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Sample records for profoundly paranoid atmosphere

  1. [Paranoid syndrome, paranoid reaction, paranoia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovský, P

    2006-01-01

    The term paranoid is derived from the Greek word paranoia meaning nadnese. It does not only mean self-reference, but there are various personality features as they are hostility, a tendency towards aggressiveness, irritability, a lack of sense of humour, feelings of overestimation of one-self and a tendency towards accusations. These features may appear also within normal psychology and they becomeclinically important after thein increase of intensity and conspicuousness (los sof hearing, long-term abuse of alcohol and psychostimulants) and organic disorders of the brain may contribute to the development of paranoidity. A mechanism of projection is considered as a decivise factor from the point of view of dynamic psychiatry. Clinically unimportant sign sof paranoidity can be observed due to unusual situations. If a paranoid reaction becomes more serious, formation of a paranoid delusion should be taken to account. In our koncept the term paranoid and paranoidity should be used only as a psychopathological term.

  2. paranoid ideation

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    José M. García-Montes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el modelo conocido como “Self-Regulatory Executive Function” (S-REF el presente estudio correlacional pretende averiguar si las variables metacognitivas tienen alguna influencia sobre la ideación paranoide en sujetos no-clínicos. Con este fin se administró una batería de tests a 148 participantes dirigida a indagar el tipo de creencias metacognitivas por el que se caracterizaban así como su nivel de ideación paranoide y su nivel de ansiedad-rasgo. Los resultados muestran que, una vez controlado el nivel de ansiedad de los sujetos, la pérdida de la confianza cognitiva es la única variable metacognitiva que predice la puntuación de los sujetos en ideación paranoide. De no efectuarse este control estadístico de la ansiedad-rasgo, se incluirían en la ecuación de regresión dos factores metacognitivos más relativos a la incontrolabilidad y peligro de los pensamientos y a las creencias positivas sobre la preocupación. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de recientes aportaciones favorables a la extensión de modelos ya consolidados en el campo de los trastornos emocionales, como el modelo S-REF, a los síntomas psicóticos.

  3. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  4. Trastorno paranoide de la personalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Palencia de la Fuente, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Se resumen las variantes, características, tratamientos, mitos y relatos históricos referentes al trastorno paranoide de la personalidad, mostrando sus semejanzas y diferencias con otros trastornos mentales y de personalidad. Se recopilan definiciones oficiales y aportaciones de autores diversos que aporten novedades, desmientan rumores y apoyen estudios o hipótesis

  5. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  6. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

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    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  7. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  8. Religious content of hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.

  9. Validation of the Paranoid Thoughts Scale in Iranian Population

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    Karim Abdolmohammadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Considering that paranoid thought has one-dimensional approach, use of long questionnaires has no clinical and research application, therefore use of short questionnaires seems necessary. The Green et al. paranoid thought scale is a short self-assessment tool for assessing paranoid thought in non-clinical and clinical group. This research was conducted to validate this questionnaire in Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 356 students were selected using stratified sampling method and assessed by GPTS and Minnesota multiphasic paranoid inventory (MMPI in 2015. Validity was assessed simultaneously with MMPI testing. Results: The correlation coefficient of GPTS and MMPI scores was α=0.71 and significant (p<0.001. Internal consistency value was estimated to be 0.81 according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Conclusion: GPTS is an appropriate and short tool for screening in paranoid thought-related researches. Keywords: Paranoid disorders; Personality tests; Validation studies.

  10. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

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    Amy E. Pinkham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

  11. Violencia de Genero en la Esquizofrenia Paranoide

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Echeverri, María de los Ángeles; Castro Franco, Bibiana Edivey

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende explorar la vivencia subjetiva sobre la comprensión de Sí mismos respecto la violencia de género en sujetos con Esquizofrenia Paranoide institucionalizados en centros de Salud Mental de la ciudad de Popayán, departamento del Cauca Colombia, por medio de la identificación e interpretación de elementos subjetivos que el sujeto refiere en su discurso sobre las significaciones del cómo vive el maltrato. Gracias a la investigación Cualitativa Exploratoria-Descriptiva, ...

  12. Spinocerebellar ataxia-10 with paranoid schizophrenia

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    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spino-cerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10 is an autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, seizures and nystagmus with a fragmented pursuit. Schizophrenia has been reported with SCAs 1 and 2 yet in SCA 10, psychiatric manifestations are uncommon. We report a Hispanic family involving a father and his four children with SCA10 genetic mutation. Two of his children, a 20-year-old female and a 23-year-old male, presented with gradually progressive spino-cerebellar ataxia and paranoid schizophrenia. Neurological examination revealed ocular dysmetria, dysdiadokinesia, impaired finger-to-nose exam, gait ataxia and hyperreflexia in both the cases. Additionally, they had a history of psychosis with destructive behavior, depression and paranoid delusions with auditory hallucinations. Serology and CSF studies were unremarkable and MRI brain revealed cerebellar volume loss. Ultimately, a test for ATAXIN-10 mutation was positive thus confirming the diagnosis of SCA10 in father and his four children. We now endeavor to investigate the association between schizophrenia and SCA10.

  13. Priming to Induce Paranoid Thought in a Non Clinical Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isnanda, R.G.; Brinkman, W.P.; Veling, W.; Gaag, M. van der; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Freeman et al. reported that a substantial minority of the general population has paranoid thoughts while exposed in a virtual environment. This suggested that in a development phase of a virtual reality exposure system for paranoid patients initially a non-clinical sample could be used to evaluate

  14. Priming to induce paranoid thought in a non clinical population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isnanda, R.G.; Brinkman, W.P.; Veling, W.; van der Gaag, M.; Neerincx, M.

    2013-01-01

    Freeman et al. reported that a substantial minority of the general population has paranoid thoughts while exposed in a virtual environment. This suggested that in a development phase of a virtual reality exposure system for paranoid patients initially a non-clinical sample could be used to evaluate

  15. Coprophagia in a Nigerian patient with paranoid schizophrenia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coprophagia is the ingestion of one's own faeces. It is associated with severe psychiatric disorders and in certain medical conditions. Both electronic and manual search on this rare disorder yielded no positive findings among Nigerian or African literature. We here report a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who smeared ...

  16. Comic Book Apologia: The "Paranoid" Rhetoric of Congressman George Hansen.

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    Short, Brant

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes George Hansen's apologetic rhetoric from the perspective of a generic, "paranoid-style" of discourse to show why the Congressman was able to defend his character to the satisfaction of nearly one-half of his constituency. Uses the Hansen case to illustrate the development and function of a rhetorical genre in a given historical context.…

  17. Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population.

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    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Bebbington, Paul; Gittins, Matthew; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Garety, Philippa

    2008-04-01

    Judging whether we can trust other people is central to social interaction, despite being error-prone. A fear of others can be instilled by the contemporary political and social climate. Unfounded mistrust is called paranoia, and in severe forms is a central symptom of schizophrenia. To demonstrate that individuals without severe mental illness in the general population experience unfounded paranoid thoughts, and to determine factors predictive of paranoia using the first laboratory method of capturing the experience. Two hundred members of the general public were comprehensively assessed, and then entered a virtual reality train ride populated by neutral characters. Ordinal logistic regressions (controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, intellectual functioning, socio-economic status, train use, playing of computer games) were used to determine predictors of paranoia. The majority agreed that the characters were neutral, or even thought they were friendly. However, a substantial minority reported paranoid concerns. Paranoia was strongly predicted by anxiety, worry, perceptual anomalies and cognitive inflexibility. This is the most unambiguous demonstration of paranoid ideation in the general public so far. Paranoia can be understood in terms of cognitive factors. The use of virtual reality should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of paranoia.

  18. Interpretation bias towards vague faces in individuals with paranoid personality disorder traits

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    Mohsen Doustkam

    2017-10-01

     Conclusion: Individuals with paranoid personality traits have more biases than normal individuals in terms of interpreting vague faces. The results of this study indicated the importance of attention to cognitive biases among individuals with paranoid personality traits or paranoid personality disorder because such biases can significantly influence behavioral patterns in individuals, and consequently degrade their functioning. Also, bias towards the processing of negative signs appears to be the most important cognitive element is involved in interpersonal relationships.

  19. Paranoid-schizoid anxiety, triangulation, and oedipal trauma.

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    Waska, R T

    2000-06-01

    The interaction of strong aggressive and libidinal drives, various primitive intrapsychic fantasies linking somatic sensations, body parts, ego, object, and the effects of early environmental stress and trauma all produce a potential crisis in the paranoid-schizoid period of development. Certain innate methods of understanding somatic experiences as well as the interaction between internal and external reality lead to an unconscious triangulation of part objects. A frustrating, stimulating, or punitive "third" that blocks, nullifies, or overgratifies certain wishes then emerges as a pivotal object in the internal landscape. During the paranoid-schizoid, triadic process, there is a fluctuation between separation/individuation and de-differentiation/fusion. If the early triangulation process has been either exceedingly frustrating or overly stimulating in regards to "reaching the third" or "warding off the third," the infantile ego is fixed by aggressive and libidinal forces to de-differentiation experiences rather than to more separate and individuated ways of relating. Therefore, the later oedipal stage will be colored by excessive oral and anal conflicts and will be weighted on the side of primitive maneuvering based on splitting, projection, and introjection. When the child (and later the adult) becomes involved in oedipal situations marked by stimulation or frustration of triadic drives, there can be a regression to the earlier paranoid-schizoid triadic period. A case study was presented in which a patient struggled with a partial working through of these conditions in dreams and in the transference. This pulled her more in the direction of a differentiated Oedipal conflict and whole object functioning.

  20. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  1. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva Е.A; Zaichenko A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0), 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI)), anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and ...

  2. [The structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia and compensatory behavioral trends].

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    Reverchuk, I V; Khudyakova, Yu Yu

    To study the structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on sex and illness duration. 102 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 101 healthy people, aged from 18 to 64 years, were examined. Quantitative indicators of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of aggression were measured using the Buss-Perry questionnaire. The projective Hand-test was administered to assess aggressive behavioral tendencies and inclinations to aggressive behavior. The authors identified the dissociated structure of aggressiveness in patients with paranoid schizophrenia that manifested with dissociated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. The specifics of the structure of aggression and compensatory behavioral trends are described.

  3. When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

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    Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P

    2016-07-01

    The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Psychosis with paranoid delusions after a therapeutic dose of mefloquine: a case report

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    Browning Joseph

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Convenient once-a-week dosing has made mefloquine a popular choice as malaria prophylaxis for travel to countries with chloroquine-resistant malaria. However, the increased use of mefloquine over the past decade has resulted in reports of rare, but severe, neuropsychiatric adverse reactions, such as anxiety, depression, hallucinations and psychosis. A direct causality between mefloquine and severe reactions among travelers has been partly confounded by factors associated with foreign travel and, in the case of therapeutic doses of mefloquine, the central nervous system manifestations of Plasmodium infection itself. The present case provides a unique natural history of mefloquine-induced neuropsychiatric toxicity and revisits its dose-dependent nature. Case presentation This report describes an acute exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms after an unwarranted therapeutic dose (1250 mg of mefloquine in a 37-year-old male previously on a once-a-week prophylactic regimen. Neuropsychiatric symptoms began as dizziness and insomnia of several days duration, which was followed by one week of escalating anxiety and subtle alterations in behaviour. The patient's anxiety culminated into a panic episode with profound sympathetic activation. One week later, he was hospitalized after developing frank psychosis with psychomotor agitation and paranoid delusions. His psychosis remitted with low-dose quetiapine. Conclusion This report suggests that an overt mefloquine-induced psychosis can be preceded by a prodromal phase of moderate symptoms such as dizziness, insomnia, and generalized anxiety. It is important that physicians advise patients taking mefloquine prophylaxis and their relatives to recognize such symptoms, especially when they are accompanied by abrupt, but subtle, changes in behaviour. Patients with a history of psychiatric illness, however minor, may be at increased risk for a mefloquine-induced neuropsychiatric toxicity

  5. Manganese and acute paranoid psychosis: a case report

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    Egger Jos I

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal development and body function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course and usually starts with complaints of headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability and emotional instability. Later, several organ systems may be affected and, due to neurotoxicity, an atypical parkinsonian syndrome may emerge. With regard to neuropsychiatry, an array of symptoms may develop up to 30 years after intoxication, of which gait and speech abnormalities, cognitive and motor slowing, mood changes and hallucinations are the most common. Psychotic phenomena are rarely reported. Case presentation We describe the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man working as a welder who was referred to our facility for evaluation of acute paranoid psychotic behavior. Our patient's medical history made no mention of any somatic complaints or psychiatric symptoms, and he had been involved in a professional career as a metalworker. On magnetic resonance imaging scanning of his brain, a bilateral hyperdensity of the globus pallidus, suggestive for manganese intoxication, was found. His manganese serum level was 52 to 97 nmol/L (range: 7 to 20 nmol/L. A diagnosis of organic psychotic disorder due to manganese overexposure was made. His psychotic symptoms disappeared within two weeks of treatment with low-dose risperidone. At three months later, serum manganese was decreased to slightly elevated levels and the magnetic resonance imaging T1 signal intensity was reduced. No signs of Parkinsonism were found and a definite diagnosis of manganese-induced apathy syndrome was made. Conclusion Although neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms caused by (chronic manganese exposure have been reported frequently in the past, in the present day the disorder is rarely diagnosed. In this report we stress that manganese intoxication can still occur, in our case in a confined

  6. Bullying victimisation and paranoid ideation in people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

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    Valmaggia, L R; Day, F L; Kroll, J; Laing, J; Byrne, M; Fusar-Poli, P; McGuire, P

    2015-10-01

    Bullying victimisation has been suggested to contribute to paranoid ideation in general population samples and recent evidence found that individuals with an ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis are twice as likely to have been bullied than controls. This study sought to examine whether a history of bullying would be associated with higher levels of paranoid ideation in individuals with an UHR and in healthy controls (HCs). The study included 64 UHR and 43 HC participants. Following the baseline assessment, participants entered a Virtual Reality (VR) London Underground train. Paranoid ideation was measured immediately after the end of the VR experience. Compared to HCs, UHR participants described higher levels of childhood bullying (OR 5.19, 95% CI=2.21-12.19, pbullying was associated with paranoid ideation during VR in both groups (χ(2)(1)=5.931, p=,021) but prolonged exposure to bullying was not associated with increased paranoid ideation. A history of bullying in childhood is particularly common in young adults at high risk for psychosis. However bullying is associated with paranoid ideation in later life, independent of clinical status, consistent with dimensional models of psychotic phenomena. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency and correlates of maladaptive responses to paranoid thoughts in patients with psychosis compared to a population sample.

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    Lincoln, Tania M; Möbius, Carolin; Huber, Martin T; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify whether responses to paranoid thoughts distinguish patients with psychotic disorders from people in the population who have paranoid thoughts occasionally and to identify factors that are associated with and might explain the different ways of responding. Paranoid thoughts were assessed in patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n = 32) and a population control sample (n = 34) with the Paranoia Checklist. Responses to paranoid thoughts were assessed with the Reactions to Paranoid Thoughts Scale (RePT) and social support, self-efficacy and cognitive insight were assessed as potential correlates of the responses to paranoid thoughts. The patients showed significantly more depressed, physical and devaluating responses to paranoid thoughts and employed less normalising responses than the controls. The differences in normalising responses were explained by perceived social integration, whereas the differences in depressive responses were explained by the overall levels of depression and partly explained by externality and social integration. Maladaptive responses to paranoid thoughts could be relevant to the pathogenesis and maintenance of persecutory delusions. Interventions aimed at reducing paranoia could benefit from targeting dysfunctional responses to paranoid thoughts and by placing a stronger emphasis on treating depression and improving social integration.

  9. Delusional disorders--are they simply paranoid schizophrenia?

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    Marneros, Andreas; Pillmann, Frank; Wustmann, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    This article tries to give an answer to the question of whether International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) persistent delusional disorder (PDD) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) delusional disorder (DD) is simply paranoid schizophrenia (PS). Because ICD-10 PDD and DSM-IV DD are identical, we use DD as a synonym. A prospective and longitudinal study compared all inpatients with DD treated at the Halle-Wittenberg university hospital during a 14-year period with a previously investigated selected cohort of patients with PS. Sociodemographic data, symptomatology, course, and outcome parameters were examined using standardized instruments. The duration of the follow-up period in patients with DD was 10.8 years and for the PS patients 12.9 years. Significant differences between DD and PS were found: DD patients are, in comparison to patients with PS, significantly older at onset. Less of their first-degree relatives have mental disorders. They less frequently come from a broken home situation. First-rank symptoms, relevant negative symptoms, and primary hallucinations did not occur in patients with DD. Patients with DD were less frequently hospitalized, and the duration of their hospitalization was shorter. Their outcome is much better regarding employment, early retirement due to the disorder, and psychopharmacological medication. They more often had stable heterosexual partnerships and were autarkic. They had lower scores in the Disability Assessment Scale and in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The diagnosis of DD is very stable over time. The findings of this study support the assumption that DDs are a separate entity and only exceptionally can be a prodrome of schizophrenia.

  10. Delusional Disorders—Are They Simply Paranoid Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marneros, Andreas; Pillmann, Frank; Wustmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article tries to give an answer to the question of whether International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) persistent delusional disorder (PDD) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) delusional disorder (DD) is simply paranoid schizophrenia (PS). Because ICD-10 PDD and DSM-IV DD are identical, we use DD as a synonym. Methods: A prospective and longitudinal study compared all inpatients with DD treated at the Halle-Wittenberg university hospital during a 14-year period with a previously investigated selected cohort of patients with PS. Sociodemographic data, symptomatology, course, and outcome parameters were examined using standardized instruments. The duration of the follow-up period in patients with DD was 10.8 years and for the PS patients 12.9 years. Results: Significant differences between DD and PS were found: DD patients are, in comparison to patients with PS, significantly older at onset. Less of their first-degree relatives have mental disorders. They less frequently come from a broken home situation. First-rank symptoms, relevant negative symptoms, and primary hallucinations did not occur in patients with DD. Patients with DD were less frequently hospitalized, and the duration of their hospitalization was shorter. Their outcome is much better regarding employment, early retirement due to the disorder, and psychopharmacological medication. They more often had stable heterosexual partnerships and were autarkic. They had lower scores in the Disability Assessment Scale and in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The diagnosis of DD is very stable over time. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the assumption that DDs are a separate entity and only exceptionally can be a prodrome of schizophrenia. PMID:21078814

  11. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

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    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  12. Right lateralized white matter abnormalities in first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Zhening; Gao, Keming; Xiao, Changqing; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2012-11-30

    Numerous studies in first-episode schizophrenia suggest the involvement of white matter (WM) abnormalities in multiple regions underlying the pathogenesis of this condition. However, there has never been a neuroimaging study in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia by using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS method to investigate the brain WM integrity in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia. Twenty patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia and 26 healthy subjects matched with age, gender, and education level were scanned with DTI. An automated TBSS approach was employed to analyze the data. Voxel-wise statistics revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II, the right fornix, the right internal capsule, and the right external capsule compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not have increased FA values in any brain regions compared to healthy subjects. There was no correlation between the FA values in any brain regions and patient demographics and the severity of illness. Our findings suggest right-sided alterations of WM integrity in the WM tracts of cortical and subcortical regions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interpersonal sensitivity, bullying victimization and paranoid ideation among help-seeking adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masillo, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Saba, Riccardo; Brandizzi, Martina; Lo Cascio, Nella; Telesforo, Ludovica; Venturini, Paola; Izzo, Aniello; Mattioli, M Teresa; D'Alema, Marco; Girardi, Paolo; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    The effects of a negative interpersonal experience, such as bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence, can be strong and long lasting. Bullying victimization is associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Few studies have focused on personality traits of victims of bullying. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a particular personality trait called interpersonal sensitivity may be related to suspiciousness in those who experienced bullying victimization. The study sample consisted of 147 help-seeking adolescents (mean age 17 years) selected after a screening phase (Prodromal Questionnaire) and evaluated with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). All participants were specifically asked if they had experienced either psychological bullying or physical bullying, and they completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Of the whole sample, 30 (20%) participants had experienced psychological bullying or physical bullying at least once in their life. Performing a multiple regression, bullying victimization was found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Interpersonal sensitivity was also found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation; in particular, two IPSM subscales, fragile inner-self and separation anxiety, showed a significant correlation with subtle paranoid ideation. Our results confirmed that bullying victimization is a negative interpersonal experience associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. However, being overly sensitive and having negative beliefs about the self as fragile and vulnerable to threat also lead to a tendency to attribute experiences as externally caused and, in turn, facilitate the formation and maintenance of paranoid ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  15. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Е.A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0, 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI, anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and openness among two groups. Significantly smaller sizes of the chest and thigh circumferences were found in men with paranoid schizophrenia. The schizophrenic group exhibited higher frequency of "ulnar loop" and "double loop" finger pattern occurrence. Our study found a number of somato-psychic, dermato-psychic and dermato-somatic correlations, as well as correlations between personality factors and age. Conclusion: the examination of personality features correlated with markers of dermatoglyphic and body constitution helped to identify the predictors of risks for developing paranoid schizophrenia. This makes it possible the identification of at-risk groups with their monitoring and focusing on preventive programs

  16. The Prediction of Paranoid Behavior: Comparative Validities of Obvious vs. Subtle MMPI Paranoia (Pa) Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanitz, Christine A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory paranoia subtle, neutral, and obvious subscales and criteria presumed to reflect various paranoid characteristics in a sample of male college students (N=100). Results showed that both the obvious and subtle Pa Items predicted various criteria. (Author/JAC)

  17. s first-rank symptoms in Zulu patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Schneider's first-rank symptoms (FRS) in Zulu patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and to ascertain the diagnostic and prognostic significance of Schneider's FRS in this group. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 75 psychiatric Zulu ...

  18. Jack the Giant Tamer: Poetry Writing in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Constance

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief case report on the use of poetry writing in the treatment of a patient with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Notes that, after 23 sessions in which the patient said nothing, the patient brought a poem for the therapist to read at the 24 session. (SR)

  19. Behavioral Experiments in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Roger; Nordahl, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first description of cognitive therapy of paranoid delusions appeared in the literature, the empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy in treating psychotic symptoms has been widely established. The aim of the present case study is to show how the behavioral experiment can be used as a powerful tool to change delusional thinking…

  20. President Bush's Pre-War Rhetoric on Iraq: Paranoid Style in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Alexander G.; Porpora, Douglas V.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the war rhetoric of the Bush administration as reflected in the speeches of President Bush. What was explored is how presidential speeches drew on a variety of rhetorical techniques, from role-taking and punctuation to the adoption of the paranoid style. The purpose of these techniques is to nullify voices of…

  1. Paranoid Ideation and Violence: Meta-analysis of Individual Subject Data of 7 Population Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy W.; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul; Fazel, Seena; Keers, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is controversy whether associations between psychosis and violence are due to coexisting substance misuse and factors increasing risk in nonpsychotic persons. Recent studies in clinical samples have implicated independent effects of paranoid delusions. Research findings suggest that individual psychotic-like-experiences on the psychosis continuum in the general population are associated with violence; it remains unclear whether this association is due to psychiatric comorbidity. We pooled data from 7 UK general population surveys (n = 23 444) and conducted a meta-analysis of individual subject data. Further meta-analyses were performed to identify heterogeneity. Main exposure variables: 5 psychotic-like-experiences and a categorical measure of psychosis. Comorbidity was established through standardized self-report instruments. Information was collected on violence, severity, victims. Paranoid ideation was associated with violence (AOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.75–2.91), severity and frequency, even when controlling for effects of other psychotic-like-experiences. Associations were not explained by comorbid conditions, including substance dependence. Psychotic disorder was associated with violence and injury to the perpetrator but associations were explained by paranoid ideation. Individual associations between hypomania, thought insertion, hallucinations, and violence were nonsignificant after adjustments, and significantly associated only when comorbid with antisocial personality disorder. Strange experiences were only associated with intimate partner violence. Paranoid ideation on a psychosis-continuum in the general population was associated with violence. All other associations were explained by comorbidity. Further investigation should determine whether paranoid ideation among persons in the community require preventive interventions, similar to those presenting to mental health services. Nevertheless, risks are considerably increased for psychotic

  2. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles Raymond

    2008-11-01

    Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are

  3. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B Norgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia

  4. A Tale of Two Paranoids: A Critical Analysis of the Use of the Paranoid Style and Public Secrecy by Donald Trump and Viktor Orbán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Timmer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, a rising tide of right-wing populism across the globe has inspired a renewed push toward nationalism. Capitalizing on an increasingly chaotic public sphere, leaders are stoking fear in their constituents such that their radical ideologies and hardline policy decisions may be enacted. This article offers a comparative study of two leaders exploiting the vulnerabilities of their respective citizenries: United States President Donald Trump and Hungarian Prime Minister Victor Orbán. Drawing from and reimagining Richard Hofstadter’s germane essay, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” we argue that both represent a new manifestation of the paranoid style as it enables (and is enabled by “public secrecy.” By controlling the media and redirecting collective attention by way of rhetorical sleight of hand, the two are able to sow disorder and confusion such that their secrecy may persist out in the open. Despite using similar issues to promulgate fear and paranoia, most prominently the refugee and immigration crises, and their similar end goals, the two must nonetheless engage in different discursive strategies that reflect the distinct cultures and histories of their respective countries.

