal testis, we show that circulating levels of testosterone directly affect Notch signaling, implicating a feedback role for systemic circulating factors in the regulation of progenitor cells. Between Postnatal Days 3 and 21, as fetal Leydig cells disappear from the testis and are replaced by adult Leydig cells, the perivascular population of interstitial cells active for Notch signaling declines, consistent with distinct regulation of adult Leydig progenitors. PMID:23467742

  14. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung's disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung's patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis.

  15. Circulating human CD34(+) progenitor cells modulate neovascularization and inflammation in a nude mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, B. W. A.; Popa, E. R.; Schipper, M.; Brouwer, L. A.; Hendriks, M.; Harmsen, M. C.; van Luyn, M. J. A.

    CD34(+) progenitor cells hold promise for therapeutic neovascularization in various settings. In this study, the role of human peripheral blood CD34(+) cells in neovascularization and inflammatory cell recruitment was longitudinally studied in vivo. Human CD34(+) cells were incorporated in Matrigel,

  16. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  17. Environmental cues from CNS, PNS, and ENS cells regulate CNS progenitor differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännvall, Karin; Corell, Mikael; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular origin and environmental cues regulate stem cell fate determination. Neuroepithelial stem cells form the central nervous system (CNS), whereas neural crest stem cells generate the peripheral (PNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). CNS neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate determination...

  18. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  19. Dysregulation of Vascular Endothelial Progenitor Cells Lung-Homing in Subjects with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Salter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by fixed airflow limitation and progressive decline of lung function and punctuated by occasional exacerbations. The disease pathogenesis may involve activation of the bone marrow stimulating mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. We investigated the hypothesis that lower circulating numbers of vascular endothelial progenitor cells (VEPCs are a consequence of increased lung-sequestration in COPD. Nonatopic, current or ex-smokers with diagnosed COPD and nonatopic, nonsmoking normal controls were enrolled. Blood and induced sputum extracted primitive hemopoietic progenitors (HPCs and VEPC were enumerated by flow cytometry. Migration and adhesive responses to fibronectin were assessed. In sputum, VEPC numbers were significantly greater in COPD compared to normal controls. In blood, VEPCs were significantly lower in COPD versus normal controls. There were no differences in HPC levels between the two groups in either compartment. Functionally, there was a greater migrational responsiveness of progenitors from COPD subjects to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α compared to normal controls. This was associated with greater numbers of CXCR4+ progenitors in sputum from COPD. Increased migrational responsiveness of progenitor cells may promote lung-homing of VEPC in COPD which may disrupt maintenance and repair of the airways and contribute to COPD disease pathogenesis.

  20. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zeve

    Full Text Available Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  1. Glioma migration: clues from the biology of neural progenitor cells and embryonic CNS cell migration.

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    Dirks, P B

    2001-06-01

    Neural stem cells have recently come to the forefront in neurobiology because of the possibilities for CNS repair by transplantation. Further understanding of the biology of these cells is critical for making their use in CNS repair possible. It is likely that these discoveries will also have spin-offs for neuro-oncology as primary brain tumors may arise from a CNS progenitor cell. An understanding of the normal migratory ability of these cells is also likely to have a very important impact on the knowledge of brain tumor invasion.