  5. Evidence for Distinguishable Treatment Costs among Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Hirjak

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia spectrum disorders result in enormous individual suffering and financial burden on patients and on society. In Germany, there are about 1,000,000 individuals suffering from schizophrenia (SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SAD, a combination of psychotic and affective symptoms. Given the heterogeneous nature of these syndromes, one may assume that there is a difference in treatment costs among patients with paranoid SZ and SAD. However, the current the national system of cost accounting in psychiatry and psychosomatics in Germany assesses all schizophrenia spectrum disorders within one category.The study comprised a retrospective audit of data from 118 patients diagnosed with paranoid SZ (F20.0 and 71 patients with SAD (F25. We used the mean total costs as well as partial cost, i.e., mean costs for medication products, mean personal costs and mean infrastructure costs from each patient for the statistical analysis. We tested for differences in the four variables between SZ and SAD patients using ANCOVA and confirmed the results with bootstrapping.SAD patients had a longer duration of stay than patients with SZ (p = .02. Mean total costs were significantly higher for SAD patients (p = .023. Further, we found a significant difference in mean personnel costs (p = .02 between patients with SZ and SAD. However, we found no significant differences in mean pharmaceutical costs (p = .12 but a marginal difference of mean infrastructure costs (p = .05 between SZ and SAD. We found neither a common decrease of costs over time nor a differential decrease in SZ and SAD.We found evidence for a difference of case related costs of inpatient treatments for paranoid SZ and SAD. The differences in mean total costs seem to be primarily related to the mean personnel costs in patients with paranoid SZ and SAD rather than mean pharmaceutical costs, possibly due to higher personnel effort and infrastructure.

  6. A structural equation model of the relationship between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Scott

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties.Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia. n = 348 participants completed measures of insomnia, negative affect and paranoia. A subset of these participants (n = 91 went on to monitor their sleep objectively (using a portable sleep monitor made by Zeo for seven consecutive nights. Associations between objectively recorded sleep, negative affect, and paranoia were explored using linear regression.The findings supported a fully mediated model where self-reported delayed sleep onset, but not self-reported problems with sleep maintenance or objective measures of sleep, was directly associated with negative affect that, in turn, was associated with paranoia. There was no evidence of a direct association between delayed sleep onset or sleep maintenance problems and paranoia.Taken together, the findings point to an association between perceived (but not objective difficulties initially falling asleep (but not maintaining sleep and paranoid thinking; a relationship that is fully mediated by negative affect. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal relationships between sleep, negative affect, and paranoia (e.g., by examining the effect of an intervention using prospective designs that incorporate experience sampling. Indeed, interventions might profitably target (i perceived sleep quality, (ii sleep onset, and / or (iii emotion regulation as a route to reducing negative affect and, thus, paranoid thinking.

  7. A structural equation model of the relationship between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander J; Rowse, Georgina; Webb, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i) whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii) whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii) to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties. Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia. n = 348 participants completed measures of insomnia, negative affect and paranoia. A subset of these participants (n = 91) went on to monitor their sleep objectively (using a portable sleep monitor made by Zeo) for seven consecutive nights. Associations between objectively recorded sleep, negative affect, and paranoia were explored using linear regression. The findings supported a fully mediated model where self-reported delayed sleep onset, but not self-reported problems with sleep maintenance or objective measures of sleep, was directly associated with negative affect that, in turn, was associated with paranoia. There was no evidence of a direct association between delayed sleep onset or sleep maintenance problems and paranoia. Taken together, the findings point to an association between perceived (but not objective) difficulties initially falling asleep (but not maintaining sleep) and paranoid thinking; a relationship that is fully mediated by negative affect. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal relationships between sleep, negative affect, and paranoia (e.g., by examining the effect of an intervention using prospective designs that incorporate experience sampling). Indeed, interventions might profitably target (i) perceived sleep quality, (ii) sleep onset, and / or (iii) emotion regulation as a route to reducing negative affect and, thus, paranoid thinking.

  8. A structural equation model of the relationship between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Georgina; Webb, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i) whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii) whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii) to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties. Method Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia. n = 348 participants completed measures of insomnia, negative affect and paranoia. A subset of these participants (n = 91) went on to monitor their sleep objectively (using a portable sleep monitor made by Zeo) for seven consecutive nights. Associations between objectively recorded sleep, negative affect, and paranoia were explored using linear regression. Results The findings supported a fully mediated model where self-reported delayed sleep onset, but not self-reported problems with sleep maintenance or objective measures of sleep, was directly associated with negative affect that, in turn, was associated with paranoia. There was no evidence of a direct association between delayed sleep onset or sleep maintenance problems and paranoia. Conclusions Taken together, the findings point to an association between perceived (but not objective) difficulties initially falling asleep (but not maintaining sleep) and paranoid thinking; a relationship that is fully mediated by negative affect. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal relationships between sleep, negative affect, and paranoia (e.g., by examining the effect of an intervention using prospective designs that incorporate experience sampling). Indeed, interventions might profitably target (i) perceived sleep quality, (ii) sleep onset, and / or (iii) emotion regulation as a route to reducing negative affect and, thus, paranoid thinking

  9. Self-reported Cognitive Biases Moderate the Associations Between Social Stress and Paranoid Ideation in a Virtual Reality Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-10-10

    Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual reality environment. This study included 170 participants with different levels of psychosis liability (55 recent onset psychosis, 20 ultrahigh risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of psychotic patients, and 53 controls). All participants were exposed to virtual environments with different levels of social stress. The level of experienced paranoia in the virtual environments was measured with the State Social Paranoia Scale. Cognitive biases were assessed with a self-report continuous measure. Also, cumulative number of cognitive biases was calculated using dichotomous measures of the separate biases, based on general population norm scores. Higher belief inflexibility bias (Z = 2.83, P virtual environments. Level of paranoid response increased with number of cognitive biases present (B = 1.73, P < .001). The effect of environmental stressors on paranoid ideation was moderated by attention to threat bias (Z = 2.78, P < .01) and external attribution bias (Z = 2.75, P < .01), whereas data-gathering bias and belief inflexibility did not moderate the relationship. There is an additive effect of separate cognitive biases on paranoid response to social stress. The effect of social environmental stressors on paranoid ideation is further enhanced by attention to threat bias and external attribution bias.

  10. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.

  11. The role of experiential avoidance in paranoid delusions: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Varese, Filippo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The study examined (1) the role of experiential avoidance (EA), conceptualized as intolerance towards aversive mental states, in paranoid delusions and (2) the mechanisms underlying EA. A 6-day prospective momentary assessment study. Paranoid patients (N = 41) were studied using the experience sampling method (ESM), a structured diary technique, assessing psychopathology and current context in daily life. The results showed that both low self-esteem and EA contributed to paranoid thinking. The relationship between low self-esteem and paranoia was partially mediated by EA and the relationship between EA and paranoia was partially mediated by low self-esteem. The detrimental effect of EA on self-esteem was more pronounced under high activity-related stress. Both EA and social stress were independently associated with low self-esteem. EA was associated with self-esteem instability. Our results implicate mental control strategies in the development of paranoia and are compatible with the attributional model of paranoia, which suggests that persecutory delusions arise as a result of dysfunctional attempts to avoid unpleasant thoughts about the self. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Influence of Family and Childhood Memories in the Development and Manifestation of Paranoid Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Célia Barreto; da Motta, Carolina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Peixoto, Ermelindo

    2016-09-01

    Several studies point out to the influence of social experiences on perceptions of the environment and others in cognitive functioning and different aspects of psychopathology. The current study aimed at studying the influence of the psychosocial risk factors in a mixed sample of participants from the general population and affected by paranoid schizophrenia. The extent to which the existence of negative life events and events that are threatening to the inner models of the self (i.e., history of maltreatment, physical, social or psychological abuse) or the memories of these traumatic events occurring during childhood are related to the existence of paranoid beliefs in adulthood was explored. Results suggested that memories of parental behaviours characterized by antipathy from both parental figures, submissiveness and bullying victimization were important predictors of paranoid ideation in adult life. This further emphasizes the need for understanding the family and social dynamics of people presenting paranoid ideations to the development of therapeutic interventions that can effectively reduce the invalidation caused by severe psychopathology, as is the case of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Memories of family dynamics characterized by behaviours of antipathy from both parental figures, submissiveness and bullying victimization are important predictors of paranoid ideation in adult life. The study highlights the importance of exploring subjective recalls of feelings and behaviours associated with early rearing experiences, peer relationships and themes related to social rank theory in the roots of internal models of relationship with the self and others in the general sample, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Our findings indicate that schizophrenic patients in active phase differ regarding memories of threat and submission and are more likely to remember childhood experiences perceived as

  13. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    OpenAIRE

    Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian

    2010-01-01

    Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...

  14. Persecutory beliefs, attributions and theory of mind: comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jaime S; Hatton, Christopher; Craig, Fiona B; Bentall, Richard P

    2004-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients with persecutory delusions and patients with Asperger's syndrome were compared using two measures of theory of mind (ToM; the ability to infer mental states in other people), the Hints task, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task, and a new measure of attributional style (style of inferring the causes of important events), the Attributional Style Structured Interview (ASSI). Paranoid beliefs were measured using Fenigstien and Vanable's Paranoia Scale (PS). The deluded group had the highest scores on the Paranoia Scale but the scores of the Asperger's group's were higher than those of the controls. Paranoid patients made more external-personal attributions for negative events than the Asperger's and control groups. Both the paranoid and Asperger's groups performed poorly on the ToM tasks compared to the controls. The findings support the hypothesis that both ToM and attributional abnormalities contribute to paranoid delusions. The lack of attributional abnormalities in the Asperger's group suggests that their low-level paranoid symptoms arise as a consequence of different mechanisms than those involved in psychotic delusions. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effect of unfavourable and favourable social comparisons on paranoid ideation: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascone, Leonie; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Low social rank is associated with paranoia, but there is a lack of evidence for causality. We tested the effects of social comparisons on negative affect and paranoia with an online social rank paradigm, and whether striving to avoid inferiority or fears of social rejection moderated paranoid reactions. Female students (N = 172) were randomly exposed to one of two validated online profiles depicting a same-aged, high (unfavourable comparison) vs. low rank (favourable comparison) female student. Moderators were assessed at baseline. Social rank, anxiety, sadness and paranoia were assessed pre and post profile-exposure. There was a large effect of the experimental manipulation on social rank (p  0.38). Sadness was significantly altered (p = 0.016, η 2 partial  = 0.033). There were significant moderation effects between the experimental conditions and insecure striving (trend-level) as well as fears of rejection. Our findings may be biased (overestimation of effects) as students are likely to be more competitive compared to the general population. Our rank manipulations did not alter paranoia. This suggests that changes in the cognitive representation of social rank alone - without triggering a strong emotional response - do not suffice to evoke paranoia. Although our results do not support the notion that threats to social rank cause paranoid symptoms, they suggest that threats to social rank are more likely to trigger paranoid states in those who are insecure in regard to their social position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragmented attachments: the paranoid-schizoid experience of loss and persecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses paranoid-schizoid patients who have yet to deal with whole-object depressive fears of harming one's object. Their paranoid-schizoid anxiety is more a combination of dread, paranoia, and fear of destroying one's object with neediness, envy, and other oral desires. In this part-self and part-object world, destruction is absolute. Ego functions and object relational capacities such as guilt and grief are not yet fully consolidated. The part-object is not only destroyed but is also equally capable of magically resurrecting itself to seek revenge. Fear of annihilation of the self and object, as well as desperate attempts at keeping each other alive, are the primary focus of this early anxiety state. These infantile fears are at the root of certain difficult treatment situations. Within the transition from paranoid-schizoid to depressive, the ego struggles with highly exaggerated and distorted fantasies of persecution, loss, and primitive guilt by resorting to crude and often self-destructive mechanisms. These include splitting, projective identification, and idealization. During the course of analytic treatment, three overlapping phases are distinguishable. Acting out is the main theme of early treatment. As this externalization of internal conflict is analyzed and contained, a second phase of intrapsychic struggle emerges. The patient exhibits a paralyzing battle between certain ego-object ties and the striving of a defensive death instinct. If the analytic relationship is able to withstand passage through these difficult phases, the patient begins to work through more core issues of persecutory loss and annihilation. Case material is used for illustration.

  17. IFNGR2 genetic polymorphism associated with sex-specific paranoid schizophrenia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Achraf; Inoubli, Oumaima; Trifa, Fatma; Mechri, Anouar; Zaafrane, Ferid; Gaha, Lotfi; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj

    2017-01-01

    Considering current scientific evidence about the significant role of chronic low grade inflammation in the physiopathology of schizophrenia, it has been hypothesized that changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma may have a significant role in the predisposition to schizophrenia. This study focuses on identifying whether the functional polymorphism of interferon gamma receptor 2 (IFNGR2) is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. This study was conducted by the RFLP-PCR on a Tunisian population composed of 225 patients with different sub-types of schizophrenia and 166 controls. The IFNGR2 (Q64R) polymorphism analysis showed higher frequencies of minor homozygous genotype (RR) and allele (R) in all patients compared to controls (21.8% vs 10.2%; p = .006, OR = 2.54) and (44% vs 34.9%; p = .01; OR = 1.46), respectively. This correlation was confirmed only for males. This study also noted a significant increase of the mutated homozygous (RR) genotype and (R) allele frequencies of IFNGR2 in paranoid schizophrenics compared to controls (31.4% vs 10.2%; p = .001; OR = 3.34 and 47.2% vs 34.9%; p = .009; OR = 1.66, respectively). This increase remains significant after using binary logistic regression to eliminate confounding factors such as age and sex. Additionally, carriers of RR genotype have significant lower scores on the Scale of Assessment of Positive (SAPS) and negative (SANS) symptoms comparatively to the carrier of the QQ + QR genotypes, suggesting that the R recessive allele carriers could have milder symptoms. The IFNGR2Q64R polymorphism is correlated with male sex and paranoid schizophrenia. It is suggested that a chronic neuroinflammation may predispose to the paranoid schizophrenia development in men.

  18. Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. The Quality Assurance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders were developed by having nominated experts consider their own views in the light of the treatment literature and the responses of practising psychiatrists. In the detailed recommendations it is clear that while patients with all three disorders often present for treatment in a crisis and often see no issue other than the resolution of the crisis, patients with schizoid personality disorder can use long-term psychotherapy to develop and change to the extent of no longer being handicapped.

  19. An investigation of the "jumping to conclusions" data-gathering bias and paranoid thoughts in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, self-consciousness and paranoid ideation. The AS group performed less well than the control group on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with regard to accuracy but responded more quickly and tended to make decisions on the basis of less evidence on the Beads Task with 50 % demonstrating a clear 'jumping to conclusions bias', whereas none of the control group showed such a bias. Depression and general anxiety were associated with paranoid ideation but not data-gathering style, which was contrary to expectation.

  20. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  1. Paranoid, moi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole; Løhmann Stephensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    film analytical approaches based on Moore’s 1989 debut Roger & Me is used evaluate the aesthetic and conceptual coherence in Bonds work.     Following this, a three-part taxonomy for the analytical and normative understand of the surveillance phenomenon and its socio-cultural and political implications...... approach to Bonds film determine problematic weaknesses in his project. Bond tends to invest more in cracking the ‘formula’ for a successful presentation of his material, than discovering new formalistic or analytical territory in the filmic exposure of current surveillance culture. ...

  2. Paranoid, moi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole; Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2013-01-01

    The authors research the ways in which surveillance discourse and studies on surveillance phenomena manifest itself in mainstream documentary filmmaking. The subject of this critical case study is David Bond’s Erasing David (2010), a hybrid documentary which aesthetics and conceptual roots...... are clearly embedded in the tradition of Michael Moore’s subjective, populist filmmaking. Pedersen and Stephenson’s critical analysis of Bond’s documentary follows issues of both the form and the problematic way in which surveillance was represented and conceptualized by the filmmaker. In order to articulate...... their reservations they introduce a typology of discoursed and critical perspectives dominating the ways in which surveillance phenomena is usually introduced. The authors ask about the character of interrelations between documentary cinema (artistic practice), surveillance (social practice), and academic discourses...

  3. Disorders of working memory and selected cognitive processes inpatients treated for paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Giętkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Already since the times of Baddeley and Hitch the dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe was regarded as the function‑ al centre of the working memory. Working memory disorders are, on the other hand, one of the basic and consoli‑ dated disorders in the course of paranoid schizophrenia. The concept of neurodevelopmental schizophrenia com‑ bines these elements and associates the illness with the changes occurring in the brain in the prenatal period. The efficiency of the working memory system, which acts as a buffer manipulating with the possessed and inflowing information, influences the quality of other cognitive processes, such as long‑term memory, short‑term memory, con‑ centration and thinking. A study was performed on two groups: one experimental consisting of 31 people suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and one control group of 31 healthy people. In both groups a replica of Wisconsin Card Sorting Task was used in order to measure the efficiency of the working memory and selected tests from WAIS‑R (PL: the Polish adaptation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to assess the functioning of concentration, memory and thinking. The results of the study showed that in the experimental group the efficiency of the working memory is very low and that the illness affects the performance of concentration, memory and thinking. Moreover the tests proved that the working memory disorder increases with time.

  4. Chronic non-fatal Datura abuse in a patient of paranoid schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Sourav; Khess, C R J; Srivastava, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    A range of psychoactive substances used by patients suffering from schizophrenia varies and may include those which are fatal and may cause serious toxicity leading to death. We here present a case report of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, who was abusing Datura stramonium over a prolonged period. A 32 year old male presented with aggressive behaviour, irritability for 6 years and regular intake of Datura seeds for 3 years. After taking detailed history and mental status examination (MSE), diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorder due to use of hallucinogen were made. He had shown improvement on standard treatment with antipsychotics. D. stramonium is recognized among emerging new psychoactive substances being used across the world. Among various theories we discuss self-medication hypothesis as a mediating factor for this case. Though D. stramonium is notorious for its life threatening sequelae, clinicians should be aware of its chronic abuse as self-medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent paranoid delusions following the September 11 terrorist attacks in a man with no pre-existing mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R; Beddingfield, John J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of modern day terrorism on mental health are not well understood. Described here is a 51-year-old male with no pre-existing mental illness who developed paranoid delusions related to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks shortly after they occurred. After about two years of treatment with quetiapine the patient was no longer delusional about terrorism but experienced extensive paranoid delusions about commonly encountered persons, requiring treatment which continues to the current time. Clinicians should be aware of the possible impact of terrorist activities on the mental health of vulnerable individuals.

  6. Anatomía de una confusión: error diagnóstico de patología paranoide en víctimas de mobbing Anatomia de uma confusão: erro diagnóstico de patologia paranoide em vítimas de mobbing Anatomy of a misunderstanding: wrong diagnosis of paranoid pathology in victims of mobbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez-Hernáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Diversas investigaciones subrayan el alto riesgo de error diagnóstico de trastorno delirante y trastorno paranoide de la personalidad entre víctimas de mobbing o acoso psicológico en el trabajo (APT. OBJETIVO: Analizar hasta qué punto los síntomas asociados con el mobbing son confundidos con criterios de dos nosologías del espectro paranoide (trastorno delirante y trastorno paranoide de la personalidad. MÉTODOS: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica desde 1990 hasta Junio de 2009 en PubMed y SciELO. RESULTADOS: La identificación de síntomas del espectro paranoide en las víctimas de mobbing no resulta consistente con la literatura que, en cambio, indica una fuerte presencia de síntomas del espectro del estrés postraumático (hasta el 92%, aunque no se cumpla el criterio A1 de esta nosología. Se apuntan algunas causas del error diagnóstico, tales como la tendencia a confundir hipervigilancia (criterio D4 del trastorno por estrés postraumático en el DSM-IV-TR con ideación paranoide, la existencia de un perfil defensivo en las víctimas de APT y la falta de reconocimiento por parte de los clínicos del impacto estresante y traumatizante del mobbing. CONCLUSIÓN: Se requieren investigaciones longitudinales y mixtas (cualitativos/cuantitativos para establecer criterios robustos de diagnóstico diferencial entre las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al mobbing y los síntomas paranoides.CONTEXTO: Diversos estudos evidenciam o alto risco de erro diagnóstico de transtorno delirante e transtorno da personalidade paranoide entre as vítimas de mobbing ou assédio psicológico no trabalho (APT. OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação dos sintomas atribuídos ao mobbing com os critérios de duas nosologias do grupo paranoide (transtorno delirante e transtorno da personalidade paranoide. MÉTODOS: Realiza-se uma revisão bibliográfica de 1990 a junho de 2009 em PubMed e SciELO. RESULTADOS: A identificação de sintomas paranoides em

  7. Too paranoid to see progress: Social psychology is probably liberal, but it doesn't believe in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Bo; Winegard, Benjamin; Geary, David C

    2015-01-01

    We agree with Duarte et al. that bias in social psychology is a serious problem that researchers should confront. However, we are skeptical that most social psychologists adhere to a liberal progress narrative. We suggest, instead, that most social psychologists are paranoid egalitarian meliorists (PEMs). We explain the term and suggest possible remedies to bias in social psychology.

  8. Prediction of Somatization on the Basis of Self-steem, Insomnia and Paranoid Thoughts in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghadiri Sourman Abadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Somatization is a somatoform disorder, which medical examinations are not able to explain its reason. In the present research, the role of self-esteem, insomnia, and paranoid thoughts was investigated in somatization disorder. Methods: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted on all students studying at University of Tabriz in the academic year 2014-2015. A total of 270 subjects were selected using stratified random sampling method. In this research, Eysenck Self-Esteem Inventory, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Somatization Questionnaire (PHQ-15, and Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales (GPTS were used. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis tests. Results: Correlation results indicated that somatization disorder has a significant positive relationship with paranoid thoughts and insomnia and a significant negative relationship with self-esteem. Also, based on the results of multiple regression analysis, Insomnia Index had the greatest ability to predict somatization disorder. Conclusion: The findings of this research revealed that factors, such as insomnia, paranoid thoughts, and low self-esteem should be considered in the treatment of somatization disorder.

  9. Incomplete oedipism and chronic suicidality in psychotic depression with paranoid delusions related to eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarelli Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-enucleation or oedipism is a term used to describe self-inflicted enucleation. It is a rare form of self-mutilation, found mainly in acutely psychotic patients. We propose the term incomplete oedipism to describe patients who deliberately and severely mutilate their eyes without proper enucleation. We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a five-year history of psychotic depression accompanied by paranoid delusions centered around his belief that his neighbors criticized him and stared at him. A central feature of his clinical picture was an eye injury that the patient had caused by pouring molten lead into his right eye during a period of deep hopelessness and suicidality when the patient could not resolve his anhedonia and social isolation. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy dramatically improved his disorder.

  10. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  11. Neurolépticos en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia paranoide del paciente hospitalizado Neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of paranoid squizophrenia in the hospitalizad patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismary González Hernánde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos: indicación-prescripción, con elementos de consumo y consecuencias prácticas en el Hospital Psiquiátrico de Santa Clara durante el año 2006. Se elaboró un formulario con datos como: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución, neurolépticos usados, estadía hospitalaria y precio de los medicamentos por unidad. Se propuso describir el uso de neurolépticos en el manejo de la esquizofrenia paranoide del paciente hospitalizado, contrastar el número de neurolépticos utilizados según estadía hospitalaria y tiempo de evolución, así como los costos del tratamiento en estos pacientes. El análisis se realizó mediante pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas, con un nivel de significación de 0,01 ó 0,05. Como resultados relevantes se observaron que los fármacos usados con mayor frecuencia fueron flufenacina y clorpromacina. La combinación más empleada resultó ser la flufenacina y clorpromacina. El grupo de pacientes con más de 63 días de estadía hospitalaria, mostró el más alto gasto promedio en medicamentos. Se concluyó que los neurolépticos más utilizados fueron la flufenacina, la clorpromacina y el levomepromacina. Existe asociación entre el número de neurolépticos utilizados y el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. La estadía hospitalaria constituye el indicador que más encareció la terapéutica del paciente esquizofrénico.A drug use evaluation study that considered prescription, consumption elements and practical consequences was carried out in the Psychiatric Hospital of Santa Clara city in Villa Clara province during 2006. A form to collect data such as age, sex, time of evolution, neuroleptic drugs used, stay at hospital and price of drug per unit was made. The objective was to describe the use of neuroleptic drugs in the management of paranoid squizophrenia of the hospitalized patient, to compare the number of neuroleptic drugs that was used according to stay at

  12. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  13. Anatomía de una confusión: error diagnóstico de patología paranoide en víctimas de mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Martínez-Hernáez; Leticia Medeiros-Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXTO: Diversas investigaciones subrayan el alto riesgo de error diagnóstico de trastorno delirante y trastorno paranoide de la personalidad entre víctimas de mobbing o acoso psicológico en el trabajo (APT). OBJETIVO: Analizar hasta qué punto los síntomas asociados con el mobbing son confundidos con criterios de dos nosologías del espectro paranoide (trastorno delirante y trastorno paranoide de la personalidad). MÉTODOS: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica desde 1990 hasta Junio de 2009 ...

  14. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  15. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  16. An Investigation of the "Jumping to Conclusions" Data-Gathering Bias and Paranoid Thoughts in Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety,…

  17. Association of the IFN-γ (+874A/T) Genetic Polymorphism with Paranoid Schizophrenia in Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Achraf; Eshili, Awatef; Trifa, Fatma; Mechri, Anouar; Zaafrane, Ferid; Gaha, Lotfi; Juckel, George; Tensaout, Besma Bel Hadj Jrad

    2017-02-01

    Since growing evidence suggests a significant role of chronic low-grade inflammation in the physiopathology of schizophrenia, we have hypothesized that functional genetic variant of the IFN gamma (IFN-γ; +874A/T; rs2430561) gene may be involved in the predisposition to schizophrenia. This research is based on a case-control study which aims to identify whether polymorphism of the IFN-γ gene is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. The RFLP-PCR genotyping of the IFN-γ gene was conducted on a Tunisian population composed of 218 patients and 162 controls. The IFN-γ (+874A/T) polymorphism analysis showed higher frequencies of minor homozygous genotype (TT) and allele (T) in all patients compared with controls (11.5 vs. 4.9%; p = 0.03, OR = 2.64 and 30.7 vs. 24.1%, p = 0.04, OR = 1.4, respectively). This correlation was confirmed for male but not for female patients. Also, the T allele was significantly more common among patients with paranoid schizophrenia when compared with controls (25.8 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.0001; OR = 6.7). Using the binary regression analysis to eliminate confounding factors as age and sex, only this last association remained significant (p = 0.03; OR = 1.76, CI = 1.05-2.93). In conclusion, our results showed a significant association between +874A/T polymorphism of IFN-γ and paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or another at proximity could predispose to paranoid schizophrenia. Since the minor allele of this polymorphism was correlated with an increased expression of their product, our study validates the hypothesis of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine in the physiopathology of paranoid schizophrenia.

  18. [PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AS A WAY OF CORRECTING MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENTS IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinayko, V; Korovina, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of motivational and targeted psychoeducational programs designed for patients with paranoid schizophrenia with abdominal obesity. We observed 34 women aged 18-42 with continuous-flow type paranoid schizophrenia. All patients had a concomitant abdominal obesity, which developed secondarily after long-term administration of second generation antipsychotic medications (at least 1 year). Based on clinical-psychopathological and psychometric methods of assessment and on the analysis of Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire we have developed modules for psychoeducational programs. Based on the results of the treatment we conclude that the application of psychoeducational programs is an effective component of complex treatment of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Abdominal obesity should be regarded as an important and the main side effect of long-term therapy with atypical antipsychotic medications. It has a marked negative effect on subjective assessment of patients and decreases the level of their mental and social adaptation. This factor should be the basis for the formation of re-socialization and compliance-oriented actions.

  19. Evidence from paranoid schizophrenia for more than one component of theory of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Peter; Achim, André; Léveillé, Edith; Boisseau, Emilie; Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported finding that performance was impaired on four out of five theory of mind (ToM) tests in a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (pScz), relative to a non-clinical group of 29 individuals (Scherzer et al., 2012). Only the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test did not distinguish between groups. A principal components analysis revealed that the results on the ToM battery could be explained by one general ToM factor with the possibility of a latent second factor. As well, the tests were not equally sensitive to the pathology. There was also overmentalization in some ToM tests and under-mentalisation in others. These results led us to postulate that there is more than one component to ToM. We hypothesized that correlations between the different EF measures and ToM tests would differ sufficiently within and between groups to support this hypothesis. We considered the relationship between the performance on eight EF tests and five ToM tests in the same diagnosed and non-clinical individuals as in the first study. The ToM tests shared few EF correlates and each had its own best EF predictor. These findings support the hypothesis of multiple ToM components. PMID:26579026

  20. Can interpersonal hypersensitivity under subconscious condition explain paranoid symptom in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yikang; Yang, Zhi; Zhao, Jinping; Li, Ting; Wang, Meijuan; Qian, Jie; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Jijun; Weng, Xuchu; Yu, Dehua; Li, Chunbo

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal hypersensitivity is often observed in schizophrenia and has been associated with psychopathological deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated dysfunctions of interpersonal information processing in schizophrenia at both conscious and subconscious levels. The experiment included 143 schizophrenia patients and 59 healthy controls. A continuous flashing suppression approach based on binocular rivalry was employed, which included two modes: invisible (subconscious) and visible (conscious). The accuracy and reaction time of a Gabor patch direction-detection task were assessed under three types of stimuli in both modes: images with no person (type 1), images with two to three noncommunicating persons (type 2), and images with more than three communicating individuals (type 3). In the visible mode, the accuracy of the Gabor patch direction-detection task in the case group was significantly lower than in the control group for the third type of stimuli (P = 0.015). In the invisible mode, however, the accuracy was higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.037). The response time difference of the Gabor patch direction-detection task for the third type of images in the invisible mode was negatively correlated with the duration of the illness (P = 0.008). These findings suggest that schizophrenia patients exhibit attentional bias to interpersonal interaction behaviors at both conscious and subliminal levels but toward opposite directions. Our findings shed light on the subconscious deficits under the paranoid symptom in schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Facial emotion linked cooperation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: a test on the Interpersonal Communication Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Yan Lu; Bond, Alyson J; Chan, Raymond Ck; Tam, Danny W H

    2011-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia consistently show deficits in facial affect perception and social behaviours. It is illusive to suggest that these deficits in facial affect perception cause poor social behaviours. The present research aims to study how facial affects influence ingratiation, cooperation and punishment behaviours of the patients. Forty outpatients with paranoid schizophrenia, 26 matched depressed patients and 46 healthy volunteers were recruited. After measurement of clinical symptoms and depression, their facial emotion recognition, neurocognitive functioning and the facial affects dependent cooperative behaviour were measured using a modified version of Mixed-Motive Game. The depressed control group showed demographic characteristics, depression levels and neurocognitive functioning similar to the schizophrenic group. Patients with schizophrenia committed significantly more errors in neutral face identification than the other two groups. They were significantly more punitive on the Mixed-Motive Game in the neutral face condition. Neutral face misidentification was a unique emotion-processing deficit in the schizophrenic group. Their increase in punitive behaviours in the neutral face condition might confuse their family members and trigger more expressed emotion from them, thus increasing the risk of relapse. Family members might display more happy faces to promote positive relationships with patients.

  2. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 泰子

    2013-01-01

    We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...

  3. [EEG frequency and regional properties in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: effects of positive and negative symptomatology prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, V K; Kirenskaya, A V; Tkachenko, A A; Samylkin, D V; Novototsky-Vlasov, V Yu; Kovaleva, M E

    2015-01-01

    EEG changes in schizophrenic patients are caused by a multitude of factors related to clinical heterogeneity of the disease, current state of patients, and conducted therapy. EEG spectral analysis remains an actual methodical approach for the investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of the disease. The goal of the investigation was the study of frequency and regional EEG correlating with the intensity of productive and negative disorders. Models of summary prevalence of positive/negative disorders and evidence of concrete clinical indices of the PANSS scale were used. Spectral characteristics of background EEG in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz were studied in 35 patients with paranoid schizophrenia free from psychoactive medication and in 19 healthy volunteers. It was established that the main index of negative symptomatology in summary assessment was diffuse increase of spectral power of gamma and delta ranges. Deficient states with the predominance of volitional disorders were characterized by a lateralized increase of spectral power of beta-gamma ranges in the left hemisphere, and of delta range - in frontal areas of this hemisphere. Positive symptomatology was noticeably less reflected in EEG changes than negative ones. An analysis of psychopathological symptom complexes revealed the significance of spatially structured EEG patterns in the beta range: for the delusion disturbances with psychic automatism phenomena - in frontal areas of the left hemisphere, and for the paranoid syndrome with primary interpretative delusion - in cortical areas of the right hemisphere.

  4. SNP8NRG433E1006 NEUREGULIN-1 GENETIC VARIATION IN BATAKS ETHNIC WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID AND HEALTHY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmeida Effendy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuregulin 1 (NRG1 gene which influences the development of white matter connectivity has been associated with schizophrenia. It influences neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, neuron-glia communication, myelination, and neurotransmission in the brain and others. NRG1 is located in 8p13, and it is frequently replicated in schizphrenia. SNP8NRG433E1006 gene NRG1 is one of core at risk haplotype of schizphrenia. This study looked forward differences SNP8NRG433E1006 neuregulin 1 between Bataks ethnic with schizophrenia paranoid and Bataks ethnic healthy control. Methods: Batak ethnic with schizophrenia paranoid were recruited and interviewed with semi-structured MINI ICD-X to establish the diagnosis. All the eligible subjects were requested their permission for blood sampling. Healthy Batak ethnic were also recruited by mathcing the age and gender. The blood samples went through DNA isolation, Nested PCR, and DNA sequencing. Results: Ninety three subjects were recruited, but only 74 blood samples were succesfully sequenced. We found three types of polymorphisms, i.e. G/A allele at base pair (bp 76, G/T allele at bp 112, and deletion at bp 110 in Batak ethnic with schizophrenia. There were two kind sequences at bp 113-116 in Batak ethnics, and Batak ethnics with ATCG were at higher risk for having schizophrenia. This study support that NRG1 is a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene.

  5. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  7. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  8. Standing Ovations and Profound Learning: Cultural Diversity in Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Describes the profound learning that took place at the International Children's Theatre Festival in Toyama City, Japan in July 2000. Argues that participation by the Japanese-American Drama Ensemble, a youth group from the public schools in Lexington, Massachusetts, and more than 400 children from all over the planet, showcased the cultural…

  9. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  10. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  11. Profound Haemaological Changes In Rats Fed On Different Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...

  12. [Glutamate receptors genes polymorphism and the risk of paranoid schizophrenia in Russians and tatars from the Republic of Bashkortostan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareeva, A E; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects about 1% of the world population, leading to disability and social exclusion. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is a violation of one of the main hypotheses put forward to explain the neurobiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Post mortem studies have found changes in the degree of affinity glutamate receptors, their transcription, and altered expression of their subunits in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. As a result of genetic studies of gene family encoding ionotropic AMPA and kainate glutamate receptors in schizophrenia, ambiguous results were received. The association of polymorphic variants of genes GRIA2 and GRIK2 with paranoid schizophrenia and response to therapy with haloperidol in Russian and Tatar of the Republic of Bashkortostan was conducted in the present study. DNA samples of 257 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and of 349 healthy controls of Russian and Tatar ethnic group living in the Republic of Bashkortostan were involved into the present study. In the result of the present study: (1) high risk genetic markers of paranoid schizophrenia (PSZ) were obtained: in Russians-GR4IA2*CCC (OR = 9.60) and in Tatars-GRIK2*ATG (OR = 3.5), GRIK2*TGG (OR = 3.12) (2) The following low risk genetic markers of PSZ were revealed: in Tatars-GRIA2*T/T (rs43025506) of GRIA2 gene (OR = 0.34); in Russians.- GRIA2*CCT (OR = 0.481). (3) Genetic markers of low haloperido! treatment efficacy in respect of negative and positive symptoms GRIK2*T/T (rs2227281) of GRIK2 gene and GRAL42*C/C in Russians, GRIK2*A/A (rs995640) of GRIK2 gene in Tatars. (4) Genetic markers of low haloperidol treatment efficacy in respect of positive symptoms GRL42*C/C in Russians. The results of the present study support the hypothesis of the involvement of glutamate receptor genes in schizophrenia pathway. Considerable inter-ethnic'diversity of genetic risk factors for this disease was

  13. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  14. [Resolution of a treatment impasse by combining two Dutch laws regarding a patient with paranoid thoughts and a testicular cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschot, G M; Hondius, A J K; van Dijk, M M; Honig, A

    2015-01-01

    Doctors dealing with patients who simultaneously have both psychiatric and somatic disorders often find themselves 'trapped' between two Dutch laws, the WBGO (the Law on the Medical Contract) and the Bopz (Law on Compulsory Admission to Psychiatric Hospitals). In order to illustrate a typical situation we present a case-study concerning a 50-year-old male with a probable seminoma testis and paranoid thoughts arising from an autistic disorder. The patient had refused the investigations and treatment that were considered necessary. His compulsory attendance at the Court of Law and the adoption, by the doctors, of a multidisciplinary approach led to a successful outcome and patient satisfaction. We hope that the new Involuntary Mental Health Care Act (WvGGZ) will bridge the current gap between WGBO and the Bopz.

  15. The role of predisposition to hallucinations on non-clinical paranoid vs. socially anxious individuals after hearing negative affective-laden sounds: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Bárbara; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2013-03-01

    Research suggested that negative affective-laden sounds act as environmental stressors that elicit negative affect (Bradley and Lang, 2000a). We tried to test for the role of an interaction between predisposition to hallucinatory experiences and exposure to negative affective laden sounds for the presence of paranoid ideation. We used an experimental design that followed the vulnerability × stress model. We defined three groups from a sample of students: paranoia group vs. social anxiety group vs. control group. Their psychological characteristics were measured through self-reports of paranoia, anxiety, predisposition to hallucinations and depressive symptoms at Time 1 (before the experiment). Participants had to listen to either negative affective laden sounds (e.g. screaming) or positive affective laden sounds (e.g. sound of ocean waves). Their paranoid ideation and positive vs. negative emotional reactions to sounds were measured through self-reports at Time 2 (after the experiment). Data showed that the paranoia group presented more serious psychological vulnerabilities than the social anxiety group. A MANCOVA also showed that the independent variables ("group" and "experimental sound conditions") had statistically significant main effects on general paranoia ideation at Time 2. Furthermore, there was a significant three-way interaction between group x predisposition to hallucinatory experiences × experimental condition of sounds for the presence of general paranoid ideation at Time 2. Limitations included the small sample size and the effects of parasite variables, e.g. noise. Individuals' predisposition for hallucinatory experiences increases the probability of possessing paranoid ideation. This tendency is a characteristic of paranoid non-clinical individuals.

  16. Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees' paranoid cognitions-representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability-link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees' self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees' organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e., those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.

  17. Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e., those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization. PMID:27713724

  18. Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Van Quaquebeke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A six-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control, both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e. those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.

  19. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...

  20. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  1. Profound hyperlipidaemia due to concomitant diabetes and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Samaan, M Constantine; Murphy, Nuala; Costigan, Colm

    2010-01-01

    A previously well 5-year-old girl presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to be profoundly hyperlipidaemic. Further investigations showed that she had associated hypothyroidism. She responded to insulin and L-thyroxine treatments and her lipid profile returned to normal 2 months after diagnosis. Despite starting anticoagulant therapy early, she developed deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. Her family screen did not demonstrate familial hy...

  2. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  3. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  4. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  5. Intubation of Profoundly Agitated Patients Treated with Prehospital Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a

  6. Interaural comparison of spiral ganglion cell counts in profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Profound Muscle Weakness and Pain after One Dose of Actonel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Badayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO defines osteopenia as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviation (SD below the bone density of a normal young adult Iqbal 2000. Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point Iqbal 2000. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications used to treat osteoporosis, Padget's disease of bone, and osteopenia. We report a woman who developed profound muscle weakness and pain after one dose of Risedronate (Actonel.

  8. Eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graidis, Christos; Golias, Christos; Dimitriadis, Dimokritos; Dimitriadis, Georgios; Bitsis, Theodosis; Dimitrelos, Ilias; Tsiakou, Afroditi; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-02-25

    The interactions among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial pathophysiological process involving some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). Glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors are only restricted to blood platelets and they bind fibrinogen and adhesion proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor to form cross bridges between adjacent platelets. IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are an object of intense research activity for target therapy worldwide during the last decades. Three GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This case report discusses a forty-four-year-old male patient with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and developed profound thrombocytopenia within 4 hours of first administration of eptifibatide. This report adds another case of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia to the medical literature and endorses the importance of platelet count monitoring after initiating therapy with this agent.

  9. Negative and paranoid symptoms are associated with negative performance beliefs and social cognition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Van der Linden, Martial; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic condition associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that negative symptoms represent the most specific clinical characteristic of psychosis in 22q11.2DS and are strongly associated with outcome. However, the psychological mechanisms associated with these symptoms in this population are poorly understood. In accordance with recent conceptualizations in the field of schizophrenia, the present study aims at investigating whether negative symptoms are associated with the presence of negative performance beliefs and cognitive deficits. Thirty-five participants with 22q11.2DS and 24 typically developing individuals aged between 11 and 24 years were included in the study. Self-reported schizotypal symptoms (cognitive-perceptual, paranoid, negative and disorganization symptoms) and dysfunctional beliefs (negative performance beliefs and need for approval) were assessed. Measures of processing speed, verbal memory, working memory, executive functioning and face recognition were also extracted from a broad cognitive evaluation protocol. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS reported significantly higher score on the negative dimension of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire than controls, even when controlling for the influence of anxiety/depression and intellectual functioning. Negative and paranoid symptoms were associated with the severity of negative performance beliefs and lower face recognition abilities. Mediation analyses revealed that negative performance beliefs significantly mediated the association between face recognition and negative/paranoid symptoms. These findings suggest that negative performance beliefs and basic social cognitive mechanisms are associated with negative and paranoid symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS. Implications for intervention are discussed in this article. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Dependency, detachment and psychopathology in a nonclinical sample: General relations and gender differences. Is there a new line of inquiry on paranoid pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Abuín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se administraron tanto el Test del Perfil de la Relación de Bornstein (RPT como el cuestionario de 90 síntomas de Derogatis (SCl-90-R a una muestra no clínica de 119 sujetos de Madrid. La dependencia saludable, el desapego disfuncional y la sobredependencia destructiva (subescalas del RPT fueron evaluadas y correlacionadas con las dimensiones de psicopatología del SCL-90- R. La sobredependencia destructiva correlacionó positivamente con todas las dimensiones de psicopatología. Por el contrario, la dependencia saludable correlacionó negativamente con todas estas dimensiones de psicopatología. Se han encontrado diferencias de género con respecto a la correlación entre el desapego disfuncional y la ideación paranoide. En las mujeres, el desapego disfuncional correlacionó positivamente con al ideación paranoide, mientras que en los hombres esta correlación fue negativa y no significativa. Estas diferencias de género en la relación entre el desapego disfuncional y la ideación paranoide sugieren una nueva línea de investigación sobre la patología paranoide. Se exploran además las puntuaciones de psicopatología del SCL-90-R en diferentes grupos de individuos con diferentes perfiles de dependenciadesapego, a partir de las puntuaciones del Test del Perfil de Relación.

  11. A shared genetic propensity underlies experiences of bullying victimization in late childhood and self-rated paranoid thinking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-05-01

    Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  12. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

  13. The Flexible Function of the Modern Kleinian Psychoanalytic Approach: Interpreting Through the Unbearable Security of Paranoid and Depressive Phantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Working to establish analytic contact (Waska, 2007) with a patient involves the verbal act of interpretation. But, how one interprets and what we try to hold in words is not the same with each patient. Each patient requires, invites, provokes and responds to a unique mixture of interpretive elements or approaches. The projective identification process that is so often the bedrock of the transference, and therefore the catalyst of the counter-transference, forms the psychological climate between patient and analyst. Case material is used to explore a Modern Kleinian interpretive approach with both a very entrenched depressive position (Klein, 1935, 1940) patient and a very primitive paranoid-schizoid (Klein, 1946) patient. Both these individuals desired relief from their symptoms of anxiety, anger, emptiness, and guilt. But, their unbearable unconscious phantasies offered pathological security that they were familiar with and therefore they preferred the known internal trauma and chaos to facing the unknown and undefined reality of self and other that change, grief, and growth would bring.

  14. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  15. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  16. Predisposition to depressive symptoms in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: constitutional-biological, socio-demographic factors and the debut of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Zhyvago

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify the constitutional-biological, socio-demographic (microsocial and clinical-dynamic (the debut of the disease factors of predisposition to the depressive symptoms development in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and methods. A clinical-anamnestic, socio-demographic, clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological examinations of 82 patients with paranoid schizophrenia with depressive symptoms identified and compared with 47 patients with paranoid schizophrenia without depressive symptoms. The study was managed using the PANSS, CDSS, HDRS scales and a questionnaire for the assessment of social functioning and quality of the mentally ill life. Groups did not differ in the basic demographic indicators. The study of constitutional and biological predisposition factors included the study of heredity and premorbid characterological features of patients. Socio-demographic (before the onset of the disease microsocial conditions and the current stage factors –family relationships; characteristics of living conditions; financial position; the quality of nutrition. To factors of the disease onset were attributed: age debut; factors that preceded the first episode; syndromes of the first episode; the first reference to a psychiatrist; suicidal statements and intentions. Results. It was evaluated the prognostic significance of individual predisposing factors to depression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and found the following factors of predisposition (p<0.05: the heredity of schizophrenia and affective disorders; low level of erudition, combined with emotional and volitional immaturity, anxiety, prone to mood swings; low income and the cost of food, clothing and leisure; poor living conditions; unstable or conflictual family relationships; the presence of the first episode of affective symptoms, such as depressive, which is stored in the further course of the disease, as well as anhedonia, sleep and appetite

  17. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple

  18. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  19. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L Morera-Fumero

    Full Text Available Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD. TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14 or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99. At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, p<0.006 as it has been reported in healthy subjects. There were no significant TAC differences at 12.00 and 00:00 between admission and discharge. At TMAHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels than at admission and discharge, both at 12:00 and 00:00 h. In conclusion, the absence of day/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  20. Profound sedation with propofol modifies atrial fibrillation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    During atrial fibrillation (AF), multiple wandering propagation wavelets at high rates drift around both atria under controversial hierarchical models. Antiarrhythmic drugs modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria, and can alter AF propagation dynamics and even terminate the arrhythmia. However, some other drugs, theoretically nonantiarrhythmic, may slightly block particular cardiac ionic currents through uncertain mechanisms in such a subtle way at regular heart rates that may have been pharmacologically overlooked. These potential effects might be better exposed at much higher activation rates as in AF, where atrial cells depolarize over 400 times per second. In this review, we aimed to compile and discuss results from several studies evaluating the net effect of profound sedation with propofol on atrial cells and atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Propofol is a very commonly used anesthetic agent, and its possible effect on AF dynamics has systematically not been taken into account in the myriad of clinical studies dealing with AF intracardiac recordings. The possible effect of sedation with propofol on AF was evaluated through the analysis of AF propagation patterns before and after its infusion in a series of patients submitted to pulmonary vein ablation. Effect on AV conduction will be discussed as well. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multisensory speech perception of young children with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M

    1997-10-01

    The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.

  2. EFFECT OF JUMPS IN PROFOUNDNESS ON THE FOOTBALLER REFLECTION

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    Nebojša Đošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.