  2. Nestin expressing progenitor cells during establishment of the neural retina and its vasculature

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    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hyo-Suk; Shin, Ji Man; Chun, Myung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In order to test if nestin is a useful marker for various types of progenitor cells, we explored nestin expression in the retina during development. Nestin expression was co-evaluated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GSIB4) histochemistry. Nestin immunoreactivity appears in cell soma of dividing neural progenitor cells and their leading processes in retinas from embryonic day (E) 13 to E20, in accordance with a BrdU-labeled pattern. At postnatal day (P) 5, it is restricted to the end feet of Müller cells. BrdU-labeled nuclei were mainly in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer in postnatal neonates. The retinal vessels demarcated with GSIB4-positive endothelial cells were first distributed in the nerve fiber layer from P3. Afterward the vascular branches sprouted and penetrated deeply into the retina. The endothelial cells positive for GSIB4 and the pericytes in the microvessels were additionally immunoreactive for nestin. Interestingly, the presumed migrating microglial cells showing only GSIB4 reactivity preceded the microvessels throughout the neuroblast layer during vascular sprouting and extension. These findings may suggest that nestin expression represents the proliferation and movement potential of the neural progenitor cells as well as the progenitor cells of the endothelial cell and the pericyte during retinal development. Thus, Müller glial cells might be potential neural progenitor cells of the retina, and the retinal microvasculature established by both the endothelial and the pericyte progenitor cells via vasculogenesis along microglia migrating routes sustains its angiogenic potential. PMID:22536550

  3. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits as a Potential Cardioprotective Agent: The Role of Circulating Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Mohamed, Maged E; Ahmed, K K M; Kumar, Arun H S

    2017-01-01

    Context: Date palms, along with their fruits' dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. In recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. Hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize endogenous progenitor cells, following tissue injury, to enhance tissue repair process is clinically relevant. Objectives: The present study investigates the potential of date of palm fruit extracts in repairing tissue injury following myocardial infarction (MI) potentially by mobilizing circulating progenitor cells. Methods: Extracts of four different varieties of date palm fruits common in Saudi Arabia eastern provision were scrutinized for their total flavonoid, total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as their effects on two different rodent MI models. Results: High concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in date palm fruit extracts, which contributed to the promising antioxidant activities of these extracts and the observed high protective effect against various induced in vivo MI. The extracts showed ability to build up reserves and to mobilize circulating progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral circulation to the site of myocardial infraction. Conclusion: Date palm fruit extracts have the potential to mobilize endogenous circulating progenitor cells, which can promote tissue repair following ischemic injury.

  4. Targeted Ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 in Retinal Progenitor Cells Mimics Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Lucie P.; Alves, Celso Henrique; Quinn, Peter M.; Vos, Rogier M.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Dudok, Jacobus J.; Hooibrink, Berend; Richard, Fabrice; Beck, Susanne C.; Huber, Gesine; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Le Bivic, André; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Wijnholds, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Development in the central nervous system is highly dependent on the regulation of the switch from progenitor cell proliferation to differentiation, but the molecular and cellular events controlling this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 genes results in severe impairment of retinal function, abnormal lamination and thickening of the retina mimicking human Leber congenital amaurosis due to loss of CRB1 function. We show that the levels of CRB1 and CRB2 proteins are crucial for mouse retinal development, as they restrain the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. The lack of these apical proteins results in altered cell cycle progression and increased number of mitotic cells leading to an increased number of late-born cell types such as rod photoreceptors, bipolar and Müller glia cells in postmitotic retinas. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 in the retina results in dysregulation of target genes for the Notch1 and YAP/Hippo signaling pathways and increased levels of P120-catenin. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 result in altered progenitor cell cycle distribution with a decrease in number of late progenitors in G1 and an increase in S and G2/M phase. These findings suggest that CRB1 and CRB2 suppress late progenitor pool expansion by regulating multiple proliferative signaling pathways. PMID:24339791

  5. Targeted ablation of CRB1 and CRB2 in retinal progenitor cells mimics Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie P Pellissier

    Full Text Available Development in the central nervous system is highly dependent on the regulation of the switch from progenitor cell proliferation to differentiation, but the molecular and cellular events controlling this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that ablation of Crb1 and Crb2 genes results in severe impairment of retinal function, abnormal lamination and thickening of the retina mimicking human Leber congenital amaurosis due to loss of CRB1 function. We show that the levels of CRB1 and CRB2 proteins are crucial for mouse retinal development, as they restrain the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. The lack of these apical proteins results in altered cell cycle progression and increased number of mitotic cells leading to an increased number of late-born cell types such as rod photoreceptors, bipolar and Müller glia cells in postmitotic retinas. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 in the retina results in dysregulation of target genes for the Notch1 and YAP/Hippo signaling pathways and increased levels of P120-catenin. Loss of CRB1 and CRB2 result in altered progenitor cell cycle distribution with a decrease in number of late progenitors in G1 and an increase in S and G2/M phase. These findings suggest that CRB1 and CRB2 suppress late progenitor pool expansion by regulating multiple proliferative signaling pathways.