  3. Cancer Prevention Knowledge of People with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Helen E.; Reed, Barbara D.; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. RESULTS Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p English in multiple situations (p English use (p = 0.01) and believing that smoking was bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. CONCLUSION Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge. PMID:19132325

  4. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic Surgery Profoundly Influences Gut Microbial-Host Metabolic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120

  6. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  7. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  8. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  9. The Vicious Cycle of Family Atmosphere, Interpersonal Self-concepts, and Paranoia in Schizophrenia-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Mehl, Stephanie; Wittorf, Andreas; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Klingberg, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Recent cognitive models of paranoid delusions highlight the role of self-concepts in the development and maintenance of paranoia. Evidence is growing that especially interpersonal self-concepts are relevant in the genesis of paranoia. In addition, negative interpersonal life-experiences are supposed to influence the course of paranoia. As dysfunctional family atmosphere corresponds with multiple distressing dyadic experiences, it could be a risk factor for the development and maintenance of paranoia. A total of 160 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed twice within 12 months. Standardized questionnaires and symptom rating scales were used to measure interpersonal self-concepts, perceived family atmosphere, and paranoia. Data were analyzed using longitudinal cross-lagged structural equation models. Perceived negative family atmosphere was associated with the development of more pronounced negative interpersonal self-concepts 12 months later. Moreover, paranoia was related to negative family atmosphere after 12 months as well. As tests revealed that reversed associations were not able to explain the data, we found evidence for a vicious cycle between paranoia, family atmosphere, and interpersonal self-concepts as suggested by theoretical/cognitive model of paranoid delusions. Results suggest that broader interventions for patients and their caretakers that aim at improving family atmosphere might also be able to improve negative self-concepts and paranoia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Vicious Cycle of Family Atmosphere, Interpersonal Self-concepts, and Paranoia in Schizophrenia—A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Mehl, Stephanie; Wittorf, Andreas; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Klingberg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Recent cognitive models of paranoid delusions highlight the role of self-concepts in the development and maintenance of paranoia. Evidence is growing that especially interpersonal self-concepts are relevant in the genesis of paranoia. In addition, negative interpersonal life-experiences are supposed to influence the course of paranoia. As dysfunctional family atmosphere corresponds with multiple distressing dyadic experiences, it could be a risk factor for the development and maintenance of paranoia. A total of 160 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed twice within 12 months. Standardized questionnaires and symptom rating scales were used to measure interpersonal self-concepts, perceived family atmosphere, and paranoia. Data were analyzed using longitudinal cross-lagged structural equation models. Perceived negative family atmosphere was associated with the development of more pronounced negative interpersonal self-concepts 12 months later. Moreover, paranoia was related to negative family atmosphere after 12 months as well. As tests revealed that reversed associations were not able to explain the data, we found evidence for a vicious cycle between paranoia, family atmosphere, and interpersonal self-concepts as suggested by theoretical/cognitive model of paranoid delusions. Results suggest that broader interventions for patients and their caretakers that aim at improving family atmosphere might also be able to improve negative self-concepts and paranoia. PMID:25925392

  11. Healhy Ageing in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : Promoting Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities

  12. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  13. Joint Attention Behaviours in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: The Influence of the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Heleen; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of the profound cognitive and physical problems, people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are able to develop joint attention behaviours (JAB) and benefit from positive interactions. Aims: To investigate which context factors influence the JAB of people with PIMD. Method: Based on video recordings of…

  14. Feasibility and Effects of a Brief Compassion-Focused Imagery Intervention in Psychotic Patients with Paranoid Ideation: A Randomized Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascone, Leonie; Sundag, Johanna; Schlier, Björn; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-03-01

    Paranoia is characterized by a lack of perceived social safeness and associated negative affect. Low self-esteem, negative self-concepts and negative emotions have been shown to contribute to paranoid symptom formation. Thus, interventions focusing on affiliation and positive affect might be particularly helpful for patients with paranoia. The present study experimentally tested the effect of a one-session, brief compassion-focused imagery derived from Compassion-Focused Therapy (Gilbert, ) versus a control imagery condition in a repeated measures randomized design. A negative affective state was induced via in-sensu exposure to a recent distressful social situation in order to provide a minimum level of threat-related arousal to be down-regulated by the interventions thereafter. The sample consisted of psychotic patients with paranoid ideation (N = 51) who were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions. Effects on postulated causal mechanisms, i.e., self-relating (self-reassurance, self-compassion, self-criticism), and affect (self-reported affective states, skin conductance levels) as well as on state paranoia, were tested. Subjective benefit and appraisals of the intervention were explored. There were no specific intervention effects on negative self-relating, negative affect and skin-conductance or on paranoia. However, compassion-focused imagery had significant effects on self-reassurance and happiness. Explorative analyses revealed that the majority of the participants appraised the intervention in a positive manner, indicating good acceptance. The intervention showed an effect on some of the postulated mechanisms but not on others, which might have been because of its brevity. Further investigation of interventions targeting affiliation for people with paranoid experiences appears worthwhile. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Affiliative imagery work is feasible and appraised positively in psychotic patients. Brief compassion

  15. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  16. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  17. Mutilation of self and object: the destructive world of the paranoid-schizoid patient and the struggle for containment and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert T

    2002-06-01

    Using case material, I have described the three overlapping phases of treatment that occur with some borderline, narcissistic, or psychotic patients. These patients are dealing with paranoid-schizoid experiences of the self and the object. In this part-self, part-object world, many shifting, opposing, and contrary states of feeling and thought occur. Acting out is the first phase of analytic treatment. This is an externalization of persecutory anxiety, primitive guilt, and phantasies of annihilation. Projective identification, splitting, and denial are common and tend to make for difficult transference and countertransference problems. During the middle phase of treatment, pathological superego states and manifestations of death instinct color the analysis. The death instinct reacts defensively to the sadistic superego. Technically, the destructive internal conflicts created by these two elements must be clarified and interpreted in the transference. Flexible analytic management and containment are crucial supplements to ongoing interpretation. If these chaotic patients are able to stay in treatment for a period time, the acting out and the superego/death instinct phase gradually give way to phantasies of loss. This is still a paranoid-schinoid perspective of loss, making it persecutory experience. Although depressive anxieties do enter the picture, these still involve pathological anddestructive states of guilt and all-or-nothing threats of abandonment and attack. A case was presented in which the patient managed to continue into the third stage of analytic treatment, long enough to benefit frominternal, structure change. In this final stage, the patient "O" was able to acknowledge, work through, and integrate her prior feelings and phantasies of loss, persecution, and abandonment anxiety into more manageable and reality-based depressive functioning.

  18. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  19. Factors influencing attentiveness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in multisensory storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method developed for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The developers of MSST have established specific guidelines aimed at increasing the listener's attention. Whether, and to what extent, these guidelines indeed

  20. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  1. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  2. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  4. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  5. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  6. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  7. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  8. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  9. Factores ambientales y genéticos asociados a la esquizofrenia paranoide en el área de salud "28 de septiembre"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César Núñez Copo

    Full Text Available Introducción: la esquizofrenia es una enfermedad con una marcada expresividad variable, que sugiere la existencia de factores etiológicos y procesos fisiopatológicos heterogéneos y donde se considera cada vez más la hipótesis de la interacción gen-ambiente como su principal modo de transmisión. Objetivo: determinar los posibles factores ambientales y genéticos asociados con en el debut de la esquizofrenia. Método: se realizó un estudio analítico observacional de casos y controles en el área de salud "28 de Septiembre" del municipio Santiago de Cuba, durante el cuatrimestre enero-abril de 2011, que incluyó 40 casos con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia paranoide seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado por sexo y a 80 controles sin este diagnóstico. Se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado, se calculó la oportunidad relativa (odds ratio y el intervalo de confianza. Resultados: el estado civil soltero resultó significativo al debut y en tres cuartas partes de los casos se constató algún acontecimiento estresante al inicio de la misma. Hubo asociación de los antecedentes familiares de la afección en los casos; se registró un mayor número de familiares de primer grado afectados en ambos grupos, más significativo en el grupo de los casos, lo que explica la agregación familiar de la afección más frecuentemente en las personas que padecen la enfermedad. Conclusiones: existió asociación de los antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad en los pacientes con esquizofrenia paranoide; hubo mayor porcentaje de personas afectadas en familiares de primer grado en ambos grupos; se observó agregación familiar de la enfermedad; los antecedentes prenatales aumentaron el riesgo de la enfermedad y los patrones premórbidos desde la niñez resultaron altamente significativos.

  10. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES – THE WAY OF SOCIALIZATION OF PEOPLE WITH PROFOUND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii I. Netosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.

  11. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  12. Profound Endothelial Damage Predicts Impending Organ Failure and Death in Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively), or...

  13. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  14. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  15. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  16. Staff interactive style during multisensory storytelling with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical

  17. Staff Interactive Style during Multisensory Storytelling with Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical research evidence. In general, there is a lack of…

  18. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  19. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  20. The role of attention in the affective life of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,

  1. The impact of medical conditions on the support of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, HP; Vlaskamp, C

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records

  2. Assessing the Efficacy of an Academic Hearing Peer Tutor for a Profoundly Deaf Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Suzanne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of using a hearing peer tutor to provide daily 20-minute math instruction for a profoundly deaf sixth-grade girl indicated that the peer tutoring intervention was highly successful, with the tutee meeting accuracy criteria for each of 4 curriculum objectives after only a brief period of intervention. (Author/DB)

  3. Profoundly Gifted Girls and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Psychometric Case Study Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    A case study of the psychometric characteristics of two profoundly gifted girls, one with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the other without ASD, is used to describe the nuances and subtleties most relevant in understanding the relationship between extreme giftedness and social difficulties. Through the presentation of the results from…

  4. Identification Audiometry in an Institutionalized Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ernest J.; And Others

    An audiometric screening survey was conducted on a severely and profoundly mentally retarded population using noise-makers and pure tone audiometry. Of those tested with noise-makers, 83% gave an identifiable response to sound, 7% did not respond, and 10% were considered difficult-to-test. By contrast, 4% passed, 2% failed, and 94% were…

  5. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  6. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. L. G.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound

  7. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  8. Multisensory Narrative Tracking by a Profoundly Deaf Subject Using an Electrocutaneous Vocoder and a Vibrotactile Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)

  9. Investigating the Relationship between Observed Mood and Emotions in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…

  10. Eptifibatide induced profound thrombocytopenia in a patient with pelvic malignancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Kathryn C.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Thaker, Premal H.

    2012-01-01

    ► Eptifibatide is associated with profound thrombocytopenia and thrombosis secondary to a HITT-like mechanism associated with drug-dependant antibodies. ► Caution with eptifibatide use is needed in those pre-disposed to hypercoaguability, particularly those with an underlying malignancy.

  11. The Development of Plato Computer-Based Instruction for the Severely and Profoundly Developmentally Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Clapp, Elizabeth Jane

    The 2 year project (July 1, 1978 through June 30, 1980) sought to determine the viability, attractiveness, and effectiveness of computer based instruction with approximately 225 severely and profoundly mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled institutionalized children and adults. Over 100 instructional formats were developed by staff…

  12. Peer Interactions among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during group activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    Background Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the

  13. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  14. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  15. Extent, Duration, and Content of Day Services' Activities for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Hiemstra, Saskia J.; Wiersma, Linda A.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government instituted policies that enable persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to attend day services. Over the past 15 years, surveys have indicated a progressive increase in the number of hours that such adults spend at day activities centers. However, information about how these…

  16. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  17. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  18. A functionally focused curriculum for children with profound multiple disabilities : A goal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Reynders, K; Vlaskamp, C; Nakken, H

    Background This study analysed goals formulated in a functionally focused curriculum called Mobility Opportunities Via Education(TM) (MOVE). Method The subjects were 49 children with profound multiple disabilities (PMD) who attended a centre for special education where the MOVE curriculum was

  19. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  20. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  1. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  2. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  3. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a team of researchers in developing a brain-computer interface (BCI) system to help the profoundly paralyzed communicate. Dr. Wolpaw has received support from two NIH Institutes—NIBIB and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development—and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. "For the ...

  4. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has…

  5. Assessment of Computer-Based Preferences of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bishop, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating the use of computer-based stimuli that may then be used to develop activities and programming for students with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Both studies used an alternating treatments design and systematic assessment strategy to present stimuli sequentially and to measure student…

  6. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  7. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  8. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  9. An Analysis of Snoezelen Equipment to Reinforce Persons with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Smalls, Yemonja

    2004-01-01

    Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with…

  10. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  11. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  12. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  13. Atmospheric humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  14. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  15. The Impact of the Sensory Integration Approach on Positive and Negative Symptoms in a Patient With Non-Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the problems that people with schizophrenia face is the inability to understand and interpret the sensory input from the environment. This report aims to describe the effects of the sensory integration approach on non-paranoid schizophrenia. The treatment involved eight sessions held 3 days a week and lasting 45 minutes each. The patient had a defined Iranians form social relationships schizophrenia evaluated and treatment. Sensory integration therapy in these patients focused on the following elements: vestibular and proprioceptive senses, exercises to improve walking, improving upper extremity coordination and movement, writing activities, cognitive skills, activities of daily living, and family therapy. Case Presentation The subject (A.H. was a 32-year-old male graduate student with no history of previous hospitalization. His diagnosis was schizophrenia. The reason for his hospitalization was that he was angry and violent toward his family. In addition, the patient had limited verbal and nonverbal skills, issues with self-control, and restricted community involvement. The results of the patient’s treatment for schizophrenia was assessed via a questionnaire on social skills. Conclusions After eight sessions, increased awareness of the environment, improved posture and gait pattern, improved motivation and enjoyment, improved patient tolerance, improved appearance and personal hygiene, loss of purposeful behavior, a realistic plan of action every day, improved attention span, improved decision-making skills, and improved community involvement and coping skills were achieved. The environment is rich in sensory stimuli. The integration and processing of each individual senses creates different behavioral responses. The results showed that a sensory integration approach combined with drug therapy is an effective treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Stimulus dimension shifts in patients with schizophrenia, with and without paranoid hallucinatory symptoms, or obsessive compulsive disorder: strategies, blocking and monoamine status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades, R D

    1997-10-01

    Reversal, and intra-dimensional (ID) and extra-dimensional (ED) nonreversal discrimination shifts were studied to see if learned inattention to the irrelevant dimension differentially influenced the efficacy of learning and stimulus choice strategy. Performance was compared with conditioned blocking (CB) and monoamine metabolic status between healthy controls, patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or schizophrenia with (PH) or without (NP) active paranoid hallucinatory symptoms. PH and NP patients improved learning with practice, but showed an impaired shift on each task. OCD patients were impaired only on the ED-shift. The NP patient's impairment was nonspecific and, unlike PH and controls, it related to reversal performance. All subjects acquired an attentional set for colour reflected in the length of stimulus-response sequences. Analysis of paired-stimulus choice-strategies showed that while all patients showed fewer correct win-stay choices, only PH patients perseverated with lose-stay choices. Learning about the added stimulus in the CB task related to ID-shift efficiency in NP patients. Increases of dopamine activity related to delayed learning but more switches of stimulus choice in the shift-tasks. Increases of serotonin activity correlated with faster learning in controls, OCD and PH patients. In NP patients the opposite held for dopamine and serotonin activity. Thus the two learned inattention tasks have different if related requirements and correlates: the data are consistent with the use of automatic exogenous attention strategies by NP patients, of inefficient controlled attention by PH patients and the automatization of endogenous processes in controls.

  17. Affect attunement in communicative interactions between adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and support workers

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sheridan Lee

    2017-01-01

    The quality of life of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is affected by many factors, including health status, involvement in activities, and social networks; but most critical is the quality of interaction experienced by the person on a daily basis. For many people with PIMD, most of whom reside in residential services where they receive 24-hour support, the primary people for interaction are paid disability support workers (DSWs). Quality interaction is ...

  18. Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents

  19. Not all SCN1A epileptic encephalopathies are Dravet syndrome: Early profound Thr226Met phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Mountier, Emily I; Gill, Deepak; Davis, Suzanne; Joshi, Charuta; DeVile, Catherine; Kurian, Manju A; Mandelstam, Simone; Wirrell, Elaine; Nickels, Katherine C; Murali, Hema R; Carvill, Gemma; Myers, Candace T; Mefford, Heather C; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2017-09-05

    To define a distinct SCN1A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with early onset, profound impairment, and movement disorder. A case series of 9 children were identified with a profound developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and SCN1A mutation. We identified 9 children 3 to 12 years of age; 7 were male. Seizure onset was at 6 to 12 weeks with hemiclonic seizures, bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, or spasms. All children had profound developmental impairment and were nonverbal and nonambulatory, and 7 of 9 required a gastrostomy. A hyperkinetic movement disorder occurred in all and was characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis with prominent oral dyskinesia and onset from 2 to 20 months of age. Eight had a recurrent missense SCN1A mutation, p.Thr226Met. The remaining child had the missense mutation p.Pro1345Ser. The mutation arose de novo in 8 of 9; for the remaining case, the mother was negative and the father was unavailable. Here, we present a phenotype-genotype correlation for SCN1A. We describe a distinct SCN1A phenotype, early infantile SCN1A encephalopathy, which is readily distinguishable from the well-recognized entities of Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. This disorder has an earlier age at onset, profound developmental impairment, and a distinctive hyperkinetic movement disorder, setting it apart from Dravet syndrome. Remarkably, 8 of 9 children had the recurrent missense mutation p.Thr226Met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zachar; Maurine Neiman

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution o...

  1. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in correspo...

  2. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...

  3. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  4. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  5. A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum

    2014-01-01

    V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...... interface on the arm and around the shoulder using the saltation perceptual illusion to induce movement of the corresponding joint. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface and the proposed experimental design to evaluate it....

  6. Localization training results in individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  8. Frequency compression hearing aid for severe-to-profound hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K

    2000-10-01

    Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.

  9. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  10. Research Ethics Committees and the Benefits of Involving People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in service user involvement in research, such involvement rarely extends to people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. New developments in visual methodologies offer the potential for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities to be included in research. At the same time, however,…

  11. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  12. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  13. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia.Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  14. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  15. Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with readministration of eptifibatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kimberly N; Schnabel, Joseph G; Rochetto, Richard P; Tanner, Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Case reports of acute profound thrombocytopenia have been reported with eptifibatide, yet the true incidence of this reaction is unknown. We describe a 50-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after readministration of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide was administered through hospital day 3, when it was discontinued in preparation for coronary angiography and PCI; the drug was restarted on day 5. On hospital day 6, she was noted to have a platelet count below 5 x 10(3)/mm,(3) indicating a profound decrease from a baseline of 456 x 10(3)/mm(3) on admission. Eptifibatide, heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel were potential causative agents. Anticoagulation and vancomycin were stopped, and her platelet count increased to 30 x 10(3)/mm(3) on day 7. Subsequent reexposure to heparin and vancomycin yielded no adverse effects. The patient's platelet count increased over the remainder of her hospitalization, and she was discharged home on day 19. Based on clinical presentation and negative heparin platelet factor 4 antibody test, eptifibatide was the most likely cause of thrombocytopenia. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that eptifibatide was the probable cause of thrombocytopenia (score of 5); scores of 1 (possible) or 0 (doubtful) were derived with heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel. We conducted a literature search and compiled information from published case reports to describe the pattern of onset and recovery of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia. In all patients receiving eptifibatide, routine platelet counts should be monitored at baseline and within 2-6 hours after starting the drug.

  16. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  17. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  18. A profound case of neurally mediated syncope with asystole after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Ramsey, Mitchell J; Ruffin, David M

    2012-06-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is an alarming yet benign condition that may present postoperatively for the first time in otherwise healthy patients. Although VVS is associated anecdotally with nasal manipulation, no data have been found to quantify this incidence with otolaryngology surgeries. We present a case of profound, recurrent syncope and documented asystole with an initial diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conclude with a discussion of neurally mediated syncope particular to the perioperative setting. It is essential to recognize neurocardiogenic etiology to differentiate it from other more concerning causes of syncope and asystole. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  20. Lemierre’s Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Birkner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre’s syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre’s syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant.

  1. Security bingo for the paranoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    We have received complaints that the previous SECURITY BINGO was too easy… So, are you extremely cautious of computer security? Show us and win one of three marvellous books on computer security! Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us at Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710, by October 31st 2011.   Winners[1] must show us that they follow at least five good practices in continuous horizontal row, vertical column or diagonal. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. I personally…   …encrypt all files on my computer. …have enabled Firefox’ NoScript plug-in. …will always call you back to verify your identity. …still employ a mobile phone without mail and Internet capabilities. …use multifactor authentication for logging into CERN. &h...

  2. Profound loss of neprilysin accompanied by decreased levels of neuropeptides and increased CRP in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gök Sargın

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, CD10 acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected. Substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were extracted from freshly frozen tissues and measured using ELISA. Levels of NEP expression were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunoreactivity scores were calculated. GEBOES grading system was also used. We demonstrated a profound loss (69.4% of NEP expression in UC, whereas all healthy controls had NEP expression. Patients with UC had lower neuronal SP; however non-neuronal SP remained similar. UC patients had also lower neuronal and non-neuronal VIP levels. CGRP were low in general and no significant changes were observed. Additionally, CRP positive patients with UC had higher rates of NEP loss (80% vs 51.9% and lower SP levels when compared with CRP negative patients with UC. Concurrent decreases in SP and VIP with profound loss of NEP expression observed in UC is likely to be one of the factors in pathogenesis. Further studies are required to define the role of neuropeptides and NEP in UC.

  3. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  4. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  5. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  6. A quantitative review of self-help research with the severely and profoundly mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarski, E A; Diorio, M S

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-seven studies published since 1964 through 1982 on training self-help skills to severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons were analyzed according to 19 parameters reflecting their methodological details. The results showed a steady interest in this research area over time, but 63% of the studies focused on toileting and feeding with fewer studies looking at other self-help skills. Package treatments composed primarily of accelerative techniques were most frequently used to train these skills. Methodologically, it was found that these studies typically involved profoundly mentally retarded people (33% of studies) who were trained by residential staff (69% of studies) in institutional settings (63% of studies). The results also indicated an increase over time in the number of studies rated acceptable on the reliability and design parameters. Finally, very few studies reported assessments of generalization, maintenance, or social validity. It was concluded that, (a) researchers need to broaden their interests in terms of settings, trainers, and behaviors studied to best meet the needs of this population, (b) the experimental quality of this literature is improving, and (c) the social impact of observed behavior changes has yet to be fully explored.

  7. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Li, Jie; Yao, Xuerui; Li, Wei; Du, Haibo; Tang, Mingliang; Xiong, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  8. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  9. Use of a Treatment Package in the Management of a Profoundly Mentally Retarded Girl's Pica and Self-Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment involving verbal reprimands, physical restraint, response interruption, and positive practice overcorrection resulted in rapid and dramatic decreases in the levels of pica and self-stimulation of a 4-year-old profoundly retarded girl. (CL)

  10. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  11. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the reversibility of acid secretion in profound hypochlorhydria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Sekine, H; Koike, T; Imatani, A; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

    2004-06-01

    Although profound hypochlorhydria is considered to be an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer, long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on its reversibility remains uncertain. To clarify the change in acid secretion after eradication in a long-term follow-up over 5 years in patients with profound hypochlorhydria. Twenty-three H. pylori-positive patients with hypochlorhydria (hypochlorhydria.

  12. Host-associated and free-living phage communities differ profoundly in phylogenetic composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gregory Caporaso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling has been widely used for comparing bacterial communities, but has so far been impossible to apply to viruses because of the lack of a single marker gene analogous to 16S rRNA. Here we developed a reference tree approach for matching viral sequences and applied it to the largest viral datasets available. The resulting technique, Shotgun UniFrac, was used to compare host-associated and non-host-associated phage communities (130 total metagenomes, and revealed a profound split similar to that found with bacterial communities. This new informatics approach complements analysis of bacterial communities and promises to provide new insights into viral community dynamics, such as top-down versus bottom-up control of bacterial communities by viruses in a range of systems.

  13. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has considered how carers conceptualize bereavement in relation to this group. Semi-structured interviews obtained responses from seven carers. Transcripts were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: 'difficulty articulating the experience of loss' and 'making sense of bereavement through familiar patterns'. Carers conceptualize bereavement primarily in cognitive terms, but also take account of relational factors mediating loss. Implications for training and further research are outlined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Care versus treatment at the end of life for profoundly disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are profoundly mentally handicapped do not have the capacity to make their own decisions and also do not have a past record of decisions, from when they had capacity, to guide us in making decisions for them. They represent a difficult group, ethically, for surrogate decision making. Here I propose some guidelines, distinguishing between these patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As the life span of patients becomes shorter, or their level of consciousness becomes permanently impaired, the presumption for comfort care should become an imperative, and the standard of evidence to justify any invasive intervention should become higher. For members of this population, who have no more ability to refuse treatment than to consent to it, protection of the vulnerable must mean allowing a peaceful death as well as a comfortable life. Reasonable legal safeguards are also proposed to allow improved end-of-life decisions to be made for this population.

  15. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...... intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along...

  16. A longitudinal study of active treatment of adaptive skills of individuals with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-haee, M A

    2001-10-01

    A longitudinal study indicated that a single group of adults living in a large state institution (O'Berry Center in Goldsboro, North Carolina) benefited from receiving active treatment, although no control group was permitted. After five years, 59 individuals with profound mental retardation improved their skills in six general areas of dressing, grooming, eating, toileting, communication, and social interaction. After five more years of active treatment, 51 persons who had remained in the program maintained their skills in dressing, grooming, eating, and communication. Significant improvement in the use of toilet and a loss in social interaction were observed. Although the participants were 10 years older at the end of this study, their adaptive behaviors, in comparison to the date of entry, either improved or were maintained. Therefore, aging was not associated with decline in skills.

  17. Acquisition and generalization of instruction following behavior in profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, R; Dubin, W

    1979-08-01

    Four profoundly retarded male residents of a state institution learned to comply with the instructions "come here," "stay," and "sit." Acquisition occurred in a special therapy room and instructions were presented in a fixed sequence. All subjects learned to comply with the instructions in the training environment. Testing occurred in the subject's ward dayroom where instructions were presented in a random sequence. Despite dramatic changes in the stimulus conditions associated with the transfer to the testing situation the subjects performed close to their asymptotic level. Three experimentally naive subjects participated in a second experiment which was similar to the first, except that the number of acquisition sessions and the number of trials per session were reduced. The reduction in number of acquisition trials did not appear to affect performance in the testing environment. The possibility of terminating off-task behavior of institutionalized individuals by eliciting previously acquired instruction following behavior was discussed.

  18. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  19. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-07-01

    Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Group activities for children with PIMD initiated by a direct support worker were video-recorded. The behaviour and positioning of the children and the behaviour of the direct support workers were coded. Limited peer-directed behaviour of the children with PIMD and peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers are observed. Weak associations were found between the positioning or peer interaction-influencing behaviours and the behaviour of children with PIMD. Children with PIMD show social interest in each other during group activities. More knowledge is needed to create an environment which facilitates peer-directed behaviours of persons with PIMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sensorimotor functioning and prelinguistic communication of severely and profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, D; Barrera, R D; Feldman, R S

    1981-03-01

    The prelinguistic, nonverbal communicative behavior of 40 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded children and adolescents functioning at various stages of Piaget's sensorimotor period was examined. Five scales of the Uzgiris and Hunt (1975) sensorimotor assessment were used to determine general level of sensorimotor functioning. A standard set of communication elicitation tasks was employed to examine the gestures used to communicate in both imperative and declarative contexts. More competent sensorimotor performance was associated with higher frequency of more sophisticated and symbolic forms of gestural communication, and subjects generally used more complex gestures to communicate in the imperative than in the declarative tasks. Applicability of the results to the design of future language-intervention programs and their implications for general theory concerning the relations between language and cognition and between normal and atypical development were discussed.

  1. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  2. Identifying perception behaviours in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Miriam; Verheul, Ellen; Velthausz, Frank

    2017-12-21

    To support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), it is essential to understand how they experience their environment. Insight into perception behaviour may provide an entry point for improved understanding. A random sample of a 30-min video registration of five participants with PIMD was used to code behaviours per second based on an ethogram containing 157 different perception behaviours in nine categories. Eighty-nine different perception behaviours were observed, of which movements with eyes, head and arms were most common. The senses used most were seeing, hearing and touching. Finally, the function of five perception patterns was established in relation to their function:awareness, focusing attention and tension regulation. Close observation using an observation ethogram provides insight into how people with PIMD perceive their environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  4. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  5. Plasma antidiuretic hormone in cases with the early onset of profound unilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Nishioka, Rie; Taguchi, Daizo; Nishimura, Masahiko

    2008-12-01

    The p-ADH level in cases of juvenile unilateral profound deafness (JUPD) and the timecourse of the level were examined to investigate whether or not an increase of p-ADH is involved in the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) in JUPD. In 90 consecutive patients with unilateral profound or total sensorineural deafness with the onset in early childhood, pure-tone audiometric examination and the measurement of p-ADH and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) were followed up once or twice a year as far as possible. At every testing, we performed careful history-taking about episodic vertigo/dizziness, fluctuant hearing loss, and tinnitus in order to find out whether patients had experienced these clinical signs of the development of DEH. Means and standard deviation (S.D.) of p-ADH level and osmolality in all samples tested (n=368) were 7.3+/-7.0 pg/mL (0.7-52.0 pg/mL), and 288.6+/-4.4 mOsm/L (273-306 mOsm/L), respectively. The mean of p-ADH level was much higher than those previously reported in children and adolescents. High levels of p-ADH (over 5.0 pg/mL) were often observed in subjects between 6 and 19 years of age, but not so frequently in subjects of 20 years of age or older. Long-term follow-up of p-ADH levels revealed that DEH frequently developed in cases with persistent elevation of p-ADH. The elevation of p-ADH is likely to promote the development of DEH in cases of JUPD, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  6. Expression and function of striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase is profoundly altered in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Steven P.; Xu, Jian; Leung, John; Urfer, Roman; Nikolich, Karoly; Oksenberg, Donna; Lombroso, Paul J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) acts in the central nervous system to dephosphorylate a number of important proteins involved in synaptic function including ERK and NMDA receptor subunits. These proteins are also linked to stroke, in which cerebral ischemia triggers a complex cascade of events. Here we demonstrate that STEP is regulated at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels in rat models of cerebral ischemia and that its regulation may play a role in the outcome of ischemic insults. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there are profound decreases in the levels of STEP mRNA, whilst in global ischemia STEP mRNA is selectively down-regulated in areas susceptible to ischemic damage. In a neuroprotective preconditioning paradigm, and in regions of the brain that are relatively resistant to ischemic damage, STEP mRNA levels are increased. Furthermore, there is a significant processing of STEP after ischemia to generate a novel species, STEP33, resulting in a redistribution of STEP from membrane-bound to soluble compartments. Concomitant with the cleavage of mature forms of STEP, there are changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK. We show that the cleavage of STEP leads to a catalytically active form, but this cleaved form no longer binds to and dephosphorylates its substrate pERK. Therefore, in response to ischemic insults, there are profound reductions in both the amount and the activity of STEP, its localization, as well as the activity of one of its key substrates, pERK. These changes in STEP may reflect a critical role in the outcomes of ischemic brain injury. PMID:18445231

  7. Wind Power Prediction Considering Nonlinear Atmospheric Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.

  8. Two case presentations of profound labial edema as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Jill M; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-09-01

    Hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), an often-missed diagnosis with the potential for serious sequelae, may have a variety of uncommon presentations, some of which may be gynecologic. The aim of this case report is to present two cases of profound labial edema associated with intercourse as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type EDS. A 25-year-old female presented with severe labia minora swelling and bladder pressure associated with intercourse, in addition to persistent genital arousal. History revealed easy bruising, joint pain, and family history of aneurysm. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent profound labial swelling for 6 years, associated with sensitivity and pain with intercourse. The patient has a history of joint pain and easy bruising, as well a sister with joint hypermobility and unexplained lymphedema. The presenting symptom of profound labial edema led to the diagnosis of hypermobility-type EDS. Patients with hypermobility syndrome exhibit an increased ratio of type III collagen to type I collagen, causing tissue laxity and venous insufficiency. Abnormal collagen may lead to gynecologic manifestations, including unexplained profound labial edema, pelvic organ prolapse in the absence of risk factors, and possibly persistent genital arousal. This case report highlights the need for further research to determine incidence of labial edema in hypermobility-type EDS and to further elucidate a potential correlation between profound labial edema and collagen disorders. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Microswitch Technology for Enabling Self-Determined Responding in Children with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 18 studies reporting on the use of microswitch technology to enable self-determined responding in children with profound and multiple disabilities. Identified studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) experimental design, (c) microswitches and procedures used, and (d) main results. The 18 studies formed three groups based on whether the microswitch technology was primarily intended to enable the child to (a) access preferred stimuli (7 studies), (b) choose between stimuli (6 studies), or (c) recruit attention/initiate social interaction (5 studies). The results of these studies were consistently positive and support the use of microswitch technology in educational programs for children with profound and multiple disabilities as a means to impact their environment and interact with others. Implications for delivery of augmentative and alternative communication intervention to children with profound and multiple disabilities are discussed.

  10. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Fu, Bojie; Zhu, Huoxing; Wang, Cong; Jiao, Lei; Zhou, Ji

    2017-06-16

    Although trait choice is crucial to quantify functional diversity appropriately, the quantitative methods for it are rarely compared and discussed. Meanwhile, very little is known about how trait choice affects ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. We presented the four methods of trait selection as alternatives to the ordination axis-based method, which directly identify a subset of key traits to represent the main variation of all the traits. To evaluate their performance, we compared the closeness of association obtained by different methods between species richness and functional diversity indices (FAD, FD, Q, FDis) in the six ecosystems. The evaluation was also benchmarked against the results obtained by calculating the possible indices using all the trait combinations (the complete search method). We found that the trait selection methods were potential alternatives to axis-based method to gain a mechanistic understanding of functional responses and effects of traits, while these methods as well as the axis-based method possibly use mismatched information to interpret the investigated ecosystem properties. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. The complete search method should be used to assess the rationale of different trait choice methods and the quality of the calculated indices.

  11. Profound reversible seasonal changes of individual skull size in a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Javier; Dechmann, Dina K N; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Hertel, Moritz

    2017-10-23

    Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size [1]. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains [2]. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel's phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of red-toothed shrews and some mustelids [3-5]. The seasonal 20% decrease and 15% re-growth of the most common proxy, braincase height, were documented at population level from extracted skulls post-mortem. Quantifying intra-individual change had so far been methodologically prohibitive. Here, we followed the intra-individual change in skull size and body mass throughout the full cycle in wild recaptured shrews (Sorex araneus). Using X-ray images we showed that individuals decreased the size of their braincases in anticipation of winter by an average of 15.3%. Braincases then partially regrew in spring by 9.3%. Body mass decreased by 17.6% and then dramatically increased by 83.4% in spring. Thus, we demonstrate that the dramatic changes incurred by Dehnel's phenomenon occur in the individual's bone and other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The management of children with Down syndrome and profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A

    2016-01-01

    Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.

  13. Dexamethasone exerts profound immunologic interference on treatment efficacy for recurrent glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E T; Lok, E; Gautam, S; Swanson, K D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with recurrent glioblastoma have a poor outcome. Data from the phase III registration trial comparing tumour-treating alternating electric fields (TTFields) vs chemotherapy provided a unique opportunity to study dexamethasone effects on patient outcome unencumbered by the confounding immune and myeloablative side effects of chemotherapy. Methods: Using an unsupervised binary partitioning algorithm, we segregated both cohorts of the trial based on the dexamethasone dose that yielded the greatest statistical difference in overall survival (OS). The results were validated in a separate cohort treated in a single institution with TTFields and their T lymphocytes were correlated with OS. Results: Patients who used dexamethasone doses >4.1 mg per day had a significant reduction in OS when compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day, 4.8 vs 11.0 months respectively (χ2=34.6, Pdexamethasone >4.1 mg per day was 3.2 months compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day was 8.7 months (χ2=11.1, P=0.0009). There was a significant correlation between OS and T-lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Dexamethasone exerted profound effects on both TTFields and chemotherapy efficacy resulting in lower patient OS. Therefore, global immunosuppression by dexamethasone likely interferes with immune functions that are necessary for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26125449

  14. A patient with profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Flannery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A case of profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery with multiple negative evaluations. Case presentation: A 41-year-old African-American female presented with greater-than-expected weight loss after gastric bypass and increasing abdominal pain over a 2-year period. An extensive workup was pursued for the patient with blood analysis, tumor markers, imaging studies both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, arterial studies, and endoscopy from above and below, all of which demonstrated normal results. The patient was followed up without improvement, and repeated studies were also normal. The patient was labeled with a nonorganic etiology for her symptoms, which led to a psychiatry referral which was refused. Conclusion: The patient’s surgeon, who already had removed a normal appendix and gallbladder, repeated a laparoscopic exam. The exam was normal except for a small focus of pancreatic cancer in the celiac plexus. The patient died from perioperative sepsis from peritonitis 2 days after surgery. The case is discussed and findings reviewed.

  15. Vestibular function of patients with profound deafness related to GJB2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Misato; Hayashi, Chieri; Iizuka, Takashi; Inoshita, Ayako; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Okada, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2010-09-01

    GJB2 mutations are responsible not only for deafness but also for the occurrence of vestibular dysfunction. However, vestibular dysfunction tends to be unilateral and less severe in comparison with that of bilateral deafness. The correlation between the cochlear and vestibular end-organs suggests that some children with congenital deafness may have vestibular impairments. On the other hand, GJB2 gene mutations are the most common cause of nonsyndromic deafness. The vestibular function of patients with congenital deafness (CD), which is related to GJB2 gene mutation, remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between GJB2 gene mutation and vestibular dysfunction in adults with CD. A total of 31 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with CD, were enrolled in the study. A hearing test and genetic analysis were performed. The vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured and a caloric test was performed to assess the vestibular function. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction was then statistically analyzed. The hearing level of all CD patients demonstrated a severe to profound impairment. In seven CD patients, their hearing impairment was related to GJB2 mutation. Five of the seven patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation demonstrated abnormalities in one or both of the two tests. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction of the patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation was statistically higher than in patients with CD unrelated to GJB2 mutation and in healthy controls.

  16. Holding Ashley (X): Bestowing Identity Through Caregiving in Profound Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Lisa; Liaschenko, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life. In this article, we analyze the ethics of the Ashley Treatment within the context of family caregiving. Through the physical and emotional work of caregiving, families participate in the formation and maintenance of personal identity, a process that Hilde Lindemann recently called "holding." We argue that, in an intellectually disabled person such as Ashley, who depends on her family for every aspect of her care, the family's contribution to identity is an essential source of personhood. We believe that the treatment can be justified if it is indeed an instance of appropriate family "holding" for Ashley. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum infection early in pregnancy has profound consequences for foetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Matondo, Sungwa; Minja, Daniel T R; Resende, Mafalda; Pehrson, Caroline; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Olomi, Raimos; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Salanti, Ali; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G

    2017-10-06

    Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GApregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0.0099) and shorter pregnancy length (mean reduction 6.6 days [1.0;112.5], P=0.0087). The birth weight (mean reduction 221g [6;436], P=0.044) and the placental weight (mean reduction 84g ([18; 150], P=0.013) at term were also reduced. The study suggests that early exposure to P. falciparum, which are not prevented by current control strategies, has profound impact on foetal growth, pregnancy length and the placental weight at term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chemistry of Planetary Atmospheres: Insights and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk

    2015-11-01

    understanding of planetary atmospheres. Ultimately, we may be able to answer these profound questions: Are we alone in the universe? What makes a planet habitable? How does life originate? And what is the destiny for life on our own planet?

  19. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  20. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The validation of an educational database for children with profound intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien Spangenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability took the South African Government to court in 2010 on its failure to implement the right to education for Children with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability. Subsequently, multidisciplinary teams were appointed by the Western Cape Education Department to deliver services to the Special Care Centres (SCCs. Initially, minimal information was available on this population.Objectives: The purpose is to document the process of developing and validating a database for the collection of routine data.Method: A descriptive analytical study design was used. A sample of convenience was drawn from individuals under the age of 18 years, enrolled in SCCs in the Western Cape. The team who entered and analysed the data reached consensus regarding the utility and feasibility of each item.Results: Data were collected on 134 children. The omission of certain items from the database was identified. Some information was not reliable or readily available. Of the instruments identified to assess function, the classification systems were found to be reliable and useful, as were the performance scales. The WeeFIM, on the other hand, was lengthy and expensive, and was therefore discarded.Discussion and conclusions: A list of items to be included was identified. Apart from an individual profile, it can be useful for service planning and monitoring, if incorporated into the central information system used to monitor the performance of all children. Without such inclusion, this most vulnerable population, despite court ruling, will not have their right to education adequately addressed.

  2. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  3. Participation of adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities: Definition and operationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, Gineke; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van der Putten, Annette A J; Waninge, Aly

    2017-02-01

    The available opinions regarding participation do not appear to be applicable to adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities (VSPID). Because a clear definition and operationalization are lacking, it is difficult for support professionals to give meaning to participation for adults with VSPID. The purpose of the present study was to develop a definition and operationalization of the concept of participation of adults with VSPID. Parents or family members, professionals, and experts participated in an online concept mapping procedure. This procedure includes generating statements, clustering them, and rating their importance. The data were analyzed quantitatively using multidimensional scaling and qualitatively with triangulation. A total of 53 participants generated 319 statements of which 125 were clustered and rated. The final cluster map of the statements contained seven clusters: (1) Experience and discover; (2) Inclusion; (3) Involvement; (4) Leisure and recreation; (5) Communication and being understood; (6) Social relations; and (7) Self-management and autonomy. The average importance rating of the statements varied from 6.49 to 8.95. A definition of participation of this population was developed which included these seven clusters. The combination of the developed definition, the clusters, and the statements in these clusters, derived from the perceptions of parents or family members, professionals, and experts, can be employed to operationalize the construct of participation of adults with VSPID. This operationalization supports professionals in their ability to give meaning to participation in these adults. Future research will focus on using the operationalization as a checklist of participation for adults with VSPID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Risk factors associated with challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A J J; Post, W J; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-06-01

    Several factors that correlate with the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour are mentioned in research. These are factors related to persons with ID, but also to direct support professionals and the context. Although many of these factors seem to affect the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour in people with ID in general, results are often inconclusive and have little focus on people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The present study aimed to assess the extent to which known factors related to challenging behaviour are also applicable to a group of 198 people with PIMD. To determine which factors were associated with challenging behaviour, univariate analyses on associations between known risk factors and challenging behaviour were conducted. The associated factors were then subject to a regression analysis to determine the extent to which they explain the prevalence of challenging behaviour and can thus be seen as factors associated with challenging behaviour. The results show that, in particular, factors concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD, such as sleeping problems and auditory problems, were related to the variance in mean frequency of challenging behaviour. Only one factor related to the direct support professionals was found: when these professionals had been offered training on the subject of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities in general, they identified significantly more withdrawn behaviour. We found no contextual factors related to challenging behaviour. These findings are generally consistent with findings reported in other studies, especially concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD. Further research should focus on the effects of providing safe auditory environments and appropriate sleep schedules for people with PIMD on the occurrence of challenging behaviour. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  6. Initiation of activities and alertness in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V; Vlaskamp, C

    2015-03-01

    When providing activities to individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), direct support persons (DSPs) often face questions that are, among other things, related to the alertness of the person with PIMD. While previous studies have revealed that stimulation might have a greater impact on levels of alertness than the internal conditions of the individual, they have also emphasized the importance of interaction in order to influence the level of alertness. Because the initiation of this interaction has been described as one of its core components, the present study has focused on the relationship between the stimuli presented, the initiation of the activity (by the person with PIMD or the DSP), and the level of alertness of the person with PIMD. Videotapes of the one-to-one interactions of 24 individuals with PIMD and their DSPs in multisensory environments have been scored using the Alertness Observation List. In a sequential analysis, the percentages of stimuli presented were related to the percentages of initiation. Furthermore, two other analyses focused on the relationship between the level of alertness and the preceding and subsequent percentages of initiation respectively. The results show that high percentages of the activities are initiated by the DSPs. In addition, activities that were initiated by the individual with PIMD were preceded and followed by higher percentages of alert behaviour than those initiated by the DSP. Outcomes differed for the different types of stimuli. These results have striking implications for the lives of individuals with PIMD. It is quite possible that DSPs often act too quickly, whereas they would be better off waiting for a reaction on the part of their client. In general, DSPs need to find a balance between being passive themselves and promoting in the individual with PIMD a state of being as active and alert as possible. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  7. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  9. Long-term leaf production response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan F. Talhelm; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Christian P. Giardina

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 will profoundly influence future forest productivity, but our understanding of these influences over the long-term is poor. Leaves are key indicators of productivity and we measured the mass, area, and nitrogen concentration of leaves collected in litter traps...

  10. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Darren L. Ficklin; Paul C. Stoy; Christopher A. Williams; Gil Bohrer; Andrew C. Oishi; Shirley A. Papuga; Peter D. Blanken; Asko Noormets; Benjamin N. Sulman; Russell L. Scott; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit-and profoundly affect-vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress1-4. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating...

  11. The Hands with Eyes and Nose in the Palm: As Effective Communication Alternatives for Profoundly Deaf People in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutswanga, Phillipa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…

  12. Noonan Syndrome: An Underestimated Cause of Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment. Which Clues to Suspect the Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alban; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; Cavé, Hélène; Baujat, Geneviève; Gherbi, Souad; Couloigner, Vincent; Marlin, Sandrine

    2017-09-01

    To highlight Noonan syndrome as a clinically recognizable cause of severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. New clinical cases and review. Patients evaluated for etiological diagnosis by a medical geneticist in a reference center for hearing impairment. Five patients presenting with confirmed Noonan syndrome and profound sensorineural hearing impairment. Diagnostic and review of the literature. Five patients presented with profound sensorineural hearing impairment and molecularly confirmed Noonan syndrome. Sensorineural hearing impairment has been progressive for three patients. Cardiac echography identified pulmonary stenosis in two patients and was normal for the three other patients. Short stature was found in two patients. Mild intellectual disability was found in one patient. Inconspicuous clinical features as facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism, or easy bruising were of peculiar interest to reach the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. Profound sensorineural hearing impairment can be the main feature of Noonan syndrome. Associated features are highly variable; thus, detailed medical history and careful physical examination are mandatory to consider the diagnosis in case of a sensorineural hearing impairment.

  13. Movement skill assessment in children with profound multiple disabilities : a psychometric analysis of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test (TDMMT), an internationally used instrument in the planning and evaluation of movement-oriented interventions. Setting: Centres for special education in the Netherlands. Subjects: Children with profound multiple

  14. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  15. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  16. Therapeutic interventions in the Netherlands and Belgium in support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han

    For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the

  17. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  18. The effects of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Marleen D.; Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the benefits of physical activity in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is an increase in alertness. This study investigated the effect of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness and the relationship of this effect to the level of additional motor

  19. "Trying, Failing, Succeeding, and Trying Again and Again": Perspectives of Teachers of Pupils with Severe Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phyllis; Riley, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the perspectives of seven teachers in England who teach pupils with severe profound and multiple learning difficulties about their learning to teach this group of students. Teachers' views were captured through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous online communications. Four themes emerged from teachers' perspectives…

  20. Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura: Clinical and histopathological predictors of systemic disease and profound renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Cao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura patients older than 30 years have a threefold increased risk of renal involvement. The risk of profound renal disease necessitating nephrology referral rose significantly with age and the presence of cutaneous bullae and/or necrosis.

  1. The Gender Mix among Staff in Schools for Pupils with Severe and Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties and Its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Phil

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on several studies of gender mix among staff in ten schools for students with severe, profound and/or multiple disabilities. Headteachers' perceptions of the impact of women's dominance in these positions are explored, and a series of proposals for future recruitment and staff development is put forth. (Contains seven…

  2. Camera-based microswitch technology to monitor mouth, eyebrow, and eyelid responses of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for

  3. The documentation of health problems in relation to prescribed medication in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed.

  4. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  5. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  6. See Me, Feel Me. Using Physiology to Validate Behavioural Observations of Emotions of People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioural observations are the most frequently used source of information about emotions of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities but have not yet been validated against other measures of emotion. In this study we wanted to validate the behavioural observations of emotions using respiration (rib cage contribution,…

  7. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent

  8. The False-Friend Effect in Three Profoundly Deaf Learners of French: Disentangling Morphology, Phonology and Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Three profoundly deaf individuals undertook a low-frequency backward lexical translation task (French/English), where morphological structure was manipulated and orthographic distance between test items was measured. Conditions included monomorphemic items (simplex), polymorphemic items (complex), items whose French morphological structure…

  9. Profound Expressive Language Impairment in Low Functioning Children with Autism: An Investigation of Syntactic Awareness Using a Computerised Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as "monkey…

  10. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  11. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  12. From Individualism to Co-Construction and Back Again: Rethinking Research Methodology for Children with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ben; Watson, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are said to experience severe congenital impairments to consciousness and cognition stemming from neurological damage. Such children are understood as operating at the pre-verbal stages of development, and research in the field typically draws conceptual resources from psychology to…

  13. Normalization of Institutional Mealtimes for Profoundly Retarded Persons: Effects and Noneffects of Teaching Family-Style Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated a program for teaching family-style mealtime skills to four profoundly retarded institutionalized adolescents. The program used forward chaining with a less-to-more intrusive prompting sequence and contingent reinforcement to teach the skills. (Author/DB)

  14. Transfer of information between parents and teachers of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities at special educational centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteine, H.; Zijlstra, H. P.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: Because of the complexity of the problems that affect children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), communication between parents and teachers at special educational centres is indispensable. Logs are widely used in the Netherlands although only little is known

  15. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of...