  6. Aging of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells and their pathological consequences.

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    Mimeault, M; Batra, S K

    2009-06-01

    The fascinating discovery of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells in recent years led to an explosion of interest in the development of novel stem cell-based therapies for improving the regenerative capacity of these endogenous immature cells or transplanted cells for the repair of damaged and diseased tissues. In counterbalance, a growing body of evidence has revealed that the changes in phenotypic and functional properties of human adult stem/progenitor cells may occur during chronological aging and have severe pathological consequences. Especially, intense oxidative and metabolic stress and chronic inflammation, enhanced telomere attrition and defects in DNA repair mechanisms may lead to severe DNA damages and genomic instability in adult stem/progenitor cells with advancing age that may in turn trigger their replicative senescence and/or programmed cell death. Moreover, the changes in the intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in the stringent control of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacities of these regenerative cells, including deregulated signals from the aged niche, may also contribute to their dysfunctions or loss during chronological aging. This age-associated decline in the regenerative capacity and number of functional adult stem/progenitor cells may increase the risk to develop certain diseases. At opposed end, the telomerase reactivation and accumulation of genetic alterations leading to a down-regulation of numerous tumor suppressor genes concomitant with the enhanced expression of diverse oncogenic products may result in their malignant transformation into cancer-initiating cells. Therefore, the rescue or replacement of aged and dysfunctional endogenous adult stem/progenitor cells or molecular targeting of their malignant counterpart, cancer stem/progenitor cells may constitute potential anti-aging and cancer therapies. These therapeutic strategies could be used for treating diverse devastating premature aging and age

  7. Derivation of myogenic progenitors directly from human pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

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    Hosoyama, Tohru; McGivern, Jered V; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Ebert, Allison D; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Using stem cells to replace degenerating muscle cells and restore lost skeletal muscle function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating neuromuscular diseases. Myogenic progenitors are a valuable cell type for cell-based therapy and also provide a platform for studying normal muscle development and disease mechanisms in vitro. Human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source of tissue for generating myogenic progenitors. Here, we present a novel protocol for deriving myogenic progenitors from human embryonic stem (hES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using free-floating spherical culture (EZ spheres) in a defined culture medium. hES cell colonies and human iPS cell colonies were expanded in medium supplemented with high concentrations (100 ng/ml) of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor in which they formed EZ spheres and were passaged using a mechanical chopping method. We found myogenic progenitors in the spheres after 6 weeks of culture and multinucleated myotubes following sphere dissociation and 2 weeks of terminal differentiation. A high concentration of FGF-2 plays a critical role for myogenic differentiation and is necessary for generating myogenic progenitors from pluripotent cells cultured as EZ spheres. Importantly, EZ sphere culture produced myogenic progenitors from human iPS cells generated from both healthy donors and patients with neuromuscular disorders (including Becker's muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Taken together, this study demonstrates a simple method for generating myogenic cells from pluripotent sources under defined conditions for potential use in disease modeling or cell-based therapies targeting skeletal muscle.

  8. Identification of human embryonic progenitor cell targeting peptides using phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Bignone