  16. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of…

  17. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Monitor Mouth, Eyebrow, and Eyelid Responses of Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on…

  18. Establishing a Connection between Quality of Life and Pre-Academic Instruction for Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzien, Jonna L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education has begun to concentrate its efforts on developing objectives and procedural strategies that promote a positive quality of life for students with profound multiple disabilities, while determining which educational strategies are the most appropriate. A multi-element design was used to compare the effects of two…

  19. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  20. Efforts to Increase Social Contact in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Analysing Individual Support Plans in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of…

  1. Parental Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in General Primary Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke A.; Munde, Vera S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing introduction of inclusive education, children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are barely included. Because an underlying factor here may be the attitudes of those directly involved, the present study focuses on the attitude of parents and relating variables concerning experience with individuals with…

  2. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  3. Physiological Measurements as Validation of Alertness Observations: An Exploratory Case Study of Three Individuals with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Vera; Vlaskamp, Carla; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Ruijssenaars, Wied

    2012-01-01

    Although observation largely takes into account the needs and abilities of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities, several difficulties are related to this assessment method as well. Our aim in this study was to investigate what possibilities the use of physiological measurements make available to validate alertness…

  4. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  5. Multi-sensory Environments: An Exploration of Their Potential for Young People with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Helen; Cavet, Judith

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy concerning multisensory environments for children and adults with profound and multiple learning difficulties, from a British perspective. The need for critical evaluation of such multisensory interventions as the "snoezelen" approach and the paucity of relevant, rigorous research on educational…

  6. The Documentation of Health Problems in Relation to Prescribed Medication in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed. Method: Persons with PIMD with an…

  7. Associations and Dissociations between Psychoacoustic Abilities and Speech Perception in Adolescents with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Segal, Osnat; Algom, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the relationship between psychoacoustic capabilities and speech perception in adolescents with severe-to-profound hearing loss (SPHL). Method: Twenty-four adolescents with SPHL and young adults with normal hearing were assessed with psychoacoustic and speech perception tests. The psychoacoustic tests included gap detection…

  8. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  9. Mouse background strain profoundly influences Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S Gulati

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the central role of Paneth cells in maintaining intestinal host-microbial homeostasis. However, the direct impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function remains unclear. Here, we characterize key differences in Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition in two widely utilized, genetically distinct mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129/SvEv. In doing so, we demonstrate critical influences of host genotype on Paneth cell activity and the enteric microbiota.Paneth cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, acid urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Effects of mouse background on microbial composition were assessed by reciprocal colonization of germ-free mice from both background strains, followed by compositional analysis of resultant gut bacterial communities using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and 16 S qPCR. Our results revealed that 129/SvEv mice possessed fewer Paneth cells and a divergent AMP profile relative to C57BL/6 counterparts. Novel 129/SvEv á-defensin peptides were identified, including Defa2/18v, Defa11, Defa16, and Defa18. Host genotype profoundly affected the global profile of the intestinal microbiota, while both source and host factors were found to influence specific bacterial groups. Interestingly, ileal α-defensins from 129/SvEv mice displayed attenuated antimicrobial activity against pro-inflammatory E. coli strains, a bacterial species found to be expanded in these animals.This work establishes the important impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. It further identifies specific AMP and microbial alterations in two commonly used inbred mouse strains that have varying susceptibilities to a variety of disorders, ranging from obesity to intestinal

  10. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Homøe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cochlear implant (CI treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists for evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation. In particular, children treated with CI are in need of long-term post-operative auditory training and other follow-up support. Design. The study is retrospective with updated information on present performance. Results. Since 2001, a total of 11 Greenlandic patients living in Greenland have been treated with CI, 7 children and 4 adults. Of these children, 4 use oral communication only and are full-time CI-users, 2 with full-time use of CI are still in progress with use of oral communication, and 1 has not acquired oral language yet, but has started auditory and speech training. Six children attend mainstream public school while one child is in kindergarten. Of the adults, only 1 has achieved good speech perception with full-time use of CI while 3 do not use the CI. Discussion. From an epidemiological point of view, approximately 1–3 children below 6 years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along with the auditory and speech/language outcomes. Finally, we present a suggestion for the future CI treatment and recommendations for an increased effort in the

  12. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  13. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  14. [Self-rating scales in schizophrenia: assessment of the practical applicability of the Paranoid-Depression Scale (PD-S), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS) and of two visual analogue scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Ewa; Wciórka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    To assess the practical feasibility of the Paranoid-Depressivity Scale (PD-S, Paranoid-Depresivitäts-Skala), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS, Frankfurter Befindlichkeitsskala), and two visual analogy scales of: sense of illness (WAC) and self-feeling (WAS). 210 patients with schizophrenia of various clinical courses. All patients in the study group were required to complete each scale twice, at 48 hr intervals. For statistical analysis, two sets of data were singled out (1) the relationship between refusal/inability to complete the scale repeatedly and the selected clinical variables; (2) observations made by the doctor, while the patient was completing the scales. Statistical analysis revealed, that clinical factors like restlessness, autism, maladaptation, recurrence/remission and lower educational status imply a significantly lower readiness of the patient towards completion of self-rating scales. The visual analogy scales were those more readily--and easily--completed by the patients; their interpretation, however, is difficult. Given this, the authors of this paper decided to shorten the questionnaire scales, which reducing the whole to aspects of vital diagnostic relevance. Whether this operation would influence the scales' diagnostic value, required ex-post analysis, which was subsequently performed. Summary analysis revealed that the application of the shortening of the PD-S and FBS had no significant impact on these scales' reliability and validity indices; furthermore, it resulted in a significant decline in the number of ambiguities and thus improved the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire's structure. Also, a significant increase in concordance between the self-rating results and the clinicians' diagnoses was observed. Visual analogy scales are the more readily and easily applied in practice; a comprehensive interpretation is, however, virtually impossible. On the other hand, the PD-S and FBS are the more difficult for the patients to complete

  15. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  16. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  17. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  18. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  19. A comparison of the effects of four therapy procedures on concentration and responsiveness in people with profound learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Pitcaithly, D; Geelen, N; Buntin, L; Broxholme, S; Ashby, M

    1997-06-01

    This paper is an investigation into the efficacy of four therapeutic treatment procedures increasingly used with people with profound learning disabilities: snoezelen, hand massage/aromatherapy, relaxation, and active therapy (a bouncy castle). In particular, the effects of these procedures on concentration and responsiveness were examined. Eight subjects with profound learning disabilities took part in the study and each subject received each of the treatments. To assess the effects of the treatments, simple concentration tasks were administered and the subjects' responsiveness to each treatment was rated by independent observers. The results suggest that both snoezelen and relaxation had a positive effect on concentration and seemed to be the most enjoyable therapies for clients, whereas hand massage/aromatherapy and active therapy had no or even negative effects on concentration and appeared less enjoyable.

  20. Acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of acute leukemia--report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T; Namiki, S; Kawabata, I

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports an unusual case in which acute lymphocytic leukemia presented acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of the disease. The patient is a 55-year-old woman who complained of left hearing loss of sudden onset. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear at mid and low frequencies. The patient was tentatively diagnosed as idiopathic sudden deafness and admitted for the treatment, but her laboratory data indicated that she was at an advanced stage of leukemia. The patient's hearing loss did not improve subjectively until she deceased 1 year after the admission. The mechanism producing acute hearing loss in leukemic patients is reviewed and discussed, and the importance of differentiating possible underlying diseases before we diagnose idiopathic sudden deafness is stressed.

  1. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  2. Managing Profound Suffering at the End-of-Life: Should expanding access to continuous deep sedation be the priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in addressing and managing profound suffering at the end-of-life, the priority should not be the legalization of physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia in jurisdictions where these practices are not currently available. Rather, concerted efforts should be made by society and the healthcare provider community to expand patient access to proportionate distress-relieving sedation and continuous deep sedation.

  3. Case report: profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Sana; Mazer, C David; Baker, Andrew J; Choi, Mabel; Hare, Gregory M T

    2006-07-01

    Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings, including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case of profound hypotension, refractory to inotropic and vasopressor therapy following an iv infusion of labetalol. Initiation of an iv labetalol infusion resulted in good blood pressure control in a patient suffering from a Fisher grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage with an initial Glascow coma scale of 14/15 and mild hydrocephalus. Progressive deterioration of neurological symptoms and evidence of worsening hydrocephalus preceded the sudden development of profound hypotension (60/35 mmHg) and bradycardia with a minimum heart rate of 40 beats.min(-1). Initial resuscitative efforts included administration of intravascular fluid, hypertonic saline, atropine, adrenalin (more than 10 mg in divided doses) and noradrenalin. These measures restored the blood pressure to 80/45 with a HR of 98 beats.min(-1). Intraoperative placement of an intraventricular drain released cerebrospinal fluid under pressure with an initial intracranial pressure of 15 cm H(2)O. A combination of adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine and vasopressin infusions were required to restore the blood pressure to 130/65 mmHg after an additional two hours. All inotropic and vasopressor support was weaned off after the 14th hr (about two drug half-lives). The patient was awake and responsive the following day, with no obvious neurological consequences. No evidence of neurological injury, drug administration error or myocardial dysfunction was documented. The episode of profound hypotension which occurred after initiating a labetolol infusion required maximal combined vasopressor therapy to restore the blood pressure suggesting that this patient demonstrated an extreme sensitivity to labetalol. Combination therapy with adrenergic and nonadrenergic agonists may be required for optimal treatment

  4. Preferred low- and high-frequency compression ratios among hearing aid users with moderately severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Dyrlund, Ole; Carter, Lyndal; Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the low- and high-frequency compression ratios of a fast-acting device that were preferred by people with moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Three compression ratios (1:1, 1.8:1, and 3:1) were combined in the low and high frequencies to produce nine schemes that were evaluated pair-wise for three weeks in the field using an adaptive procedure. The evaluation was performed by 21 experienced hearing aid users with a moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Diaries and an exit interview were used to monitor preferences. Generally, the subjects preferred lower compression ratios than are typically prescribed, especially in the low frequencies. Specifically, 11 subjects preferred linear amplification in the low frequencies, and 14 subjects preferred more compression in the high than in the low frequencies. Preferences could not be predicted from audiometric data, onset of loss, or past experience with amplification. The data suggest that clients with moderately severe to profound hearing loss should be fitted with low-frequency compression ratios in the range 1:1 to 2:1 and that fine-tuning is essential.

  5. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  6. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  8. ¿Cómo acercarse a historias traumáticas en contextos de rehabilitación psicosocial? Un estudio de caso de un paciente de esquizofrenia paranoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Saavedra Macías

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las historias que construimos sobre nuestras vidas han sido postuladas como uno de los instrumentos esenciales para la construcción de la identidad social. Sin embargo, la psicología y las ciencias sociales han prestado poca atención a la elaboración de narrativas de vida de pacientes esquizofrénicos en proceso de rehabilitación, especialmente a los pacientes que viven en residencias o "casas hogares" específicas de carácter social. El presente artículo describe una experiencia de acercamiento a una historia personal de carácter traumático de un paciente de esquizofrenia paranoide en el marco de un centro residencial de carácter social. Se exponen los fundamentos teóricos de la psicología narrativa y se defiende la necesidad de una narrativa de vida coherente y compartible para la completa recuperación del paciente. Se discute la necesidad de que los centros de carácter social de atención a personas con trastornos mentales graves, apoyen la construcción de narrativas de vida coherentes. El autor propone el término de "acompañamiento narrativo" para referirse a los procesos de reelaboración de la historia personal en contextos no clínicos.

  9. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  10. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Cho, James Y-K.; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-wate...

  11. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  12. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  13. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  14. Bilateral Entry and Release of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Profound Apoptosis of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinrong; Hill, Terence E.; Morimoto, Chikao; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, which exclusively infects and releases through the apical route, this virus can do so through either side of polarized Calu-3 cells. Infection results in profound apoptosis within 24 h irrespective of its production of titers that are lower than those of SARS-CoV. Together, our results provide new insights into the dissemination and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and may indicate that the virus differs markedly from SARS-CoV. PMID:23824802

  15. Photochemistry of planetary atmospheres. [Mars atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The atmospheric composition of Mars is presented, and the applicability of laboratory data on CO2 absorption cross sections and quantum yields of dissociation is discussed. A summary and critical evaluation are presented on the various mechanisms proposed for converting the photodissociation products CO and O2 back to CO2.

  16. Efecto de una intervención psicosocial sobre calidad de vida, estado sintomático y construcción del sí mismo en pacientes diagnosticados de esquizofrenia paranoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia María Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios que complementan la investigación sobre los síntomas junto con la calidad de vida y la identidad están adquiriendo un auge creciente, aspecto debido al interés por el desarrollo y difusión de métodos terapéuticos que pretenden ir más allá de la desaparición de un trastorno. Este estudio cuasi-experimental se fundamenta desde la visión constructivista del impacto de un programa de intervención psicosocial grupal sobre la calidad de vida subjetiva, el sistema de constructos del sí mismo y el estado sintomático en personas diagnosticadas de esquizofrenia paranoide (n = 15 en comparación con un grupo control (n = 15. Los instrumentos se administraron antes del inicio de la intervención psicosocial, a los 12 meses del inicio de la misma y a los 24 meses. Los resultados indicaron que el grupo tratamiento mejoró significativamente en el sistema de construcción del sí mismo, en la calidad de vida subjetiva y en el estado sintomático al cabo de 12 meses del inicio de la intervención y esta mejora se mantuvo al cabo de 24 meses del inicio de la misma. En la comparación con el grupo control la significación estadística de mejora no fue tan evidente.

  17. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  18. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...

  19. The Power of Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    composed of bubbles of affects – that is, the particles that are charged with power and normativity. References Grtiffero, T. (2014 (2010)). Atmospheres: Aesthetics of Emotional Spaces. Ashgate Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, A. (2013). Atmospheres of law: Senses, affects, lawscapes, in Emotion, Space...

  20. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful....... The potentials and implications are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design....

  1. Reassessing the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuemeng; Zhao, Jun; Terazono, Hajime; Misawa, Kentaro; Levitt, Nicholas P.; Li, Yixin; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Lian; Pan, Bowen; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Xidan; An, Taicheng; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Zhang, Annie L.; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2017-08-01

    Photochemical oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons leads to tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, with profound implications for air quality, human health, and climate. Toluene is the most abundant aromatic compound under urban environments, but its detailed chemical oxidation mechanism remains uncertain. From combined laboratory experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we show a toluene oxidation mechanism that is different from the one adopted in current atmospheric models. Our experimental work indicates a larger-than-expected branching ratio for cresols, but a negligible formation of ring-opening products (e.g., methylglyoxal). Quantum chemical calculations also demonstrate that cresols are much more stable than their corresponding peroxy radicals, and, for the most favorable OH (ortho) addition, the pathway of H extraction by O2 to form the cresol proceeds with a smaller barrier than O2 addition to form the peroxy radical. Our results reveal that phenolic (rather than peroxy radical) formation represents the dominant pathway for toluene oxidation, highlighting the necessity to reassess its role in ozone and SOA formation in the atmosphere.

  2. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  3. Navigating Uncertainty: Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Skill, and Confidence in Assessing and Managing Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child’s parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented.

  4. Transient blood-brain barrier permeability following profound temporary global ischemia: an experimental study using /sup 14/C-AIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, J.; Crockard, H.A.; Ross-Russell, R.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of reperfusion after profound incomplete forebrain ischemia on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to a small protein tracer was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The mean cortical blood to brain transfer constant (Ki) for /sup 14/C-amino isobutyric acid (AIB) was significantly greater at 3 and 6 h of reperfusion, 2.5 times the mean values of controls (p less than 0.05) (2.5 microliter g-1 min-1 and 1.0 microliters g-1 min-1 respectively), but had returned to control values after reperfusion for 24 h. Analysis of distribution of Ki values showed that following 15 min and 30 min of profound ischemia, there was a significant increase in transfer of AIB across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after recirculation for up to 6 h, though there was no evidence of protein extravasation as assessed by Evans Blue (EB) dye. After 24 h of reperfusion, the BBB to AIB was restored, and Ki values had returned to control values. It is concluded that following transient global ischemia, the BBB may recover rapidly.

  5. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H sub 2 (15)O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Institute of Medicine, Juelich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 15}O-labeled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H{sub 2}{sup 15}O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients.

  6. Rehabilitation and outcome of severe profound deafness in a group of 16 infants affected by congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Bianchini, Chiara; Arboretti, Rosa; Martini, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the audiological consequences of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) and to evaluate the outcome of rehabilitation with hearing aids and/or cochlear implant (CI), associated with an adequate speech-language therapy. A retrospective review of data was made from a total of 16 infants, affected by severe to profound hearing loss from congenital CMV infection, referred to a tertiary audiological center for rehabilitation. Audiological evaluation was performed using behavioral audiometry, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and/or electrocochleography (ECochG). Of the 16 children (median age at diagnosis of hearing loss: 21.33 +/- 0.7 months) with CMV hearing loss, 14 were affected by profound bilateral hearing loss and received a CI, while 2 were affected by bilateral severe hearing loss and received hearing aids. Cochlear implants can provide useful speech comprehension to patients with CMV-related deafness, even if language development is lower when compared to a group of Connexin (Cx) 26+ cochlear-implanted children (eight subjects), matched for age. Congenital CMV infection still represents a serious clinical condition, as well as an important cause of hearing loss in children. More studies have claimed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of damage and thus to ensure a better therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, in cases of CMV-deafened babies, the overall outcome of cochlear implantation is good.

  7. Effects of early identification and intervention on language development in Japanese children with prelingual severe to profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Norio; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omori, Kana; Sugaya, Akiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Early identification and intervention for prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss is supposed to reduce the delay in language development. Many countries have implemented early detection and hearing intervention and conducted regional universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, the benefits of UNHS in later childhood have not yet been confirmed, although language development at school age has a lifelong impact on children's future. Our Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders project attempted to reveal the effects of UNHS and those of early intervention on the development of verbal communication in Japanese children. In this study, 319 children with prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 4 to 10 years of age, were evaluated with the Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development used as an objective variable. Participation in UNHS and early intervention were used as explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated after adjusting several confounding factors with use of logistic regression analysis. In addition, caregivers' answers were obtained by a questionnaire, and the process of diagnosis with and without UNHS was analyzed retrospectively. Early intervention was significantly associated with better language development (AOR, 3.23; p identification leads directly to early intervention.

  8. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    in the size range 1 nm–10 μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean–atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased...... and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using...... aircraft and satellite remote sensing. The application of a flux-based approach in assessment of O3 effects on vegetation at regional scales is an important policy linked development secured through improved quantification of fluxes. The coupling of monitoring, modelling and intensive flux measurement...

  9. Exploring the motor development of young children with possible severe to profound cognitive and motor developmental delay by means of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Aim: Early motor stimulation may be valuable for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however limited knowledge of their typical motor developmental trajectory may be currently restraining the efficacy and specificity of this intervention. Research on young children

  10. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-10-01

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  11. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  13. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  14. Discovery of atmospheric neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Tokyo Univ., Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Cosmic ray particles entering the atmosphere interact with the air nuclei produce neutrinos. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrino anomaly observed in Kamiokande is now understood as due to neutrino oscillations by high statistics measurements of the atmospheric neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande. The studies of the atmospheric neutrinos have matured into detailed studies of neutrino masses and mixings. (author)

  15. Exploration of Venus' Deep Atmosphere and Surface Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L. S.; Amato, M.; Garvin, J. B.; Johnson, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Venus formed in the same part of our solar system as Earth, apparently from similar materials. Although both planets are about the same size, their differences are profound. Venus and Earth experienced vastly different evolutionary pathways resulting in unexplained differences in atmospheric composition and dynamics, as well as in geophysical processes of the planetary surfaces and interiors. Understanding when and why the evolutionary pathways of Venus and Earth diverged is key to understanding how terrestrial planets form and how their atmospheres and surfaces evolve. Measurements made in situ, within the near-surface or surface environment, are critical to addressing unanswered questions. We have made substantial progress modernizing and maturing pressure vessel technologies to enable science operations in the high temperature and pressure near-surface/surfaceenvironment of Venus.

  16. Atmospheric Transport Modeling Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, Carl A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Aiken, SC (United States); Addis, Robert P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide DOE and other federal agency emergency managers with an in-depth compilation and description of atmospheric dispersion models available to DOE and other Federal sites.

  17. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  18. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  19. Our Changing Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearing, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about two major variables involved in certain types of chemical pollution that seem to be changing the structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Discusses the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer. (TW)

  20. A Patient with Interstitial 5q21 Deletion, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Dysmorphic Features, and Profound Neurologic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, results from germ line mutation or deletion of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC gene on chromosome 5q21. Patients with FAP suffer from multiple polyps mainly at the colorectal region as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which has propensity to transform into carcinoma. FAP has also been well described in association with various syndromic extra-gastrointestinal manifestations. Less commonly, patients with FAP present with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction and developmental delay, though the reason for the association is unclear. Herein, we report the case of a male patient born with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, 46,XY, del(5 (q14q23, presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, profound developmental delay, cognitive dysfunction, and multiple congenital anomalies including talipes equinovarus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facial features.

  1. Profound expressive language impairment in low functioning children with autism: an investigation of syntactic awareness using a computerised learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as 'monkey flies'. The game progressed in levels from 2 to 4 word sequences, contingent upon success at each stage. Although performance was highly variable across participants, a detailed review of their learning profiles suggested that no child lacked syntactic awareness and that elementary syntactic control in a non-speech domain was superior to that manifest in their spoken language. The reasons for production failures at the level of speech in children with autism are discussed.

  2. Parental adaptation to out-of-home placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified as either inducing emotional stress (i.e., guilt, sadness, fear and worry, anger and frustration, and uncertainty) or relief. Parental appraisals of responses to placement by children, extended family, and friends were identified as factors affecting the parents' adaptation to placement. The primary coping methods used by parents to decrease emotional stress and increase relief consisted of reappraisals regarding the necessity of placement, involvement in the child's life, psychotherapy, and the passage of time.

  3. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...... input signals. The application of some popular second order sliding mode controllers and their smooth counterparts are analyzed and experimentally verified. The controllers are considered for output feedback control and compared with a conventional PI control approach. The controllers under...... consideration are applied for position tracking control of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive exhibiting strong variations in inertia- and gravitational loads, and furthermore suffer from profound valve dynamics. Results demonstrate that both the twisting- and super twisting algorithms may be successfully applied...

  4. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  5. Parents' experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-03-01

    There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.

  6. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  7. The effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants for severe-to-profound deafness in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoonhoven, Jelmer; Sparreboom, Marloes; van Zanten, Bert G A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Dreschler, Wouter A; Grolman, Wilko; Maat, Bert

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation compared with unilateral cochlear implantation or bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss. In 2007, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the U.K. conducted a systematic review on cochlear implantation. This study forms an update of the adult part of the NICE review. The electronic databases MEDLINE and Embase were searched for English language studies published between October 2006 and March 2011. Studies were included that compared bilateral cochlear implantation with unilateral cochlear implantation and/or with bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Speech perception in quiet and in noise, sound localization and lateralization, speech production, health-related quality of life, and functional outcomes were analyzed. Data extraction forms were used to describe study characteristics and the level of evidence. The effect size was calculated to compare different outcome measures. Pooling of data was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the studies. As in the NICE review, the level of evidence of the included studies was low, although some of the additional studies showed less risk of bias. All studies showed a significant bilateral benefit in localization over unilateral cochlear implantation. Bilateral cochlear implants were beneficial for speech perception in noise under certain conditions and several self-reported measures. Most speech perception in quiet outcomes did not show a bilateral benefit. The current review provides additional evidence in favor of bilateral cochlear implantation, even in complex listening situations.

  8. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Patrizia; Giuglietti, Marta; Baglioni, Antonella; Verdolini, Norma; Murgia, Nicola; Piccirilli, Massimo; Elisei, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite adequate therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Drug-resistant epilepsy is even more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability. As a result, several non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to improve quality of life in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. A number of studies have demonstrated that music can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges. In particular, Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy as well. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on seizure frequency in institutionalized epileptic subjects with profound/severe intellectual disability. Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 21.6 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a cross-over design; they listened to Mozart K448 once a day for six months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the listening period and both baseline and control periods. During the music period, none of the patients worsened in seizure frequency; one patient was seizure-free, five had a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and the remaining showed minimal (N=2) or no difference (N=4). The average seizure reduction compared to the baseline was 20.5%. Our results are discussed in relation to data in the literature considering differences in protocol investigation. Music may be considered a useful approach as add-on therapy in some subjects with profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy and can provide a new option for clinicians to consider, but further large sample, multicenter studies are needed to better understand the characteristics of responders and non-responders to this type of non

  9. A gene responsible for profound congenital nonsyndromal recessive deafness maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, T.B.; Liang, Y.; Asher, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive deafness is the most common form of human hereditary hearing loss. Two percent of the 2,185 residents of Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia have profound congenital neurosensory nonsyndromal hereditary deafness due to a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation (NARD1). Families, identified through children with profound congenital deafness having hearing parents, give the expected 25% deaf progeny when corrected for ascertainment bias. Congenitally deaf individuals from Bengkala show no response to pure tone audiological examination. Obligate heterozygotes for autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala have normal or borderline normal hearing. A chromosomal location for NARD1 was assigned directly using a linkage strategy that combines allele-frequency dependent homozygosity mapping (AHM) followed by an analysis of historical recombinants to position NARD1 relative to flanking markers. Thirteen deaf Bengkala villagers of hearing parents were typed initially for 148 STRPs distributed across the human genome and a cluster of tightly linked 17p markers with a significantly higher number of homozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium were identified. NARD1 maps closest to STRPs for D17S261 (Mfd41) and D17S805 (AFM234ta1) that are 3.2 cM apart. Recombinant genotypes for the flanking markers, D17S122 (VAW409) and D17S783 (AFM026vh7), in individuals homozygous for NARD1 place NARD1 in a 5.3 cM interval of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 on a refined 17p-17q12 genetic map.

  10. HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not inflammatory cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of accelerated liver damage in subjects coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that ongoing chronic liver inflammation is responsible for the liver injury in HCV-infected patients. We aimed to determine whether HIV-1 coinfection altered intrahepatic inflammatory profiles in HCV infection, thereby hastening liver damage. We used a real-time RT-PCR-based array to comparatively analyze intrahepatic inflammation gene profiles in liver biopsy specimens from HCV-infected (n = 16, HCV/HIV-1-coinfected (n = 8 and uninfected (n = 8 individuals. We then used human hepatocytes to study the molecular mechanisms underlying alternations of the inflammatory profiles. Compared with uninfected individuals, HCV infection and HCV/HIV-1 coinfection markedly altered expression of 59.5% and 50.0% of 84 inflammation-related genes tested, respectively. Among these genes affected, HCV infection up-regulated the expression of 24 genes and down-regulated the expression of 26 genes, whereas HCV/HIV-1 coinfection up-regulated the expression of 21 genes and down-regulated the expression of 21 genes. Compared with HCV infection, HCV/HIV-1 coinfection did not dramatically affect intrahepatic gene expression profiles of cytokines and their receptors, but profoundly altered expression of several chemokine genes including up-regulation of the CXCR3-associated chemokines. Human hepatocytes produced these chemokines in response to virus-related microbial translocation, viral protein stimulation, and antiviral immune responses.HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects. The altered chemokines may orchestrate the tissue-specific and cell-selective trafficking of immune cells and autoimmunity to accelerate liver disease in HCV/HIV-1 coinfection.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  12. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  13. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showman, A. P.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Menou, K.

    2010-12-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from solar system studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and simple scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics are given particular attention, as these close-in planets have been the subject of most of the concrete developments in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. We then turn to the basic elements of circulation on terrestrial planets as inferred from solar system studies, including Hadley cells, jet streams, processes that govern the large-scale horizontal temperature contrasts, and climate, and we discuss how these insights may apply to terrestrial exoplanets. Although exoplanets surely possess a greater diversity of circulation regimes than seen on the planets in our solar system, our guiding philosophy is that the multidecade study of solar system planets reviewed here provides a foundation upon which our understanding of more exotic exoplanetary meteorology must build.