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells are capable of differentiation into derivatives of all three primary embryonic germ layers and can self-renew indefinitely. They therefore offer a potentially scalable source of replacement cells to treat a variety of degenerative diseases. The ability to reprogram adult cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has now enabled the possibility of patient-specific hPS cells as a source of cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially, cell replacement therapies. While reprogramming technology has dramatically increased the availability of normal and diseased hPS cell lines for basic research, a major bottleneck is the critical unmet need for more efficient methods of deriving well-defined cell populations from hPS cells. Phage display is a powerful method for selecting affinity ligands that could be used for identifying and potentially purifying a variety of cell types derived from hPS cells. However, identification of specific progenitor cell-binding peptides using phage display may be hindered by the large cellular heterogeneity present in differentiating hPS cell populations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that peptides selected for their ability to bind a clonal cell line derived from hPS cells would bind early progenitor cell types emerging from differentiating hPS cells. The human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell line, W10, was used and cell-targeting peptides were identified. Competition studies demonstrated specificity of peptide binding to the target cell surface. Efficient peptide targeted cell labeling was accomplished using multivalent peptide-quantum dot complexes as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cell-binding peptides were selective for differentiated hPS cells, had little or no binding on pluripotent cells, but preferential binding to certain embryonic progenitor cell lines and early endodermal hPS cell derivatives. Taken

  9. Characterization of interstitial Cajal progenitors cells and their changes in Hirschsprung's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Chen

    Full Text Available Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC are critical to gastrointestinal motility. The phenotypes of ICC progenitors have been observed in the mouse gut, but whether they exist in the human colon and what abnormal changes in their quantity and ultrastructure are present in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR colon remains uncertain. In this study, we collected the surgical resection of colons, both proximal and narrow segments, from HSCR patients and normal controls. First, we identified the progenitor of ICC in normal adult colon using immunofluorescent localization techniques with laser confocal microscopy. Next, the progenitors were sorted to observe their morphology. We further applied flow cytometry to examine the content of ICC progenitors in these fresh samples. The ultrastructural changes in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and were compared with the normal adult colon. The presumed early progenitor (c-Kit(lowCD34(+Igf1r(+ and committed progenitor (c-Kit(+CD34(+Igf1r(+ of ICC exist in adult normal colon as well as in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon. However, the proportions of mature, early and committed progenitors of ICC were dramatically reduced in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon. The proportions of mature and committed progenitors of ICC in the proximal segment of the HSCR colon were lower than in the adult normal colon. Ultrastructurally, ICC, enteric nerves, and smooth muscle in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon showed severe injury, including swollen vacuola or ted mitochondria, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesiculation and degranulation, and disappearance of the caveolae on the ICC membrane surface. The contents of ICC and its progenitors in the narrow part of the HSCR colon were significantly decreased than those of adult colon, which may be associated with HSCR pathogenesis.

  10. Tuning the non-equilibrium state of a drug-encapsulated poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for stem and progenitor cell mobilization.

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    Liang, Youyun; Jensen, Tor W; Roy, Edward J; Cha, Chaenyung; Devolder, Ross J; Kohman, Richie E; Zhang, Bao Zhong; Textor, Kyle B; Rund, Lauretta A; Schook, Lawrence B; Tong, Yen Wah; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2011-03-01

    Injectable and biodegradable hydrogels have been increasingly studied for sustained drug delivery in various molecular therapies. However, it remains a challenge to attain desired delivery rate at injection sites due to local tissue pressures exerted on the soft hydrogels. Furthermore, there is often limited controllability of stiffness and degradation rates, which are key factors required for achieving desired drug release rate and therapeutic efficacy. This study presents a stiff and metastable poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) hydrogel which exhibits an elastic modulus equivalent to bulk plastic materials, and controllable degradation rate independent of its initial elastic modulus. Such unique stiffness was attained from the highly branched architecture of PEI, and the decoupled controllability of degradation rate was achieved by tuning the non-equilibrium swelling of the hydrogel. Furthermore, a single intramuscular administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)-encapsulated PEGDA-PEI hydrogel extended the mobilization of mononuclear cells to four days. A larger yield of expanded CD34+ and CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) was also obtained as compared to the daily bolus administration. Overall, the hydrogel created in this study will be useful for the controlled and sustained delivery of a wide array of drug molecules. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance P accelerates wound healing in type 2 diabetic mice through endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and Yes-associated protein activation.

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    Um, Jihyun; Yu, Jinyeong; Park, Ki-Sook

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is delayed in diabetes due to a number of factors, including impaired angiogenesis and poor dermal healing. The present study demonstrated that subcutaneous administration of substance P (SP) accelerates wound healing in db/db type 2 diabetic mice (db/db mice). SP injection (10 nM/kg, subcutaneously) enhanced angiogenesis, induced the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and increased the number of EPC‑colony forming units (EPC‑CFUs) in the bone marrow of db/db mice. Immunohistochemistry was performed to check the effects of SP on the cellular proliferation and the subcellular localization of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in the wound dermis. SP also upregulated cellular proliferation in the injured dermis of db/db mice. Compared with the control group, an increased number of cells in the wound dermis of SP-treated mice exhibited nuclear localization of YAP, which induces cellular proliferation. The results of the current study indicate that subcutaneous administration of SP may be a promising therapeutic strategy to treat diabetic wounds exhibiting impaired angiogenesis and dysfunctional dermal wound healing.

  12. ETV5 Regulates Sertoli Cell Chemokines Involved in Mouse Stem/Progenitor Spermatogonia Maintenance

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    Simon, Liz; Ekman, Gail C; Garcia, Thomas; Carnes, Kay; Zhang, Zhen; Murphy, Theresa; Murphy, Kenneth M; Hess, Rex A; Cooke, Paul S; Hofmann, Marie–Claude

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to offspring. Although growth factors responsible for self–renewal of these cells are known, the factors and mechanisms that attract and physically maintain these cells within their microenvironment are poorly understood. Mice with targeted disruption of Ets variant gene 5 (Etv5) show total loss of stem/progenitor spermatogonia following the first wave of spermatogenesis, resulting in a Sertoli cell–only phenotype and aspermia. Microarray analysis of primary Sertoli cells from Etv5 knockout (Etv5−/−) versus wild–type (WT) mice revealed significant decreases in expression of several chemokines. Chemotaxis assays demonstrated that migration of stem/progenitor spermatogonia toward Etv5−/− Sertoli cells was significantly decreased compared to migration toward WT Sertoli cells. Interestingly, differentiating spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids were not chemoattracted by WT Sertoli cells, whereas stem/progenitor spermatogonia showed a high and significant chemotactic index. Rescue assays using recombinant chemokines indicated that C-C-motif ligand 9 (CCL9) facilitates Sertoli cell chemoattraction of stem/progenitor spermatogonia, which express C-C-receptor type 1 (CCR1). In addition, there is protein–DNA interaction between ETV5 and Ccl9, suggesting that ETV5 might be a direct regulator of Ccl9 expression. Taken together, our data show for the first time that Sertoli cells are chemoattractive for stem/progenitor spermatogonia, and that production of specific chemokines is regulated by ETV5. Therefore, changes in chemokine production and consequent decreases in chemoattraction by Etv5−/− Sertoli cells helps to explain stem/progenitor spermatogonia loss in Etv5−/− mice. PMID:20799334

  13. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  14. EMT Involved in Migration of Stem/Progenitor Cells for Pituitary Development and Regeneration

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    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration are important processes in embryonic development of many tissues as well as oncogenesis. The pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue and recent studies indicate that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells actively migrate and develop this tissue during embryogenesis. Notably, although migration activity of stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal period seems to be reduced compared to that in the embryonic period, it is hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary re-migrate from their microenvironment niche to contribute to the regeneration system. Therefore, elucidation of EMT in the pituitary stem/progenitor cells will promote understanding of pituitary development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as pituitary adenoma. In this review, so as to gain more insights into the mechanisms of pituitary development and regeneration, we summarize the EMT in the pituitary by focusing on the migration of pituitary stem/progenitor cells during both embryonic and postnatal organogenesis. PMID:27058562

  15. Lgr5(+ve) stem/progenitor cells contribute to nephron formation during kidney development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Rookmaaker, M.B.; Kujala, P.; Ng, A.; Leushacke, M.; Snippert, H.; van de Wetering, M.; Tan, S.; van Es, J.H.; Huch, M.; Poulsom, R.; Verhaar, M.C.; Peters, P.J.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expressi