  14. Atmospheric Change on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use SOFIA with HIPO and FLITECAM (FLIPO) to measure the parameters of Pluto's atmosphere (temperature, pressure, possible particulate haze) by observing a stellar occultation by Pluto on 15 November 2014. Due to its highly elliptical orbit and seasonally variable obliquity, Pluto's atmosphere is predicted to condense onto its surface within the next ~10 years and possibly within the next few years and thus frequent observations are critical. Detection of the occultation central flash will allow measurement of the structure of Pluto's lower atmosphere and atmospheric oblateness. We will use FLIPO to measure the refracted starlight contemporaneously at visible and infrared wavelengths; this approach is needed to differentiate between two competing explanations for the deficiency in the observed light refracted from Pluto's lower atmosphere (strong thermal gradients versus variable particulate extinction). Only an airborne platform such as SOFIA has the flexibility to place a large telescope in the center of the shadow path of this brief event while at the same time nearly eliminating the possibility of missing time-critical observations due to unfortunate weather systems. Occultation predictions will be updated throughout the period preceding the observations with the goal of achieving sufficient prediction accuracy at the event time to place SOFIA directly in the path of Pluto's central flash. This SOFIA observation will be combined with our ongoing ground-based observing program whose goal is to measure the temporal variability of Pluto's atmosphere in response to its changing seasonal obliquity (and resulting ice migration) and recession from the sun. For the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, this Pluto occultation event represents the last chance, prior to the spacecraft closest approach to the Pluto/Charon system (July 2015), to provide input to the mission for encounter planning, as well as context and supporting atmospheric

  15. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  16. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmcommunication, the results of both organic and inorganic analyses of aerosol samples from these two sites will be presented, compared and discussed. Results of this work are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC

  17. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas; Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for the relative efficacy of

  18. Uncovering the roots of paranoid suicidal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Signe

    To evade recognition and to increase their virulence, pathogens deploy effectors into host cells to modify or remove host proteins. Plants can detect these effector mediated changes via Resistance proteins (NLRs). A model thus proposes that NLRs ‘guard’ host ‘guardees’. A corollary to this model......” published in EMBO journal, link MPK4 to mRNA decapping and further establishes that the autoimmune phenotype of pat1 is NLRdependent. The second, “Matching NLR immune receptors to autoimmunity in camta3 mutants using antimorphic NLR alleles”, describing the main focus of my PhD research, is accepted...

  19. Doing Ethnography in a Paranoid Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    -rail, a European national rail service subject to extensive negative press coverage. The autoethnographic accounts, based on interviews, observations, phone calls, e-mails, and other informal interactions with the organizational members, highlight the researcher’s entry to and exit of the organization. Findings...... of organizational paranoia. Originality/value – This paper uses autoethnography, which is rare in public administration studies, and discusses the distinct features of autoethnography as an ethnographic approach to public organizations. It argues that autoethnographic accounts of fieldwork relationship highlight...

  20. Uncovering the roots of paranoid suicidal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Signe

    is that forms of plant autoimmunity are due to inappropriate NLR activation. We show here that NLR triggered immunity in pat1 can be prevented by the expression of a dominant negative (DN) allele of the NLR SUMM2. We further find that this DN approach is faster than crossing in knock-outs, and has the advantage...

  1. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology.......The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its...

  3. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  4. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  5. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  6. Making a difference? A comparison between multi-sensory and regular storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-11-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards

  7. Atmospheric Infrared Radiance Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-27

    ATMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY ON INFRARED RADIANCE PREDICTIONS - T. C. Degges 53 5. ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE - C.H. HLmphrey, C.R. Philbrick, S.M. Silverman , T.F. Tuan...variations similar to those shown in Figure 2. In arctic and subarctic regions, sudden warmings and coolings of the winter stratosphere and mesosphere... Silverman \\Jr I",rre. (;.L~~sIalmratorN Hanscom Air Force Base, Manss. T.F. Tuan Universitv of Cincinnati Cincinnati, (tio M. Anapol S.S.G.. Inc. Waltham

  8. Atmosphere and Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventzel Riis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    -between of the materials. This is what we identify as atmosphere, an enveloping phenomenon that surrounds and affects our sensuous system and well-being when we approach, enter, stay or move in a building. When we leave the building again we carry this atmospheric multi-sensory experience with us without adequate methods...... to describe and document it. In this paper I will introduce both new and traditional approaches to document the architectural heritage with the final conclusion to describe both tangible and intangible values, it requires an objective and geometrical approach as well as a subjective and phenomenological...

  9. Supporting end of life decision making: Case studies of relational closeness in supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-11-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions. Five people with severe or profound intellectual disability's experiences of supported decision making were examined. This article is particularly focused on one participant's experiences at the end of his life. All five case studies identified that supporters were most effective in providing decision-making support for participants when they were relationally close to the person and had knowledge of the person's life story, particularly in relation to events that demonstrated preference. Findings from this study provide new understandings of supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability and have particular relevance for supporting decision making at the end of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Left ventricular failure produces profound lung remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice: heart failure causes severe lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjie; Guo, Haipeng; Xu, Dachun; Xu, Xin; Wang, Huan; Hu, Xinli; Lu, Zhongbing; Kwak, Dongmin; Xu, Yawei; Gunther, Roland; Huo, Yuqing; Weir, E Kenneth

    2012-06-01

    Chronic left ventricular failure causes pulmonary congestion with increased lung weight and type 2 pulmonary hypertension. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for type 2 pulmonary hypertension and the development of novel treatments for this condition requires a robust experimental animal model and a good understanding of the nature of the resultant pulmonary remodeling. Here we demonstrate that chronic transverse aortic constriction causes massive pulmonary fibrosis and remodeling, as well as type 2 pulmonary hypertension, in mice. Thus, aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure are associated with a ≤5.3-fold increase in lung wet weight and dry weight, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Interestingly, the aortic constriction-induced increase in lung weight was not associated with pulmonary edema but resulted from profound pulmonary remodeling with a dramatic increase in the percentage of fully muscularized lung vessels, marked vascular and lung fibrosis, myofibroblast proliferation, and leukocyte infiltration. The aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction was also associated with right ventricular hypertrophy, increased right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and right atrial hypertrophy. The massive lung fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and pulmonary hypertension in mice after transverse aortic constriction clearly indicate that congestive heart failure also causes severe lung disease. The lung fibrosis and leukocyte infiltration may be important mechanisms in the poor clinical outcome in patients with end-stage heart failure. Thus, the effective treatment of left ventricular failure may require additional efforts to reduce lung fibrosis and the inflammatory response.

  11. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  12. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  13. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  14. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  15. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  16. Reduced lymphocyte longevity and homeostatic proliferation in lamin B receptor-deficient mice results in profound and progressive lymphopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Anne M; de Graaf, Carolyn A; Baldwin, Tracey M; Goradia, Ankita; Collinge, Janelle E; Kile, Benjamin T; Metcalf, Donald; Starr, Robyn; Hilton, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is a highly unusual inner nuclear membrane protein with multiple functions. Reduced levels are associated with decreased neutrophil lobularity, whereas complete absence of LBR results in severe skeletal dysplasia and in utero/perinatal lethality. We describe a mouse pedigree, Lym3, with normal bone marrow and thymic development but profound and progressive lymphopenia particularly within the T cell compartment. This defect arises from a point mutation within the Lbr gene with only trace mutant protein detectable in homozygotes, albeit sufficient for normal development. Reduced T cell homeostatic proliferative potential and life span in vivo were found to contribute to lymphopenia. To investigate the role of LBR in gene silencing in hematopoietic cells, we examined gene expression in wild-type and mutant lymph node CD8 T cells and bone marrow neutrophils. Although LBR deficiency had a very mild impact on gene expression overall, for common genes differentially expressed in both LBR-deficient CD8 T cells and neutrophils, gene upregulation prevailed, supporting a role for LBR in their suppression. In summary, this study demonstrates that LBR deficiency affects not only nuclear architecture but also proliferation, cell viability, and gene expression of hematopoietic cells.

  17. How parents and physicians experience end-of-life decision-making for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal-Schuller, I H; Willems, D L; Ewals, F V P M; van Goudoever, J B; de Vos, M A

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life decisions (EoLD) often concern children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Yet, little is known about how parents and physicians discuss and make these decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate the experiences of the parents and the involved physician during the end-of-life decision-making (EoLDM) process for children with PIMD. In a retrospective, qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the physicians and parents of 14 children with PIMD for whom an EoLD was made within the past two years. A long-lasting relationship appeared to facilitate the EoLDM process, although previous negative healthcare encounters could also lead to distrust. Parents and physicians encountered disagreements during the EoLDM process, but these disagreements could also improve the decision-making process. Most parents, as well as most physicians, considered the parents to be the experts on their child. In making an EoLD, both parents and physicians preferred a shared decision-making approach, although they differed in what they actually meant by this concept. The EoLDM process for children with PIMD can be improved if physicians are more aware of the specific situation and of the roles and expectations of the parents of children with PIMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  19. The nature of affect attunement used by disability support workers interacting with adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, S; Iacono, T

    2014-12-01

    The interactions experienced by adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) with their disability support workers (DSWs) may have a large impact on life quality. However, defining good-quality interaction has presented challenges for this group. It has been suggested that in typically developing infant-mother dyads, the presence of affect attunement may be an indicator of quality. Affect attunement refers to the recasting of one person's affect by another with emphasis. The presence and nature of affect attunement in interactions between 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs were explored in this study. Natural interactions were videorecorded for 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs. The recordings were analysed for the presence and nature of affect attunement incidents, and analysed using descriptive statistics. Affect attunement incidents were observed in 16 of the pairs. The DSW's attunement behaviour was in response to subtle, short duration behaviours of participants with PIMD. These brief moments of connection may be a basis of good-quality interaction. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Peptide vaccination induces profound changes in the immune system in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the immune status of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients is mostly characterized by immunosuppression, there is an accumulation of in vivo (graft-versus-leukemia effect and in vitro (spontaneous remissions after infections data that indicates that CLL might be effectively targeted by T-cell based immunotherapy. Recently, we characterized receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM as a preferential target for immunotherapy of CLL. We also completed a RHAMM-derived peptide vaccination phase I/II clinical trial in CLL. Here, we present a detailed immunological analysis of six CLL patients vaccinated with HLA-A2 restricted RHAMM-derived epitope R3 (ILSLELMKL. Beside effective induction of R3-specific cytotoxic T-cells, peptide vaccination caused profound changes in different T-cell subsets as well as cytokines. We present longitudinal analyses of Th17, CD8+CD103+, CD8+CD137+ and IL-17 producing CD8+ T cells (CD8+IL- -17+ as well as important cytokines involved in regulation of immune response such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-2 and TNF throughout the peptide vaccination period. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 161–167

  2. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.

  3. An overview of research on increasing indices of happiness of people with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G E; Singh, N N; O'Reilly, M F; Oliva, D; Basili, G

    2005-02-04

    This paper was to provide an overview of research studies aimed at increasing indices of happiness of persons with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Computerized and manual searches were carried out to identify the studies published from 1990 to 2004 (i.e., the period during which the issues of quality fo life and happiness in people with disabilities have become more prominent). Twenty-four research studies were identified. They involved the use of six different procedures, that is, structured stimulation sessions, microswitch-based simulation sessions, leisure activities and favourite work tasks or conditions, positive environment or positive behaviour support programmes and mindful caregiving, favourite stimulation automatically delivered on exercise engagement, and snoezelen. Data tended to be positive with increases in the participants' indices of happiness, but some failures also occurred. The outcomes were discussed in relation to (a) methodological issues, such as designs of the studies, length of the intervention, and number of participants, and (b) personal and practical implications of the procedures. Some suggestions for future research (particularly focused on extending evidence and overcoming present methodological weakness) were also examined.

  4. Developing a Sense of Knowing and Acquiring the Skills to Manage Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairments: Mothers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with profound cognitive impairment (PCI are a heterogenous group who often experience frequent and persistent pain. Those people closest to the child are key to assessing their pain. This mixed method study aimed to explore how parents acquire knowledge and skills in assessing and managing their child’s pain. Eight mothers completed a weekly pain diary and were interviewed at weeks 1 and 8. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and the quantitative data using descriptive statistics. Mothers talked of learning through a system of trial and error (“learning to get on with it”; this was accomplished through “learning to know without a rule book or guide”; “learning to be a convincing advocate”; and “learning to endure and to get things right.” Experiential and reflective learning was evident in the way the mothers developed a “sense of knowing” their child’s pain. They drew on embodied knowledge of how their child usually expressed and responded to pain to help make pain-related decisions. Health professionals need to support mothers/parents to develop their knowledge and skills and to gain confidence in pain assessment and they should recognise and act on the mothers’ concerns.

  5. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  6. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  7. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the announcement of new evidence for muon neutrino disappearance observed by the super-Kamiokande experiment, the more than a decade old atmospheric neutrino anomaly moved from a possible indication for neutrino oscillations to an apparently inescapable fact. The evidence is reviewed, and new indications ...

  8. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  9. Applications of theoretical methods in atmospheric science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    in addressing an issue of primary concern: understanding photochemical reaction rates at the various conditions found in the atmosphere. Atmospheric science includes both atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, meteorology, climatology and the study of extraterrestrial atmospheres....

  10. Profoundly Expanded T-cell Clones in the Inflamed and Uninflamed Intestine of Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenspleet, M E; Westera, L; Peters, C P; Hakvoort, T B M; Esveldt, R E; Vogels, E; van Kampen, A H C; Baas, F; Buskens, C; Bemelman, W A; D'Haens, G; Ponsioen, C Y; Te Velde, A A; de Vries, N; van den Brink, G R

    2017-07-01

    T cells are key players in the chronic intestinal inflammation that characterises Crohn's disease. Here we aim to map the intestinal T-cell receptor [TCR] repertoire in patients with Crohn's disease, using next-generation sequencing technology to examine the clonality of the T-cell compartment in relation to mucosal inflammation and response to therapy. Biopsies were taken from endoscopically inflamed and uninflamed ileum and colon of 19 patients with Crohn's disease. From this cohort, additional biopsies were taken after 8 weeks of remission induction therapy from eight responders and eight non-responders. Control biopsies from 11 patients without inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] were included. The TCRβ repertoire was analysed by next-generation sequencing of biopsy RNA. Both in Crohn's disease patients and in non-IBD controls, a broad intestinal T-cell repertoire was found, with a considerable part consisting of expanded clones. Clones in Crohn's disease were more expanded [p = 0.008], with the largest clones representing up to as much as 58% of the total repertoire. There was a substantial overlap of the repertoire between inflamed and uninflamed tissue and between ileum and colon. Following therapy, responders showed larger changes in the T-cell repertoire than non-responders, although a considerable part of the repertoire remained unchanged in both groups. The intestinal T-cell repertoire distribution in Crohn's disease is different from that in the normal gut, containing profoundly expanded T-cell clones that take up a large part of the repertoire. The T-cell repertoire is fairly stable regardless of endoscopic mucosal inflammation or response to therapy.

  11. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioenergetics of the heart at high altitude: environmental hypoxia imposes profound transformations on the myocardial process of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, Baltazar D; Marticorena, Emilio

    2002-12-01

    The low concentration of O2 in the thin air at high altitude is undoubtedly the reason for the remarkable modifications in the structure and function of the heart, lung, and blood of humans permanently living under these conditions. The effect of natural hypoxia on the energy metabolism of the cell is however not well understood. Here we study the proces of ATP synthesis in the heart of guinea pigs native to high altitude (4500 m) as compared with those native to sea level. The following are the novel findings of this study. (1) The rates and extents of ATP synthesis in the presence of low concentrations of ADP (<30 microM) are significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. (2) The Hill coefficient, i.e. the degree of cooperativity between the three catalytic sites of the ATP synthase, is lower at high altitude (n = 1.36) than at sea level (n = 1.94). (3) Both, the affinity for ADP and the fractional occupancy of the catalytic sites by ATP, are higher at high altitude than at sea level but the P50, i.e. the concentration of ADP at which 50% of the catalytic sites are filled with ADP and/or ATP, is the same (approximately 74.7 microM). (4) In the physiological range of ADP concentrations, the phosphorylation potential deltaGp is significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. It is concluded that the molecular mechanism of energy transduction is profoundly modified at high altitude in order to readily and efficiently generate ATP in the presence of low concentrations of O2 and ADP.

  14. Odor-Induced Neuronal Rhythms in the Olfactory Bulb Are Profoundly Modified in ob/ob Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelminski, Yan; Magnan, Christophe; Luquet, Serge H; Everard, Amandine; Meunier, Nicolas; Gurden, Hirac; Martin, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing. Therefore, we studied the fate of odor-induced activity in the olfactory bulb in the genetic context of leptin deficiency using the obese ob/ob mice. By means of an odor discrimination task with concomitant local field potential recordings, we showed that ob/ob mice perform better than wild-type (WT) mice in the early stage of the task. This behavioral gain of function was associated in parallel with profound changes in neuronal oscillations in the olfactory bulb. The distribution of the peaks in the gamma frequency range was shifted toward higher frequencies in ob/ob mice compared to WT mice before learning. More notably, beta oscillatory activity, which has been shown previously to be correlated with olfactory discrimination learning, was longer and stronger in expert ob/ob mice after learning. Since oscillations in the olfactory bulb emerge from mitral to granule cell interactions, our results suggest that cellular dynamics in the olfactory bulb are deeply modified in ob/ob mice in the context of olfactory learning.

  15. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A A J; ten Brug, A; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-01-01

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give for challenging behaviour in this group. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the way staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD; and (2) to analyse whether more experienced staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD differently than less experienced staff. In total, 195 direct support staff and an equal number of children and adults with PIMD participated in the study. Direct support staff filled out the Challenging behaviour Attribution Scale (five causal explanatory models of challenging behaviour) to explain challenging behaviour in one individual that they supported. The results show that direct support staff as a whole report the biomedical model as the most plausible explanation for challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD. However, in the present study the mean scores on all models are low. This might indicate that a large number of staff found none of the models particularly useful as possible explanations of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. This could mean that staff have difficulties stating the cause of challenging behaviour in this group. Another possible explanation could be that there is little scientific knowledge about causing and maintaining factors of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. It could also mean that staff have additional explanations for challenging behaviour in this target group that are not mentioned in the instrument used. Future research should address these issues. No differences were found between more experienced and less experienced direct support staff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  17. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...

  18. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    , the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...... of the architectural ‘object’ and its fixity and offers a new understanding of context and space – approached as a field of dynamic relationships. It calls for a re-evaluation of perceptual experience, offering to architecture an expanded domain in which architecture manifests itself, including qualities – besides...... poetics and beauty – that architecture has long resisted. That is, it defines space as a contingent construction, performative and intensely affective. Accordingly, the intention is to critically analyse what the term atmosphere entails in architecture, and to expand its notion in terms of affective...

  19. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP......This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  20. Haze in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Summers, M. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Strobel, D. F.; Young, L. A.; Lavvas, P.; Kammer, J. A.; Lisse, C. M.; Parker, A. H.; Young, E. F.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.

    2017-07-01

    Haze in Pluto's atmosphere was detected in images by both the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) on New Horizons. LORRI observed haze up to altitudes of at least 200 km above Pluto's surface at solar phase angles from ∼20° to ∼169°. The haze is structured with about ∼20 layers, and the extinction due to haze is greater in the northern hemisphere than at equatorial or southern latitudes. However, more haze layers are discerned at equatorial latitudes. A search for temporal variations found no evidence for motions of haze layers (temporal changes in layer altitudes) on time scales of 2 to 5 hours, but did find evidence of changes in haze scale height above 100 km altitude. An ultraviolet extinction attributable to the atmospheric haze was also detected by the ALICE ultraviolet spectrograph on New Horizons. The haze particles are strongly forward-scattering in the visible, and a microphysical model of haze is presented which reproduces the visible phase function just above the surface with 0.5 μm spherical particles, but also invokes fractal aggregate particles to fit the visible phase function at 45 km altitude and account for UV extinction. A model of haze layer generation by orographic excitation of gravity waves is presented. This model accounts for the observed layer thickness and distribution with altitude. Haze particles settle out of the atmosphere and onto Pluto's surface, at a rate sufficient to alter surface optical properties on seasonal time scales. Pluto's regional scale albedo contrasts may be preserved in the face of the haze deposition by atmospheric collapse.

  1. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, I. P., E-mail: ingo@star.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  2. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  3. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  4. Evolution of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J F

    1998-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres depend fundamentally upon their geochemical inventory, temperature and the ability of their gravitational field to retain gases. In the case of Earth and other inner planets, early outgassing released mainly carbon dioxide and water vapour. The secondary veneer of comets and meteorites added further volatiles. Photodissociation caused secondary changes, including the production of traces of oxygen from water. Earth's gravity cannot retain light gases, including hydrogen. but retains oxygen. Water vapour generally does not pass the cold trap at the stratopause. In the archaean, early evolution of life, probably in hydrothermal vents, and the subsequent development of photosynthesis in surface waters, produced oxygen, at 3500 Ma or even earlier, becoming a significant component of the atmosphere from about 2000 Ma. Thereafter banded iron formations became rare, and iron was deposited in oxidized red beds. Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen have varied during the Phanerozoic: major changes may have caused extinctions. particularly the Permian/Triassic. The declining greenhouse effect due to the long-term decrease in carbon dioxide has largely offset increasing solar luminosity, and changes in carbon dioxide levels relate strongly to cycles of glaciation.

  5. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  6. Att Tolka Barns Signaler: Gravt utvecklingsstorda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation (To Interpret Childrens' Signals: Play and Communication in Profoundly Mentally Retarded and Multiply Handicapped Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane

    Written in Swedish with an English-language summary, this report describes a study which examined the interaction between mothers or caregivers and their children with profound mental retardation and multiple disabilities, particularly looking at the function of play in communicative interaction. The six children all had five or six handicaps in…

  7. Physical health issues in adults with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities : A systematic review of cross-sectional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmeren, van Dinette; van der Schans, C. P.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, H. A.; Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; Waninge, A.

    BackgroundPeople with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) encounter several risk factors associated with higher mortality rates. They are also likely to experience a cluster of health problems related to the severe brain damage/dysfunction. In order to earlier detect

  8. Supporting Children with Severe-to-Profound Learning Difficulties and Complex Communication Needs to Make Their Views Known: Observation Tools and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathead, Scot; Yates, Rhiannon; Hill, Vivian; Kenny, Lorcan; Croydon, Abigail; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    All children have the right to shape decisions that influence their lives. Yet, children with severe-to-profound intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs are often marginalized from this process. Here, we examined the utility of a set of tools incorporating ethnographic and structured observational methods with three such…

  9. Look closer : The alertness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during multi-sensory storytelling, a time sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the

  10. A good read : A study into the use and effects of multi-sensory storytelling; a storytelling method for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brug, Annet

    2015-01-01

    In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the

  11. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility : A pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention.

  12. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  13. The use of a Multisensory Environment for Assessment of Sensory Abilities and Preferences in Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla; Schuivens, Evelyne

    Background To offer appropriate activities within the curriculum for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is a challenge. An important determinant of the adequacy of an activity is whether teachers have detailed and specific knowledge about the sensory abilities and

  14. Feasibility, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…

  15. Becoming Aware of What You Know or Need to Know: Gathering Client and Context Characteristics in Day Services for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, C.; Hiemstra, S. J.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with profound and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are dependent on staff to be sufficiently knowledgeable as to provide them with appropriate day services. One important determinant of the appropriateness and adequacy of a day support program is the level to which staff have detailed and specific knowledge about the functional abilities and…

  16. Supporting End of Life Decision Making: Case Studies of Relational Closeness in Supported Decision Making for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions.…

  17. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  18. Relabelling Behaviour. The Effects of Psycho-Education on the Perceived Severity and Causes of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…

  19. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  20. Parents' Experiences of Collaborating with Professionals in the Support of Their Child with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L. G.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. Method: A…

  1. Effects of Inservice Teacher Training on Correct Implementation of Assessment and Instructional Procedures for Teachers of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Erin L.; Morgan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A multicomponent training package (live training, video modeling, role playing, and feedback) was used to train teachers to conduct assessment and to instruct students with profound multiple disabilities. Phase 1 of the study involved training seven teachers to conduct assessment in three areas: (a) preference assessment (i.e., identification of…

  2. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  3. Learn and Apply: Using Multi-Sensory Storytelling to Gather Knowledge about Preferences and Abilities of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities--Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead…

  4. Multi-Sensory Rooms: Comparing Effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference Environment on the Behavior of Adults with Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N = 27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were…

  5. The Tell-Tale: What Do Heart Rate; Skin Temperature and Skin Conductance Reveal about Emotions of People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2012-01-01

    Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement…

  6. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  7. Specific needs of families of young adults with profound intellectual disability during and after transition to adulthood: What are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present

  8. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  9. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  10. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; Díaz, I.; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz, Iván; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  13. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2011-01-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...

  14. The relationship between challenging behaviours, mood and interest/pleasure in adults with severe and profound intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A M; Visconti, K J; Csorba, J; Radvanyi, K; Rojahn, J

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether current mood and interest/pleasure ratings in adults with moderate to profound intellectual disabilities were predictive of challenging behaviour [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), aggressive/destructive behaviour and stereotypic behaviour] and vice versa. In this combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study, staff members of a Hungarian residential facility completed translated versions of the Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S), the Challenging Behaviour Interview (CBI) and the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire-Short Form (MIPQ-S) for 50 participants at two time points, approximately 4 to 5 months apart. Bivariate correlations from data concurrently assessed at Time-1 showed significant linear relationships between the SIB (both frequency and severity scores) and Interest/Pleasure sub-scales, and the Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour (severity scores) and the MIPQ-S Mood sub-scales (unadjusted for multiple correlations). All of these effects were found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Multiple regression analyses revealed that (1) low interest/pleasure assessed at Time-1 predicted high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-2. (2) Interest/pleasure was not predictive of aggressive or stereotypic behaviour. (3) Mood at Time-1 did not predict any of the three types of behaviour problems at Time-2. (4) In reverse, high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-1 predicted low interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. (5) Surprisingly, frequent aggressive/destructive behaviour predicted high interest/pleasure. (6) Stereotypic behaviour scores at Time-1 did not predict interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. Again, all of these effects were only found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Hungarian versions of all three questionnaires had generally satisfactory outcomes. The fact that increasingly frequent and severe SIB was predicted by declining

  15. Atmospheric Composition Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-26

    9fI urpAt .~~~ — 7. A THOR(a) 9. CON I RACT OR GRANT HUM BER(.) ! ~~~~~~~~ /otis 7 ~~ ~~F 1962~~~ 4~~~~~~ 1 H 9. FoRMING ORGANIZATION NAN NO...objective of the Upper Atmosphere Re- search Program is the acquisition of 1- nowledge of the ohysica] and chemica ) properties and phenomena of the vitally

  16. Atmospheric gas phase reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Ulrich

    This chapter introduces the underlying physicochemical principles and the relevance of atmospheric gas phase reactions. In particular, reaction orders, the concept of elementary reactions, definition of and factors determining reaction rates (kinetic theory of chemical reactions), and photochemical reactions are discussed. Sample applications of the pertinent reaction pathways in tropospheric chemistry are presented, particularly reactions involving free radicals (OH, NO3, halogen oxides) and their roles in the self-cleaning of the troposphere. The cycles of nitrogen and sulfur species as well as the principles of tropospheric ozone formation are introduced. Finally, the processes governing the stratospheric ozone layer (Chapman Cycle and extensions) are discussed.

  17. MOBILE ATMOSPHERIC SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric quality dramatically deteriorates over the past decades around themetropolitan areas of China. Due to the coal combustion, industrial air pollution, vehicle waste emission, etc., the public health suffers from exposure to such air pollution as fine particles of particulates, sulfur and carbon dioxide, etc. Many meteorological stations have been built to monitor the condition of air quality over the city. However, they are installed at fixed sites and cover quite a small region. The monitoring results of these stations usually do NOT coincide with the public perception of the air quality. This paper is motivated to mimic the human breathing along the citys transportation network by the mobile sensing vehicle of atmospheric quality. To obtain the quantitative perception of air quality, the Environmental Monitoring Vehicle of Wuhan University (EMV-WHU has been developed to automatically collect the data of air pollutants. The EMV-WHU is equipped with GPS/IMU, sensors of PM2.5, carbon dioxide, anemometer, temperature, humidity, noise, and illumination, as well as the visual and infrared camera. All the devices and sensors are well collaborated with the customized synchronization mechanism. Each sort of atmospheric data is accompanied with the uniform spatial and temporal label of high precision. Different spatial and data-mining techniques, such as spatial correlation analysis, logistic regression, spatial clustering, are employed to provide the periodic report of the roadside air quality. With the EMV-WHU, constant collection of the atmospheric data along the Luoyu Road of Wuhan city has been conducted at the daily peak and non-peak time for half a year. Experimental results demonstrated that the EMV is very efficient and accurate for the perception of air quality. Comparative findings with the meteorological stations also show the intelligence of big data analysis and mining of all sorts of EMV measurement of air quality. It is

  18. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  19. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  20. Atmospheric mercury—An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, William H.; Munthe, John

    This paper presents a broad overview and synthesis of current knowledge and understanding pertaining to all major aspects of mercury in the atmosphere. The significant physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of this element and its environmentally relebant species encountered in the atmosphere are examined. Atmospheric pathways and processes considered herein include anthropogenic as well as natural sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere, aerial transport and dispersion (including spatial and temporal variability), atmospheric transformations (both physical and chemical types), wet and dry removal/deposition processes to Earth's surface. In addition, inter-compartmental (air-water/soil/vegetation) transfer and biogeochemical cycling of mercury are considered and discussed. The section on numerical modelling deals with atmospheric transport models as well as process-oriented models. Important gaps in our current knowledge of mercury in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future areas of research are offered.

  1. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  2. Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, A

    2000-01-01

    Future experiments focusing on atmospheric neutrino detection are reviewed. One of the main goals of these experiments is the detection of an unambiguous oscillation pattern (nu_mu reappearance) to prove the oscillation hypothesis. Further goals include the discrimination of nu_mu - nu_tau and nu_mu - nu_sterile oscillations, and the detection of a potential small nu_mu - nu_e contribution. The search for matter effects in three or more flavour oscillations can be used to constrain hybrid oscillation models and potentially measure the sign of delta m^2. The detectors and measurement techniques proposed to achieve these goals are described, and their physics reach is discussed.

  3. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    photosynthetically fixing it into their tissues.  To calculate the atmospheric conductance or mass transfer  coefficient in vegetated fields of  maize  we used...uptake through aerodynamic and leaf boundary layers and the stomata of  maize  at  field scale as determined by continuous stable isotope measurements... digestion  with specific homing endonucleases (Figure 4).  Completion of the triple vector construction of mmoX, Y and Z in E. coli was confirmed by PCR

  4. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  5. Prevalence of Mutations in Deafness-Causing Genes in Cochlear Implanted Patients with Profound Nonsyndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianfen; Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengguo; Xiao, Yun; Gu, Lintao; Han, Yuechen; Fan, Zhaomin; Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    The mutations of GJB2, SLC26A4, and mtDNA12SrRNA are the most common inherited causes of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) in China, yet previous genetic screenings were mainly carried on patients with moderate-to-profound impairment. We aimed to detect the mutation frequencies in NSHL population within a more specified range of severity. Patients with profound NSHL who had undergone cochlear implantation in the Shandong Provincial Hospital (Shandong, China) were recruited. The majority (n  =  472) were between 0.7 and 6 years old, and the remaining (n  =  63) were between 6 and 70 years old. In total, 115 mutation alleles of the three genes were screened with SNP scan assay. Of the patients, 19.44% (104/535) were found to have GJB2 mutations, and the most common allele was c.235delC, followed by c.299_300delAT and c.109G>A. SLC26A4 mutations were detected in 13.46% patients (72/535), and the most common allele was c.919-2A>G (IVS7-2A>G), followed by c.1174A>T and c.2168A>G. Seven patients (1.31%) carried mutations in mtDNA12SrRNA, with the alleles of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T. We found the allele frequency of c.109G>A (GJB2) was relatively lower in the profound NSHL population in comparison to the moderate-to-profound ones, and the c.1174A>T (SLC26A4) relatively higher. It suggests those mutations may be connected with the degree of deafness, which needs more observations and analyses to support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  6. New speech tests reveal benefit of wide-dynamic-range, fast-acting compression for consonant discrimination in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Josephine E; Moore, Brian C J

    2003-10-01

    Fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) has been shown to give better discrimination of soft speech and shouted speech than linear amplification for moderately hearing-impaired young adults. For severe and profound hearing losses, higher compression ratios are needed. The resultant distortion of the temporal envelope and reduced modulation depth may offset improvements in audibility offered by WDRC. This study compares the effectiveness of WDRC and linear amplification for children with different degrees of hearing loss. Pre-recorded tests of closed-set consonant confusions and open-set word recognition were developed to assess performance. Three groups of subjects (aged 4-14 years) with moderate (51-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB) and profound (91-115 dB) hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids programmed with WDRC or linear amplification. The frequency response was adjusted to match each child's own hearing aid prescription. For each group, stimuli were presented both in quiet and in noise at levels chosen to avoid floor and ceiling effects. Consonant confusion scores for the profound and severe groups combined and for the moderate group were significantly better with WDRC than with linear amplification. Open-set test results showed greater variability. Although mean scores were higher for WDRC than for linear processing, the effects were of marginal statistical significance.

  7. Factors influencing speech and language outcomes of children with early identified severe/profound hearing loss: Clinician-identified facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Anne Nivelles; Purcell, Alison; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Early identification of severe/profound childhood hearing loss (HL) gives these children access to hearing devices and early intervention to facilitate improved speech and language outcomes. Predicting which infants will go on to achieve such outcomes remains difficult. This study describes clinician identified malleable and non-malleable factors that may influence speech and language outcomes for children with severe/profound HL. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six experienced auditory verbal clinicians. A collective case study design was implemented. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using constant comparative analysis. Clinicians identified that, for children with severe/profound HL, early identification, early amplification and commencing auditory-verbal intervention under 6 months of age may facilitate child progress. Possible barriers were living in rural/remote areas, the clinicians' lack of experience and confidence in providing intervention for infants under age 6-months and belonging to a family with a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The results indicate that multiple factors need to be considered by clinicians working with children with HL and their families to determine how each child functions within their own environment and personal contexts, consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Such an approach is likely to empower clinicians to carefully balance potential barriers to, and facilitators of, optimal speech and language outcomes for all children with HL.

  8. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  9. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Florian M; Lorenz, Ingrid; Lorch, Annette; Constable, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85) are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  10. Speech perception, production and intelligibility in French-speaking children with profound hearing loss and early cochlear implantation after congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, L; Ettienne, V; Prang, I; Couloigner, V; Garabedian, E-N; Loundon, N

    2015-12-01

    To analyze speech in children with profound hearing loss following congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection with cochlear implantation (CI) before the age of 3 years. In a cohort of 15 children with profound hearing loss, speech perception, production and intelligibility were assessed before and 3 years after CI; variables impacting results were explored. Post-CI, median word recognition was 74% on closed-list and 48% on open-list testing; 80% of children acquired speech production; and 60% were intelligible for all listeners or listeners attentive to lip-reading and/or aware of the child's hearing loss. Univariate analysis identified 3 variables (mean post-CI hearing threshold, bilateral vestibular areflexia, and brain abnormality on MRI) with significant negative impact on the development of speech perception, production and intelligibility. CI showed positive impact on hearing and speech in children with post-cCMV profound hearing loss. Our study demonstrated the key role of maximizing post-CI hearing gain. A few children had insufficient progress, especially in case of bilateral vestibular areflexia and/or brain abnormality on MRI. This led us to suggest that balance rehabilitation and speech therapy should be intensified in such cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  12. submitter The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a ...

  13. Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-11-01

    In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

  14. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of

  16. Enhanced priming of old, not new soil carbon at elevated atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, Mette; Reinsch, Sabine; Bengtson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact the atmos......Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact...... the atmospheric CO2 concentration profoundly. In many ecosystems, including the heath/grassland system studied here, increased plant production at elevated CO2 increase fresh C input from litter and root exudates to the soil and concurrently decrease soil N availability. Supply of labile C to the soil may...... CO2 exposure. Further, we hypothesized that long-term warming would enhance SOC priming rates, whereas drought would decrease the priming response.We incubated soil from a long-term, full-factorial climate change field experiment, with the factors elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming...

  17. Cation-Anion Interactions within the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere Revealed by Ion Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebala, Magdalena; Giambaşu, George M; Lipfert, Jan; Bisaria, Namita; Bonilla, Steve; Li, Guangchao; York, Darrin M; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-11-25

    The ion atmosphere is a critical structural, dynamic, and energetic component of nucleic acids that profoundly affects their interactions with proteins and ligands. Experimental methods that "count" the number of ions thermodynamically associated with the ion atmosphere allow dissection of energetic properties of the ion atmosphere, and thus provide direct comparison to theoretical results. Previous experiments have focused primarily on the cations that are attracted to nucleic acid polyanions, but have also showed that anions are excluded from the ion atmosphere. Herein, we have systematically explored the properties of anion exclusion, testing the zeroth-order model that anions of different identity are equally excluded due to electrostatic repulsion. Using a series of monovalent salts, we find, surprisingly, that the extent of anion exclusion and cation inclusion significantly depends on salt identity. The differences are prominent at higher concentrations and mirror trends in mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte solutions. Salts with lower activity coefficients exhibit greater accumulation of both cations and anions within the ion atmosphere, strongly suggesting that cation-anion correlation effects are present in the ion atmosphere and need to be accounted for to understand electrostatic interactions of nucleic acids. To test whether the effects of cation-anion correlations extend to nucleic acid kinetics and thermodynamics, we followed the folding of P4-P6, a domain of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme, via single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer in solutions with different salts. Solutions of identical concentration but lower activity gave slower and less favorable folding. Our results reveal hitherto unknown properties of the ion atmosphere and suggest possible roles of oriented ion pairs or anion-bridged cations in the ion atmosphere for electrolyte solutions of salts with reduced activity. Consideration of these new results leads to

  18. Cation–Anion Interactions within the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere Revealed by Ion Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebala, Magdalena; Giambasu, George M.; Lipfert, Jan; Bisaria, Namita; Bonilla, Steve; Li, Guangchao; York, Darrin M.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The ion atmosphere is a critical structural, dynamic, and energetic component of nucleic acids that profoundly affects their interactions with proteins and ligands. Experimental methods that “count” the number of ions thermodynamically associated with the ion atmosphere allow dissection of energetic properties of the ion atmosphere, and thus provide direct comparison to theoretical results. Previous experiments have focused primarily on the cations that are attracted to nucleic acid polyanions, but have also showed that anions are excluded from the ion atmosphere. Herein, we have systematically explored the properties of anion exclusion, testing the zeroth-order model that anions of different identity are equally excluded due to electrostatic repulsion. Using a series of monovalent salts, we find, surprisingly, that the extent of anion exclusion and cation inclusion significantly depends on salt identity. The differences are prominent at higher concentrations and mirror trends in mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte solutions. Salts with lower activity coefficients exhibit greater accumulation of both cations and anions within the ion atmosphere, strongly suggesting that cation–anion correlation effects are present in the ion atmosphere and need to be accounted for to understand electrostatic interactions of nucleic acids. To test whether the effects of cation–anion correlations extend to nucleic acid kinetics and thermodynamics, we followed the folding of P4–P6, a domain of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme, via single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer in solutions with different salts. Solutions of identical concentration but lower activity gave slower and less favorable folding. Our results reveal hitherto unknown properties of the ion atmosphere and suggest possible roles of oriented ion pairs or anion-bridged cations in the ion atmosphere for electrolyte solutions of salts with reduced activity. Consideration of these new

  19. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  20. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  1. Atmospheres of hot alien Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents observations of exoplanets orbiting very close to their parent star, with a particular focus on a novel technique for characterizing their atmospheres. This is based on the use of high-resolution spectroscopy from the ground. The first detection of the atmosphere of a

  2. atmospheric transparency under harmattan conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-20

    May 20, 2006 ... air, the transparency of the atmosphere is also strongly dependent on the elevation angle of the sun. Hence, to contrast the atmospheric transmission characteristics in the two harmattan conditions, measurements made at the same solar elevation (42. °) and optical air mass (m, = 1.5) have been used.

  3. Cutoff frequencies for Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B. L. Harsha Kalpanie

    theoretical evidence for the existence of local and global cutoff frequencies for Alfven waves propagating in both isothermal and in more realistic non-isothermal solar atmospheres. The existence of these cutoffs has profound implications on the energy and momentum transport in the solar atmosphere and the role of Alfven waves in heating of the solar atmosphere, as well as in acceleration of the solar wind.

  4. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M Trefz

    Full Text Available Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH < 6.85. When exclusively considering laboratory parameters, classification tree analysis identified plasma glucose concentrations < 3.2 mmol/L, plasma sodium concentrations ≥ 151 mmol/L, serum GGT activity < 31 U/L and a thrombocyte count < 535 G/L as predictors of mortality. However, multivariable logistic regression models based on these laboratory parameters did not have a sufficiently high enough sensitivity (59% and specificity (79% to reliably predict treatment outcome. The sensitivity and specificity of jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 were 11% and 97%, respectively, for predicting non-survival in this study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  5. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossink, Leontien Wm; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention. Pilot randomised controlled trial. A large-scale twenty-four-hour residential facility in the Netherlands. Thirty-seven persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Participants in the intervention group received a power-assisted exercise intervention three times a week for thirty minutes over a twenty-week period. Participants in the control group received care as usual. Trial feasibility by recruitment process and outcomes completion rates; intervention feasibility by programme compliance rates; potential outcomes by functional abilities, alertness, body composition, muscle tone, oxygen saturation, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life. Thirty-seven participants were recruited ( M age = 32.1, SD = 14.6) and were randomly allocated to intervention ( n = 19) and control ( n = 18) groups. Programme compliance rates ranged from 54.2% to 97.7% with a mean (SD) of 81.5% (13.4). Oxygen saturation significantly increased in the intervention group. Standardised effect sizes on the difference between groups in outcome varied between 0.02 and 0.62. The power-assisted exercise intervention and the trial design were feasible and acceptable to people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility. This pilot study suggests that the intervention improves oxygen saturation, but further implementation with the aim of improving other outcomes should be considered with caution.

  6. Vibroacoustic sound therapy: case studies with children with profound and multiple learning difficulties and the elderly in long-term residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy, an approach which is being developed for use in special schools for children with profound and multiple learning difficulties, and in long-term care homes for the elderly and the elderly mentally infirm. Using non-invasive techniques and music/sound technology, children and the elderly are being empowered and enabled to (re)discover self expression and communication skills. Two case studies drawn from the world of the young disabled, and from the elderly, illustrate the potential for improving quality of life and well-being in these institutional settings.

  7. Chasing Neoproterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen Ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Dahl, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric oxygen has been considered a necessary condition for the evolution of animal life for over half a century. While direct proxies for atmospheric oxygen are difficult to obtain, a number of indirect proxies have been giving us a ghost image of rising atmospheric oxygen at the close of the Precambrian. In this context, redox sensitive elements and isotopes represent the hallmark for a significant reduction in anoxic areas of the world ocean, implicating a significant rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Here, we test to what degree redox sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments are proxies of atmospheric oxygen. We model the redox-chemical evolution of the shelf seas and ocean using a combination of 3D high resolution shelf sea models and a simpler global ocean biogeochemical model including climate weathering feedbacks, a free sea level and parameterized icecaps. We find that ecosystem evolution would have resulted in reorganization of the nutrient and redox balance of the shelf-ocean system causing a significant increase in oxygenated areas that permitted a boosting of trace metal concentrations in the remaining anoxic areas. While this reorganization takes place there is limited net change in the modelled atmospheric oxygen, warning us against interpreting changing trace metal concentrations and isotopes as reflecting a rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  8. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  9. Scientific investigations of atmospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Research was performed in atmospheric, dynamical, and thermodynamical processes and in other disciplines necessary to accomplish the following tasks: develop procedures for combining generalized radiative transfer codes with dynamic atmospheric model codes; perform diagnostic analysis of atmospheric processes to gain a better understanding of the evolution and development of mesoscale circulation systems and their precipitation structures; and to develop algorithms and software necessary to graphically display diagnostic sets on the MSFC McIDAS and EADS to facilitate scientific study and sensor capability evaluation. Research activities during this reporting period are detailed.

  10. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  11. Evidence for an increase in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in the late twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Mike; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, Bill; Reeves, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH, is the dominant sink for the majority of trace gases in the troposphere. Thus, it plays a major role in controlling atmospheric chemical composition. However despite this importance there remains much uncertainty as to whether concentrations of OH have changed in the background atmosphere in recent decades. It has previously been reported that recent levels of OH in the troposphere (1997-2008) are well buffered against changes in atmospheric composition (Montzka et al., 2011). We present two independent records that suggest that there was a significant increase in concentrations of the OH radical in the northern hemisphere during the last two decades of the twentieth century. Measurements from Greenland firn air of the changing ratios of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane and iso-pentane were compared using a photochemical clock method. Using these changing ratios we calculate an increase in the chemical processing of the air (i.e. [OH].t) between 1980 and 2000. Assuming t to be constant this provides a semi-quantitative historic record of OH concentrations. Furthermore, measurements of three alkyl nitrates (also from Greenland firn air), secondary oxidation products of the alkanes, suggest an increase in the [NO]/[HO2] ratio in the background atmosphere. This could be indicative of increasing NOx concentrations during this period, which would be consistent with increasing [OH]. These two records are further corroborated by comparison with the long term trend in increasing ozone mixing ratios from background European sites. Knowledge of historic changes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is fundamental to understanding the atmospheric records of trace gases and to determining historic trace gas emissions using top-down approaches. The results presented here have profound implications for our understanding of atmospheric composition in the past, the present and for predicting the future evolution of the atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  13. Measurement tools for mental health problems and mental well-being in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Samantha; Vereenooghe, Leen; Hastings, Richard P; Adams, Dawn; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Gore, Nick; Hatton, Chris; Hood, Kerry; Jahoda, Andrew; Langdon, Peter E; McNamara, Rachel; Oliver, Chris; Roy, Ashok; Totsika, Vasiliki; Waite, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Mental health problems affect people with intellectual disabilities (ID) at rates similar to or in excess of the non-ID population. People with severe ID are likely to have persistent mental health problems. In this systematic review (PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015024469), we identify and evaluate the methodological quality of available measures of mental health problems or well-being in individuals with severe or profound ID. Electronic searches of ten databases identified relevant publications. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved records (n=41,232) and full-text articles (n=573). Data were extracted and the quality of included papers was appraised. Thirty-two papers reporting on 12 measures were included. Nine measures addressed a broad spectrum of mental health problems, and were largely observational. One physiological measure of well-being was included. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped Scale-II and Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire are reliable measures in this population. However, the psychometric properties of six other measures were only considered within a single study - indicating a lack of research replication. Few mental health measures are available for people with severe or profound ID, particularly lacking are tools measuring well-being. Assessment methods that do not rely on proxy reports should be explored further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Xq22 inversion breakpoint interrupted a novel Ras-like GTPase gene in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Masahiro; Agarwala, Kishan Lal; Hayashi, Masaharu; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imoto, Issei; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inazawa, Johji

    2002-09-01

    A male patient with profound mental retardation, athetosis, nystagmus, and severe congenital hypotonia (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD]) was previously shown to carry a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome, 46,Y,inv(X)(p21.2q22.2). His mother carried this inversion on one X allele. The patient's condition was originally misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy, and only later was it diagnosed as DMD. Because the DMD gene is located at Xp21.2, which is one breakpoint of the inv(X), and because its defects are rarely associated with severe mental retardation, the other clinical features of this patient were deemed likely to be associated with the opposite breakpoint at Xq22. Our precise molecular-cytogenetic characterization of both breakpoints revealed three catastrophic genetic events that had probably influenced neuromuscular and cognitive development: deletion of part of the DMD gene at Xp21.2, duplication of the human proteolipid protein gene (PLP) at Xq22.2, and disruption of a novel gene. The latter sequence, showing a high degree of homology to the Sec4 gene of yeast, encoded a putative small guanine-protein, Ras-like GTPase that we have termed "RLGP." Immunocytochemistry located RLGP at mitochondria. We speculate that disruption of RLGP was responsible for the patient's profound mental retardation.

  15. Simultaneous Labyrinthectomy and Cochlear Implantation for Patients with Single-Sided Ménière’s Disease and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Doobe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the treatment outcome of a simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation in patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Prospective study. Method. Five patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease with active vertigo and functional deafness were included. In all cases, simultaneous cochlear implantation combined with labyrinthectomy surgery was performed. The outcome has been evaluated by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and speech recognition. Results. The combined labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation led in all patients to a highly significant reduction of dizziness up to a restitutio ad integrum. After activation of the cochlear implant and rehabilitation, a mean monosyllabic speech understanding of 69% at 65 dB was observed. Conclusion. For patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss the simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation are efficient method for the treatment of vertigo as well as the rehabilitation of the auditory system.

  16. Venus: Jet-setting atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain

    2017-09-01

    A fast equatorial jet in the Venusian cloud layer has been revealed by the Akatsuki orbiter by tracking cloud movement in near-infrared images. The findings suggest that the Venusian atmosphere is more variable than previously thought.

  17. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  18. Fungistatic Effects of Controlled Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Neil A.; Wankier, Bartley N.; Salunkhe, D. K.; Mcgill, J. N.

    1966-01-01

    The fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres composed of increased CO2 and decreased O2 was studied in a manner such that the condition of stored fruit was not a factor in the growth of the fungi. Varying concentrations of O2 and CO2 were used. The fungi used were Botrytis alli, Rhizopus nigricans, and Penicillium expansum. The results showed that controlled atmospheres, within the limits of concentrations usable for fruit storage, are effective fungistatic agents. PMID:5951331

  19. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  20. Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (