Saha, Sumit; Shahiwala, Aliasgar F
With the advancement of tablet manufacturing process, the demand of excipients with improved functionalities, mainly in terms of flow and compression properties, has increased. Coprocessed excipients are a mixture of two or more existing excipients at subparticle level, offer substantial benefits of the incorporated excipients and minimize their drawbacks. These multipurpose excipients have dramatically reduced the number of incorporating excipients in the tablet. The present review discusses the potential advantages of coprocessing and coprocessed excipients, material characteristics required for coprocessing, methods of coprocessing and various coprocessed excipients for direct compression available in the market.
Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko
We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.
Vanhoorne, V; Peeters, E; Van Snick, B; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
A continuous crystal coating method was developed to improve both flowability and tabletability of powders. The method includes the introduction of solid, dry particles into an atomized spray during spray drying in order to coat and agglomerate individual particles. Paracetamol was used as a model drug as it exhibits poor flowability and high capping tendency upon compaction. The particle size enlargement and flowability were evaluated by the mean median particle size and flow index of the resulting powders. The crystal coating coprocessing method was successful for the production of powders containing 75% paracetamol with excellent tableting properties. However, the extent of agglomeration achieved during coprocessing was limited. Tablets compressed on a rotary tablet press in manual mode showed excellent compression properties without capping tendency. A formulation with 75% paracetamol, 5% PVP and 20% amorphous lactose yielded a tensile strength of 1.9 MPa at a compression pressure of 288 MPa. The friability of tablets compressed at 188 MPa was only 0.6%. The excellent tabletability of this formulation was attributed to the coating of paracetamol crystals with amorphous lactose and PVP through coprocessing and the presence of brittle and plastic components in the formulation. The coprocessing method was also successfully applied for the production of directly compressible lactose showing improved tensile strength and friability in comparison to a spray dried direct compression lactose grade.
Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and improved colorimetric method for the assay of reserpine in tablets. Method: The method is based on the aromatic ring coupling of reserpine with 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene diazonium ion with the consequent formation of an azo adduct. Optimization of reaction conditions and ...
Baumgart, Daniel C; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike
Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP® (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test (Tablet PC with custom multimedia education software package) or traditional education (control) group, respectively. All completed an extensive questionnaire to collect their socio-demographic data, evaluate educational status, computer affinity and skills, problem solving, eLearning knowledge and self-rated medical knowledge. Both groups were MKSAP® tested at the beginning and the end of their rotation. The MKSAP® score at the final exam was the primary endpoint. Data of 55 (tablet n = 24, controls n = 31) male 36.4%, median age 28 years, 65.5% students, were evaluable. The mean MKSAP® score improved in the tablet PC (score Δ + 8 SD: 11), but not the control group (score Δ- 7, SD: 11), respectively. After adjustment for baseline score and confounders the Tablet PC group showed on average 11% better MKSAP® test results compared to the control group (pmedical problem solving were journal articles looked up on PubMed or Google®, and books. Our study provides evidence, that tablet computer based integrated training and clinical practice enhances medical education and exam performance. Larger, multicenter trials are required to independently validate our data. Residency and fellowship directors are encouraged to consider adding portable computer devices, multimedia content and introduce blended learning to their respective training programs.
Schacter, John; Jo, Booil
With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.
Juul, Kristian Vinter; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; Goble, Sandra; Walle, Johan Vande; Nørgaard, Jens Peter
Primary nocturnal enuresis is a prevalent childhood condition that can persist into adulthood. Desmopressin is an antidiuretic available as orally disintegrating lyophilisate (melt) or solid tablet. Recent findings suggesting different food interactions and clinical characteristics, including compliance, between desmopressin melt and tablet motivated a post hoc analysis of a previously reported randomised, crossover study. The efficacy of desmopressin melt compared with tablet was evaluated using the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) responder definitions. Compliance was further analysed using detailed criteria, and the association between efficacy and compliance was examined. In total, 221 patients aged 5-15 years, already receiving desmopressin tablets were randomised to the treatment sequence melt (120/240 μg)/tablet (0.2/0.4 mg) or tablet/melt in two consecutive 3-week periods. The probability of being a responder (partial or full) during either period was significantly more likely with desmopressin melt compared with tablet (odds ratio, 2.0; confidence intervals, 1.07-3.73; p = 0.03). There was no period effect on compliance in the tablet/melt sequence and no difference in the number of completely compliant patients in each formulation group; however, more patients were >75 % compliant in period 1 compared with period 2 in the melt/tablet sequence. Increased compliance was associated with greater reductions in the number of wet nights for both formulations. Desmopressin melt, compared with tablet, improves the probability of being a responder. Switching from tablet to melt formulation increased patient compliance. Increased compliance was associated with increased efficacy. Switching to desmopressin melt may benefit patients with suboptimal responses to desmopressin tablet.
Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…
Furness, Nicholas D; Bradford, Oliver J; Paterson, Maurice P
Tablets are becoming commonplace in the health care setting. Patients often request to view their radiographs after sustaining trauma. This can be challenging, especially if patients are immobile. The authors performed a prospective, questionnaire-based study to assess inpatient desire to view radiographs on tablets and whether viewing images affected patient-rated outcomes of understanding and satisfaction. Enabling trauma patients to view their images on a tablet is a worthwhile practice because it improves patient involvement in decision making, satisfaction, perceived understanding, and overall experience. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Adamczyk, Bożena; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie
High-dose API powders which are to be tableted by direct compression should have high compactibility and compressibility. This note reports on a novel approach to the manufacture of crystalline powders intended for direct compaction with improved compactibility and compressibility properties. The poorly compactable API, chlorothiazide, was spray dried from a water/acetone solvent mix producing additive-free nanocrystalline microparticles (NCMPs) of median particle size 3.5 μm. Tablets compacted from NCMPs had tensile strengths ranging from 0.5 to 4.6 MPa (compared to 0.6-0.9 MPa for tablets of micronised CTZ) at compression forces ranging from 6 kN to 13 kN. NCMP tablets also had high porosities (34-20%) and large specific surface areas (4.4-4.8m(2)/g). The time taken for tablets made of NCMPs to erode was not statistically longer (p>0.05) than for tablets made of micronised CTZ. Fragmentation of NCMPs on compression was observed. The volume fraction of particles below 1 μm present in the suspension recovered after erosion of NCMP tablets was 34.8±3.43%, while no nanosized particles were detected in the slurry after erosion of compacted micronised CTZ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baumgart, Daniel C.; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike
Background Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP? (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. Methods In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test ...
Buys, Gerhard M; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Andries F; Kotze, Awie F; Hamman, Josias H
Chitosan is a polymer derived from chitin that is widely available at relatively low cost, but due to compression challenges it has limited application for the production of direct compression tablets. The aim of this study was to use certain process and formulation variables to improve manufacturing of tablets containing chitosan as bulking agent. Chitosan particle size and flow properties were determined, which included bulk density, tapped density, compressibility and moisture uptake. The effect of process variables (i.e. compression force, punch depth, percentage compaction in a novel double fill compression process) and formulation variables (i.e. type of glidant, citric acid, pectin, coating with Eudragit S®) on chitosan tablet performance (i.e. mass variation, tensile strength, dissolution) was investigated. Moisture content of the chitosan powder, particle size and the inclusion of glidants had a pronounced effect on its flow ability. Varying the percentage compaction during the first cycle of a double fill compression process produced chitosan tablets with more acceptable tensile strength and dissolution rate properties. The inclusion of citric acid and pectin into the formulation significantly decreased the dissolution rate of isoniazid from the tablets due to gel formation. Direct compression of chitosan powder into tablets can be significantly improved by the investigated process and formulation variables as well as applying a double fill compression process.
井口,郁雄; 増田,游; 高塚,ま由; 小倉, 義郎; 藤本, 明子
Hearing loss in children under school age adversely effects speech and personality development. It is possible to improve conductive hearing loss by surgery, but difficult to improve combined hearing loss. The authors succeeded surgically improving the hearing of a 5 year-old boy suffering from speech retardation due to bilateral congenital combined hearing loss. The improvement in hearing aided speech training. He has graduated from schools for the deaf (primary, middle and senior high schoo...
Cong, Wenjuan; Shen, Lan; Xu, Desheng; Zhao, Lijie; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi
Breviscapine, one of cardiovascular drugs extracted from a Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapinus, has been frequently used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and stroke. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability in vivo severely restrict the clinical application. To overcome these drawbacks, breviscapine solid dispersion tablets consisting of breviscapine, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone were appropriately prepared. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that breviscapine released percentage of solid dispersion tablets reached 90 %, whereas it was only 40 % for commercial breviscapine tablets. Comparative pharmacokinetic study between solid dispersion tablets and commercial products was investigated on the normal beagle dogs after oral administration. Results showed that the bioavailability of breviscapine was greatly increased by 3.45-fold for solid dispersion tablets. The greatly improved dissolution rate and bioavailability might be attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding reactions between PVP K30 and scutellarin. These findings suggest that our solid dispersion tablets can greatly improve the bioavailability as well as the dissolution rate of breviscapine.
Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W
Deaf persons have a poorer understanding of cancer prevention, which is felt to be partly due to communication barriers. One hundred ninety-seven d/Deaf persons completed a survey and video on cancer prevention. Half viewed a spoken English program designed for hearing persons (control group); the other half viewed an amended program that had American Sign Language, captions, and printed English options added (experimental group). Knowledge was measured before and after the video, including 1 and 6 months later. Respondents were primarily Caucasian, had low incomes, lost hearing at young ages, and had d/Deaf spouses. Although overall knowledge improved after viewing the video, the presence of culture-specific communications (American Sign Language, captions) did not improve scores compared to the control group, either immediately after the intervention or over time. Moreover, percentage correct on all pretest, and almost all post-test, questions was <50% for both experimental and control groups. For all subjects, regardless of which group they were in, a hearing spouse (p < 0.001) and more healthcare information sources (p = 0.001) improved knowledge, while African-Americans showed a trend to lesser improvement (p = 0.06). Using culture-specific language did not improve cancer prevention knowledge in this d/Deaf population, and overall knowledge remained low. More study is needed to determine the best way to increase cancer prevention knowledge in this population.
Mattsson, Sofia; Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire
Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students' understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students' perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process.
Özbek, Ahmet Bilal; Girli, Alev
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a tablet computer-aided intervention program for improving reading fluency. It also investigates the opinions of students and parents about this intervention by using skill- and performance-based techniques, which have been investigated qualitatively. Three students with a learning…
Callewaert, H; Gysemans, C; Cardozo, A K; Elsner, M; Tiedge, M; Eizirik, D L; Mathieu, C
Islet transplantation is a promising treatment in type 1 diabetes, but the need for chronic immunosuppression is a major hurdle to broad applicability. Ex vivo introduction of agents by lentiviral vectors-improving beta-cell resistance against immune attack-is an attractive path to pursue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissociation of islets to single cells prior to viral infection and reaggregation before transplantation would improve viral transduction efficacy without cytotoxicity. This procedure improved transduction efficacy with a LV-pWPT-CMV-EGFP construct from 11.2 +/- 4.1% at MOI 50 in whole islets to 80.0 +/- 2.8% at MOI 5. Viability (as measured by Hoechst/PI) and functionality (as measured by glucose challenge) remained high. After transplantation, the transfected pseudoislet aggregates remained EGFP positive for more than 90 days and the expression of EGFP colocalized primarily with the insulin-positive beta-cells. No increased vulnerability to immune attack was observed in vitro or in vivo. These data demonstrate that dispersion of islets prior to lentiviral transfection and reaggregation prior to transplantation is a highly efficient way to introduce genes of interest into islets for transplantation purposes in vitro and in vivo, but the amount of beta-cells needed for normalization of glycemia was more than eightfold higher when using dispersed cell aggregates versus unmanipulated islets. The high price to pay to reach stable and strong transgene expression in islet cells is certainly an important cell loss.
Greysen, S Ryan; Khanna, Raman R; Jacolbia, Ronald; Lee, Herman M; Auerbach, Andrew D
Inadequate patient engagement in hospital care inhibits high-quality care and successful transitions to home. Tablet computers may provide opportunities to engage patients, particularly during inactive times between provider visits, tests, and treatments, by providing interactive health education modules as well as access to their personal health record (PHR). We conducted a pilot project to explore inpatient satisfaction with bedside tablets and barriers to usability. Additionally, we evaluated use of these devices to deliver 2 specific Web-based programs: (1) an interactive video to improve inpatient education about hospital safety, and (2) PHR access to promote inpatient engagement in discharge planning. We enrolled 30 patients; 17 (60%) were aged 40 years or older, 17 (60%) were women, 17 (60%) owned smartphones, and 6 (22%) owned tablet computers. Twenty-seven (90%) reported high overall satisfaction with the device, and 26 (87%) required ≤ 30 minutes for basic orientation (70% required ≤ 15 minutes). Twenty-five (83%) independently completed an interactive educational module on hospital patient safety. Twenty-one (70%) accessed their personal health record (PHR) to view their medication list, verify scheduled appointments, or send a message to their primary care physician. Next steps include education on high-risk medications, assessment of discharge barriers, and training clinical staff (such as respiratory therapists, registered nurses, or nurse practitioners) to deliver tablet interventions. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Chattoraj, Sayantan; Shi, Limin; Sun, Changquan Calvin
Poor flow properties hinder the easy handling of powders during industrial-scale processing. In this work, we show that powder flow can be substantially improved by reducing the cohesion of powders by coating them with nanosized guest particles. We further show that comilling is an efficient process for nanocoating. We have systematically investigated the effects of total number of comilling cycles (10-70 cycles) and silica loading (0-1.0 wt %) on the flow behavior of a highly cohesive and poorly flowing grade of microcrystalline cellulose powder (Avicel PH105). Optimum flow enhancement has been achieved with 1.0 wt % silica loading at 40 comilling cycles. The flow properties of nanocoated Avicel PH105 are comparable to those of Avicel PH102, which exhibits adequate flowability for processing on a high-speed tablet press. Comilling is fast and suitable for continuous processing. It shows potential for addressing industrial powder handling problems caused by poor powder flow properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Laborde, Cregan J; Bell, Charreau S; Slaughter, James Chris; Valdastri, Pietro; Obstein, Keith L
Endoscopic training can be challenging for the trainee and preceptor. Frustration can result from ineffective communication regarding areas of interest. Our team developed a novel tablet application for real-time mirroring of the colonoscopy examination that allows preceptors to make annotations directly on the viewing monitor. The potential for improvement in team proficiency and satisfaction is unknown. The on-screen endoscopic image is mirrored to an Android tablet and permits real-time annotation directly on the in-room endoscopic image display. Preceptors can also "freeze-frame" an image and provide visual on-screen instruction (telestration). Trainees, precepted by a GI attending, were 1:1 randomized to perform colonoscopy on a training phantom using the application with traditional precepting or traditional precepting alone. Magnetized polyps (size < 5 mm) were placed in 1 of 5 preset location scenarios. Each trainee performed a total of 10 colonoscopies and completed each location scenario twice. During withdrawal, the trainee and the attending identified polyps. Outcome measures included number of polyps missed and participant satisfaction after each trial. Fifteen trainees (6 novice and 9 GI fellows) performed a total of 150 colonoscopies where 330 polyps in total were placed. Fellows missed fewer polyps using the tablet versus traditional precepting alone (4.2% vs 12.5%; P = .04). There was no significant difference in missed polyps for novices (12.5% vs 18.8%; P = .66). Overall, fellows missed fewer polyps when compared with novices regardless of the precepting method (P = .01). The attending and all trainees reported reduced stress with improved communication using the tablet. Fellows missed fewer polyps using the tablet when compared with traditional endoscopy precepting. All trainees reported reduced stress, quicker identification of polyps, and improved educational satisfaction using the tablet. Our application has the potential to improve
Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika, E-mail: email@example.com
The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.
Kaialy, Waseem; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali
The purpose of this work was to develop stable xylitol particles with modified physical properties, improved compactibility and enhanced pharmaceutical performance without altering polymorphic form of xylitol. Xylitol was crystallized using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various hydrophilic polymer additives, i.e., polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a range of concentrations. The crystallization process did not influence the stable polymorphic form or true density of xylitol. However, botryoidal-shaped crystallized xylitols demonstrated different particle morphologies and lower powder bulk and tap densities in comparison to subangular-shaped commercial xylitol. Xylitol crystallized without additive and xylitol crystallized in the presence of PVP or PVA demonstrated significant improvement in hardness of directly compressed tablets; however, such improvement was observed to lesser extent for xylitol crystallized in the presence of PEG. Crystallized xylitols produced enhanced dissolution profiles for indomethacin in comparison to original xylitol. The influence of additive concentration on tablet hardness was dependent on the type of additive, whereas an increased concentration of all additives provided an improvement in the dissolution behavior of indomethacin. Antisolvent crystallization using judiciously selected type and concentration of additive can be a potential approach to prepare xylitol powders with promising physicomechanical and pharmaceutical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W
The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ
Full Text Available Hee Jun Park,1 Ga Hyeon Lee,1 Joonho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg, and porous calcium silicate (25 mg and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp and disintegration time (14 minutes. The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. Keywords: probiotics, multiple-unit tablet, bacterial viability, acid resistance, intestinal barrier function
Vladi Olga Consiglieri
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve fluconazole flowability by wet granulation and to study the effect of granulation on drug dissolution from tablets and capsules. Fluconazole was submitted to a process of wet granulation in a high-speed granulator using Plasdone® K29/32 or K90. Flow properties of granules and dissolution profiles for tablets and capsules produced with them were determined. Fluconazole granules demonstrated better flowability, calculated by angle of repose and compressibility index data, compared with powder. Additionally, it was observed that the granulation process improved the dissolution efficiency (ED of fluconazole from tablets and capsules, which could also suggest an increase in bioavailability. Higher dissolution efficiencies were achieved with Plasdone® K29/32.O objetivo deste trabalho foi melhorar as características de fluxo do fluconazol com o emprego da granulação úmida e estudar o efeito desse processo na dissolução do fármaco em cápsulas e comprimidos. O fluconazol foi submetido ao processo de granulação úmida num granulador de alta velocidade empregando Plasdone K29/32 e K90. Foram determinadas as propriedades de fluxo dos grânulos e obtidos os perfis de dissolução de cápsulas e comprimidos obtidos com os granulados em estudo. Os grânulos de fluconazol apresentaram melhores características de fluxo após o processamento, demonstradas por meio das determinações do ângulo de repouso e do índice de compressibilidade, comparativamente à matéria-prima. Adicionalmente, observou-se que o processo de granulação melhorou a eficiência de dissolução (ED do fluconazol nos comprimidos e cápsulas.
Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh
Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika
The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD-ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....
Full Text Available Digoxin 0.25 mg tablets were manufactured by pregranulation of lactose-fcorn starch with 10% corn starch paste and deposition of solvent on pregranules to make digoxin granules. In the preparation of tablet A, granules of lactose-corn Starch was uniformly moistened with a 5% chloroform-ethanol solution (2:lv/vof digoxin by a simple blending. Tablet B was produced by spray granulation system on which the solvent was sprayed on the granules of lactose-corn starch by utilization of a laboratory size fluidized bed drier (Uniglatt . The content uniformity and dissolution of both tablets were determined by the spectrofluorometric and radio¬immunoassay (RIA method modified for the assay of tablet solutious. One available commercially brand of digoxin tablet (C was included in dissolution study for comparison. For the spectrofluorometric method the technique is based on the fluor-ometric measurenent of the dehydration product of the cardiotonic steroid resulting from its reaction with hydrogen peroxide in concentrated hydrochloric acid. For the RIA method, the filtrate was diluted to theoretical concentration of 2.5 ng/ml."nAliquots of this dilution were then assayed for digoxin content using a commercial digoxin125 I RIA kit. Results from both assay methods were extrapolated to the total tablet content and compared with the labeled amount of 20 individual tablets. All tablet assay results were within the USP standards for the content uniformity and"ndissolution of individual. The individual tablet deviations from labeled amount by RIA method were smaller when compared with the spectrofluorometric method.There was no significant difference between the release of digoxin from three products, and thus it is suggested that the Procedure B could be easily applied for manufacturing"nof digoxin tablets in industrial scales.It was also concluded that,the RIA method could be used for the digoxin tablet determination.
Full Text Available Aspirin is apt to hydrolyze. In order to improve its stability, a new method has been developed involving the application of hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating. The main aim was to investigate the influence of these factors on the stability of ASA and understand how they work. Satisfactory storage stability were obtained when the aspirin tablet core coated with Eudragit L30D55 film was combined with glycerin monostearate (GMS as an outercoat. Hygroscopicity testing indicated that the moisture penetrating into the tablet may result in a significant change in the physical properties of the coating film observed by scanning electron microscopy. Investigation of the compatibility between the drug and film excipients shows that the talc and methacrylic acid had a significant catalytic effect on ASA. A hypothesis was proposed that the hydrolysis of ASA enteric coated tablets (ASA-ECT was mostly concentrated in the internal film and the interfaces between the film and tablet core. In conclusion, hot-melt coating technology is an alternative to subcoating or outercoating. Also, GMS sub-coating was a better choice for forming a stable barrier between the tablet core and the polymer coating layer, and increases the structure and chemical stability.
Significant improvements in self-reported gastrointestinal tolerability, quality of life, patient satisfaction, and adherence with lopinavir/ritonavir tablet formulation compared with soft gel capsules
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tablet formulation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r; Kaletra® has many advantages over the soft gel capsule (SGC formulation, including lower pill count, no refrigeration requirement, and no dietary restrictions. These advantages may help improve patient compliance and therefore increase adherence to treatment. However, there are limited data regarding patient preferences and only recently was the comparative efficacy and tolerability data of LPV/r SGC versus tablet formulation presented at an international conference. To address this deficit, we conducted a market research survey to assess potential tolerability benefits, patient satisfaction, changes in adherence, and formulation preference in patients switching from SGCs to the tablet formulation. Data from 332 patients who switched from LPV/r SGCs twice-daily (BID to tablets BID and 41 patients who switched from LPV/r SGCs BID or once daily (QD to tablets QD were analyzed. Results Switching from SGCs to a tablet formulation of LPV/r was associated with increased patient satisfaction, tolerability and self-reported adherence to treatment; gastrointestinal side effects were reduced. In addition, respondents indicated that they preferred the tablet formulation to the SGC. Conclusion The LPV/r tablet formulation provides HIV-infected patients with multiple benefits over the SGC in terms of tolerability and convenience. Additional assessments to further define the tolerability profile of the LPV/r tablet, including studies using once-daily dosing, are warranted.
Rujivipat, Soravoot; Bodmeier, Roland
The objective of this study was to develop pH-erosion-controlled compression-coated tablets for potential colonic drug delivery with improved gastric resistance and pulsatile release based on compression-coatings of powder blends of the enteric polymer Eudragit® L100-55 and the extended release polymer ethylcellulose. Tablet cores containing model drugs of varying solubilities (acetaminophen, carbamazepine and chlorpheniramine maleate) were compression-coated with different ratios of Eudragit® L100-55:ethylcellulose 10cP FP at different compression forces and tablet core:compression-coat ratios. The compression-coated tablets were characterized by drug release, media uptake, erosion behaviour and wettability. All drugs were released in a pulsatile fashion in higher pH-media after a lag time, which was controlled by the erosion properties of the Eudragit L:ethylcellulose compression-coating. The addition of ethylcellulose avoided premature drug release in lower pH-media and significantly increased the lag time in higher pH-media because of a reduction in wettability, media uptake and erosion of the compression-coatings. Importantly, ethylcellulose also reduced the pH-dependency of the erosion process between pH 5.5 and 7.4. The lag time could also be increased by increasing the compression force and decreasing the core:compression-coat ratio. In conclusion, tablets compression-coated with blends of Eudragit L and ethylcellulose resulted in excellent release properties for potential targeting to the lower intestinal tract with no release in lower pH-media and rapid release after a controllable lag time in higher pH-media. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study’s objective was to evaluate a patient-centered educational electronic tablet application, My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA to see if there was an increase in patient knowledge about dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT and medication possession ratio (MPR compared to treatment as usual. Methods: In a pilot project, 24 elderly (≥50 years-old research participants were recruited after a Drug Eluting Stent. 11 were randomized to the control arm and 13 to the interventional arm. All participants completed psychological and knowledge questionnaires. Adherence was assessed through MPR, which was calculated at three months for all participants who were scheduled for a second and third follow-up visit.Results: Relative to control, the interventional group had a 10% average increase in MPR. As compared to the interventional group, more patients in the control group had poor adherence (<80% MPR. The psychological data revealed a single imbalance in anxiety between the control and interventional groups. On average interventional participants spent 21 minutes using MyIDEA. Discussion: Consumer health informatics has enabled us to engage patients with their health data using novel methods. Consumer health technology needs to focus more on patient knowledge and engagement to improve long term health. MyIDEA takes a unique approach in targeting DAPT from the onset.Conclusion: MyIDEA leverages patient centered information with clinical care and the electronic health record highlighting the patients’ role as a team member in their own healthcare. The patients think critically about adverse events and how to solve issues before leaving the hospital.
Vaishali Tejas Thakkar
Full Text Available Introduction: The Bacopa monnieri is traditional Ayurvedic medicine, and reported for memory-enhancing effects. The Bacoside is poorly soluble, bitter in taste and responsible for the memory enhancement action. Memory enhancer is commonly prescribed for children or elder people. Objective: Poor solubility, patient compliance and bitterness were a major driving force to develop taste masked β-cyclodextrin complex and dispersible tablets. Materials and Methods: The inclusion complex of Bacopa monnieri and β-cyclodextrin was prepared in different molar ratios of Bacopa monnieri by Co-precipitation method. Phase solubility study was conducted to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrin on aqueous solubility of Bacoside A. The characterization was determined by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR,Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction study (XRD.Crospovidone and croscarmallose sodium were used as super disintigrant.The 32 full factorial design was adopted to investigate the influence of two superdisintegrants on the wetting time and disntegration time of the tablets. Conclusion: The result revels that molar ratio (1:4 of inclusion complex enhance 3-fold solubility. Full factorial design was successfully employed for the optimization of dispersible tablet of B. monnieri . The short-term accelerated stability study confirmed that high stability of B. monnieri in inclusion complex.
Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L; de Vreede, Gert-Jan
Fewer than 50% of middle-aged women participate in regular physical activity (PA). Innovative approaches that engage women who may not otherwise participate in PA programs are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 12-week tablet-based book club for improving middle-aged women's PA. Thirty women (35-64 years of age) were randomized to the Fit Minded Tablet (n=15) and the Standard Fit Minded (i.e., face-to-face intervention) (n=15) groups. The Fit Minded Tablet was adapted from the Standard Fit Minded, a previously tested, theory-based book club intervention using books as a platform for discussion and group support to help women adopt regular PA. Both interventions met weekly for 3 months, for a total of 12 sessions. Tablet group participants accessed materials (e.g., e-books, workbook, live/recorded videoconferencing) via a tablet computer; Standard group participants received materials (e.g., printed books, workbook, live face-to-face meetings) in person. Feasibility (i.e., implementation and expansion) was assessed using process evaluation, qualitative interviews, satisfaction surveys, and quantitative outcome assessments. Women in the Tablet group attended fewer meetings (mean, 8.25) than women in the Standard group (mean, 9.9). Videoconferencing, digital literacy, and participant engagement limitations were observed in the Tablet group. Tablet participants enjoyed the e-books but thought technology barriers hindered their engagement during meetings. Women in both groups valued the support they received from other group members. Standard participants cited this support as a key contributor to their PA changes, whereas Tablet participants reported needing in-person contact to feel more connected. Given the popularity of tablet computers and the value that middle-aged women place on group interaction to support their PA behaviors, additional research is warranted to determine best strategies for optimizing
Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin
Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor
Yom-Tov, Ortal; Seliktar, Dror; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet
The use of buoyant or floating hydrogel tablets is of particular interest in the sustained release of drugs to the stomach. They have an ability to slow the release rates of drugs by prolonging their absorption window in the upper part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study we synthesized bioactive hydrogels that have sustainable release rates for drugs in the stomach based on a hydrogel preparation technique that employs emulsifying surfactants. The emulsion gelation technique, which encapsulates oil droplets within the hydrogels during crosslinking, was used to decrease their specific gravity in aqueous environments, resulting in floating drug release depots. Properties such as swelling, buoyancy, density and drug release were manipulated by changing the polymer concentrations, surfactant percentages and the oil:polymer ratios. The relationship between these properties and the hydrogel's floating lag time was documented. The potential for this material to be used as a floating drug delivery system was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.
Refaat, Ahmed; Sokar, Magda; Ismail, Fatma; Boraei, Nabila
Quetiapine (QT) is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs). QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %), croscarmellose sodium (2 %) and mannitol (50 %); it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s), average oral disintegration time (21.49 s), average hardness (16.85 N) and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.
Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Bunnell, Brian E; Andrews Iii, Arthur R; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hanson, Rochelle F; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Soltis, Kathryn; Yarian, Caleb; Chu, Brian; Adams, Zachary W
Children need access to high quality mental health care. Effective treatments now exist for a wide range of mental health conditions. However, these interventions are delivered with variable effectiveness in traditional mental health service settings. Innovative solutions are needed to improve treatment delivery quality and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop a scalable, sustainable technology-based approach to improve the quality of care in child mental health treatment. A tablet-based resource was developed with input from mental health training experts, mental health providers, and patients. A series of qualitative data collection phases (ie, expert interviews, patient and provider focus groups, usability testing) guided the initial concept and design of the resource, and then its refinement. The result was an iPad-based "e-workbook" designed to improve child engagement and provider fidelity in implementation of a best-practice treatment. We are currently conducting a small scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility of e-workbook facilitated child mental health treatment with 10 providers and 20 families recruited from 4 local community-based mental health clinics. Usability and focus group testing yielded a number of strong, favorable reactions from providers and families. Recommendations for refining the e-workbook also were provided, and these guided several improvements to the resource prior to initiating the feasibility trial, which is currently underway. This study aimed to develop and preliminarily evaluate a tablet-based application to improve provider fidelity and child engagement in child mental health treatment. If successful, this approach may serve as a key step toward making best-practice treatment more accessible to children and families. As various technologies continue to increase in popularity worldwide and within the health care field more specifically, it is essential to rigorously test the usability
Yang, Yue-Chao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Yu-Qing
Polymer-coated urea (PCU) has great potential for increasing crop production and enhancing nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency, benefiting the ecosystem. However, current PCUs are used only in a limited market, and the main obstacle to the wider use of PCUs is high cost compared to that of conventional N fertilizers. In this study, the low cost PCU and large tablet polymer-coated urea (LTPCU) were prepared by using recycling polystyrene foam and various sealants as the coating materials. The structural and chemical characteristics of the coating shells of the coated fertilizers were examined. The N release characteristics of coated fertilizers were determined in 25 °C water under laboratory conditions. The relationship between the N release longevity and the amount of coating material and the percentage of different sealants were evaluated. The results indicated that recycling polystyrene foam was the ideal coating material of the controlled release fertilizer. The polyurethane that was synthesized by the reaction of castor oil and isocyanate was better than the wax as the additive to delay the N release rate of coated urea. The coating material used for LTPCU was 70-80% less than those used for commercial PCUs under the same N release longevity. The cost of the recycling polystyrene foam used for coating one ton of pure N of the LTPCU was about one-seventh to one-eighth of the cost of the traditional polymer used for the commercial PCU. The experimental data showed that the LTPCU with good controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for wide use in agriculture and horticulture.
Abebe, Admassu; Akseli, Ilgaz; Sprockel, Omar; Kottala, Niranjan; Cuitiño, Alberto M
Therapeutic strategies based on oral delivery of bilayer (and multilayer) tablets are gaining more acceptance among brand and generic products due to a confluence of factors including advanced delivery strategies, patient compliance and combination therapy. Successful manufacturing of these ever more complex systems needs to overcome a series of challenges from formulation design to tablet press monitoring and control. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of bilayer tablet technology, highlighting the main benefits of this type of oral dosage forms while providing a description of current challenges and advances toward improving manufacturing practices and product quality. Several aspects relevant to bilayer tablet manufacturing are addressed including material properties, lubrication, layer ordering, layer thickness, layer weight control, as well as first and final compression forces. A section is also devoted to bilayer tablet characterization that present additional complexities associated with interfaces between layers. The available features of the manufacturing equipment for bilayer tablet production are also described indicating the different strategies for sensing and controls offered by bilayer tablet press manufacturers. Finally, a roadmap for bilayer tablet manufacturing is advanced as a guideline to formulation design and selection of process parameters and equipment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singhal, Peeush; Kaushik, Rajneesh Dutt; Kumar, Vijay Jyoti; Verma, Anurag; Gupta, Pranav
In this Research, an effort has been done for the development of effervescent controlled release floating tablet (ECRFT) from solid dispersions (SDs) of diclofenac sodium (DS) for upsurge the solubility and dissolution rate. ECRFT of DS was prepared by using SDs of DS and its SDs prepared with PEG as carrier using thermal method (Simple fusion). SDs of DS were formulated in many ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Prepared SDs was optimized for its solubility, % drug content and % dissolution studies. Tablets were formulated by using optimized SDs products and all formulation was evaluated for various parameters. A clear rise in dissolution rate was detected with entirely SD, amid that the optimized SD (SD4) was considered for ECRFT. Among all the tablet formulations, its F3 formulation was better in all the terms of pre compression and post compression parameters. It had all the qualities of a good ECRFT, based on this F3 formulation was selected as the best formulation. Data of in vitro release was fitted in several kinetics models to explain release mechanism. The F3 formulation shows zero order release. From this study we can concluded that ECRFT containing SDs of DS can be successfully used for achieving better therapeutic objective.
Hogue, Rebecca J.
This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…
Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A
Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.
Results indicated that if microspores were sampled in bud stage instead of blooming stage to enhance the duration of microspore culture by about 9 days, embryo yield per bud reached maximum (29.61) when environmental temperature was more than 20°C. Compared with previous procedure of generating sampling buds ...
Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P
The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.
Diaz, Vanessa A; Mainous, Arch G; Gavin, Jennifer K; Player, Marty S; Wright, Robert U
This study evaluates the impact of an interactive, tablet-based lifestyle behavior questionnaire prior to a patient's primary care visit on counseling for health behaviors and patient-provider relationships. Using a quasi-experimental design at 2 federally qualified health centers, adults aged 18 to 35 years were asked to complete a tablet-based assessment about nutrition, physical activity, weight, smoking status, and alcohol use to identify unhealthy behaviors and their desire to discuss them with their provider. In the intervention group, participants were more likely to trust their providers (83% vs 71%, P = .0427) and feel that their provider cared about their health (80% vs 68%, P = .0468). Overweight/obese individuals were more likely to discuss weight loss with their doctor (59% vs 33%, P = .0088). Integrating information technology into primary care to encourage providers to discuss lifestyle issues and promote a positive patient-provider relationship may help improve the health promotion in primary care practices. © The Author(s) 2015.
Masterson Creber, Ruth M; Hickey, Kathleen T; Maurer, Mathew S
Older adults with heart failure have multiple chronic conditions and a large number and range of symptoms. A fundamental component of heart failure self-care management is regular symptom monitoring. Symptom monitoring can be facilitated by cost-effective, easily accessible technologies that are integrated into patients' lives. Technologies that are tailored to older adults by incorporating gerontological design principles are called gerontechnologies. Gerontechnology is an interdisciplinary academic and professional field that combines gerontology and technology with the goals of improving prevention, care, and enhancing the quality of life for older adults. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of gerontechnologies, specifically the use of mobile applications available on smartphones and tablets as well as remote monitoring systems, for outpatient disease management among older adults with heart failure. While largely unproven, these rapidly developing technologies have great potential to improve outcomes among older persons.
Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Gago-Guillan, Manuel; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier; Veiga, María Dolores
Mucoadhesive chitosan (CS) and/or hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) tablets for gastric drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV) have been developed in order to improve the ACV oral bioavailability. Swelling, bioadhesive and dissolution studies were carried out in two acidic media (pH 1.5 and 4) in order to determine the tablets behaviour in both fed and fasted states. All the designed tablets showed good mucoadhesive properties on gastric mucosa due to the presence of CS and/or HPMC. In vitro dissolution of ACV from tablets was influenced by the swelling behaviour of each polymer. All data release of the studied tablets fitted to Hopfenberg model, which describes drug release from tablets displaying heterogeneous erosion. HPMC and CS/HPMC tablets revealed a sustained release for 24 h, but a complete dissolution of the tablets was not produced at this time. On the contrary, tablets which contained only CS as polymer were able to release the total amount of ACV for 4 h, due to the CS imbibition and erosion processes in pH 1.5 medium. These results allowed us to conclude that CS is the excipient to be chosen to obtain gastroretentive formulations, due to its demonstrated gastric compatibility.
Di Biagio, Antonio; Riccardi, Niccolò; Taramasso, Lucia; Capetti, Amedeo; Cenderello, Giovanni; Signori, Alessio; Vitiello, Paola; Guerra, Michele; de Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Cassola, Giovanni; Quirino, Tiziano; Viscoli, Claudio
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and potential savings of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) simplification from an unboosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimen with atazanavir or fosamprenavir to a single-tablet regimen (STR) based on rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (RPV/FTC/TDF) among HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA triglycerides, bilirubin, glycaemia, creatinine and physical examination were performed at baseline and at scheduled follow-up. All patient costs were calculated and were estimated for 52 weeks of therapy. Fifty-one patients were enrolled [28 male (54.9%)]. At baseline, 30 patients (58.8%) were treated with FTC/TDF, 20 (39.2%) with abacavir/lamivudine and 1 (2.0%) with lamivudine/zidovudine. Thirty-three patients (64.7%) received atazanavir. All patients maintained HIV-RNA triglycerides decreased from 124 mg/dL (range, 39-625) at enrolment to 108.7 mg/dL (range, 39-561) at study end (P = 0.25). At baseline, mean cholesterol was 172.8 ± 38.1 mg/dL and decreased to 161.9 ± 38.6 mg/dL (P = 0.038); likewise, median total bilirubin decreased from 1.07 mg/dL (range, 0.2-4.7) to 0.6 mg/dL (range, 0.13-3.1) (P triglycerides, cholesterol and cART-related costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Amy S Mudano,1,2,3 Lisa C Gary,1,2,3 Ana L Oliveira,1,2,3 Mary Melton,1,2,3 Nicole C Wright,1,2,3 Jeffrey R Curtis,1,2,3 Elizabeth Delzell,1,2,3 T Michael Harrington,1,2,3 Meredith L Kilgore,1,2,3 Cora Elizabeth Lewis,1,2,3 Jasvinder A Singh,1,2,3,4 Amy H Warriner,1,2,3 Wilson D Pace,5 Kenneth G Saag1,2,31Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs, 2Center for Outcomes Effectiveness Research and Education (COERE, and 3Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences (CCTS, (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA; 5Distributed Ambulatory Research in Therapeutics Network (DARTNet, American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USAIntroduction: Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs provide large sample sizes and enhanced generalizability to assess therapeutic effectiveness, but efficient patient enrollment procedures are a challenge, especially for community physicians. Advances in technology may improve methods of patient recruitment and screening in PCTs. Our study looked at a tablet computer versus an integrated voice response system (IVRS for patient recruitment and screening for an osteoporosis PCT in community physician offices.Materials and methods: We recruited women ≥ 65 years of age from community physician offices to answer screening questions for a hypothetical osteoporosis active comparator PCT using a tablet computer or IVRS. We assessed the feasibility of these technologies for patient recruitment as well as for patient, physician, and office staff satisfaction with the process. We also evaluated the implications of these novel recruitment processes in determining the number of primary care practices and screened patients needed to conduct the proposed trial.Results: A total of 160 women (80% of those approached agreed to complete the osteoporosis screening questions in ten family physicians’ offices. Women using the
Obeidat, Wasfy M; Nokhodchi, Ali; Alkhatib, Hatim
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of Eudragit®E100 polymer in modifying the release rates and compaction properties of water soluble model drug paracetamol from Carbopol®971P NF polymer matrix tablets prepared by direct compression. The effects of the ratio of the two polymers, the total polymeric content, and the tablets mechanical strength on paracetamol release rates were investigated. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP XX Π rotating paddle apparatus at 50 rpm and 37°C at three different stages (pH 1.2, 4.8, and 6.8). Results showed that the polymers combination improved significantly the compaction properties of paracetamol tablets as evident by the higher crushing strengths (8.3 ± 0.4 Kp) compared to polymer-free tablets (3.4 ± 0.2 Kp) at intermediate compression pressure of 490 MPa. When combined with Carbopol®971P NF, Eudragit®E100 was found to be capable of extending paracetamol release for more than 12 h compared to 1 h for polymers-free tablets. The combined polymers were able to control paracetamol release in a pH independent pattern. The f2 (similarity factor) analysis showed that the ratio between the polymers and the total polymer concentration exhibited significant impact on drug release rates. In conclusion, Eudragit®E100 when combined with Carbopol®971P NF was capable of improving the compaction and sustained release properties of paracetamol. Korsmeyer-Peppas model was found to be the most suitable for fitting drug release data. The polymer combinations can potentially be used to control the release rates of highly water soluble drugs.
Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kwayumba, Dunston; Kibukho, Kennedy
Kenya is investing in information and communication technology (ICT) to improve children's learning outcomes. However, the literature on ICT is pessimistic about the ability of ICT alone to improve outcomes, and few ICT programs have created the instructional change necessary to increase learning. The Primary Math and Reading (PRIMR) Initiative…
compartmental analy- sis. The parameters for the uncoated ..... Drug absorption' from the uncoated tablets was fast and occurred _ over a relatively short period of time 'whilst ab- sorption from the ﬁlm-coated tablets was slow and occurred over an extended ...
Ali Akbar Ansarin
Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2 Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.
Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René
Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini-pigs. Presentation of the compound in the amorphous form lead to a very fast absorption, however, the obtained bioavailability was at the same level observed following buccal administration of a commercially immediate release tablet. Addition of chitosan, as a mucoadhesive excipient, resulted in a higher absolute bioavailability compared to tablets without chitosan. The absorption rate for the chitosan-based tablets was significant slower, probably due to the slower diffusion of the compound out of the tablet. In vitro release data was able to predict the variations in t max , but otherwise no correlation could be found between in vitro and in vivo data. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klimek, Ludger; Mosbech, Holger; Zieglmayer, Petra
House dust mite (HDM) allergy represents a highly prevalent inhalant allergy, and exposure to HDM allergens results in allergic rhinitis with persistent symptoms that may not be adequately controlled with available allergy pharmacotherapy. Allergy immunotherapy constitutes a complementary treatment...... option targeting the underlying immunological mechanisms of allergic disease and represents the only treatment with a potential for disease modification and long-term efficacy. As traditional allergy immunotherapy delivered by subcutaneous injection of specific HDM allergens involves a time......-consuming treatment regimen and a risk of systemic adverse reactions, sublingually administered allergy immunotherapy (SLIT) has been investigated as a more convenient treatment option with similar levels of efficacy and an improved safety profile that allows for at-home daily administration. In this Drug Profile, we...
Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.
This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.
Etti, C J; Yusof, Y A; Chin, N L; Mohd Tahir, S
The tableting properties of Labisia pumila herbal powder, which is well known for its therapeutic benefits was investigated. The herbal powder was compressed into tablets using a stainless steel cylindrical uniaxial die of 13-mm- diameter with compaction pressures ranging from 7 to 25 MPa. Two feed weights, 0.5 and 1.0 g were used to form tablets. Some empirical models were used to describe the compressibility behavior of Labisia pumila tablets. The strength and density of tablets increased with increase in compaction pressure and resulted in reduction in porosity of the tablets. Smaller feeds, higher forces and increase in compaction pressure, contributed to more coherent tablets. These findings can be used to enhance the approach and understanding of tableting properties of Labisia pumila herbal powder tablets.
Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng
Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…
Nicholas B Norgard
Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia
Aslani, Abolfazl; Sharifian, Tahereh
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, which is used as an antimicrobial drug. This study was designed to formulate amoxicillin effervescent tablets, aimed at improved patient compliance and increased drug stability. In this study, nine effervescent tablet formulations were prepared from amoxicillin trihydrate. The effervescent base was comprised of various amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. Powders and granules were evaluated for their particle size, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. The effervescent tablets were then prepared from powders and granules of acceptable quality by direct compression and fusion methods. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, pH of solution, carbon dioxide (CO2) content, hardness, effervescence time, thickness, assay, content uniformity, water content and equilibrium moisture content. The results indicated better flowability of granules prepared by fusion method as compared with the direct compression. The percent weight variations of tablets were within the acceptable limit of 0.5%. The friability was less than 1% in all formulations. The solution pH of tablets prepared by direct compression and fusion methods ranged from 4.55 to 5.74 and 4.74-5.84, respectively. The CO2 amounts generated by of fusion method tablets were smaller as compared to the direct compression method. The hardness of tablets was 40.66-56 for direct compression method and 60.6-74.6 for fusion method. The tablets produced by the fusion method had a larger thickness and lower water content than tablets produced by direct compression method. Tablets prepared by the fusion method exhibited superior pre- and post-compression characteristics as compared to tablets prepared by direct compression method.
Full Text Available Background: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, which is used as an antimicrobial drug. This study was designed to formulate amoxicillin effervescent tablets, aimed at improved patient compliance and increased drug stability. Materials and Methods: In this study, nine effervescent tablet formulations were prepared from amoxicillin trihydrate. The effervescent base was comprised of various amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. Powders and granules were evaluated for their particle size, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner′s ratio and angle of repose. The effervescent tablets were then prepared from powders and granules of acceptable quality by direct compression and fusion methods. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, pH of solution, carbon dioxide (CO 2 content, hardness, effervescence time, thickness, assay, content uniformity, water content and equilibrium moisture content. Results: The results indicated better flowability of granules prepared by fusion method as compared with the direct compression. The percent weight variations of tablets were within the acceptable limit of 0.5%. The friability was less than 1% in all formulations. The solution pH of tablets prepared by direct compression and fusion methods ranged from 4.55 to 5.74 and 4.74-5.84, respectively. The CO 2 amounts generated by of fusion method tablets were smaller as compared to the direct compression method. The hardness of tablets was 40.66-56 for direct compression method and 60.6-74.6 for fusion method. The tablets produced by the fusion method had a larger thickness and lower water content than tablets produced by direct compression method. Conclusion: Tablets prepared by the fusion method exhibited superior pre- and post-compression characteristics as compared to tablets prepared by direct compression method.
Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T
Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.
Bull, Sheana; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E
The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more antenatal visits during the pilot intervention
Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G
The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.
Siiriä, Simo Matti; Antikainen, Osmo; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko
This study presents a new approach to model powder compression during tableting. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new discrete element simulation model for particle–particle bond formation during tablet compression. This model served as the basis for calculating tablet strength distribution during a compression cycle. Simulated results were compared with real tablets compressed from microcrystalline cellulose/theophylline pellets with various compression forces. Simulated and exper...
Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the ﬁeld has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug.
Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin
Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell
Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.
A (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer)-dispersed sustained-release tablet for imperialine to simultaneously prolong the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability.
Lin, Qing; Fu, Yu; Li, Jia; Qu, Mengke; Deng, Li; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong
Imperialine, extracted from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, is an efficient antitussive and expectorant medicine. However, its short half-life and stomach degradation limited imperialine from further clinical use. The current study was conducted to develop a sustained-release tablet for imperialine both to prolong absorption time and to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. The tablets were prepared by a direct compression method formulated on optimized solid dispersion (SD) for imperialine based on polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus(®)) with imperialine/Soluplus(®) ratio of 1:8 (w/w). In order to obtain the optimized formulation, factors that affected the drug release were investigated by in vitro dissolution studies in the media of pH1.2, 5.8, 7.0 and 7.4. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope confirmed that the imperialine in SD was amorphous instead of crystalline, and still stayed amorphous even after the direct compression. And besides, pharmacokinetic study in Beagle dogs was performed to inspect the in vivo sustained release. Plasma concentration-time curves and pharmacokinetic parameters were gained. As a result, the Cmax of imperialine was one-fold reduced and Tmax was two-fold prolonged, and the mean AUC0-24 was expressed as 89.581±21.243μgh/L, which showed that the oral bioavailability of imperialine was 2.46-fold improved. Moreover, the in vitro-in vivo correlation was recommended to carry out, demonstrating the percentages of drug release in vitro were well-correlated with the absorptive fraction in vivo with the correlation coefficients above 0.9900. By mathematically modeling and moment imaging of the drug release, Peppas equation was selected as the most fitted model for the sustained-release tablets with the diffusional coefficient in the range of 0.59-0.62, indicating the release of imperialine from the sustained-release tablets was an anomalous process involving
Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian
Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...
Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette
Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva...... available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini...
Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi
During the summer of 2007 an internet hype was unleashed by the breaking news that an Old Testament name of some importance, figuring in the Book of Jeremiah Ch. 39, had been positively identified on a cuneiform clay tablet, viz. a bill of receipt from the time of this prophet's floruit. Many a
Conclusion: Transdermal films of diclofenac, formulated with permeation enhancers, may have greater therapeutic advantages over conventional oral tablets in terms of prolonged release and improvement of patient compliance in rheumatoid arthritis. Keywords: Analgesic activity, Diclofenac, Permeation enhancer, ...
Shete, A S; Yadav, A V; Murthy, M S
The objective of present investigation was to evaluate performance of cocrystals of Mefloquine Hydrochloride (MFL) in tablet dosage form. Our previous investigation showed significant effect of cocrystal formers on improving the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefloquine hydrochloride by cocrystallization method when prepared by solution cocrystallization method. Prepared cocrystals of MFL with different ratio of cocrystal formers were incorporated in tablet dosage form and evaluated for micrometric properties, drug content, hardness, disintegration test, vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Performance was compared with laboratory prepared tablet of MFL 250 mg. The considerable improvement in the dissolution rate was observed in case of cocrystals based tablets than pure MFL tablets. So we can incorporate cocrystals in tablet dosage form to enhance in vitro and in vivo performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, cocrystals has been evaluated in tablet dosage form.
Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.
Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... allergic disease and report the AR results. METHODS: Six hundred four subjects at least 14 years old with HDM AR and mild to moderate HDM allergic asthma were randomized 1:1:1:1 to double-blinded daily treatment with 1, 3, 6 SQ-HDM or placebo. End-of-treatment rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication...... score were predefined extrapulmonary end points. A subgroup analysis was conducted post hoc in subjects with a total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) > 0 (ie, with AR symptoms and/or AR medication use during the 4-week baseline period). The subgroup was comprised of 498 subjects (82%). RESULTS...
Plummer, Ruth; Swaisland, Helen; Leunen, Karin
formulation. METHODS: PK data were obtained in Part A using a two-treatment period crossover design; single-dose olaparib 300 mg (two 150 mg tablets) was administered in two prandial states: fasted and fed. In Part B, patients received olaparib tablets (300 mg bid) for 5 days under fasting conditions; in Part...... C, patients were allowed continued access to olaparib. Safety was assessed throughout, with data reported for Parts A and B. RESULTS: A total of 60 and 56 patients were evaluable for safety and PK analyses, respectively; 57 patients entered Part B. Rate of olaparib absorption was slower.......16)]. The point estimate and 90 % CI for the AUC0-∞ treatment ratio were within pre-defined bioequivalence limits (0.80-1.25). Adverse event data were consistent with the known safety profile of olaparib. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that a high-fat meal decreases the rate of absorption and peak...
Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Sobótka-Polska, Karolina; Poleszak, Ewa
Polymers are widely used in drug manufacturing. Researchers studied their impact on the bioavailability of active substances or on physical properties of tablets for many years. To study the influence of polymer excipients, such as microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102), croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone or polyvinylpyrrolidone, on the release profile of papaverine hydrochloride from tablets and on the physical properties of tablets. Six series of uncoated tablets were prepared by indirect method, with previous wet granulation. Tablets contained papaverine hydrochloride and various excipients. The physical properties of the prepared granules, tablets and the release profile of papaverine hydrochloride from tablets were examined. The content of papaverine hydrochloride from the release study were determined spectrophotometrically. All tablets met the pharmacopoeia requirements during following tests: the disintegration time of tablets, uncoated tablets resistance to abrasion, the weight uniformity and dose formulations, their dimensions, the resistance to crushing of tablets and the drug substance content in the tablet. In four cases more than 80% of papaverine was released up to 2 min, in one formula it was up to 5 min, and in last one up to 10 min. Tablets containing crospovidone disintegrated faster than tablets with croscarmellose sodium. Adding gelatinized starch to the tablet composition increased the disintegration time, hardness and delayed the release of papaverine. During the wet granulation process, granules containing polyvinylpyrrolidone were characterized by a suitable flow properties and slightly prolonged disintegration time. Tablets containing Avicel PH 102 compared to tablets with Avicel PH 101 had less weight loss during the test of mechanical resistance, improved hardness and faster release profile of papaverine from tablets.
Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A
Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care-related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings.
Abolfazl Aslani; Tahereh Sharifian
Background: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, which is used as an antimicrobial drug. This study was designed to formulate amoxicillin effervescent tablets, aimed at improved patient compliance and increased drug stability. Materials and Methods: In this study, nine effervescent tablet formulations were prepared from amoxicillin trihydrate. The effervescent base was comprised of various amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. Powders and granules were evaluated for their p...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.
Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink
Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...... designer og tablet’ens egenskaber i et generelt perspektiv. Rapporten afsluttes med en række anbefalinger til henholdsvis lærere og skoleledere med henblik på videre udvikling af indsatsen....
Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre
Full Text Available In the project “Tablets in Practicum Supervision”, the tablet has been tested as a tool for observation and supervision in Norwegian teacher education. The study incorporates 14 practicum supervision groups and focuses on how the use of tablets can influence the quality of the supervision and the coherence between teaching, observation and supervision. Throughout the supervision process, the groups have used tablets to produce and share texts, pictures and video recordings. The use of tablets has resulted in eight aspects of quality improvement: improved observations, stronger motivation, improved feedback, increased sharing of opinions, improved coherence, improved structure, improved preparations, and increased reflection. Keywords: Group based supervision, ICT, observation, Teacher education
Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny
This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in
Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.
In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113
Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Dreu, Rok; Gašperlin, Mirjana; Planinšek, Odon
Mini-tablets represent a new trend in solid dosage form design, with the main goal of overcoming some therapeutic obstacles such as impaired swallowing and polypharmacy therapy, and also offering some therapeutic benefits such as dose flexibility and combined release patterns. Mini-tablets are a promising patient-friendly drug delivery system. Mini-tablets are tablets with a diameter ≤ 3 mm produced on conventional tablet presses equipped with multiple tooling. Mini-tablet production is similar to the production of standard tablets but requires excellent powder flow due to the small dies, exact control of process parameters and special caution during tablet press assembly in order to avoid tool damage. Mini-tablets (coated or uncoated and single- or multiple-unit systems) are mainly developed as patient-friendly systems for pediatric and geriatric patients and also for personalized medicine because they offer improved swallowing and flexible dosing, combining various release kinetics, doses and active compounds in only one system. Mini-tablets may also be successfully used as multiple-unit modified release systems (extended release, delayed-colon release, pulsatile and bi-modal release and gastroretentive systems) providing improved drug bioavailability compared with single-unit systems. Mini-tablets used as single- or multiple-unit oral dosage forms have enormous potential as a patient-friendly drug delivery system for targeted populations, providing improved swallowing, flexible dosing and a combination of different release patterns and/or different active compounds (decreasing dosing frequency and/or polypharmacy therapy problems). In terms of complete expression of the benefits of mini-tablets over other oral dosage forms on the market, further investigation in formulation possibilities and development of suitable dosing devices is of essential importance.
Van Snick, B; Holman, J; Cunningham, C; Kumar, A; Vercruysse, J; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
This study presents a framework for process and product development on a continuous direct compression manufacturing platform. A challenging sustained release formulation with high content of a poorly flowing low density drug was selected. Two HPMC grades were evaluated as matrix former: standard Methocel CR and directly compressible Methocel DC2. The feeding behavior of each formulation component was investigated by deriving feed factor profiles. The maximum feed factor was used to estimate the drive command and depended strongly upon the density of the material. Furthermore, the shape of the feed factor profile allowed definition of a customized refill regime for each material. Inline NIRs was used to estimate the residence time distribution (RTD) in the mixer and monitor blend uniformity. Tablet content and weight variability were determined as additional measures of mixing performance. For Methocel CR, the best axial mixing (i.e. feeder fluctuation dampening) was achieved when an impeller with high number of radial mixing blades operated at low speed. However, the variability in tablet weight and content uniformity deteriorated under this condition. One can therefore conclude that balancing axial mixing with tablet quality is critical for Methocel CR. However, reformulating with the direct compressible Methocel DC2 as matrix former improved tablet quality vastly. Furthermore, both process and product were significantly more robust to changes in process and design variables. This observation underpins the importance of flowability during continuous blending and die-filling. At the compaction stage, blends with Methocel CR showed better tabletability driven by a higher compressibility as the smaller CR particles have a higher bonding area. However, tablets of similar strength were achieved using Methocel DC2 by targeting equal porosity. Compaction pressure impacted tablet properties and dissolution. Hence controlling thickness during continuous manufacturing of
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.
Maximiano, Flávia Pires; Costa, Guilherme Hideki Yoshizane; de Sá Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S
Benznidazole (BNZ), the primary chemotherapy agent used to treat Chagas disease, has poor aqueous solubility, which results in low bioavailability. The purpose of this work was to develop stable effervescent tablets using an inclusion complex of BNZ with cyclodextrin (CD). In the first phase, different CDs were evaluated according to their ability to improve the aqueous solubility of BNZ. Then, inclusion complexes of BNZ in the solid state were produced by the kneading method and the complexes were evaluated using several physical-chemical assays. Finally, effervescent tablets were prepared according to a complete 3(2) factorial design. The effects of the concentration of CD and effervescent mixture on the dissolution rate and physical stability of tablets were evaluated. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin produced the greatest improvement in the aqueous solubility of BNZ, almost 20-times greater than the water system. Solid systems produced with BNZ and CD showed physical-chemical interactions and increased the drug dissolution rate, suggesting the formation of a true solid inclusion complex. Moreover, the effervescent matrix of the tablets was effective in improving the dissolution behaviour of BNZ complexed with CD. Effervescent tablets produced using an inclusion complex of BNZ with CD suggest a possible improvement in the bioavailability of BNZ, and this could represent a relevant advance in Chagas therapy. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Son Nghiem, firstname.lastname@example.org Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of
Obeidat, Wasfy M.; Nokhodchi, Ali; Alkhatib, Hatim
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of Eudragit®E100 polymer in modifying the release rates and compaction properties of water soluble model drug paracetamol from Carbopol®971P NF polymer matrix tablets prepared by direct compression. The effects of the ratio of the two polymers, the total polymeric content, and the tablets mechanical strength on paracetamol release rates were investigated. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP XX Π rotating paddle apparatus at 50...
Mohamed, Faiezah A A; Roberts, Matthew; Seton, Linda; Ford, James L; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R
Hypromellose (HPMC) has been previously used to control drug release from mini-tablets. However, owing to poor flow, production of mini-tablets containing high HPMC levels is challenging. Directly compressible (DC) HPMC grades have been developed by Dow Chemical Company. To compare the properties of HPMC DC (METHOCEL™ K4M and K100M) with regular (REG) HPMC grades. Particle size distribution and flowability of HPMC REG and DC were evaluated. 3 mm mini-tablets, containing hydrocortisone or theophylline as model drugs and 40% w/w HPMC DC or REG were produced. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC grades were manufactured using a rotary press simulator at forces between 2-4 kN and speeds of 5, 10, 15 or 20 rpm. Mini-tablets containing HPMC REG were produced manually. The improved flowability of HPMC DC grades, which have a narrower particle size distribution and larger particle sizes, meant that simulated large scale production of mini-tablets with good weight uniformity (CV 1.79-4.65%) was feasible. It was not possible to automatically manufacture mini-tablets containing HPMC REG due to the poor flowability of the formulations. Drug release from mini-tablets comprising HPMC DC and REG were comparable. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC illustrated a higher tensile strength compared to mini-tablets made with HPMC REG. Mini-tablets produced with HPMC DC at different compression speeds had similar drug release profiles. Production of extended release mini-tablets was successfully achieved when HPMC DC was used. Drug release rate was not influenced by the different HPMC DC grades (K4M or K100M) or production speed.
effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. Keywords: antihistaminic, effervescent tablets, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, mannitol, taste masking
Lin, S Y; Kao, Y H
Sodium diclofenac enteric-coated microcapsules were prepared by a spray-drying technique with Eudragit L 30D as enteric-coating material. The spray-dried powder, mixed with neocel or flo-starch, or the mixture of neocel and flo-starch (weight ratio, 1:1) was directly compressed into a tablet. The micromeritic properties of the spray-dried powder and the mixed powder for tableting were investigated. The flowability of the spray-dried powder was poor but improved after incorporating the excipients. The release rates of sodium diclofenac from the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets were determined in 0.1 N HCl solution, pH 6.8, phosphate buffer solution, distilled water, and pH-changed medium. The results indicated that the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets all exhibited enteric-coated release properties; these powders and tablets showed some resistance to stimulated gastric acid and then released drug more rapidly in pH 6.8 buffer solution. The weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch plays an important role in controlling the release of sodium diclofenac from enteric tablets. The 1:1 weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch was more suitable for designing the microdispersed sodium diclofenac enteric-coated tablets.
Olsson, H; Nyström, C
The aim of this article was to study the possibility of assessing the structural features affecting tablet tensile strength to obtain information on the dominating bond types, i.e. interparticulate attractions, in tablets. The features of the internal tablet structure considered to be important for tablet tensile strength were assessed using a simple tablet model for tablets made from seven materials: potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, lactose, sucrose, microcrystalline cellulose, and ascorbic acid. Tablet porosity and particle size (measured as external specific surface area by permeametry) were the structural features that best correlated with tablet tensile strength. These features were described by a "structural factor," which was combined with tablet tensile strength, as an "interaction factor," to reflect the dominating bond types in tablets. The qualitative results gave dominating bond types in the tablets studied that matched the results of earlier studies, thus supporting the applicability of the method.
Meador, Helen E.; Reed, Barbara D.; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W.
BACKGROUND Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. RESULTS Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p English in multiple situations (p English use (p = 0.01) and believing that smoking was bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. CONCLUSION Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge. PMID:19132325
Lynch, Michael P.; And Others
The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)
Phung Khanh Lam
Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.
Elad, Sharon; Zeevi, Itai; Finke, Jürgen; Koldehoff, Michael; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Wolff, Daniel; Mohrbacher, Ralf; Levitt, Michael; Greinwald, Roland; Shapira, Michael Y
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) frequently involves oral tissues. Although the mucosal changes may be painful and impair oral function, there is currently no topical therapy available for oral cGVHD that has been proven to work in an evidence-based manner. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the response of patients with oral cGVHD to various doses of a new topical budesonide formulation; (2) evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new topical budesonide formulation in these patients. An open, randomized, multicenter phase II pilot study with 4 treatment arms differing in application frequency and duration was performed. Response to treatment was scored by the clinician and patient using several scales. Oral cGVHD improved in all patients, with a median reduction of 70%. Pain reduction was similar in all study arms. The rate of objective improvement (defined as ≥50%) was not significantly different among the 4 study arms. The safety profile was satisfactory. Topical budesonide mouthwash (3 mg/10 mL) improved oral cGVHD in all patients when applied for 5 or 10 minutes, 2 or 3 times daily. The response was similar in all treatment arms. Safety analysis supported a dosing schedule of 3 mg of budesonide 3 times a day for 10 minutes. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose: To formulate mucoadhesive chlorhexidine tablets and evaluate their drug release characteristics and mechanism. Methods: Chlorhexidine buccal adhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression using a blend of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and chitosan as the bioadhesive polymers.
Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive tablets containing miconazole (MCZ) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, using chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as mucoadhesive polymers. Methods: Mucoadhesive tablets were formulated and optimized using a 23 factorial design and direct ...
Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive tablets containing miconazole (MCZ) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, using chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as mucoadhesive polymers. Methods: Mucoadhesive tablets were formulated and optimized using a 23 factorial design and direct.
Purpose: To formulate simvastatin orodispersible tablets with high dissolution rate and enhanced bioavailability. ... DSC and FTIR indicated the formation of solid dispersion without chemical interaction between simvastatin and polymer. Orodispersible tablet prepared with Emcosoy and Pullulan showed least wetting and.
Ali Akbar Ansarin; Farahman Farrokhi; Hamid Reza Mahboudi; Zohreh Adeli Jam
This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets...
Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh
The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pHtablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.
Anbalagan, Parthiban; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria
The influence of punch face edge geometry modification on tablet compression and the properties of the resultant tablets produced on a rotary press were investigated. The results revealed that tablets produced from the punches with radius edge face geometry consistently displayed better physical quality; higher tensile strength and lower capping tendency. Modification of the angled edge of the bevel face to the curved edge of the radius face, enabled deeper punch penetration in the die cavity during the compression cycle, bringing about greater compact densification. Improved die fill packing increased interparticulate bond formation and helped to dissipate destructive elasticity within the compact, consequently reduced tablet expansion during the decompression phase. The positive impact of punch face edge modification was also more noticeable at a higher turret speed. The application of the precompression force along with dwell time extension amplified the tableting performance of radius edge punch face design to a greater extent when compared to bevel edge punch face design. This could be attributed to the enhanced packing efficiency at both precompression and main compression stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.
Simonson, Larry A.
This experiment introduces the concept of gravimetric dilutions in the context of tablet analysis. Caffeine tablets are analyzed by absorbance at 274 nm with reference to a standard calibration graph and tested for compliance with the USP criterion. All samples and standards are prepared using gravimetric dilutions without reference to volume or density. This experiment is appropriate for high school and college freshman chemistry courses and may be useful at higher levels. It is only necessary that students have had exposure to Beer's law.
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…
Background: Release-retarding polymers in matrix tablets play a vital role in controlling drug release from tablets. Objectives: To prepare metoprolol succinate tablets by direct compression using Ofada rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud) starch acetate, degree of substitution (DS) 2.22, as a matrix for sustained release. Materials ...
Labib, Gihan S
Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients' will. Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form.
Labib, Gihan S
Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426
Full Text Available In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates.
Robson, Daphne; Kennedy, Dave
Tablet PCs were used interactively in a Discrete Mathematics course in the first year of a Computing degree. The main benefit expected was an improvement in student engagement, but peer instruction was very evident and the ability to display many student answers led to very effective and immediate feedback, particularly when incorrect answers were…
therapeutic advantages over conventional oral tablets in terms of prolonged release and improvement of ... arthritic therapy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed frequently for the management of pain and local inflammation. (similar to gout) . ... systems, transdermal films/patches are the most.
Formulation of extended-release (ER) d4T improves patient compliance and minimizes dose related side effects. This study, therefore, aims at formulating once-a-day floating d4T ER hydrophilic matrix tablets using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release-modifying polymer. NaHCO3 and microcrystalline ...
We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...
Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis review aims at compiling and summarizing findings of published studies that assessed factors associated with compliance of women to take recommended iron tablets during pregnancy. The review is done in 10 published studies (8 are 2002—2010 publications and 2 are 1993—1994 publications indexed in Pubmed with the above objective. Low utilization of antenatal care/ANC services is found to be associated with low compliance as it prevents the women to receive recommended number of the iron tablets as well as decrease the opportunity of women to have encouragement from health staff to take the tablets. Supply of tablets becomes the issue since not all women receiving 30 tablets/ANC visits as recommended. Studies on influence of side-effects of taking the tablets to compliance show inconclusive findings. Some studies found the effect is very minimal, and can be managed appropriately especially among more educated women and among women with adequate counseling. Studies also indicated that support from family is important to reduce possibility of pregnant women forgot to take the tablets, the other major factor of the low compliance. Quality of counseling, e.g. clarity of the messages, is associated with compliance. In conclusion, improving support from ANC provider (such as sufficient tablet supply, clear message on the tablets benefits and support from family may contribute to better compliance of women towards maternal iron supplementation.Keywords: compliance, iron supplementation, pregnancyABSTRAKReview ini bertujuan mengumpulkan temuan studi yang mengukur faktor yang berhubungan dengan kepatuhan ibu dalam mengonsumsi tablet besi selama kehamilan. Review dilakukan pada 10 studi (8 publikasi tahun 2002—2010, 2 publikasi tahun 1993—1994 yang terdaftar di Pubmed. Rendahnya partisipasi ibu hamil untuk memeriksakan kehamilannya/ANC berhubungan dengan rendahnya kepatuhan konsumsi tablet besi. Rendahnya kunjungan ANC membuat ibu tidak
Full Text Available The mechanical strength of same material composite beams of Avicel PHI02, Starch 1500 and Emcompress were assessed by three-point bending test. To provide an improved method of comparing the strength of the tablets, the tensile strength of the specimens was calculated by equations based on stress analysis. Increasing the compaction pressure led to decrease of the porosity of the compacted tablets while the overall mass of the composite tablets were kept constant. Meanwhile, the values of fracture load and strengths (including tensile and shear raised by increasing the compaction pressure. However, when the lower layer was compacted twice, the value of tensile stress of the lower layer was more than its value in a single compacted tablet with the same material. This observation was attributed to the extent of the reduction of porosity during compaction of the single tablets which raised in their tensile strength values.
Rani, Meena; Surana, Rahul; Sankar, C; Mishra, B
The objective of our study was to prepare and evaluate osmotic matrix (OM) tablets of diclofenac sodium (DS). In vitro studies were done on USPXXIV dissolution apparatus II in different release medium. Surface characteristics of coating films and osmotic contribution of OM tablets also were studied. In vivo evaluation was carried out in 6 healthy human volunteers using HPLC method to assay plasma samples, and the results were compared with the performance of fabricated matrix and two commercial tablets of DS. Through in vitro drug release kinetics, using regression coefficient analysis and Peppas equation, different pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability were determined. OM tablets were found to provide more prolonged and controlled therapeutic plasma DS levels and also showed improved bioavailability in comparison to fabricated matrix and commercial tablets studied.
Fischer, Andreas; Jönsson, Martin; Hjelmström, Peter
Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv®), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4 mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone® tablets and films (8/2 mg). Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed.
John Carlo O. Macuja
Full Text Available Cellulose is an important pharmaceutical excipient. This study aimed to produce cellulose from the fiber of Luffa cylindrica as an effective binder in the formulation of acetaminophen tablets. This study was divided into three phases, namely, (I preparation of cellulose from Luffa cylindrica, (II determination of the powder properties of the LC-cellulose, and (III production and evaluation of acetaminophen of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder. The percentage yield of LC-cellulose was 61%. The values of the powder properties of LC-cellulose produced show fair and passable flow properties and are within the specifications of a powdered pharmaceutical excipient. The mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the LC-cellulose tablets have a significant difference in the mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the tablets without binder; thus the cellulose produced improved the suitability of acetaminophen in the dry compression process. However, the tablet properties of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder do not conform to the specifications of the US pharmacopeia; thus the study of additional methods and excipients is recommended.
Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga
This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.
This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…
West, Robert; May, Sylvia; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter; Vangeli, Eleni
Oral glucose has been found to decrease tobacco craving among abstaining smokers. One study has demonstrated an effect of glucose on short-term abstinence. There is a need to examine any long-term benefit of glucose on abstinence. To assess whether glucose tablets improve 6-month continuous abstinence rates compared with low-calorie placebo tablets. Smokers attempting to stop (n = 928) were randomised to receive glucose or sorbitol (placebo) in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. All participants received group-based psychological support, and approximately half (n = 474) received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), buproprion, or both. Smokers were seen weekly for 5 weeks and used tablets ad libitum, with a recommended minimum of 12 per day. Participants were recruited through general practitioner referral, word of mouth, and advertising. The participants were 38% male, smoked an average of 23.5 cigarettes per day, and had a mean age of 44 years. There were no significant pretreatment differences between groups. The primary outcome measure was continuous, CO-verified abstinence from the target quit date for 6 months. No significant effect of glucose tablets on abstinence was found (14.6% vs 13.4% abstinence in the glucose and placebo groups, respectively). However, there was a significant interaction with a glucose effect observed in smokers also receiving other medication (18.2% vs 12.6%, p < 0.05) but not otherwise (10.7% vs 14.3% ; p < 0.05 for the interaction). No significant effect of glucose tablets over and above sweet tasting tablets could be detected overall, but the possibility of an effect as an adjunct to NRT or bupropion merits further investigation.
Shailendra Singh Solanki
Full Text Available Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes.
Çelik, Burak; Özdemir, Samet; Barla Demirkoz, Aslı; Üner, Melike
The aim of this study was optimization of buccal piribedil (PR) mucoadhesive tablets to improve its low bioavailability and provide controlled release for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Buccal tablets were prepared by direct compression method using carbomer (CP), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as mucoadhesive polymers. Physical properties of powder mixtures and buccal tablets were evaluated. Physicochemical compatibility between ingredients was investigated with infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. In vitro dissolution profiles and drug release kinetics of buccal tablets were investigated. Mucoadhesion and ex vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep buccal mucosa. Powder mixtures demonstrated sufficient flow properties and physical characteristics of all tablet formulations were within compendia limits. Tablet ingredients were absent of any chemical interactions. CP tablets displayed slower drug release compared to HPMC tablets with zero order release, while CMC tablets lost their integrity and released entire drug after 6 h following Higuchi model. All formulations displayed adequate mucoadhesion and steady state flux of PR through buccal mucosa were higher with HPMC compared to CP-containing tablets. Overall, HPMC was found to combine desired controlled release and mucoadhesion characteristics with sufficient pharmaceutical quality for optimization of buccal tablets. Piribedil mucoadhesive buccal tablets designed for the first time may introduce a new alternative for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Uribe, M; Berthier, J M; Lewis, H; Mata, J M; Sierra, J G; García-Ramos, G; Ramírez Acosta, J; Dehesa, M
A randomized, double-blind comparison of lactose enemas plus placebo tablets vs. starch enemas plus neomycin tablets was performed on 18 patients with acute portal systemic encephalopathy. Ten patients received starch enemas (10%; 1000 ml t.i.d.) plus neomycin tablets and 8 patients received lactose enemas (20%; 1000 ml t.i.d.) plus placebo tablets. A significant mental state improvement was demonstrated in the group of patients treated with starch enemas-neomycin tablets (p less than 0.05) and in the group of patients treated with lactose enemas-placebo tablets (p less than 0.025). Both treatments significantly improved the frequency of asterixis, ammonia blood levels, and electroencephalograms. In addition, patients treated with lactose enemas showed significant improvement in number-connection test times (p less than 0.02), and their stools showed a more acid pH (p less than 0.05). No side effects were evident with either treatment. Lactose enemas are a safe and effective treatment for acute portal systemic encephalopathy.
Nikunj J. Aghera
Full Text Available Objective: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were prepared to improve its bioavailability, to avoid pre-systemic metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic first pass elimination. Methods: The Sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression procedure using different concentration of Starch 1500 and microcrystalline cellulose. Compatibility studies of drug and polymer were performed by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC. Preformulation property of API was evaluated. Postcompressional parameters such disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability study of optimized formulation were determined. Results: FTIR spectroscopy and DSC study revealed that there was no possible interaction between drug and polymers. The precompression parameters were in acceptable range of pharmacopoeial specification. The disintegration time of optimized formulation (F3 was upto 48 sec. The in vitro release of Losartan Potassium was upto 15 min. The percentage relative bioavailability of Losartan Potassium from optimized sublingual tablets was found to be 144.7 %. Conclusions: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.
Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine
Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120
Obaidat, Aiman A; Obaidat, Rana M
The aim of this study was to prepare fast-dissolving tablets of meloxicam after its complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and to investigate the effect of using different superdisintegrants on the disintegration and release of meloxicam from the tablets. A complex of meloxicam with β-CD was prepared by spray drying and then compressed in the form of tablets utilizing the direct compression technique. Three superdisintegrants were employed at various levels - sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone. Co-spray dried micro-crystalline cellulose and mannitol (Avicel HFE-102) were used as diluents in the tablets. Prior to compression, the pre-compression parameters showed satisfactory flow properties. Post-compression parameters showed that all tablet formulations had acceptable mechanical properties. Wetting and disintegration times were prolonged by increasing the level of sodium starch glycolate in the tablets. This was attributed to the formation of a viscous gel layer around the tablets by sodium starch glycolate whereas this effect was not observed with croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. Dissolution studies showed fast release of meloxicam except in tablets containing a high level of sodium starch glycolate. Complexation of meloxicam with β-CD significantly improved the solubility of the drug and improved the mechanical properties of tablets produced by direct compression.
One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.
Oh, Ga-Hui; Kim, Joo-Eun; Park, Young-Joon
The purpose of this study was to develop a hydrolysis-resistant optimized oral formulation of tenofovir disoproxil (TD) using a stabilizer. To develop a stabilized TD tablet bioequivalent to the commercial TD fumarate (TDF, Viread ® ) tablet, TD free base was prepared and its degradation profile and stability were investigated. The TD tablet showed antiviral activity, but its absorption was limited in the intestinal tract because of premature degradation. The drug subjected to severe conditions for the stress test was catalyzed under neutral, basic, oxidative, and thermolytic conditions, whereas it was comparatively stable under acidic, photolytic, and humid states. The compatibility study showed that sodium bisulfite (SB) stabilized TD by preventing its degradation in aqueous and 3% peroxide solutions compared with the unstabilized TD. According to the stability analysis and degradation profile, four TD tablet formulations were prepared. The selected TD tablets were composed of non-hygroscopic excipients (lipophilic-fumed silica, anhydrous lactose, and microcrystalline cellulose [MCC]), SB, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO), and were manufactured using a dry granulation method because of their hydrolytic properties. The stabilized TD tablet showed similar dissolution properties as the TDF (Viread ® ) reference tablet in pH 1.2, 4.0, and 6.8 and water. Moreover, the lower degradation rate of the tablet in simulated gastrointestinal fluid demonstrated that its intestinal absorption might have improved owing to prevention of its enzymatic hydrolysis and the pH effect. Finally, the formulated TD tablet was bioequivalent to the TDF (Viread ® ) reference tablet in beagle dogs.
Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Hongzhuo; Liu, Kai; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui
In order to improve the bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF) from rifampicin and isoniazid (INH) combination formulations, the physicochemical characteristics of RIF, stability of RIF in different pH buffers in the presence of INH, as well as the effect of particle size of RIF materials on the dissolution rate were investigated. On the basis of the above examinations, enteric-coated tablets for RIF and INH combinations were designed and prepared. RIF showed low solubility and high apparent distribution coefficient in the intestinal pH (pH 4.0-7.4). With the decrease in pH, the degradation of RIF increase and the presence of INH deepen the degradation. Enteric-coated tablets were prepared after grinding the RIF materials by dry granulation technique. The pharmacokinetics of RIF and INH of self-made enteric-coated tablets in dogs were studied by comparing with the reference tablets. The AUC(0-48) of RIF in both reference and test tablets were 304.77 ± 42.27 and 353.79 ± 31.63 µg·h·mL(-1), respectively. The AUC(0-48) of INH in both reference and test tablets were 17.14 ± 8.59 and 19.62 ± 10.57 µg·h·mL(-1), respectively. Enteric-coated tablets may minimize the decomposition of RIF in gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability.
Shreeram S Savarikar
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety. Materials and Methods: Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala powder, was used as a model drug. Preliminary experiments on marketed triphalaguggulkalpa tablets exhibited delayed in vitro disintegration that indicated probable delayed in vivo disintegration. The study involved preparation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets by Ayurvedic text methods and by wet granulation, dry granulation, and direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for loss on drying, volatile oil content, % solubility, and steroidal content. The tablets were evaluated for performance tests like weight variation, disintegration, and hardness. Results: It was observed that triphalaguggulkalpa tablets, prepared by direct compression method, complied with the hardness and disintegration tests, whereas tablets prepared by Ayurvedic text methods failed. Conclusion: Direct compression is the best method of preparing triphalaguggulkalpa tablets.
Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J
This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the
Full Text Available Sustained and controlled pellets are considered as one of the ideal dosage forms. Due to the large coverage area of pellets, loaded drugs can be absorbed completely in the body and bioavailability is improved correspondingly. Coated pellets-containing tablet is a special oral formulation consisting of various pellets with different release rate. Desired rate of drug release rate can be achieved by adjusting the proportion of pellets. However, this formulation faces strict requirements in the process of preparation. Several factors will influence release behavior of tablets, including pellet cores, coating, and tabletting. Therefore, these factors will be investigated sufficiently in this review to provide valuable information for manufacturing process.
Tan, Xueying; Hu, Jingbo
Sustained and controlled pellets are considered as one of the ideal dosage forms. Due to the large coverage area of pellets, loaded drugs can be absorbed completely in the body and bioavailability is improved correspondingly. Coated pellets-containing tablet is a special oral formulation consisting of various pellets with different release rate. Desired rate of drug release rate can be achieved by adjusting the proportion of pellets. However, this formulation faces strict requirements in the process of preparation. Several factors will influence release behavior of tablets, including pellet cores, coating, and tabletting. Therefore, these factors will be investigated sufficiently in this review to provide valuable information for manufacturing process.
Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau
Full Text Available Introduction: Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator from the benzothiophene family. Several clinical trials have shown that raloxifene reduces bone loss rate in the spinal column and may increase bone mass at certain sites. Objective: to determine the physical and chemical stabilities of raloxifene tablets. Methods. three pilot scale batches of 5 kg each were prepared. In vitro dissolution, chemical stability, photostability and humidity studies were carried out. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months for the accelerated stability study and at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for the shelf life stability study. Chemical stability was determined using high performance liquid chromatography analytical method, which was developed and validated prior to the study. Results: in the accelerated stability study, the percentages of dissolved drug were more than 90 % and drug content porcentages were between 90 % and 110 %. Humidity conditions affected the chemical stability of the tablets. Conclusions: All raloxifene tablet batches formulations were stable for 24 months in the studied containers stored at 32 ± 2 ºC and waterproof. In vitro drug release dissolution showed good results for 24 months.
Lynch, Michael P.; And Others
Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…
Describes the profound learning that took place at the International Children's Theatre Festival in Toyama City, Japan in July 2000. Argues that participation by the Japanese-American Drama Ensemble, a youth group from the public schools in Lexington, Massachusetts, and more than 400 children from all over the planet, showcased the cultural…
Cipani, Ennio; And Others
The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.
Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others
Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…
At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...
Full Text Available This study proposes a percussion learning device that combines tablet computers and robots. This device comprises two systems: a rhythm teaching system, in which users can compose and practice rhythms by using a tablet computer, and a robot performance system. First, teachers compose the rhythm training contents on the tablet computer. Then, the learners practice these percussion exercises by using the tablet computer and a small drum set. The teaching system provides a new and user-friendly score editing interface for composing a rhythm exercise. It also provides a rhythm rating function to facilitate percussion training for children and improve the stability of rhythmic beating. To encourage children to practice percussion exercises, a robotic performance system is used to interact with the children; this system can perform percussion exercises for students to listen to and then help them practice the exercise. This interaction enhances children’s interest and motivation to learn and practice rhythm exercises. The results of experimental course and field trials reveal that the proposed system not only increases students’ interest and efficiency in learning but also helps them in understanding musical rhythms through interaction and composing simple rhythms.
Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das
The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Silymarin as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose and gas generating agent like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Floating noneffervescent tablets were prepared by polypropylene foam powder and different matrix forming polymers like HPMC K 4M, Carbopol 934P, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was found to follow both the Higuchi and the Korsemeyer and Peppas equation. The drug release mechanism was found fickian type in most of the formulations. The developed floating tablets of Silymarin may be used in clinic for prolonged drug release for at least 24 h, thereby improving the bioavailability and patient compliance.
Punyamurthula, Nagendra S; Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit
Cannabinoids are increasingly being used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their action on the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The currently marketed capsule formulations (sesame oil based and crystalline powder) are required to be administered frequently to maintain therapeutic levels, which leads to non-compliance. In the present study, oral controlled release tablet formulations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were prepared using the lipids Precirol® and Compritol®. Release profiles using THC-lipid matrices and/or with the lipids in the external phase (blend) were evaluated. The effect of directly compressible diluents lactose mixture (Ludipress®), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® 102) on tablet characteristics and in vitro drug release was also investigated. Further, in vitro THC release in the presence of a lipase inhibitor, Pluronic® F68, was also studied. A 24 h zero-order THC release profile was obtained with a combination of Precirol® and Compritol® in the compression blend. Addition of Pluronic® F68 did not alter THC release in vitro. These optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable for 3 months, the last time point tested, at 25 °C/60% RH. The overall results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing oral THC tablets for once a day administration which can improve CINV management.
C. K. Rameesa
Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.
Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Joe, Lindsay; Pinion, Kelly
Distraction is often used in conjunction with analgesics to minimize pain in pediatric burn patients during treatment procedures. Computer tablets provide many options for distraction items in one tool and are often used during medical procedures. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of tablet distraction in improving the care of pediatric burn patients. This study examines the effectiveness of tablet distraction provided by a child life specialist to minimize pain and anxiety in pediatric burn patients undergoing hydrotherapy. Thirty pediatric patients (4-12) undergoing hydrotherapy for the treatment of burns participated in this randomized clinical trial. The tablet distraction group received tablet distraction provided by a child life specialist while those in the control group received standard care. Pain was assessed through self-reports and observation reports. Anxiety was assessed through behavioral observations. Length of procedure was also recorded. Nurses reported significantly less pain for the tablet distraction group compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between groups on self-reported pain. The tablet distraction group displayed significantly less anxiety during the procedure compared to the control group. Also, the tablet distraction group returned to baseline after the procedure while those in the control group displayed higher anxiety post-procedure. There was no difference in the length of the procedure between groups. These findings suggest tablet distraction provided by a child life specialist may be an effective method for improving pain and anxiety in children undergoing hydrotherapy treatment for burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K
Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Reshetnikov, A.; Kopylov, M.; Kasatkin, A.; Baymurzin, D.; Gabdrafikov, R.
It was found that pharmaceutical companies produce drugs in tablet form, physical or physical-chemical properties that are radically different from those of the properties of natural food lumps, in that adult converts food in our mouth before swallowing. It was shown that the conventional shape, color, size, volume, specific gravity, hardness, osmotic and acid activity of modern tablets impair the physical and physicochemical properties of the liquid contents of the stomach is much stronger than such “building” materials, such as chalk, clay, sand, river pebbles and gravel. The results showed, that the value of the specific hardness, deforming tablets, can distinguish modern tablets from each other by more than 5000 times. Therefore, introduction tablets inside without information of ability injuring their action leads to the fact that soft and “unsalted” tablets almost nothing damage, and too “salty” and solid tablets damage the gums, lips, tongue, teeth and dental structures. To reduce the traumatic action tablets offered standardize osmoticity, corrosion and hardness within the range of safe values for soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity and improve standard introduction of tablets in the mouth.
Nippolainen, Ervin; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Kamshilin, Alexei A.
A multispectral imaging system with computer controlled light source of 16 light emitting diodes is applied for measuring of tablet porosity. The system is based on a subspace vector model of surface reflection. The measured spectral data are compressed on the stage of measurement and used directly for the discrimination of tablets with different porosity. The experimental results demonstrate that the multispectral imaging system is a potential method for tablet porosity measurement.
Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko
The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...
Shah, Ritesh; Patel, Sachin; Patel, Hetal; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Shailesh; Shah, Dinesh
The aim of present research was to produce carvedilol compression coated tablet to provide biphasic drug release. A compressed coated tablet made of a sustained release core tablet and an immediate release coat tablet. Both the core and the coat contained carvedilol. The sustained release effect was achieved with polymers (HPMC K4M and PEO WSR 205) to modulate the release of the drug. The powder blends for core and coat tablets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index, and drug content. Compressed coated tablets were evaluated for thickness, diameter, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro release studies. The powder blends showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, drug content and all the tablet formulations showed acceptable pharmaco-technical properties. Carvedilol contained in the fast releasing component was released within 3 min, whereas the drug in the core tablet was released at different times up to 24 h, depending on the composition of the matrix tablet. The mechanism of drug release was fickian diffusion or anomalous behavior. Batch F7, containing 10 mg PEO WSR 205 and 5 mg HPMC K4M, showed maximum similarity with theoretical profile and zero order drug release kinetic.
Vercruysse, J; Córdoba Díaz, D; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
The aim of the current study was to screen theophylline (125 mg) tablets manufactured via twin screw granulation in order to improve process understanding and knowledge of process variables that determine granule and tablet quality. A premix of theophylline anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and PVP (ratio: 30/67.5/2.5,w/w) was granulated with demineralized water. Experiments were done using the high-shear wet granulation module (based on twin screw granulation) of the ConsiGma™-25 unit (a continuous tablet manufacturing system) for particle size enlargement. After drying, granules were compressed using a MODUL™ P tablet press (compression force: 10 kN, tablet diameter: 12 mm). Using a D-optimal experimental design, the effect of several process variables (throughput (10-25 kg/h), screw speed (600-950 rpm), screw configuration (number (2, 4, 6 and 12) and angle (30°, 60° and 90°) of kneading elements), barrel temperature (25-40°C) and method of binder addition (dry versus wet)) on the granulation process (torque and temperature increase in barrel wall), granule (particle size distribution, friability and flowability) and tablet (tensile strength, porosity, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality was evaluated. The results showed that the quality of granules and tablets can be optimized by adjusting specific process variables (number of kneading elements, barrel temperature and binder addition method) during a granulation process using a continuous twin screw granulator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sakeer, Khalil; Al-Zein, Hind; Hassan, Issa; Desai, Sandip; Nokhodchi, Ali
Nystatin is commonly employed to treat fungal infections in the mouth. It is not absorbed via the stomach and it will therefore not treat fungal infections in any part of the body other than the mouth. Nystatin buccoadhesive tablets release the drug very slowly due to the poor solubility of nystatin in water and also the presence of polymers with mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to improve drug release from buccoadhesive tablets, while retaining adequate mucoadhesive properties. To this end, a solid dispersion of nystatin: lactose (1:3) was prepared and mixed with xanthan. The effects of hydrophilic surfactants such as cremophor RH40 and Tween 80 on drug release and mucoadhesive properties of nystatin tablets were also investigated as were swelling and erosion indices and strength of bioadhesion in vitro to a biological membrane. The interaction between nystatin and lactose in solid dispersion formulation was investigated by XRPD, FT-IR and DSC. The results showed that a solid dispersion formulation and mucoadhesive tablets containing surfactants led to faster drug release than their simple physical mixtures. Drug release was also faster from a solid dispersion compared to tablets containing surfactants. Swelling and erosion results showed that tablets made of a solid dispersion swelled and eroded faster than a physical mixture formulation. The presence of surfactant slightly increased the degree of swelling and erosion of buccoadhesive tablets.
Late, Sameer G; Banga, Ajay K
The objective of this work was to apply response surface approach to investigate main and interaction effects of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegrating tablet formulation using β cyclodextrin as a diluent. The variables studied were diluent (β cyclodextrin, X (1)), superdisintegrant (Croscarmellose sodium, X (2)), and direct compression aid (Spray dried lactose, X (3)). Tablets were prepared by direct compression method on B2 rotary tablet press using flat plain-face punches and characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y (1)), and hardness (Y (2)). Disintegration time was strongly affected by quadratic terms of β cyclodextrin, croscarmellose sodium, and spray-dried lactose. The positive value of regression coefficient for β cyclodextrin suggested that hardness increased with increased amount of β cyclodextrin. In general, disintegration of tablets has been reported to slow down with increase in hardness. However in the present study, higher concentration of β cyclodextrin was found to improve tablet hardness without increasing the disintegration time. Thus, β cyclodextrin is proposed as a suitable diluent to achieve fast disintegrating tablets with sufficient hardness. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation validated prognostic ability of response surface methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using β cyclodextrin as a diluent.
Nguyen, Chien; Christensen, J Mark; Ayres, James W
Novel 'beads-in-a-tablet' formulations (total weight ∼740-780 mg) have been prepared that meet USP 31 requirements for Delayed Release of mesalamine. Several methods are presented that overcome breakage of beads during tablet compaction were explored. Bead formulations comprise a combination of extrusion and spheronization to produce a relatively high drug load (80%), followed by coating (25%) with a colonic-targeted drug release polymer (polymethacrylates, Eudragit(®) S100), overcoated (3%) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Opadry(®)) to improve bead binding and compactability, and using 20% coat of lactose/sodium starch glycolate (Explotab(®)) as binder/disintegrant/cushioning agent, thus allowing a sufficiently thick coating to be uniform and without being broken during tablet compaction. Then, the aforementioned beads were compressed into tablets at 1500 pounds of pressure containing 400 mg of mesalamine, and finally coating the compressed tablets with Surelease(®) (ethylcellulose):Opadry(®) = 1:0.5 ranging from 1.5-2.5% weight gain; the resulting tablets met USP 31 dissolution requirements for delayed release tablets.
Mir, Viviana García; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Revoredo, Ofelia Bilbao; Colarte, Antonio Iraizoz; Nieto, Olga Maria; Yliruusi, Jouko
A "simplex-centroid mixture design" was used to study the direct-compression properties of binary and ternary mixtures of chitin and two cellulosic direct-compression diluents. Native milled and fractioned (125-250 microm) crustacean chitin of lobster origin was blended with microcrystalline cellulose, MCC (Avicel PH 102) and spray-dried lactose-cellulose, SDLC Cellactose (composed of a spray-dried mixture of alpha-lactose monohydrate 75% and cellulose powder 25%). An instrumented single-punch tablet machine was used for tablet compactions. The flowability of the powder mixtures composed of a high percentage of chitin and SDLC was clearly improved. The fractioned pure chitin powder was easily compressed into tablets by using a magnesium stearate level of 0.1% (w/w) but, as the die lubricant level was 0.5% (w/w), the tablet strength collapsed dramatically. The tablets compressed from the binary mixtures of MCC and SDLC exhibited elevated mechanical strengths (>100 N) independent of the die lubricant level applied. In conclusion, fractioned chitin of crustacean origin can be used as an abundant direct-compression co-diluent with the established cellulosic excipients to modify the mechanical strength and, consequently, the disintegration of the tablets. Chitin of crustacean origin, however, is a lubrication-sensitive material, and this should be taken into account in formulating direct-compression tablets of it.
. Resulting granules were compressed to 500 mg tablets using a single punch machine. The tablets were subjected to hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution tests. RESULTS: The granules formed hard tablets (tensile strength 1 - 2.0 ...
Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K
Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.
Full Text Available Objective: To formulate and Characterize Mouth Dissolving Tablet of Zolmitriptan to produce the intended benefits. Methods: Tablets were prepared using a direct compression method employing superdisintegrants such as Kyron T-314, Crospovidone, Croscarmellose Sodium, and Sodium Starch Glycolate. Tablets of Zolmitriptan prepared using Kyron T-314 exhibited the least friability and disintegration time 35 seconds. To decrease the disintegration time further, a sublimation technique was used along with the superdisintegrants for the preparation of Mouth Dissolving Tablet (MDTs. The addition of camphor as a subliming agent lowered the disintegration time 10 seconds further, but the percent friability was increased. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the joint influence of the amount of superdisintegrant (Kyron T-314 and the amount of sublimating agent (Camphor on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. Results: The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an effective MDT of Zolmitriptan requires higher percentages of Kyron T-314 and camphor should be used. The approach using the optimization technique helped to produce a detailed understanding effect of formulation parameters. An optimized formulation was found to have good hardness, wetting time, disintegration time. Release kinetic model study indicated that all the formulations follow zero order kinetics. It also indicated that batch F1, F2, F5 and F8 releases the drug at constant rate as well as fast rate as per the Weibull model which was also confirmed by HixsonCrowell model. Stability studies indicated that there are no significant changes in hardness, Percentage friability, drug content and in-vitro disintegration time and cumulative percentage drug release. Conclusions: Thus, it was concluded that by adopting a systematic formulation approach, Zolmitriptan Mouth dissolving tablet could be formulated using superdisintegrants in combination with
Tablet computers widely used in recent years. The performance of the tablet computer is improving year by year. Some of them have performance comparable to the personal computer of a few years ago with respect to the calculation speed and the memory size. The convenience and the intuitive operation are the advantage of the tablet computer compared to the desktop PC. I developed the iPad application of the numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation. The numerical simulation is based on the 2D finite difference method with the staggered-grid scheme. The number of the grid points is 512 x 384 = 196,608. The grid space is 200m in both horizontal and vertical directions. That is the calculation area is 102km x 77km. The time step is 0.01s. In order to reduce the user waiting time, the image of the wave field is drawn simultaneously with the calculation rather than playing the movie after the whole calculation. P and S wave energies are plotted on the screen every 20 steps (0.2s). There is the trade-off between the smooth simulation and the resolution of the wave field image. In the current setting, it takes about 30s to calculate the 10s wave propagation (50 times image updates). The seismogram at the receiver is displayed below of the wave field updated in real time. The default medium structure consists of 3 layers. The layer boundary is defined by 10 movable points with linear interpolation. Users can intuitively change to the arbitrary boundary shape by moving the point. Also users can easily change the source and the receiver positions. The favorite structure can be saved and loaded. For the advance simulation, users can introduce the random velocity fluctuation whose spectrum can be changed to the arbitrary shape. By using this application, everyone can simulate the seismic wave propagation without the special knowledge of the elastic wave equation. So far, the Japanese version of the application is released on the App Store. Now I am preparing the
Full Text Available The development of pumpkin tablet was studied and the drying conditions of pumpkin using a double drum dryer were optimized. The study factors were drying agents (maltodextrin D.E.13-16 andtapioca flour at different levels (3 and 5%, drying temperatures (130 and 140oC and drum dryer speeds (4 and 5 rpm. The results showed that the optimal conditions were using 3% maltodextrin D.E.13-16, dryingtemperature of 130oC and drum dryer speed of 4 rpm. The moisture, fat, bulk density, reducing sugars and granulometric retention of the obtained pumpkin powder were 3.39%, 1.42%, 1.004 g/ml, 12.63% and 0.67%, respectively and L*, a* and b* values were 73.85, -0.60 and 35.23, respectively. A study of suitable amount of icing sugar using different contents for tablet production (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% was performedand showed that using 20% icing sugar was the most acceptable. The obtained pumpkin tablet was subjected to chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The ash, moisture, protein, fat, fiber and carbohydratecontents were 1.87, 3.60, 3.34, 1.00, 2.26 and 87.99%, respectively. The reducing sugars and β-carotene contents were 5.44±0.61% and 3.79±0.57 mg/100g, respectively. The Aw, hardness and solubility were 0.56,3.25 kgf and 25.00 %, respectively. The L*, a* and b* values were 79.85, 0.28 and 23.64, respectively. The total microbial count and the yeast and mould count were <10 CFU/g. The shelf life of the pumpkin tabletwas at least 4 months at room temperature (35±2oC.
Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T
The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...
Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H
Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.
Samaan, M Constantine; Murphy, Nuala; Costigan, Colm
A previously well 5-year-old girl presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to be profoundly hyperlipidaemic. Further investigations showed that she had associated hypothyroidism. She responded to insulin and L-thyroxine treatments and her lipid profile returned to normal 2 months after diagnosis. Despite starting anticoagulant therapy early, she developed deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. Her family screen did not demonstrate familial hy...
Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.
Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703
Paul A. Moore
Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.
Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078
Eurell, Jo Ann C; Diamond, Nancy A; Buie, Brandon; Grant, David; Pijanowski, Gerald J
Tablet computers offer a new method of information management in veterinary medical education. With the tablet computer, students can annotate class notes using electronic ink, search for keywords, and convert handwriting to text as needed. Additional electronic learning resources, such as medical dictionaries and electronic textbooks, can be readily available. Eleven first-year veterinary students purchased tablet computers and participated in an investigation of their working methods and perceptions of the tablet computer as an educational tool. Most students found the technology useful. The small size and portability of the tablet allowed easy transport and use in a variety of environments. Most students adapted to electronic notetaking by the second week of classes; negative experiences with the tablet centered on a failure to become comfortable with taking notes and navigating on the computer as opposed to writing and searching on paper. A few performance-related problems, including short battery life, were reported. Tablet software allowed conversion of faculty course notes from a variety of original formats, meaning that instructors could maintain their original methods of note preparation. Adopting a consistent naming convention for files helped students to locate the files on their computers, and smaller file sizes helped with computer performance. Collaboration between students was fostered by tablet use, which offers possibilities for future development of collaborative learning environments.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount—(A) One 11.4-mg tablet for...
... for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... information. (2) Indications for use. For the control of convulsions associated with idiopathic epilepsy... recognizable lesion in certain entities in dogs.1 (3) Limitations. The tablets may be administered whole or...
Purpose: To develop and validate a suitable method for the assay of metformin hydrochloride (HCl) in tablets containing croscarmellose sodium as an additive. Methods: Methanol and ethanol (99%) were assessed as solvents for sample preparation for the assay of metformin HCl in tablets containing croscarmellose ...
E – contains a pattern that can well be interpreted as another calendrical instruction, quite similar in nature to the Mamari calendar. Engraved on tablet Keiti is a string of glyphs known as sequence alpha 1-10, which is repeated 10 times throughout one side of the tablet. This repetitious string...
Purpose: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of of a developed metoprolol and a reference standard (Mepressor®). Methods: Metoprolol tartrate-loaded Eudragit® FS microparticles were formulated and compressed into tablets. The tablets were tested for their physicochemical properties according to United States ...
Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth
Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.
van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W
The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with
Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to the effect of camphor as a subliming agent on the mouth dissolving property of famotidine tablets. Method: Orodispersible tablets of famotidine were prepared using camphor as subliming agent and sodium starch glycollate together with crosscarmellose sodium as ...
Rygnestad, T; Zahlsen, K; Samdal, F A
The aim of this study was to compare the rate of absorption between ordinary paracetamol tablets and effervescent paracetamol tablets. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in an open randomised crossover study and were given a 1000-mg dose of either ordinary paracetamol tablets (2 x 500 mg Panodil tablets, SmithKline Beecham) or effervescent paracetamol tablets (2 x 500 mg Pinex Brusetablett, Alpharma AS) with a 3-week washout period in between. Blood samples were collected for 3 h. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and the time to maximum serum concentration (tmax) were recorded and the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) was calculated. The mean tmax was significantly shorter when paracetamol effervescent tablets were taken (27 min) rather than ordinary paracetamol tablets (45 min) (P = 0.004). There was no significant difference between the mean Cmax of 143 micromol/l with effervescent tablets and that of 131 micromol/l with ordinary tablets. The mean AUC(0-3 h) was significantly higher with paracetamol effervescent tablets (223.8 micromol x h x l(-1)) than with ordinary tablets (198.2 micromol x h x l(-1); P = 0.003). After 15 min, 17 (85%) subjects in the effervescent group had a serum concentration of 70 micromol/l (lower therapeutic serum concentration) or higher relative to only 2 (10%) subjects in the ordinary tablet group (P = 0.001). Paracetamol effervescent tablets are absorbed significantly faster than ordinary paracetamol. Thus, effervescent tablets might offer significantly faster pain relief when paracetamol is used.
Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K
Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week....... The design of the study was double-blind, cross-over, with a randomized allocation of the drugs. Both drugs improved the lung function significantly. The children had significantly less coughing during the night when they took depot tablets than when they took ordinary tablets. The side effects were few...... with both treatments. Most of the patients preferred the depot tablets....
Durham, Stephen R; Creticos, Peter S; Nelson, Harold S; Li, Ziliang; Kaur, Amarjot; Meltzer, Eli O; Nolte, Hendrik
Data comparing the treatment effect of allergy immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy are lacking. We sought to indirectly compare the treatment effect of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablets with pharmacotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Pooled data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials for the clinical development programs of selected allergic rhinitis treatments were evaluated. Total nasal symptom scores (TNSSs) relative to placebo were compared. Subjects scored symptoms daily during entire pollen seasons in 6 timothy grass SLIT-tablet trials (n = 3094) and 2 ragweed SLIT-tablet trials (n = 658) and during the last 8 weeks of treatment in 2 house dust mite (HDM) SLIT-tablet trials (n = 1768). Subjects scored symptoms daily in 7 montelukast (10 mg, n = 6799), 9 desloratadine (5 mg, n = 4455), and 8 mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS; 200 μg daily, n = 2140) SAR or PAR trials. SLIT-tablet trials allowed rescue medication use, whereas most pharmacotherapy trials did not. A fixed-effect meta-analysis method estimated differences in on-treatment average TNSSs. In grass and ragweed SLIT-tablet trials, overall improvement in TNSSs relative to placebo was 16.3% and 17.1%, respectively. In HDM SLIT-tablet trials, TNSS overall improvement relative to placebo was 16.1%. In the montelukast, desloratadine, and MFNS trials, TNSS overall improvement relative to placebo was 5.4%, 8.5%, and 22.2%, respectively, for SAR trials, and 3.7%, 4.8%, and 11.2%, respectively, for PAR trials. Although comparisons were limited by study design heterogeneity and use of rescue medications in SLIT-tablet trials, effects on nasal symptoms with timothy grass and ragweed SLIT-tablets were nearly as great as with MFNS and numerically greater than with montelukast and desloratadine for SAR. HDM SLIT-tablet effects were numerically greater than all pharmacotherapies for PAR. SLIT-tablets offer the additional
Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D
Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a
Milne, Iain; Bayer, Micha; Cardle, Linda; Shaw, Paul; Stephen, Gordon; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David
Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next-generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high-quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, allowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi-core aware and memory efficient, allowing it to handle assemblies containing millions of reads, even on a 32-bit desktop machine. Tablet is freely available for Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris. Fully bundled installers can be downloaded from http://bioinf.scri.ac.uk/tablet in 32- and 64-bit versions.
This work offers a re-edition of twelve mathematical tablets from the site of Tell Harmal, in the borders of present-day Baghdad. In ancient times, Tell Harmal was Šaduppûm, a city representative of the region of the Diyala river and of the kingdom of Ešnunna, to which it belonged for a time. These twelve tablets were originally published in separate articles in the beginning of the 1950s and mostly contain solved problem texts. Some of the problems deal with abstract matters such as triangles and rectangles with no reference to daily life, while others are stated in explicitly empirical contexts, such as the transportation of a load of bricks, the size of a vessel, the number of men needed to build a wall and the acquisition of oil and lard. This new edition of the texts is the first to group them, and takes into account all the recent developments of the research in the history of Mesopotamian mathematics. Its introductory chapters are directed to readers interested in an overview of the mathematical con...
Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.
Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents
Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C
Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chakravarty, Paroma; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Govindarajan, Ramprakash
The objective of this article was to monitor phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride, from a nonstoichiometric hydrate (NSH) to a hemihydrate (HH), in stored tablets, prepared both by direct compression and wet granulation, and to relate the storage-induced phase transformation with changes in tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance. Raman spectroscopy revealed complete NSH → HH transformation in tablets, within 30 h of storage at 40°C/75% relative humidity. When the tablets were prepared by wet granulation of NSH alone, there was a marked increase in both tablet volume and hardness on storage. However, when microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was included in granulation, the resulting stored tablets also exhibited a pronounced increase in disintegration time. In contrast, tablets prepared by dry processing via compression of a NSH-MCC physical mixture did not exhibit any changes in properties, despite the in situ solid form conversion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed growth of needle-like HH crystals in all stored tablets and mercury porosimetry revealed considerable changes in the pore size distribution during storage. Longer storage led to crystal growth (Ostwald ripening), causing further gradual but less dramatic changes in properties. The phase transformation and the complex interparticulate associations in the tablet influenced the changes in tablet microstructure, compact physical properties, and product behavior. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mc Laughlin, Patrick
Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.
Young, Justin G; Trudeau, Matthieu; Odell, Dan; Marinelli, Kim; Dennerlein, Jack T
The aim of this study was to determine how head and neck postures vary when using two media tablet (slate) computers in four common user configurations. Fifteen experienced media tablet users completed a set of simulated tasks with two media tablets in four typical user configurations. The four configurations were: on the lap and held with the user's hands, on the lap and in a case, on a table and in a case, and on a table and in a case set at a high angle for watching movies. An infra-red LED marker based motion analysis system measured head/neck postures. Head and neck flexion significantly varied across the four configurations and across the two tablets tested. Head and neck flexion angles during tablet use were greater, in general, than angles previously reported for desktop and notebook computing. Postural differences between tablets were driven by case designs, which provided significantly different tilt angles, while postural differences between configurations were driven by gaze and viewing angles. Head and neck posture during tablet computing can be improved by placing the tablet higher to avoid low gaze angles (i.e. on a table rather than on the lap) and through the use of a case that provides optimal viewing angles.
Anbalagan, Parthiban; Sarkar, Srimanta; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S
This study aims to investigate the influence of tablet punch head design on compaction and the resultant tablet mechanical properties. Tablets were prepared using flat-face punches with different head flat and head radius configurations, on a rotary tablet press with compression rolls of different diameters. The results showed that tablets produced using punches with head flats consistently displayed higher tensile strengths and lower capping tendencies. Exclusion of the head flat in the punch head geometry caused the compacts to undergo a state of continual deformation during the compaction cycle, possibly with increasing elasticity without the opportunity for more prolonged stress relaxation. Extension of head flat diameter produced small increments in dwell time and this could bring about significant improvements to the tablet mechanical quality. Changes to the punch head radius were found only to affect the compression profiles marginally, but this only produced insignificant differences in the tablet mechanical properties. A smaller compression roll allowed greater plastic flow during the dwell phase, but this was insufficient to effectively counteract the adverse effects due to increased strain rate during the consolidation phase, leading to deterioration of tablet mechanical quality. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B
This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A randomized, open-label, multicenter trial comparing once-a-day AVINZA (morphine sulfate extended-release capsules) versus twice-a-day OxyContin (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release tablets) for the treatment of chronic, moderate to severe low back pain: improved physical functioning in the ACTION trial.
Rauck, Richard L; Bookbinder, Stephen A; Bunker, Timothy R; Alftine, Christopher D; Gershon, Steven; de Jong, Egbert; Negro-Vilar, Andres; Ghalie, Richard
This multicenter trial compared the efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life and work limitation of once-daily extended-release morphine sulfate capsules (AVINZA, A-MQD) and twice-daily controlled-release oxycodone HCI tablets (OxyContin, O-ER) in subjects with chronic, moderate to severe low back pain. After randomization and a period of opioid dose titration, subjects (n=266) underwent an eight-week evaluation phase and an optionalf our-month extension phase (n=174 in extension phase). Subjects were assessed using the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). In both groups, significant improvements were observed in the SF-12 mean scores forp hysicalf unctioning (p OxyContin, once-daily A VINZA resulted in significantly better and earlier improvement ofp hysicalf unction and ability to work.
The effects of the excipients on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also evaluated. Tablets containing 3 - 4 % w/w STEAROLAC-S gave unit ejection force values comparable to those of tablets containing 2% w/w magnesium stearate. Tablets containing 4% STEAROLAC-S exhibited better ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains aminopropazine fumarate equivalent to 25 milligrams of aminopropazine base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510...
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO defines osteopenia as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviation (SD below the bone density of a normal young adult Iqbal 2000. Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point Iqbal 2000. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications used to treat osteoporosis, Padget's disease of bone, and osteopenia. We report a woman who developed profound muscle weakness and pain after one dose of Risedronate (Actonel.
Bhaskar, Aparajith; Barros, Fernando N; Singh, Ravendra
In the context of continuous pharmaceutical oral dosage manufacturing, a control system is essential to ensure that the critical quality attributes (CQAs) are maintained within the regulatory constraints by mitigating variations generated in upstream operations. Such a system is essential to the Quality by Design (QbD) paradigm shift, which can ensure that predefined end quality attributes are achieved within an optimal economic and time bracket. In this work, an advanced model predictive control (MPC) architecture integrated with a novel real-time tablet weight measurement method has been development and implemented into a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing pilot-plant. The proposed control architecture has the potential to control tablet weight and tablet breaking force simultaneously by systematically decoupling and cascading the control loops. The model predictive control algorithm was experimentally found to be superior to the PID (proportional, integral and derivative) controller and thus, can be utilized for a wide range of applications to improve the quality of pharmaceutical products in continuous manufacturing. The MPC was used to control main compression force and pre compression force using main compression height and fill depth respectively as the actuators. The introduction of this methodology leads to new ways of developing MPC models, tablet weight measurement methods and control strategies that enhance the manufacturability and quality of pharmaceutical tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mangesh Machhindranath Satpute
Full Text Available The demand for fast dissolving tablets has been growing during the last decade, especially for elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties. In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate, were prepared using sodium starch glycolate, sodium croscarmellose and crospovidone as superdisintegrants, by the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for various parameters including weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro dispersion time, drug-polymer interaction, drug content water absorption ratio, wetting time, in vitro drug release, FTIR and DSC studies. The tablets prepared by the direct compression method had a weight variation in the range of 145 mg to 152 mg, which is below ± 7.5%, a hardness of 3.6 kg/cm² to 4.5 kg/cm², percentage friability of 0.46% to 0.73%, in vitro dispersion time of 18 s to 125 s, drug content uniformity of between 98.12% and 100.03%, a water absorption ratio of 67% to 87%, wetting time of 32 sec. to 64 sec., and an in vitro drug release of 53.92% - 98.82% within 15 min. The IR spectral analysis and DSC study showed no drug interaction with formulation additives of the tablet, and the formulations indicated no significant changes in hardness, friability, drug content or in vitro drug release. Fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate have enhanced dissolution and will lead to improved bioavailability and more effective therapy.
Murad N. Abualhasan
Full Text Available Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (R2=0.999, precise (% RSD = 0.026, and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34. The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69. The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5% compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%. This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product.
Chavez, Pierre-François; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; De Bleye, Charlotte; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Mantanus, Jérôme; Motte, Henri; Schubert, Martin; Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric
The aim of this study was to develop Near infrared (NIR) methods to determine the active content of non-coated pharmaceutical tablets manufactured from a proportional tablet formulation. These NIR methods intend to be used for the monitoring of the active content of tablets during the tableting process. Firstly, methods were developed in transmission and reflection modes to quantify the API content of the lowest dosage strength. Secondly, these methods were fully validated for a concentration range of 70-130% of the target active content using the accuracy profile approach based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. The model using the transmission mode showed a better ability to predict the right active content compared to the reflection one. However, the ability of the reflection mode to quantify the API content in the highest dosage strength was assessed. Furthermore, the NIR method based on the transmission mode was successfully used to monitor at-line the tablet active content during the tableting process, providing better insight of the API content during the process. This improvement of control of the product quality provided by this PAT method is thoroughly compliant with the Quality by Design (QbD) concept. Finally, the transfer of the transmission model from the off-line to an on-line spectrometer was efficiently investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teraoka, Reiko; Matsushima, Yuki; Sugimoto, Isao; Inoue, Kana; Morita, Shin-ya; Kitagawa, Shuji
The stability of trichlormethiazide (TCM) and the drug in the nine products available on the market (the original tablet (B) and 8 generic tablets (G1-G8)) were investigated under humid conditions. TCM was non-hygroscopic and was not degraded under humid conditions. Drug degradation in aqueous ethanol was accelerated with increased water concentration, and the drug stability in buffer solution was improved with decreased pH. TCM decomposition was not detected in each unwrapped tablet at low relative humidity. However, rapid degradation was observed for products G1 and G2, while product B and G7 showed higher stability at high relative humidity. The stability of products G1 and G2 decreased with increasing humidity. The same results were observed for the tablets in press-through packages (PTP), but the degradation rate was much slower than tablets without PTP packages. These results suggested that the adsorbed moisture by excipients cause TCM degradation. Various pharmaceutical excipients are added to TCM tablets and these vary between different pharmaceutical companies. Intact drug and pharmaceutical excipients, including lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), low substituted HPC (L-HPC), calcium stearate, and light anhydrous silicic acid, were mixed, and the sample mixtures were stored in humid conditions. It was found that the TCM content decreased significantly in a binary mixture of TCM/HPC 1 : 1.
A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe
Get up to speed on the hottest opportunity in the application development arena App development for tablets is a booming business. Android tablets, including the popular Motorola Xoom, are gaining market share at breakneck speed, and this book can have even novice programmers creating great Android apps specifically for tablets quickly and easily. A little Java knowledge is helpful but not essential to get started creating apps. Android expert Donn Felker helps you get the Android environment up and running, use XML to create application menus, create an icon for your app, and submit your app
are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However, performing the review also revealed that the notion of tablets for learning is equivocal. As a consequence......Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology...
Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.
Fernanda Santos de Souza
Full Text Available Globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates are solid dosage forms used in homeopathy. Divergences can be noted between the preparation techniques described in official compendiums as well as those applied in homeopathic pharmacies. The difficulty associated with standardization of the impregnation of these dosage forms occurs due to the lack of detail provided for the techniques in the literature, leaving it up to each pharmacy to decide on the exact method of preparation. The objective was to optimize the impregnation technique, through investigating the variables that influence the impregnation of globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates, applying the statistical tool of factorial design. The independent variables were the dosage form, percentage and type of impregnation and drying temperature, and the dependent variables were the mass gain, disintegration time, friability and hardness. For the globules, the greatest mass gain was for 10% impregnation and drying at 20 ºC. For the tablet triturates and compressed tablets the greatest mass gain was for 15% impregnation and there was no difference between the results obtained using simple and triple impregnation or different drying temperatures. The results can contribute to improving the final product quality, besides aiding in the establishment of standardized techniques for the official compendiums.Glóbulos, comprimidos e tabletes são formas farmacêuticas sólidas utilizadas em homeopatia. Constatam-se divergências entre técnicas de preparação descritas nos compêndios oficiais, bem como em farmácias homeopáticas. A dificuldade de padronização na impregnação destas formas farmacêuticas também ocorre devido à falta de detalhamento das técnicas na literatura existente, deixando para cada farmácia a escolha de como executá-las. O objetivo foi otimizar a técnica de impregnação, através do estudo de variáveis que interferem na impregnação de gl
Graidis, Christos; Golias, Christos; Dimitriadis, Dimokritos; Dimitriadis, Georgios; Bitsis, Theodosis; Dimitrelos, Ilias; Tsiakou, Afroditi; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos
The interactions among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial pathophysiological process involving some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). Glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors are only restricted to blood platelets and they bind fibrinogen and adhesion proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor to form cross bridges between adjacent platelets. IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are an object of intense research activity for target therapy worldwide during the last decades. Three GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This case report discusses a forty-four-year-old male patient with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and developed profound thrombocytopenia within 4 hours of first administration of eptifibatide. This report adds another case of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia to the medical literature and endorses the importance of platelet count monitoring after initiating therapy with this agent.
Jindal, Shammy; Jindal, Kamya; Gupta, Ghanshyam; Garg, Rajeev; Awasthi, Rajendra
Present communication was aimed to investigate the effect of excipients on buoyancy and drug release properties from the floating tablets. Gastroretentive floating tablets were developed by the wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), carbopol 934P, carbopol 971P and crospovidone as a rate controlling polymers. Sodium bicarbonate and PVP K30 were used as a gas generating agent and granulating agent, respectively. The effect of formulation variables on tablet perf...
Sovány, T.; Kása Jr., P.; Pintye-Hódi, K.
The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were used to describe the powder densification on the two machines. The calculated parameters revealed that the shorter compr...
Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem M.; Estelle, F.; Simons, R.; Simons, Keith J.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing epinephrine load on the characteristics of fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets for the potential emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Four tablet formulations, A, B, C, and D, containing 0%, 6%, 12%, and 24% of epinephrine bitartrate, respectively, and microcrystalline cellulose:low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (9∶1), were prepared by direct compression, at a range of compression forces. Tablet weight variation, content u...
Smartphones and electronic tablets (e-tablets) have become ubiquitous devices. Their ease of use, smartness, accessibility, mobility and connectivity create unique opportunities to improve quality of surgical care from prehabilitation to rehabilitation. Before surgery, digital applications (Apps), serious games and text messaging may help for a better control of risk factors (hypertension, overweight), for smoking cessation, and for optimizing adherence to preoperative recommendations (e.g., regarding anticoagulation or antihypertensive treatments). During surgery, Apps may help to rationalize fluid management and estimate blood loss. After surgery, smartphones and/or connected sensors (pulse oximeter, adhesive path, electronic tattoo, bioimpedance necklace) can be used to monitor body temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability (detection of cardiac arrhythmia), respiratory rate, arterial oxygen saturation and thoracic fluid content. Therefore, these tools have potential for the early detection of infectious, cardiac and respiratory complications in the wards and from home. When connected to echo probes, smartphones and e-tablets can also be used as ultrasound devices during central venous catheter insertion, for peripheral nerve blocks, and to perform echocardiography in patients developing cardiac complications. Finally, electronic checklists now exist as Apps to enhance communication between patients and healthcare professionals, and to track and record step by step each element of the surgical journey. Studies are now urgently needed to investigate whether this digital revolution can translate into a better outcome, an earlier detection of postoperative complications, a decrease in hospital readmissions and in health care costs.
Dey, Paramita; Maiti, Sabyasachi
The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug-delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other oral formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to super disintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper peroral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method of preparation is the compression method. Other special methods are molding, melt granulation, phase-transition process, sublimation, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and effervescent method. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test. PMID:22096326
Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle
Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people......’s learning with portable tablets matches the intentions of the museums. By applying media and information literacy (MIL) components as analytical dimensions, a pattern of discrepancies between young people’s expectations, their actual learning and the museums’ approaches to framing such learning...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...
Anna R. Chambers
Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory
Bloch, B; Smyth, E
Metronidazole tablets, benzoyl metronidazole suspension and tinidazole tablets each given as a single 2 g bolus dose in an open controlled prospective study were found to be effective forms of treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis. The cure rates on wet smear preparations were 100%, 100% and 94,8% respectively, and symptomatic and observed improvements were excellent. There was a statistically significant difference between the response rates associated with both metronidazole preparations and tinidazole. The results of this study indicate that single-dosage bolus therapy can confidently be recommended in trichomonal infections and that it has a number of advantages.
Tett, S E; Cutler, D J; Day, R O; Brown, K F
1. Five healthy volunteers received, in a randomised crossover design study, a 155 mg oral tablet and an intravenous infusion of 155 mg racemic hydroxychloroquine (200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulphate) to assess the bioavailability of the commercially available tablet (Plaquenil, Winthrop Laboratories, Australia). 2. The terminal elimination half-life of hydroxychloroquine is more than 40 days, thus blood and urine samples were collected for 5 months following each dose to characterise adequate...
as a material constant. However, the estimation of this parameter is laborious and subject to estimation problems. It is shown that the Weibull modulus is inherently connected to the coefficient of variation and that the information obtained from the modulus is unclear. The distribution of crushing strength...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....
Full Text Available Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use.Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner and the student examinee.Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners. In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews.Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be “hardly difficult”. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected.Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in
Saxena Vaibhav; Khinchi Mahaveer Pr; Gupta M.K.; Agarwal Dilip; Sharma Natasha
Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have emerged as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for the paediatric and geriatric patients. In recent decades, a variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the rapid disintegrating tablet (RDT) is one of the most widely employed commercial products.1 As our society is becoming increasingly aged, the development of Fast-...
Díaz Ramírez, Carmen Cristina; Robles, Leopoldo Villafuerte
The variety of excipients from different sources and prices to which we have access gives rise to the necessity to evaluate their functional characteristics. The aim of this work is to determine some physical and technological characteristics of celluloses from different sources, India and United States, to ascertain their functionality as tablet excipients. The used surrogate functionality properties are particle morphology and particle size distribution, compactibility, ejection pressure, and the disintegration properties of pure excipients and their compressed tablets. The innovators Avicel and Croscarmellose show advantages over the generic celluloses Alfacel and Carmacel. Avicel PH 101 and 102 show an average of 26% greater compactibility than both types of Alfacel, whereas the compactibility of Croscarmellose is greater than that of Carmacel in about 50%. Avicel tablets compacted at a compaction pressure of 47 MPa exhibit shorter disintegration times (3.7 minutes) than Alfacel tablets (28 minutes), whereas Carmacel show better disintegrant properties than Croscarmellose. This occurs regardless of the similar particle morphology, size, and size distribution. As expected, all celluloses show low ejection pressures. The surrogate functionality properties of the generic celluloses are still considered as satisfactory to be used as tablet excipients, although they are inferior in some aspects to innovator celluloses. Alfacel and Carmacel have the potential to be used as filler, binder, and disintegrant, in the design of tablets. Moreover, one should bear in mind that the differences reported here may be altered because of a possible inter-batch variability and variations in the moisture content.
Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares
Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.
Full Text Available Aim: Divisibility and dose homogeneity in scored tablets which form a part of the drugs those are in tablet forms in Turkey and have an extensive implementation area in drug therapy have a high importance for patient compliance and safety. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market about cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance. Material and Method: In Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market, to detect cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance, All Drug%u2019s Price List that has been published on Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency%u2019s web site is evaluated by using cost-minimization analysis method. Results: It is determined that the use of scored tablets make a price advantage of about 70%. Discussion: In conclusion, on package leaflets and outer packaging information those are prepared for the use of patients, the warning %u201CDon%u2019t divide, crack or swallow the tablets unless otherwise recommended by your doctor.%u201D should be stated and it is considered that it would be useful if the patient is informed about divisibility by the pharmacist.
Bat-haee, M A
A longitudinal study indicated that a single group of adults living in a large state institution (O'Berry Center in Goldsboro, North Carolina) benefited from receiving active treatment, although no control group was permitted. After five years, 59 individuals with profound mental retardation improved their skills in six general areas of dressing, grooming, eating, toileting, communication, and social interaction. After five more years of active treatment, 51 persons who had remained in the program maintained their skills in dressing, grooming, eating, and communication. Significant improvement in the use of toilet and a loss in social interaction were observed. Although the participants were 10 years older at the end of this study, their adaptive behaviors, in comparison to the date of entry, either improved or were maintained. Therefore, aging was not associated with decline in skills.
van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H
Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple
Goh, Hui Ping; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria
Reproducibility of die fill during tablet production is critical to ensure consistent tablet drug content and mechanical attributes. In the production of mini-tablets, tablets smaller than 6mm, achievement of uniform die fill is much more challenging. Powder flow is often associated with die fill accuracy but this relationship has not been well characterised especially for mini-tablets. In this study, flow properties of different types of granules were characterised. Mini-tablets of 1.8 and 3mm diameters were prepared from the granules using a rotary press with multiple-tip compression tooling. A methodology was established to evaluate mini-tablet die fill variation within and across compaction cycles using data from compression roller displacement and mini-tablet weight. Both sizes of mini-tablets showed similar extents of inter-cycle weight variation that could be associated with granules' inter-particulate friction. However, smaller mini-tablets had higher intra-cycle weight variation due to their narrower die orifices. Multivariate and univariate analyses suggested that gravity fill influenced intra-cycle weight variation of 3mm mini-tablets while suction fill was associated with that of 1.8mm mini-tablets. Possible differences in die fill mechanisms between the mini-tablet sizes were identified and this provided a better insight into die fill variations during the production of mini-tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom
Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.
Zhao, Na; Zidan, Ahmed; Tawakkul, Mobin; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor
Metoprolol succinate extended release tablets comprise a multiple unit system containing metoprolol succinate in a multitude of controlled release pellets. Each pellet acts as a separate drug delivery unit and is designed to deliver metoprolol continuously over the dosage interval. Despite the flexibility that controlled release pellets may offer, segregation is one of the challenges that commonly occur during tableting for such drug delivery system. Since all commercial metoprolol succinate extended release tablets are scored, they are deemed suitable for splitting. The present study was aimed at utilizing an innovative technology to determine the dose uniformity for split tablets. Four marketed drug products consisting of innovator and generics were evaluated for effect of splitting on weight, assay and content uniformity. Novel analytical tool such as near infrared (NIR) chemical imaging was used to visualize the distribution of metoprolol succinate and functional excipients on the surfaces of the marketed tablets. The non-homogeneous distribution of directly compressed metoprolol succinate beads on the surface of the tablets as well as the split intersection explained the large variation in the split tablets' weight and content uniformity results. The obtained results indicated the usefulness of NIR chemical imaging to determine the need for content uniformity studies for certain split tablets. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L
The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank
Lakio, S; Ylinärä, H; Antikainen, O; Räikkönen, H; Yliruusi, J
Tablet compression process has been studied over the years from various perspectives. However what exactly happens to material during compression is still unknown. In this study a novel compression die which enables real-time spectroscopic measurements during the compression of material is represented. Both near infrared and Raman spectroscope probes can be attached to the die. In this study the usage of the die is demonstrated by using Raman spectroscopy. Eicosane, d-glucose anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and xylitol were used in the study because their compression behavior and bonding properties during compression were assumed to be different. The intensity of the Raman signal changed during compression with all of the materials. However, the intensity changes were different within the materials. The biggest differences were within the xylitol spectra. It was noticed that some peaks disappeared with higher compression pressures indicating that the pressure affected variously on different bonds in xylitol structure. These reversible changes were supposed to relate the changes in conformation and crystal structure. As a conclusion, the die was found to be a significant addition for studying compression process in real-time. It can help to reveal Process induced transformations (PITs) occurring during powder compaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Qijun; Guan, Xiaoying; Cui, Mengsuo; Zhu, Zhihong; Chen, Kai; Wen, Haoyang; Jia, Danyang; Hou, Jian; Xu, Wenting; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan
Three dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing is a paste-based rapid prototyping process, which is capable of building complex 3D structures. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of 3D extrusion-based printing as a pharmaceutical manufacture technique for the fabrication of gastro-floating tablets. Novel low-density lattice internal structure gastro-floating tablets of dipyridamole were developed to prolong the gastric residence time in order to improve drug release rate and consequently, improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical study could be efficiently applied in the room temperature 3D extrusion-based printing process. The tablets were designed with three kinds of infill percentage and prepared by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E15) as hydrophilic matrices and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH101) as extrusion molding agent. In vitro evaluation of the 3D printed gastro-floating tablets was performed by determining mechanical properties, content uniformity, and weight variation. Furthermore, re-floating ability, floating duration time, and drug release behavior were also evaluated. Dissolution profiles revealed the relationship between infill percentage and drug release behavior. The results of this study revealed the potential of 3D extrusion-based printing to fabricate gastro-floating tablets with more than 8h floating process with traditional pharmaceutical excipients and lattice internal structure design. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Thakral, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Sarat; Stephenson, Gregory A; Suryanarayanan, Raj
Tablets of amorphous indomethacin were compressed at 10, 25, 50, or 100 MPa using either an unlubricated or a lubricated die and stored individually at 35 °C in sealed Mylar pouches. At selected time points, tablets were analyzed by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry (2D-XRD), which enabled us to profile the extent of drug crystallization in tablets, in both the radial and axial directions. To evaluate the role of lubricant, magnesium stearate was used as "internal" and/or "external" lubricant. Indomethacin crystallization propensity increased as a function of compression pressure, with 100 MPa pressure causing crystallization immediately after compression (detected using synchrotron radiation). However, the drug crystallization was not uniform throughout the tablets. In unlubricated systems, pronounced crystallization at the radial surface could be attributed to die wall friction. The tablet core remained substantially amorphous, irrespective of the compression pressure. Lubrication of the die wall with magnesium stearate, as external lubricant, dramatically decreased drug crystallization at the radial surface. The spatial heterogeneity in drug crystallization, as a function of formulation composition and compression pressure, was systematically investigated. When formulating amorphous systems as tablets, the potential for compression induced crystallization warrants careful consideration. Very low levels of crystallization on the tablet surface, while profoundly affecting product performance (decrease in dissolution rate), may not be readily detected by conventional analytical techniques. Early detection of crystallization could be pivotal in the successful design of a dosage form where, in order to obtain the desired bioavailability, the drug may be in a high energy state. Specialized X-ray diffractometric techniques (2D; use of high intensity synchrotron radiation) enabled detection of very low levels of drug crystallization and revealed the heterogeneity in
Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang
The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. PMID:27932865
Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd
The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.
Gong, Sheng-Ju; Sun, Shi-Xuan; Sun, Qing-Shen; Wang, Jin-Ye; Liu, Xin-Ming; Liu, Guo-Yan
In our previous study, we reported a novel tablet based on compressed zein microspheres as a universal drug delivery system using the hydrophobic protein zein, which shows zero-order release in the presence of pepsin. However, this formulation had difficulty with disintegration under physiological conditions within 48 h, and thus could not be used directly for oral administration. In the present study, a formulation of ivermectin (IVM) tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was improved as a new dosage form. The plasma disposition pharmacokinetics of IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres after oral administration was studied over a 7-day period with six dogs (Canis familiaris), using a commercial IVM tablet (5 mg/piece, Yilijia(®) ) as a control. Clinical efficacy was tested using 270 dogs presented as veterinary patients for the treatment of demodicidosis. A formulation with disintegration time within 15 min could be obtained. The acquired C( max), T(max), and AUC were 9.89 ± 0.34 ng/mL, 11.33 ± 2.63 h, and 883.87 ng h/mL for IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres and 9.64 ± 1.05 ng/mL, 7.26 ± 2.09 h, and 666.30 ng h/mL for Yilijia(®), respectively. The bioavailability of the tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was 132.65% that of Yilijia( ®). Efficacy for the dogs in all the IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres-treated groups reached 100% at 7, 14, and 21 days post administration.
Egri, Sándor; Szabó, Lóránt
It is well known that "interactive engagement" helps students to understand basic concepts in physics.1 Performing experiments and analyzing measured data are effective ways to realize interactive engagement, in our view. Some experiments need special equipment, measuring instruments, or laboratories, but in this activity we advocate student use of mobile phones or tablets to take experimental data. Applying their own devices and measuring simple phenomena from everyday life can improve student interest, while still allowing precise analysis of data, which can give deeper insight into scientific thinking and provide a good opportunity for inquiry-based learning.2
Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco
During atrial fibrillation (AF), multiple wandering propagation wavelets at high rates drift around both atria under controversial hierarchical models. Antiarrhythmic drugs modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria, and can alter AF propagation dynamics and even terminate the arrhythmia. However, some other drugs, theoretically nonantiarrhythmic, may slightly block particular cardiac ionic currents through uncertain mechanisms in such a subtle way at regular heart rates that may have been pharmacologically overlooked. These potential effects might be better exposed at much higher activation rates as in AF, where atrial cells depolarize over 400 times per second. In this review, we aimed to compile and discuss results from several studies evaluating the net effect of profound sedation with propofol on atrial cells and atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Propofol is a very commonly used anesthetic agent, and its possible effect on AF dynamics has systematically not been taken into account in the myriad of clinical studies dealing with AF intracardiac recordings. The possible effect of sedation with propofol on AF was evaluated through the analysis of AF propagation patterns before and after its infusion in a series of patients submitted to pulmonary vein ablation. Effect on AV conduction will be discussed as well. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M
The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.
Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.
Konarski, E A; Diorio, M S
Eighty-seven studies published since 1964 through 1982 on training self-help skills to severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons were analyzed according to 19 parameters reflecting their methodological details. The results showed a steady interest in this research area over time, but 63% of the studies focused on toileting and feeding with fewer studies looking at other self-help skills. Package treatments composed primarily of accelerative techniques were most frequently used to train these skills. Methodologically, it was found that these studies typically involved profoundly mentally retarded people (33% of studies) who were trained by residential staff (69% of studies) in institutional settings (63% of studies). The results also indicated an increase over time in the number of studies rated acceptable on the reliability and design parameters. Finally, very few studies reported assessments of generalization, maintenance, or social validity. It was concluded that, (a) researchers need to broaden their interests in terms of settings, trainers, and behaviors studied to best meet the needs of this population, (b) the experimental quality of this literature is improving, and (c) the social impact of observed behavior changes has yet to be fully explored.
Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin
The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.
v/v). Powder properties were investigated and tablets of ascorbic acid were formulated using MCS and MCC as direct compression excipients. RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were comparable to those of MCC ...
Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech
The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets......The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets...
Yamamoto, Koji; Tamura, Taisuke; Yoshihashi, Yasuo; Terada, Katsuhide; Yonemochi, Etsuo
Magnesium stearate (MgSt), an essential lubricant in the manufacturing of tablets, is available in several hydrate forms with different qualities that affect the physical properties of tablets. This study examined MgSt mono- and dihydrates, and their effects on tablet dissolution, disintegration, and hardness. These effects were examined in terms of surface free energy and dispersibility. Dissolution, disintegration, and hardness were evaluated for tablets manufactured from powder mixtures of each MgSt hydrate form and other components, including ethenzamide as an active ingredient, using different mixing times. The surface energy was evaluated for MgSt mono- or dihydrate powder mixtures with a surface tensiometer. For dispersibility, the adhesion states of MgSt hydrates to other components were visually observed via near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging. The dispersion behavior of MgSt hydrates was examined by quantitative evaluation of skewness and kurtosis of histograms, based on NIR images, and domain size estimated from their binary images. It was found that changes in those parameters related to dispersibility and dissolution differed between MgSt hydrates. This suggests that the quantitative determination of dispersibility of MgSt using NIR chemical imaging is a useful methodology for improving the understanding of tablet manufacturing blending processes.
Qu, Li; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Lakio, Satu; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony
This study aims at testing the feasibility of a single-step coating process to produce a powder formulation of active and inactive ingredients for direct compression. A cohesive ibuprofen powder was coprocessed with a coating material, a binder (polyvinylpyrrolidone K25), and a superdisintegrant (crospovidone). Magnesium stearate (MgSt), l-leucine, and silica were selected as coating materials (1% w/w). A coprocessed powder without any coating material was employed as a control. Coating with MgSt, l-leucine, or silica produced significantly improved powder flow in comparison to the control batch. Robust tablets were produced from the processed powders for each coating material. The tablets compacted using the coated powders with MgSt or l-leucine also exhibited significantly lower tablet ejection forces than the control batch, demonstrating their lubrication effect. Furthermore, the disintegration time and dissolution rates of these tablets made of the formulations coprocessed with lubricants were enhanced, even for those coated with the hydrophobic material such as MgSt that has been previously reported to inhibit dissolution. However, the tablets made with silica-coated powders would not disintegrate. This study indicated the feasibility of a single-step dry coating process to produce powders with both flow-aid and lubrication effects, which are suitable for direct compression. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahmoud, Enas A; Bendas, Ehab R; Mohamed, Magdy I
The purpose of this study was to combine the advantages of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems and tablets as a conventional dosage form emphasizing the excipients' effect on the development of a new dosage form. Systems composed of HCO-40, Transcutol HP, and medium-chain triglyceride were prepared. Essential properties of the prepared systems regarding carvedilol solubility, a model drug, and self-emulsification time were determined. In order to optimize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), formulation dispersion-drug precipitation test was performed in the absence and presence of cellulosic polymers. Furthermore, SNEDDS was loaded onto liquisolid powders. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity of the selected SNEDDS was tested using HCT-116 cells. Carvedilol showed acceptable solubility in the selected excipients. It also demonstrated improvement in the stability upon dilution with aqueous media in the presence of cellulosic polymers. Use of granulated silicon dioxide improved the physical properties of liquisolid powders containing SNEDDS. It improved the compressibility of the selected powders and the tested SNEDDS showed marked P-gp inhibition activity. Prepared self-nanoemulsifying tablet produced acceptable properties of immediate-release dosage forms and expected to increase the bioavailability of carvedilol.
Evers, Kasper Grønlund
, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market......, a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study...
Full Text Available This paper outlines recently started project dedicated to creation and development of information system for cuneiform tablets. The contribution deals with the architecture of a virtual collection of cuneiform tablets, conceived as a complex system combining and integrating several domains of information obtained from various types of analyses. The research team includes experts from the field of collection conservation with philologists and researchers in the 3D scanning and physical measurement. Multidisciplinary databases like the one described, represent a new tool in digital humanities and help to improve accessibility of collections to public and researchers.
Valach, J.; Štefcová, P.; Bruna, R.; Zemánek, P.
This paper outlines recently started project dedicated to creation and development of information system for cuneiform tablets. The contribution deals with the architecture of a virtual collection of cuneiform tablets, conceived as a complex system combining and integrating several domains of information obtained from various types of analyses. The research team includes experts from the field of collection conservation with philologists and researchers in the 3D scanning and physical measurement. Multidisciplinary databases like the one described, represent a new tool in digital humanities and help to improve accessibility of collections to public and researchers.
Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Bykov, Tikhon; Kosheleva, Yelena
Modular Curriculum Approach is an innovative model designed at McMurry University and adopted for teaching of introductory physics courses. In MCA, traditional lab/lecture structure is converted into a system of flexible instructional modules, with lecture, lab, and discussion being merged into one technologically and collaboratively rich experience. Different elements are integrated with Tablet PCs as a single unifying platform to improve continuity among module components. A technology suite incorporated with tablets includes: Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response systems, data acquisition systems, and tablet-based note-taking tools. The MCA has been further reinforced by creating a new instructional space with movable partitions, allowing for easy transformation between lecture and lab modes. The space is supportive of small peer- group activities with easy-to-reconfigure table clusters, multiple white and black board surfaces, multiple TVs and projection screens.
The goal of this project was to develop a cross-platform mobile and tablet application and study it further to make it secure and cost efficient. The possibility to offer native application features was also analyzed. This project was carried out for Process Vision Oy to deploy the desktop software developed there for mobile devices and tablets. The application was developed as a web application to make it cross-platform. A mobile framework called jQuery Mobile was used along with markup ...
Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446... oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime and 46 mg lufenuron, 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 115 mg lufenuron, 11.5 mg milbemycin oxime and...
The matrix tablets were formed by compressing the wax matrix granules at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale). The tablets were evaluated for tablet tensile strength, packing fraction, friability and in vitro dissolution profile. The dissolution data were analysed with different mathematical models namely zero.
The main purpose of the present research work was to mask the bitter taste of the active drug and to formulate the MD tablets by sublimation method. Metoclopramide HCl tablets were prepared by masking the bitter taste with the help of Eudragit E-100, then preparing the tablets by using subliming agents i.e. camphor and ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...
Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi for the study. The mechanical ... Colorimetric methods were used to determine the presence of artesunate and to assay the tablets. Result: ... Keywords: Artesunate tablets, Artemisinins, Fast-red TR salt, Counterfeit drugs, Substandard drugs. Tropical ...
PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...
Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration ...
A soap stamping and tableting machine comprising a printing die/pattern inscriptioner, cutting blade, conveyor belt, and two electric motors was developed and tested. Performance test analysis conducted showed that the machine operated with an optimal stamping/tableting capacity of 10205 soap tablets per hour with an ...
Purpose: To formulate extended-release tablets of diclofenac sodium based on ispaghula husk. Methods: Tablets with varying proportions of diclofenac sodium and ispaghula husk were formulated by wet granulation technique at a fixed compression force of 10 kN. The formulated tablets were evaluated for ...
Kagel, R. A.; Farwell, S. O.
Background information, procedures, and results, are provided for an undergraduate experiment in which analgesic tablets are analyzed using liquid chromatography. The experiment, an improved, modified version of the Waters Associates Inc. experiment, is simple to prepare, requiring little glassware and minimal sample manipulation by students. (JN)
Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart D; Giovannoni, Gavin
We herein provide a comprehensive assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes from CLARITY, a 96-week, double-blind study demonstrating significant clinical and MRI improvements in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with cladribine tablets. Patients...
Spike, Jeffrey P
Individuals who are profoundly mentally handicapped do not have the capacity to make their own decisions and also do not have a past record of decisions, from when they had capacity, to guide us in making decisions for them. They represent a difficult group, ethically, for surrogate decision making. Here I propose some guidelines, distinguishing between these patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As the life span of patients becomes shorter, or their level of consciousness becomes permanently impaired, the presumption for comfort care should become an imperative, and the standard of evidence to justify any invasive intervention should become higher. For members of this population, who have no more ability to refuse treatment than to consent to it, protection of the vulnerable must mean allowing a peaceful death as well as a comfortable life. Reasonable legal safeguards are also proposed to allow improved end-of-life decisions to be made for this population.
Roemer, Miriam; Verheul, Ellen; Velthausz, Frank
To support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), it is essential to understand how they experience their environment. Insight into perception behaviour may provide an entry point for improved understanding. A random sample of a 30-min video registration of five participants with PIMD was used to code behaviours per second based on an ethogram containing 157 different perception behaviours in nine categories. Eighty-nine different perception behaviours were observed, of which movements with eyes, head and arms were most common. The senses used most were seeing, hearing and touching. Finally, the function of five perception patterns was established in relation to their function:awareness, focusing attention and tension regulation. Close observation using an observation ethogram provides insight into how people with PIMD perceive their environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.
Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F
The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,
Full Text Available The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used
Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E
Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the
VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich
Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of
Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Tang, Dan; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Guo, Hang; Hsieh, Daniel; Timmins, Peter
To investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on immediate release 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets. A traditional wet granulation method was used to manufacture metformin hydrochloride tablets with or without a disintegrant. Tablet dissolution was conducted using the USP apparatus I at 100 rpm. In spite of its pH-independent high solubility, metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved significantly slower in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and 50 mM pH 4.5 acetate buffer compared with 50 mM pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the dissolution medium in the USP. Metformin hydrochloride API compressed into a round 1200 mg disk showed a similar trend. When basket rotation speed was increased from 100 to 250 rpm, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets was similar in all three media. Incorporation of 2% w/w crospovidone in the tablet formulation improved the dissolution although the pH-dependent trend was still evident, but incorporation of 2% w/w croscarmellose sodium resulted in rapid pH-independent tablet dissolution. In absence of a disintegrant in the tablet formulation, the dissolution was governed by the erosion-diffusion process. Even for a highly soluble drug, a super-disintegrant was needed in the formulation to overcome the diffusion layer limitation and change the dissolution mechanism from erosion-diffusion to disintegration.
Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija
The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…
Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...
Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...
Purpose: To investigate the impact of critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) on quality target product profile (QTPP) attributes of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing ondansetron (OND) using two artificial neural network (ANN) programs. Methods: Different amounts of two different ...
Daccord, Tom; Reich, Justin
Without a change in our technology integration strategies, there's no reason to expect that a new device will magically create new teaching practices. In some iPad classrooms, students are engaged in truly innovative work. On the whole, however, tablets are most often used to reproduce existing practices. To make the most of their investment in…
Purpose: To formulate simvastatin orodispersible tablets with high dissolution rate and enhanced bioavailability. Methods: Simvastatin solid dispersions in β- cyclodextrin, hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and hydroxylbutyl-β-cyclodextrin were prepared in different drug: polymer ratios by kneading and solvent evaporation ...
Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim
Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.
Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas; Abou El Ela, Amal El Sayeh F
Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing furosemide (FUR) were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (3 2 ) full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1) and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2) on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1) was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1) and CCS (X2) on ODTs disintegration time (Y1) were insignificant (p > 0.05). Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively), but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004). Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.
Tony Alpert, chief operating officer for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC), ponders whether to allow tablet computers--and particularly iPads--to be used for summative testing online. As Alpert points out, not only would student cheating compromise the validity of the individual student's test event, "worse yet, it could expose…
This study was aimed at exploring the application of microcrystalline cellulose from cassava fermentation waste as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for immediate release. Alkali delignification of the dried cassava fermentation fibres, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed in ...
Brniak, Witold; Maślak, Ewelina; Jachowicz, Renata
Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) and orodispersible films (ODFs) are solid oral dosage forms disintegrating or dissolving rapidly when placed in the mouth. One of the main issues related to their preparation is an efficient taste masking of a bitter drug substance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the microparticles intended to mask a bitter taste of the prednisolone and use them in further preparation of two orodispersible dosage forms. Microparticles based on the Eudragit E PO or E 100 as a taste-masking agent were prepared with spray-drying technique. Tablets containing microparticles, co-processed ODT excipient Pharmaburst, and lubricant were directly compressed with single-punch tablet press. Orodispersible films were prepared by casting polymeric solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing uniformly dispersed microparticles. Physicochemical properties of microparticles were evaluated, as well as mechanical properties analysis, disintegration time measurements and dissolution tests were performed for prepared dosage forms. Both formulations showed good mechanical resistance while maintaining excellent disintegration properties. The dissolution studies showed good masking properties of microparticles with Eudragit E 100. The amount of prednisolone released during the first minute in phosphate buffer 6.8 was around 0.1%. After incorporation into the orodispersible forms, the amount of released prednisolone increased significantly. It was probably the effect of faster microparticles wetting in orodispersible forms and their partial destruction by compression force during tableting process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
combined effect of two formulation variables - amounts of microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol. Results: The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that in order to obtain a fast dissolving tablet of the Aloe vera gel, an optimum concentration of mannitol and a higher content of microcrystalline cellulose should be ...
verify anomalous diffusion . Each tablet matrix was weighed before and after dissolution in above mentioned specific conditions for particular time and after drying at 40 °C for 48 h to determine their erosion. Swelling (%) and erosion (%) was estimated by following formulas: Swelling (%) = S/R × 100. (8). Erosion (%) = (T ...
... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.960 Flumethasone tablets. (a..., such as arthritis, the disc syndrome, and myositis. (ii) Dogs and cats: It is used in certain acute and... nephritis, cushingoid syndrome, or where peptic ulcers occur, except for emergency therapy. Clinical and...
Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier.
... enacarbil extended-release tablets for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RLS in adults. Gabapentin enacarbil is not recommended for patients required to sleep during the daytime and remain awake at night. Efficacy. Gabapentin enacarbil efficacy was established in two 12-week clinical studies in adults diagnosed with RLS using the International Restless ...
Chansanroj, K; Betz, G
Sucrose esters (SE) are esters of sucrose and fatty acids with various hydrophilic-lipophilic properties which have attracted interest from being used in pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed to gain insight into the use of SE as controlled release agents for direct compacted matrix tablets. The study focused on the effect of hydrophilic-lipophilic properties on tableting properties and drug release. Sucrose stearate with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values ranging from 0 to 16 was systematically tested. Tablet formulations contained SE, metoprolol tartrate as a highly soluble model drug and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate as a tablet formulation filler in the ratio 1:1:2. The compaction behaviour of matrix tablets was compared with the compacts of individual starting materials as reference. SE incorporation improved the plasticity, compressibility and lubricating property of powder mixtures. The hydrophilic-lipophilic properties of SE affected tableting properties, drug release rate and release mechanism. Increasing hydrophilicity corresponding to the increased monoesters in SE composition increased the relative porosity, elastic recovery and tensile strength of the tablets due to the increased hydrogen bonding between the monoesters. This also facilitated the swelling behaviour of SE, which sustained the drug release rate. A sustained release effect prevailed in tablets containing SE with HLB values of 3-16. The ability to improve the tableting properties as well as sustain the drug release rate of the highly soluble model drug via gelation of SE highlights SE as promising controlled release regulators for direct compacted matrix tablets comprising drugs with various solubilities according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Fell, John T
A study was carried out into the biphasic drug release properties of film-coated paracetamol tablets. The tablet cores were formulated without a disintegrant and film-coated with a coating formulation consisting of pectin, chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose in a ratio of 6:1:0.37. The tablet cores and the film-coated tablets with coat weight gains (CWGs) of 6, 9 and 13% were evaluated for their water absorption (swelling) and drug release properties. All the tablets absorbed water from pH 6.0 Sorensen's phosphate buffer and the amount of water absorbed increased with an increase in tablet CWG. The addition of 100 microl/50 ml pectinolytic enzymes to the medium resulted in at least a 40% reduction in the amount of water absorption by the tablets, as compared to the medium without enzymes. When the enzyme concentration was increased to 200 microl/50 ml, there was a further reduction ( approximately 8% w/w) in the amount of water absorbed by the tablets. Drug release was controlled in upper gastrointestinal fluids and decreased with an increase in tablet CWG. Drug release was, however, accelerated in the presence of pectinolytic enzymes, consistent with the entry of the tablets in the colon. An evaluation of the drug release data by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed the involvement of molecular diffusion and other factors such as film/tablet erosion and drug dissolution in drug release.
Harada, T; Namiki, S; Kawabata, I
This paper reports an unusual case in which acute lymphocytic leukemia presented acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of the disease. The patient is a 55-year-old woman who complained of left hearing loss of sudden onset. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear at mid and low frequencies. The patient was tentatively diagnosed as idiopathic sudden deafness and admitted for the treatment, but her laboratory data indicated that she was at an advanced stage of leukemia. The patient's hearing loss did not improve subjectively until she deceased 1 year after the admission. The mechanism producing acute hearing loss in leukemic patients is reviewed and discussed, and the importance of differentiating possible underlying diseases before we diagnose idiopathic sudden deafness is stressed.
Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal
Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.
Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice
The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured and illicit tablets, created with different amounts of known colorants were analyzed. We derived reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of these tablets, and successfully determined the most likely colorant used in the production of all self-manufactured tablets and four of five illicit tablets studied. Upon classification, the concentration of the colorant was estimated using a photon propagation model and a single reference measurement of a tablet of known concentration. The estimated concentrations showed a high correlation with the actual values (R(2) = 0.9374). The achieved color information, combined with other physical and chemical characteristics, can provide a powerful tool for the comparison of tablet seizures, which may reveal their origin. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter
Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or "tablet PCs" are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for diagnostic reading, reference, learning, consultation, and for
Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike
Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.
Vemula, Sateesh Kumar
A significant plan is executed in the present study to study the effect of double-compression coating on flurbiprofen core mini-tablets to achieve the pulsatile colonic delivery to deliver the drug at a specific time as per the patho-physiological need of the disease that results in improved therapeutic efficacy. In this study, pulsatile double-compression-coated tablets were prepared based on time-controlled hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M inner compression coat and pH-sensitive Eudragit S100 outer compression coat. Then, the tablets were evaluated for both physical evaluation and drug-release studies, and to prove these results, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers were conducted. From the in vitro drug-release studies, F6 tablets were considered as the best formulation, which retarded the drug release in the stomach and small intestine (3.42 ± 0.12% in 5 h) and progressively released to the colon (99.78 ± 0.74% in 24 h). The release process followed zero-order release kinetics, and from the stability studies, similarity factor between dissolution data before and after storage was found to be 88.86. From the pharmacokinetic evaluation, core mini-tablets producing peak plasma concentration (C max) was 14,677.51 ± 12.16 ng/ml at 3 h T max and pulsatile colonic tablets showed C max = 12,374.67 ± 16.72 ng/ml at 12 h T max. The area under the curve for the mini and pulsatile tablets was 41,238.52 and 72,369.24 ng-h/ml, and the mean resident time was 3.43 and 10.61 h, respectively. In conclusion, development of double-compression-coated tablets is a promising way to achieve the pulsatile colonic release of flurbiprofen.
Melocchi, Alice; Loreti, Giulia; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia
The exploitation of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding for the manufacturing of immediate-release (IR) tablets was preliminarily investigated in view of their special suitability for continuous manufacturing, which represents a current goal of pharmaceutical production because of its possible advantages in terms of improved sustainability. Tablet-forming agents were initially screened based on processability by single-screw extruder and micromolding machine as well as disintegration/dissolution behavior of extruded/molded prototypes. Various polymers, such as low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, various sodium starch glycolate grades (e.g., Explotab(®) CLV) that could be processed with no need for technological aids, except for a plasticizer, were identified. Furthermore, the feasibility of both extruded and molded IR tablets from low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose or Explotab(®) CLV was assessed. Explotab(®) CLV, in particular, showed thermoplastic properties and a very good aptitude as a tablet-forming agent, starting from which disintegrating tablets were successfully obtained by either techniques. Prototypes containing a poorly soluble model drug (furosemide), based on both a simple formulation (Explotab(®) CLV and water/glycerol as plasticizers) and formulations including dissolution/disintegration adjuvants (soluble and effervescent excipients) were shown to fulfill the USP 37 dissolution requirements for furosemide tablets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Smartphones and tablets are being used widely in the Western World creating benefits in healthcare. The Ministry of Health in Ghana has an e-Health strategy, with the aim of integrating such resources into healthcare. Whilst there are numerous mHealth projects going on in Ghana, there is little evidence of doctors using such devices in their practice. A qualitative study was undertaken in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Random sampling was used to identify House Officers, who engaged in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. Consent was gained from all participants and the University of Leeds granted ethical approval. The results demonstrate that current House Officers began using smartphones and tablets at various stages during medical school. Their use has increased since qualification. Although the overall use has increased, some staff remain resistant to the use of smartphones and tablets. In the future, the integration of smartphones and tablets into medical practice can be improved by integration with the medical curriculum and accepted practice. House Officers are routinely using smartphones and tablets to assist them in their daily practice. The use is informal and is peer led. Whilst they bring many benefits, there are issues, which need to be addressed. In Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital integrating smartphone and tablet use into practice is feasible and would prove beneficial.
Orubu, Samuel E F; Hobson, Nicholas J; Basit, Abdul W; Tuleu, Catherine
Dispersible tablets are proposed by the World Health Organization as the preferred paediatric formulation. It was hypothesised that tablets made from a powdered milk-base that disperse in water to form suspensions resembling milk might be a useful platform to improve acceptability in children. Milk-based dispersible tablets containing various types of powdered milk and infant formulae were formulated. The influence of milk type and content on placebo tablet properties was investigated using a design-of-experiments approach. Responses measured included friability, crushing strength and disintegration time. Additionally, the influence of compression force on the tablet properties of a model formulation was studied by compaction simulation. Disintegration times increased as milk content increased. Compaction simulation studies showed that compression force influenced disintegration time. These results suggest that the milk content, rather than type, and compression force were the most important determinants of disintegration. Up to 30% milk could be incorporated to produce 200 mg 10-mm flat-faced placebo tablets by direct compression disintegrating within 3 min in 5-10 ml of water, which is a realistic administration volume in children. The platform could accommodate 30% of a model active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine citrate). © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
El-Zahaby, Sally A; Kassem, Abeer A; El-Kamel, Amal H
Gastroretentive levofloxacin (LVF) floating mini-tablets for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were prepared using the matrix forming polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M), alone or with Carbopol 940P in different ratios by wet granulation technique. Buoyancy of mini-tablets was achieved by an addition of an effervescent mixture consisting of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid to some formulations. The prepared mini-tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, hardness, drug content, in vitro buoyancy, water uptake and in vitro release. The optimized formula was subjected to further studies: FT-IR, DSC analysis and in vivo examination in healthy volunteers. The prepared mini-tablets exhibited satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Incorporation of gas-generating agent improved the floating parameters. HPMC K100M mini-tablet formulation (F1) offered the best controlled drug release (>8 h) along with floating lag time 24 h. The obtained DSC thermograms and FT-IR charts indicated that there is no positive evidence for the interaction between LVF and ingredients of the optimized formula. The in vivo test confirmed the success of the optimized formula F1 in being retained in the stomach of the volunteers for more than 4 h. LVF floating mini-tablets based on HPMC K100M is a promising formulation for eradication of H. pylori.
al-Gohary, O M; al-Kassas, R S
Accelerated stability testing was performed on aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets as well as aspirin-maalox marketed double layer tablets (Ascriptin) in order to evaluate the effect of the presence of the alkaline moieties of the antacid (magaldrate and maalox) on the chemical stability of aspirin. The results were compared simultaneously with that obtained from the marketed Aspro plain tablets. The results revealed that the presence of the alkaline moieties in the tested tablets has increased the rate of aspirin decomposition and reduced its shelf-life. This effect was more pronounced for aspirin tablets containing magaldrate antacid. Determination of shelf-lives at 25 degrees C for the prepared and the marketed tablets was carried out using Arrhenius plots and the results showed that they were 35, 34.5 and 13.5 months for Aspro, Ascriptin and aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets, respectively. The effect of storage for 50 days and at different temperatures, on the crushing strength and the disintegration time of the prepared and the marked tablets showed a slight decrease in the disintegration time and the crushing strength of the tablets as the storage temperature increased. Aspro tablets did not produce the same results. The in vitro release data of the prepared aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets and the marketed Ascriptin tablets stored for 50 days and at different storage temperatures as well as Aspro tablets stored at 70 degrees C were best fitted to the first-order kinetics model. The release data of Aspro tablets stored at 50 and 60 degrees C for 50 days were best fitted to Higuchi's model.
Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Bouvy, Marcel L
Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a patient's ability to break tablets should
Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?
Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there
Wilson, C G; Clarke, Cyril P; Starkey, Yan Yan L; Clarke, Geoffrey D
Acetaminophen (paracetamol, APAP) is widely used to relieve mild-to-moderate pain and reduce fever. Absorption of the drug can be impacted by dosage form; this may have implications for pain relief in some individuals, potentially accounting for suboptimal efficacy in analgesia. To assess the disintegration and dissolution of a new fast-dissolving acetaminophen tablet formulation (FD-APAP) and the impact on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Two randomized, single-center, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover studies in healthy subjects to compare FD-APAP (2 × 500 mg tablets) with standard acetaminophen (2 × 500 mg tablets). Gamma scintigraphy was used to assess tablet disintegration (Study 1, N = 24), and plasma profiles were evaluated in the fasted state (Study 2, N = 40). In Study 1, the mean time to complete disintegration (12.9 vs. 69.6 min, P < 0.0001) and onset of disintegration were both significantly faster with FD-APAP than with standard acetaminophen (P < 0.0001). For Study 2, median T(max) was significantly faster for FD-APAP (0.50 vs. 0.67 h, P < 0.01) and AUC(0-30 min) was significantly greater (4.51 vs. 2.74, P < 0.05). AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-inf) were comparable between the two study treatments. Despite the absence of comparative clinical data, the FD-APAP formulation may be expected to overcome some of the issues associated with the slow and variable absorption of standard acetaminophen tablet formulations, improving therapeutic outcome and avoiding the need to switch to alternative therapeutic options. Compared with standard acetaminophen, the FD-APAP formulation results in significantly faster onset of disintegration and more rapid absorption.
Johansson, Jonas; Sparén, Anders; Svensson, Olof; Folestad, Staffan; Claybourn, Mike
Quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations using the new approach of transmission Raman spectroscopy has been investigated. For comparison, measurements were also made in conventional backscatter mode. The experimental setup consisted of a Raman probe-based spectrometer with 785 nm excitation for measurements in backscatter mode. In transmission mode the same system was used to detect the Raman scattered light, while an external diode laser of the same type was used as excitation source. Quantitative partial least squares models were developed for both measurement modes. The results for tablets show that the prediction error for an independent test set was lower for the transmission measurements with a relative root mean square error of about 2.2% as compared with 2.9% for the backscatter mode. Furthermore, the models were simpler in the transmission case, for which only a single partial least squares (PLS) component was required to explain the variation. The main reason for the improvement using the transmission mode is a more representative sampling of the tablets compared with the backscatter mode. Capsules containing mixtures of pharmaceutical powders were also assessed by transmission only. The quantitative results for the capsules' contents were good, with a prediction error of 3.6% w/w for an independent test set. The advantage of transmission Raman over backscatter Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations, and the prospects for reliable, lean calibrations for pharmaceutical analysis is discussed.
Pelletier, Michael J; Larkin, Peter; Santangelo, Matthew
Transmission Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores is demonstrated using traditional, unmodified commercial instrumentation. The benefits of improved precision over backscattering Raman spectroscopy due to increased sample volume are demonstrated. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios and sample probe volume are apparent, however. A survey of near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra in the FT-Raman spectral range (approximately 0 to 3500 wavenumber shift from 1064 nm, or 1064 to 1700 nm) of molecules with a wide range of NIR-active functional groups shows that although absorption at the laser wavelength (1064 nm) is relatively small, some regions of the Raman spectrum coincide with NIR absorbances of 0.5 per cm or greater. Fortunately, the pharmaceutically important regions of the Raman shift spectrum from 0 to 600 cm(-1) and from 1400 to 1900 cm(-1) exhibit low self-absorption for most organic materials. A statistical analysis of transmission FT-Raman noise in spectra collected from different regions of a pharmaceutical tablet provides insight into both spectral distortion and reduced sampling volume caused by self-absorption. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy
Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton
We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.
Rahim, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Baqir-Shyum; Bibi, Rehana; Iffat, Wajiha; Shakeel, Sadia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem
Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability.
Liu, Longxiao; Xu, Xiangning
In this paper, a bilayer-core osmotic pump tablet (OPT) which does not require laser drilling to form the drug delivery orifice is described. The bilayer-core consisted of two layers: (a) push layer and (b) drug layer, and was made with a modified upper tablet punch, which produced an indentation at the center of the drug layer surface. The indented tablets were coated by using a conventional pan-coating process. Although the bottom of the indentation could be coated, the side face of the indentation was scarcely sprayed by the coating solution and this part of the tablet remained at least partly uncoated leaving an aperture from which drug release could occur. Nifedipine was selected as the model drug. Sodium chloride was used as osmotic agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone as suspending agent and croscarmellose sodium as expanding agent. The indented core tablet was coated by ethyl cellulose as semipermeable membrane containing polyethylene glycol 400 for controlling the membrane permeability. The formulation of core tablet was optimized by orthogonal design and the release profiles of various formulations were evaluated by similarity factor (f(2)). It was found that the optimal OPT was able to deliver nifedipine at an approximate zero-order up to 24 h, independent on both release media and agitation rates. The preparation of bilayer-core OPT was simplified by coating the indented core tablet, by which sophisticated technology of the drug layer identification and laser drilling could be eliminated. It might be promising in the field of preparation of bilayer-core OPT.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAnemia contributed 20 persen the death of pregnancy. Low consumption of iron is one of the cause of anemia prevalences among pregnant women. Iron intake can be gained from iron tablet. However the iron tabletconsumption still very low. The purpose of this study was to obtain the role of family and posyandu kadre support to the compliance of iron tablet consumption among anemic pregnant women and its relation tohaemoglobin levels of anemic pregnant women. The research design was quasi experimental Anemic pregnant women as a sample respondens were divided into two groups, 29 in the intervention group and 32 in thecontrol group. The study was conducted at Cibungbulang and Pamijahan sub district, Bogor. Compliance measurements using MMAS - 8 (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale - 8 questionnaires. Compliance of irontablet consumption categorized by low, middle and high. The intervention was counseling about anemia and how important iron tablet consumption among pregnant women to their family (husband/parents/in-laws/otherclose relatives or posyandu cadre whose lived in the same house or as their neighbour. Data analysis was performed using Chi - square and different t-test. The results showed that the anemic pregnant women withsupport from their family and posyandu cadre improve their compliance of iron tablet (p< 0,05.Keywords: anemia, iron tablet, family and posyandu cadre support, complianceABSTRAKAnemia memberikan kontribusi hingga 20 persen terhadap semua kematian pada kehamilan. Salah satu penyebab tingginya prevalensi anemia adalah rendahnya asupan zat besi. Salah satu sumber asupan zat besi berasal dari tablet tambah darah (TTD, namun kepatuhan mengonsumsinya masih sangat rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan pengaruh peran pendamping terhadap kepatuhan konsumsi TTD dan hubungannya dengan kadar hemoglobin (Hb ibu hamil anemia. Desain penelitian adalah kuasi eksperimen. Responden adalah ibu hamil anemia, yang dibagi menjadi
van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette
Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities
Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.
We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…
Neerinckx, Heleen; Maes, Bea
Background: In spite of the profound cognitive and physical problems, people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are able to develop joint attention behaviours (JAB) and benefit from positive interactions. Aims: To investigate which context factors influence the JAB of people with PIMD. Method: Based on video recordings of…
Discusses the benefits of a classroom pet. Presents guidelines to determine whether a classroom pet is really needed and some suggestions for improving existing conditions for animals you may already have. Includes chart for choosing the right pet, which compares the life span, size, diet, and pros and cons for guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits,…
Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S
Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.
Petri, J; Kaunzinger, A; Niemöller, A; Karas, M
Today, NIR-spectroscopy is an established analytical technique not only in the identification of raw materials but also in the quantification of active ingredients in tablets. In this work calibration models were set up with tablets of the same active ingredient but of miscellaneous origin and manufacturess. Consequently the tablets had different excipients and appearance. The pharmaceutical preparations used included atenolol 100 mg tablets, enalapril 20 mg tablets and acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) tablets of different dosage units. In order to proof if the calibration models set up are generally feasible the assay declared by the manufacturer was used to calculate the partial least square (PLS) calibration. With respect to enalapril tablets simultaneous analysis by HPLC, according to USP 26 was carried out. It was investigated if such methods allow a determination of active ingredients in tablets within limits of +/- 10% of declaration. It was shown that it is possible to set up calibration models to quantify active ingredients in tablets independent of adjuvants or optical appearance. Additionally it could be shown that NIR-spectroscopy is also applicable to determine the concentration of active ingredients in blister-packed tablets.
Marty, J; Shaw, J; Hunt, D
The stability of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) tablets stored in ways commonly used by patients was investigated to enable pharmacists and physicians to give better advice about tablet storage. Analysis of 43 samples of tablets collected from hospital patients showed that the GTN content of these samples differed significantly from that of fresh tablets. Tablets kept in the manufacturer's bottle contained significantly more GTN than those transferred to other airtight vials (p less than 0.05) or pill boxes (p less than 0.005). The content of GTN was also significantly lower in tablets stored in pill boxes compared with other vials (p less than 0.01). Similar trends were found when tablets were stored in glass or plastic vials, pill boxes or were left exposed to air in the laboratory. These results emphasize that the best way to store GTN tablets is in the manufacturer's container. However, since many patients find that this bottle is awkward and inconvenient, a suitable alternative would be to carry a few tablets in a small airtight container (preferably glass). The unused tablets should be discarded every two weeks and nothing else should be added to the container. The use of pill boxes should be strongly discouraged.
Patel, Vishal; Hale, Timothy M; Palakodeti, Sandeep; Kvedar, Joseph C; Jethwani, Kamal
To reduce the cost of health care while increasing efficiency and quality, health systems are seeking innovative means to engage and empower patients. Improved use of information technology and electronic health record (EHR) infrastructure is essential, and required for "meaningful use" as mandated by the federal government. Providing personalized health information using tablets at the point of care could enhance the clinical experience and enable efficient collection of patient reported outcome measures to guide clinical decision making. The aim of this study is to explore patient and provider attitudes and interest in a proposed clinic-based tablet system for personal health information exchange. To provide a context to understand patients' use of tablets during their clinic visit, we also examine patients' current activities and time spent in the waiting room, and their use of health information resources. Surveys were administered to 84 patients in the waiting room of a community health center affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA. This survey included a vignette and illustration describing a proposed tablet-based system in which the patient, upon sign in at the clinic, receives a tablet loaded with personalized information tailored to their specific medical conditions and preferences. Patients were queried about their interest in such a system in comparison to traditional forms of patient education as well as their current health information seeking behaviors and activities and time spent in the waiting room. Interviews with five MGH-affiliated health care providers were conducted to assess their opinions regarding the proposed tablet system. The majority (>60%) of patients were "very" or "extremely" interested in the proposed tablet system and thought it would improve their knowledge about their medical condition (60%), assist them in making healthy choices (57%), and help them to feel more comfortable talking with their provider
Modaresi, Jalil; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid; Sabzian, Roya
Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry. Irreversible pulpitis and further root canal therapy might cause an untolerated pain to the patients. The improvements in anesthetic agents and techniques were one of the advantages of studying nerve biology and stimulation. This article tried to overview of the nerve activities in inflammatory environments or induced pain. Furthermore, the proper advises, and supplementary techniques were reviewed for better pain management of irreversible pulpitis. PMID:26957681
Modaresi, Jalil; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid; Sabzian, Roya
Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry. Irreversible pulpitis and further root canal therapy might cause an untolerated pain to the patients. The improvements in anesthetic agents and techniques were one of the advantages of studying nerve biology and stimulation. This article tried to overview of the nerve activities in inflammatory environments or induced pain. Furthermore, the proper advises, and supplementary techniques were reviewed for better pain...
Durani, Urshila; Tosh, Pritish K; Barreto, Jason N; Estes, Lynn L; Jannetto, Paul J; Tande, Aaron J
While posaconazole prophylaxis decreases the risk of invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole, low bioavailability of the oral-suspension formulation limits its efficacy. A new delayed-release tablet formulation demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers. However, serum levels for the two formulations have not been compared in clinical practice. This study compared achievement of therapeutic posaconazole levels in patients taking the delayed-release tablet to those taking the oral suspension. This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients initiated on posaconazole between 2012 and 2014 and had at least one serum posaconazole level measured. The primary measure was the proportion of patients achieving an initial therapeutic level (>700 ng/ml). An initial therapeutic posaconazole level was seen in 29 of 32 (91%) patients receiving tablets and 37 of 61 (61%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.003). Among patients with a steady-state level measured 5 to 14 days after initiation, a therapeutic level was observed in 18 of 20 (90%) patients receiving tablets and 25 of 43 (58%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.01). In these patients, the median posaconazole level of the tablet cohort (1655 ng/ml) was twice that of the suspension cohort (798 ng/ml) (P = 0.004). In this cohort study, the improved bioavailability of delayed-release posaconazole tablets translates into a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic serum levels than in the cohort receiving the oral suspension. The results of this study strongly support the use of delayed-release tablets over suspension in patients at risk for invasive fungal infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Vaithiyalingam, Sivakumar R; Sayeed, Vilayat A
Advancement in the fields of material science, analytical methodologies, instrumentation, automation, continuous monitoring, feed forward/feed back control and comprehensive data collection have led to continual improvement of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing technology, notably the multi-layer tablets. This review highlights the material attributes, formulation design, process parameters that impact the performance, and manufacturability of the multi-layer tablets. It also highlights on critical-to-quality elements that needs to be addressed in the regulatory submission. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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were made with an empty cell (high purity alpha alumina discs of Dupont Company) as the reference. The scans were taken under nitrogen atmosphere over a temperature range of 25 to 330 °C and at a scan rate of. 20.0 °C/min. Swelling studies. The swelling index for the tablets was determined in 100 mM acetate buffer ...
Tablet that disintegrate rapidly in the mouth are convenient for patient who have difficulty in swallowing conventional dosages forms. Although various formulation technologies like Zydis Technology, Durasolve Technology, Orasolve Technology, Flash Dose Technology, Wow Tab Technology, Flash Tab Technology, Quicksolv Technology, Lyos Technology, Fast Melt Technology and Zip-lets Technology are used. This review highlights numerous techniques to explain the phenomenon of preparing mouth disinte...
Full Text Available Tablet computers (or just tablets are often discussed in context with their relationship with books as an informational portal. For the most part, the analysis of tablets has dealt with frequent tablet activities, locations of use and contextual factors. It is fair also to note how the tablet has become a central nexus of production tools for the content creator. Tablets represent a platform both for distributing content to multiple audiences and providing the tools necessary to produce content on the fly. Tablets allow the user to capture thoughts on a screen that is slightly smaller than that of a traditional laptop (10 vs. 13 inches, while maintaining a level of portability and usability beyond what a traditional laptop can provide. This ability to quickly capture thoughts and ideas is extremely handy to academics in the field, specifically researchers, as they conduct research or present knowledge to the larger population. This study will look at how researchers are using tablets to replace older techniques for gathering data and publishing their work. The analysis of publishing will look at the differences between writing on a tablet and writing on an office computer or laptop. For example, the advantages and disadvantages of a touch screen device versus traditional user interfaces (keyboard and mouse will be discussed by the researchers and shown via the everyday use of the tablet/office computer.
Arianne Diane A. Aniñon
Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.
Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests - behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing - are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP, a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important.
Patil, Satish; Talele, Gokul S
Lafutidine a newly developed histamine H2-receptor antagonist having biological half-life of 1.92 ± 0.94 h due to its selective absorption from upper part of gastrointestinal tract the development of mucoadhesive sustained release drug delivery system is recommended in order to enhance the bioavailability. A mucoadhesive tablets was developed using the natural polymer, sodium alginate, xanthan gum and karaya gum. Mucoadhesion is a complex phenomenon which involves wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains. The prepared tablets of various formulations were evaluated for a total mucoadhesion time, buoyancy lag time and percentage drug released. The formulation with xanthan gum showed better results. Thus, it may be useful for prolonged drug release in stomach to improve the bioavailability and reduced dosing frequency. Non-fickians release transport was confirmed as the drug release mechanism from the optimized formulation by Korsmeyer-Peppas. The optimized formulation (B3) showed a mucoadhesive strength >35 g. In vivo study was performed using rabbits by X-ray imaging technique. Radiological evidences suggest that, a formulated tablet was well adhered for >10 h in rabbit's stomach. Optimized lafutidine mucoadhesive tablets showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, mucoadhesive properties and in vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 40 °C temperature 75 ± 5% relative humidity for 3 months.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to formulate rebamipide nanocrystal tablets (REB-NTs by wet-milling technique to enhance its dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. The formulation and preparation technology were screened by single factor tests with particle size and distribution as indicators. Rebamipide nanocrystals (REB-NSs was then achieved by freeze-dry from the prepared nanosuspensions which were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD, while the vitro dissolution and the plasma drug concentration of the nanocrystal tablets were investigated. The results indicated that the prepared nanosuspensions got an average particle size of 286 nm, PI of 0.173 and the average Zeta potential of −18.2 mv. The average particle size of obtained REB-NSs’ redispersibility was 278 nm, and the crystalline of REB-NSs was the same as the rebamipide bulk drug as shown by DSC and XRD. The drug dissolution rate of self-made nanocrystal tablets in different dissolutions was slightly faster than that from the reference tablets, REB-MTs (Mucosta®, while the Cmax and AUC0–24 of REB-NTs were 1 and 1.57 times higher than that of REB-MTs, which means the nanotechnology could significantly improve the oral bioavailability of rebamipide.
Miao, Rong-ming; Sun, Xian-feng; Zhang, Ying-yi; Wu, Wei; Fang, Zhong-hua; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Dao-kun; Qian, Gui-liang; Ji, Jie
To observe the clinical efficacy of tetrandrine combined with acetylcysteine effervescent tablets in the treatment of silicosis. A total of 96 patients with silicosis were randomly divided into treatment group (49 cases) and control group (47 cases). Both groups were given routine therapy including anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and antiasthmatic drugs, and the patients in treatment group were given tetrandrine combined with acetylcysteine effervescent tablets at the same time. Tetrandrine (100 mg) was orally administrated twice a day, and there was a one-day interval between every 6 days' continuous administration; totally, there were four courses of treatment, with 3 months for each course, and there was a one-month break between each course. Acetylcysteine effervescent tablets (600 mg) were taken twice a day; each course of treatment was 12 days, and there were four courses; for the first two months, there was one course per month, and then one course every other two months for the rest of time. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary ventilation function, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and changes in X-ray findings were observed. After treatment, the treatment group had significantly increased rates of improvements in cough, expectoration, chest congestion and pain, and dyspnea compared with the control group (P silicosis. The combination of tetrandrine and acetylcysteine effervescent tablets show some effect in the treatment of silicosis. It can be an effective option for treating silicosis as there are no other specific remedies.
Harshal Ashok Pawar
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an aim to formulate, develop and evaluate gastroretentive floating tablets of an antidepressant drug, Venlafaxine HCl (hydrochloride, which release the drug in a sustained manner over a period of 24 h. Three different hydrophobic retardants namely hydrogenated cottonseed oil, carnauba wax, cetyl alcohol and a hydrophilic polymer Methocel® (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M were used in different combinations at different ratios for the preparation of tablets. The tablets were prepared by Hot Melt or Thermoplastic granulation method and evaluated for tablet thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, floating lag time and in vitro drug release. Formulation F8 with hydrophilic polymer (Methocel® K15M and hydrophobic retardant (carnauba wax in the ratio 1:2.6 (approx. was considered as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation showed satisfactory sustained drug release and remained buoyant on the surface of the medium for more than 24 h and its release profile was comparable with the marketed formulation (VENTAB-XL 37.5. It can also be concluded that floating drug delivery system of Venlafaxine HCl can be successfully formulated as an approach to increase gastric residence time and thereby improving its bioavailability.
Li, Xiao-Dong; Pan, Wei-San; Nie, Shu-Fang; Wu, Li-Jun
A controlled release effervescent osmotic pump tablet (EOPT) of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Recipe (TCMCR), named Fuzilizhong prescription which includes acidic drugs consisted of many known and unknown effective components and has been used for several thousands years, was successfully prepared with sodium chloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose(HPMC) as osmotic agents. Since the osmotic pressure in EOPT with sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen carbonate increased greatly, which was induced mostly by gas carbon dioxide generating from the reaction of sodium hydrogen carbonate and the acidic drugs in TCMCR after the fluid being imbibed into the compartment through the semipermeable membrane and the in vitro accumulative dissolution percent from prescription 3 was up to 96.6% at 14 hour, the problem that water insoluble drugs can not to be elementary osmotic pump tablet for its low dissolution rate was solved in the paper. On the basis of prescription 3, the drug in effervescent osmotic pump tablet was released controllably after HPMC was selected as retarder and has a good in-vitro-in-vivo correlation(IVIVC, r=0.9550). Threrfore, it could be concluded that the formulation of TCMCR is appropriate to being made into EOPT, which improves acidic drugs composed of soluble and poorly soluble components release more greatly and controllably. From the point of this, water insoluble drugs can be designed to elementary osmotic pump tablet for more complete dissolution release.
Gohel, M C; Patel, T M; Parikh, R K; Parejiya, P B; Barot, B S; Ramkishan, A
The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing.
Maneval, Rhonda; Mechtel, Marci
Handheld technology allows students to access point-of-care resources throughout the clinical experience. To assess the viability of replacing student smartphones with tablets, an evaluation project was undertaken. Overall, students were equally dissatisfied with the 2 types of tablets that were evaluated. Students saw the potential usefulness of tablets to manage clinical assignments, interact with the learning management system, and communicate with faculty, but not for retrieving information currently accessible on their phones.
Nordheim, Johanna; Hamm, Sabine; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Suhr, Ralf
Initial sporadic experiences in a Berlin nursing home showed that residents with dementia responded well to activating therapy with tablet computers. This innovative technology seemed to provide a differentiated and individual therapeutic access. These observations encouraged the nursing home management to contact the Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science at the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin with the aim to examine the practical experiences. The Centre for Quality in Care (ZQP) sponsored the 1 year pilot study. An examination of the feasibility and usability of tablet computers in the daily care of nursing home residents with dementia was carried out. In this study 14 residents (12 women and 2 men) of a special care unit for dementia patients were included in a 3-month intervention of tablet activation 3 times a week. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze data (e.g. observation protocols and videos, staff interviews, document analysis of nursing records and standardized resident interviews/proxy interviews). Nursing home residents suffering from dementia showed a high degree of acceptance of tablet computers. Most notable benefits were easy handling and the variety of multifunctional applications. Sustainable therapeutic effects resulted in stimulation of communication and interaction, improvement of well-being, memory training and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, contact to family members of several residents was improved. The use of tablet computers was convincing as an activation therapy for nursing home residents with dementia. Further research and development of specially adapted software are required.
Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon
The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small
Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O
Full Text Available The Trail Making Test (TMT is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22, with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy
Karimpoor, Mahta; Churchill, Nathan W; Tam, Fred; Fischer, Corinne E; Schweizer, Tom A; Graham, Simon J
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A) involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B) alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI) may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP) for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22), with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy individuals.
Hye Jeong Kim; Ji Hyeon Park; Sungae Yoo; Hyeoncheol Kim
.... This discussion focuses on classroom interaction systems and technologies that can foster creativity, including tablets, electronic blackboards, interaction management solutions, and high-speed wireless internet...
Judy C. Stribling, MA, MLS
Full Text Available Objective: The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. Methods: We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Results: Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Conclusions: Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.
determination by linear regression equation and standard absorptivity methods indicate purity ... Keywords: Cilostazol tablets, UV spectrophotometry, Linear regression equation, Standard absorptivity. .... The validated methods were applied to.
It is crystal clear that support for tablets is essential in your Web site design. What is less clear is the approach you take to support tablets. Frameworks, such as Sencha Touch and jQuery Mobile are maturing to add support for tablets. Find out how this short ebook can provide you with forward thinking solutions that can be implemented today. How we consume information on the Web has changed forever: SmartPhones, Tablets, Interactive televisions, intelligent in-car systems and so much more are driving this change - your site needs to work on all of them.
Buck, Jonas; Huwyler, Jörg; Kühl, Peter; Dischinger, Angela
The design of pediatric formulations is challenging. Solid dosage forms for children have to meet the needs of different ages, e.g. high number of dosing increments and strengths. A modular formulation strategy offering the possibility of rapid prototyping was applied. Different tablet compositions and the resulting tablet characteristics were investigated for dispersible tablets using customized analytical methods. Fluid bed granules were blended with extragranular components, and compressed to tablets. Disintegration behavior was studied with a Texture Analyzer and a Tensiometer. Methods for determination of disintegration time and water uptake of tablets were developed with a Texture Analyzer, and a Tensiometer, respectively. Twenty-two different tablet formulations were prepared and analyzed with respect to disintegration time, hardness, friability, and viscosity. Multivariate data analysis revealed a high impact of type and amount of viscosity enhancer on the disintegration behavior of tablets. An optimized formulation was selected with a disintegration time of 24 s. Methods providing additional information on the disintegration behavior of dispersible tablets compared to standard pharmacopoeia methods were established. Selecting the right type and level of viscosity enhancer and superdisintegrant was critical for developing pediatric tablets with a disintegration time of less than 30 s but still pleasant mouth feel.
Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Guo, Hang; Lu, Jian; Desai, Divyakant S
Mechanical strength of tablets is an important quality attribute, which depends on both formulation and process. In this study, the effect of process variables during compression on tablet tensile strength and tabletability (the ratio of tensile strength to compression pressure) was investigated using a model formulation. Increase in turret and force feeder speeds reduced tablet tensile strength and tabletability. Turret speed affected tabletability through changes in dwell time under the compression cam and the kinetics of consolidation of granules in the die cavity. The effect of force feeder was attributed to the shearing of the granulation, leading to its over-lubrication. A dimensionless equation was derived to estimate total shear imparted by the force feeder on the granulation in terms of a shear number. Scale-independence of the relationship of tabletability with the shear number was explored on a 6-station Korsch press, a 16-station Betapress, and a 35-station Korsch XL-400 press. The use of this relationship, the exact nature of which may be formulation dependent, during tablet development is expected to provide guidance to the scale-up and interchangeability of tablet presses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ropero, Jorge; Colón, Yleana; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Romañach, Rodolfo J
Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) spectra of lactose monohydrate tablets were acquired and the spectral slope from each pixel in the data hypercube was used to assess tablet compaction and relaxation. Tablets were prepared at compaction pressures of 100, 300, and 500 MPa using un-lubricated and magnesium stearate lubricated lactose monohydrate. Results show that NIR slope distribution is a function of applied compaction forces and magnesium stearate lubrication. The distribution of NIR slope values was studied using histograms and statistical parameters. The mean slope value yields a linear calibration curve that predicts tablet compaction pressure as a function of spectral slope. The NIR-CI slope measurements were also used to study tablet relaxation, which occurs as tablets release some of the stored energy from compression. The NIR-CI slope method provides a qualitative description of the relaxation process and provides quantitative information describing relaxation through time. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy
Giduthuri, Joseph G.; Maire, Nicolas; Joseph, Saju; Kudale, Abhay; Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.
Background Mobile electronic devices are replacing paper-based instruments and questionnaires for epidemiological and public health research. The elimination of a data-entry step after an interview is a notable advantage over paper, saving investigator time, decreasing the time lags in managing and analyzing data, and potentially improving the data quality by removing the error-prone data-entry step. Research has not yet provided adequate evidence, however, to substantiate the claim of fewer errors for computerized interviews. Methodology We developed an Android-based illness explanatory interview for influenza vaccine acceptance and tested the instrument in a field study in Pune, India, for feasibility and acceptability. Error rates for tablet and paper were compared with reference to the voice recording of the interview as gold standard to assess discrepancies. We also examined the preference of interviewers for the classical paper-based or the electronic version of the interview and compared the costs of research with both data collection devices. Results In 95 interviews with household respondents, total error rates with paper and tablet devices were nearly the same (2.01% and 1.99% respectively). Most interviewers indicated no preference for a particular device; but those with a preference opted for tablets. The initial investment in tablet-based interviews was higher compared to paper, while the recurring costs per interview were lower with the use of tablets. Conclusion An Android-based tablet version of a complex interview was developed and successfully validated. Advantages were not compromised by increased errors, and field research assistants with a preference preferred the Android device. Use of tablets may be more costly than paper for small samples and less costly for large studies. PMID:25233212
Background: Chewing tablets are tablets that many circulating in drugstore of Medan city at this time, which can help for gastric pains, and chewing antacid tablets easily obtained without a doctor’s prescription.. Objective: The purpose of this study was to know the quality of chewing antacid tablets containing magnesium hidroxida which circulate in drugstore of Medan city. Methods: This quality control of chewing tablets taken four chewing antacid tablets from one of the drugstore i...
Narang, Ajit S; Breckenridge, Lydia; Guo, Hang; Wang, Jennifer; Wolf, Abraham Avi; Desai, Divyakant; Varia, Sailesh; Badawy, Sherif
Surface erosion of uncoated tablets results in processing problems such as dusting and defects during coating and is governed by the strength of particle bonding on tablet surface. In this study, the correlation between dusting tendency of tablets in a coating pan with friability and laser ablation surface hardness was assessed using tablets containing different concentrations of magnesium stearate and tartaric acid. Surface erosion propensity of different batches was evaluated by assessing their dusting tendency in the coating pan. In addition, all tablets were analyzed for crushing strength, friability, modified friability test using baffles in the friability apparatus, and weight loss after laser ablation. Tablets with similar crushing strength showed differences in their surface erosion and dusting tendency when rotated in a coating pan. These differences did not correlate well with tablet crushing strength or friability but did show reasonably good correlation with mass loss after laser ablation. These results suggest that tablet surface mass loss by laser ablation can be used as a minipiloting (small-scale) tool to assess tablet surface properties during early stages of drug product development to assess the risk of potential large-scale manufacturing issues. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC. Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on
Steven C. Huber
Full Text Available Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human
Boissin, Constance; Blom, Lisa; Wallis, Lee; Laflamme, Lucie
Mobile health has promising potential in improving healthcare delivery by facilitating access to expert advice. Enabling experts to review images on their smartphone or tablet may save valuable time. This study aims at assessing whether images viewed by medical specialists on handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets are perceived to be of comparable quality as when viewed on a computer screen. This was a prospective study comparing the perceived quality of 18 images on three different display devices (smartphone, tablet and computer) by 27 participants (4 burn surgeons and 23 emergency medicine specialists). The images, presented in random order, covered clinical (dermatological conditions, burns, ECGs and X-rays) and non-clinical subjects and their perceived quality was assessed using a 7-point Likert scale. Differences in devices' quality ratings were analysed using linear regression models for clustered data adjusting for image type and participants' characteristics (age, gender and medical specialty). Overall, the images were rated good or very good in most instances and more so for the smartphone (83.1%, mean score 5.7) and tablet (78.2%, mean 5.5) than for a standard computer (70.6%, mean 5.2). Both handheld devices had significantly higher ratings than the computer screen, even after controlling for image type and participants' characteristics. Nearly all experts expressed that they would be comfortable using smartphones (n=25) or tablets (n=26) for image-based teleconsultation. This study suggests that handheld devices could be a substitute for computer screens for teleconsultation by physicians working in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rourke, Ryan; Kong, David Chan Chun; Bromwich, Matthew
Access to hearing health care is limited in many parts of the world, creating a lack of prompt diagnosis, which further complicates treatment. The use of portable audiometry for hearing loss testing can improve access to diagnostics in marginalized populations. Our study objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in children aged 4 to 11 years in Iqaluit, Nunavut, and (2) to test and demonstrate the use of our tablet audiometer as a portable hearing-testing device in a remote location. Prospective cross-sectional observational. Remote elementary schools in 3 Canadian Northern communities. Tablet audiometers were used to test hearing in 218 children. Air conduction pure tones thresholds were obtained at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. Children with hearing loss ≥30 dB in either ear were referred for audiology services. Tablet audiometry screening testing revealed abnormal results in 14.8% of the study participants. No significant difference in the rate of hearing loss was seen by sex; however, the rate of hearing loss decreased significantly with increasing age. The median duration of the hearing test was 5 minutes 30 seconds. Of the study population, 14.8% tested positive for hearing loss based on our interactive tablet audiometer. In this setting, the tablet audiometer was both time efficient and largely language independent. This type of testing is valuable for providing much-needed hearing health care for high-risk populations in rural and remote areas where audiology services are often unavailable. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Tanner, Trevor; Aspley, Sue; Munn, Andrew; Thomas, Tracy
Ibuprofen and paracetamol differ in their mode of action and related therapeutic effects, suggesting that combined administration may offer improved analgesia. Reported here are the results of two studies on the pharmacokinetic properties of a novel ibuprofen (200 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) fixed-dose combination tablet. Both studies were open-label, randomised studies in healthy volunteers: Study 1 was a four-way crossover, single-dose study; Study 2 was a two-way cross-over, repeat-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters for ibuprofen and paracetamol were similar for the combination and monotherapy tablets (values falling within the 80% to 125% acceptable bioequivalence range) except for the rate of absorption of paracetamol from the combination (tmax), which was significantly faster compared with monotherapy (median difference 10 minutes; p ibuprofen from the combination, compared with 0.58 microg x mL(-1) and 9.00 microg x mL-1, respectively, for monotherapy. For paracetamol, mean plasma levels at 10 and 20 minutes were 5.43 microg x mL(-1) and 14.54 microg x mL(-, respectively, for the combination compared with 0.33 microg x mL(-1) and 9.19 microg x mL(-1), respectively, for monotherapy. The rate of absorption of both ibuprofen and paracetamol was significantly delayed when the combination tablet was administered in the fed versus fasted state; median delay was 25 minutes for ibuprofen (p > 0.05) and 55 minutes for paracetamol (p ibuprofen and paracetamol in a fixed-dose combination tablet does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of either drug, except for enhancing the rate of paracetamol absorption, offering potential therapeutic benefits in relation to the onset of analgesia. Concentrations of both drugs reached previously reported therapeutic levels when the combination tablet was administrated in the fed or fasted state. Three times daily dosing may offer enhanced therapeutic effect for longer than twice daily dosing.
Satya Prakash, Singh; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Santanu, Chakraborty; Hemant Kumar, Pandit; Patro, V Jagannath; Devi, M Vimala
The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula is widely used for its laxative properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the flowability and compressibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder, subsequently developing its tablet formulations by utilizing wet granulation and direct compression technology. Initial studies on flowability and compressibility revealed that the fruit powder flows poorly, is poorly compressible and mucilaginous in nature. The consolidation behaviors of the fruit powder and of its tablet formulations were studied using the Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger equations. Kawakita analysis revealed reduced cohesiveness hence improved flowability was achieved in formulations prepared by direct compression and the wet granulation technique. The Heckel plot showed that the Terminalia chebula fruit powder when formulated using direct compression showed initial fragmentation followed by plastic deformation and that the granules exhibited plastic deformation without initial fragmentation. The compression susceptibility parameter obtained from the Leuenberger equation for compacts formed by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques indicated that the maximum crushing strength is reached faster and at lower compression pressures. The Tannin content (with reference to standard tannin) in fruit powder and tablet formulations was determined by UV spectrophotometry at 273 nm. The in-vitro dissolution study in simulated SGF (without enzymes) showed more than a 90% release of tannin from the tablets with in 1 h. The brittle fracture index value revealed that tablets prepared from granules showed less fracture tendency in comparison to those formed by direct compression formulation. From this study, it was concluded that the desired flowability, compressibility and compactibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder can be obtained by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques. PMID:24250371
Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla
Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method developed for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The developers of MSST have established specific guidelines aimed at increasing the listener's attention. Whether, and to what extent, these guidelines indeed
Michael T Flannery
Full Text Available Introduction: A case of profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery with multiple negative evaluations. Case presentation: A 41-year-old African-American female presented with greater-than-expected weight loss after gastric bypass and increasing abdominal pain over a 2-year period. An extensive workup was pursued for the patient with blood analysis, tumor markers, imaging studies both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, arterial studies, and endoscopy from above and below, all of which demonstrated normal results. The patient was followed up without improvement, and repeated studies were also normal. The patient was labeled with a nonorganic etiology for her symptoms, which led to a psychiatry referral which was refused. Conclusion: The patient’s surgeon, who already had removed a normal appendix and gallbladder, repeated a laparoscopic exam. The exam was normal except for a small focus of pancreatic cancer in the celiac plexus. The patient died from perioperative sepsis from peritonitis 2 days after surgery. The case is discussed and findings reviewed.
Freitag, Lisa; Liaschenko, Joan
The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life. In this article, we analyze the ethics of the Ashley Treatment within the context of family caregiving. Through the physical and emotional work of caregiving, families participate in the formation and maintenance of personal identity, a process that Hilde Lindemann recently called "holding." We argue that, in an intellectually disabled person such as Ashley, who depends on her family for every aspect of her care, the family's contribution to identity is an essential source of personhood. We believe that the treatment can be justified if it is indeed an instance of appropriate family "holding" for Ashley. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Schmiegelow, Christentze; Matondo, Sungwa; Minja, Daniel T R; Resende, Mafalda; Pehrson, Caroline; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Olomi, Raimos; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Salanti, Ali; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G
Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GApregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0.0099) and shorter pregnancy length (mean reduction 6.6 days [1.0;112.5], P=0.0087). The birth weight (mean reduction 221g [6;436], P=0.044) and the placental weight (mean reduction 84g ([18; 150], P=0.013) at term were also reduced. The study suggests that early exposure to P. falciparum, which are not prevented by current control strategies, has profound impact on foetal growth, pregnancy length and the placental weight at term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com.
ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH
We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524
ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH
We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.
Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S
The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pabari, Ritesh M.; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa
A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative ...
Tawfeek, Hesham M; Faisal, Waleed; Soliman, Ghareb M
The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for enalapril maleate (EnM) to facilitate its administration to the elderly or other patients having dysphagia. Compatibility between EnM and various excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ODTs of EnM were prepared by direct compression of EnM mixtures with various superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties including drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, and drug release. The antihypertensive effect of the optimum EnM ODTs was evaluated in vivo in hypertensive rats and compared with commercial EnM formulation. EnM ODTs had satisfactory results in terms of drug content and friability. Tablet wetting and disintegration were fast and dependent on the used superdisintegrant where croscarmellose showed the fastest wetting and disintegration time of ∼7 s. EnM release from the tablets was rapid where complete release was obtained in 10-15 min. Selected EnM ODTs rapidly and efficiently reduced the rat's blood pressure to its normal value within 1 h, compared with 4 h for EnM commercial formulation. These results confirm that EnM ODTs could find application in the management of hypertension in the elderly or other patients having dysphagia.
Conclusion: Although underpowered and not randomized, this study demonstrates that delivering CT remotely to people with SZ using tablets is feasible and results in retention rates, adherence, and cognitive and functional outcome improvements that are comparable to those observed when CT is delivered in the laboratory. This has important implications in terms of scalability and dissemination of CT. These results require confirmation in larger samples.
Suryadevara, Vidyadhara; Lankapalli, Sasidhar Reddyvallam; Danda, Lakshmi Harika; Pendyala, Vijetha; Katta, Vijetha
In the present investigation, an attempt was made to isolate starch from jackfruit seed powder and utilize it as a superdisintegrant to design fast dissolving tablets of irbesartan. Starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds via aqueous and alkali extraction processes and evaluated for its physicochemical properties, for phytochemical tests, and for acute toxicity studies. Irbesartan fast dissolving formulations were prepared using the wet granulation technique. Acute toxicity studies for the extract indicated that all rats were healthy with no physiological changes in their behavior. The prepared irbesartan tablet formulations were found to be stable according to the Indian Pharmacopoeia-specified limits for postcompression parameters. From in vitro dissolution studies, it was observed that formulations F5 and F8 containing 5% w/w of alkali extracted starch and 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium showed faster disintegration and improved dissolution rate compared with the other formulations. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopic and differential scanning colorimetric analysis performed on optimized formulations indicated that there were no major interactions between the drug and excipients. Accelerated stability studies carried out on optimized formulations showed all tablets to be stable. The tablets prepared from jackfruit seed starch as superdisintegrant were found to be suitable for preparation of fast dissolving tablets.
Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui
Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120 °C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox®. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox® capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method.
Gagganapalli Santhoshi Reddy
Full Text Available The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20% w/w with coat weight 480 mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure.
Binboğa, Elif; Korhan, Orhan
Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by school children and beginning to be used effectively for educational purposes. As the latest generation of laptops and tablet computers are mobile and lightweight compared to conventional personal computers, they support student-centred interaction-based learning. However, these technologies have been introduced into schools with minimal adaptations to furniture or attention to ergonomics. There are increasing reports of an association between increased musculoskeletal (MSK) problems in children and use of such technologies. Although children are among the users of laptops and tablet computers both in their everyday lives and at schools, the literature investigating MSK activities and possible MSK discomfort regarding children using portable technologies is limited. This study reviews the literature to identify published studies that investigated posture, MSK activities, and possible MSK discomfort among children using mobile technologies (laptops or tablet computers) for educational purposes. An electronic search of the literature published in English between January 1994 and January 2014 was performed in several databases. The literature search terms were identified and combined to search the databases. The search results that the resources investigating MSK outcomes of laptop or tablet use of children are very scarce. This review points out the research gaps in this field, and identifying areas for future studies.
Tablets have become increasingly popular among young people in Sweden and this rapid increase also resonates in school, especially in classrooms for younger children. The aim of the present study is to analyze and describe how the students deal with the open instructions for a task of using online dictionaries on tablets. Specific focus is on how…
Fancimef tablet is one of the multi-component drugs recently introduced into malaria therapy to combat the resistant strains of Plasmodium parasite. Like most complex organic compounds, it is expected that the organic compounds in Fancimef tablet will absorb light spectra leading to its photodecomposition and all its ...
A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...
Purpose: To formulate and prepare controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of tramadol HCl using Carbopol 974P and 934 polymers as rate-controlling agents. Methods: The tablets were prepared by direct compression method using various drug to polymer (D:P) ratios. Co-excipients, including carboxymethylcellulose, starch ...
Conclusion : The content, appearance, and dissolution biovailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years. African Health Sciences 2001; ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime tablets. 520.1445 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin oxime... milbemycin oxime. (2) Cats. Each tablet contains 5.75, 11.5, or 23.0 milligrams of milbemycin oxime. (b...
A year ago, only a handful of K-12 schools and universities had integrated tablets into their curricula. Today, not one week passes with out another iPad rollout announcement. The reasons that schools use tablets are as varied as the schools themselves. Hawaii Preparatory Academy uses iPads to encourage budding physicists, linguists, and…
characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: Tablets with MK showed higher mean ..... Park CR, Munday DL. Evaluation of selected polysaccharide excipients in buccoadhesive tablets for sustained release of ...
Aug 20, 2014 ... those that may inform the design of an electronic health record. The aims of this study were: • Phase 1: To describe the process of identifying and developing a tablet computer programme to capture data. • Phase 2: Qualitative evaluation of the use of tablet computers to record data at a rural CHC. Method.
Duran, Muharrem; Aytaç, Tufan
One of the most important tools for the integration of ICT in education, especially with tablet computers, has been employed in Turkey through the FATIH Project. This study aimed to determine students' views on the use of tablet computers in learning and teaching processes. Eighty-four first-year high school students studying at three schools in…
The aim of this study is to examine the quality of twenty brands of chloroquine tablets available in Nigeria. The identification, assay and in vitro studies of twenty (A-T) commercial brands of chloroquine tablets readily available in Nigeria were examined using official methods. All the brands passed the uniformity of weight test ...
Data for tuberculosis screening were captured by nurses on Android® 9.7-inch tablets over a week. Their experience was explored by means of a focus group interview. Results: Data were recorded for 24 patients and seamlessly transferred for analysis. Nurses thought that the tablets were easy to use and saved time.
Rodenhuis, N.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Barends, D.M.
The aim of the study was to get insight into the rationale of scored tablets. This was pursued by studying patient's reasons for subdividing ("breaking") scored and unscored tablets. Patients who picked up their prescriptions in 5 community pharmacies in The Netherlands were questioned. Two-hundred
This article describes the preparation and characterization (in vitro and in vivo) of three different sustained-release salbutamol sulfate-ethylcellulose tabletted microparticles (T1, T2 and T3) and reference sustained release tablet (Ventolin 8 mg SR, GSK). In vitro characterization included dissolution study, scanning electron ...
In-vitro dissolution study showed that more than a 90% of tannin was released within 30 and. 60 min from tablets prepared by wet ... Keywords: Saraca indica, Flowability, Powder, Tablets, Compressibility, Dissolution. Received: 16 September 2011 ... Talc and magnesium stearate (1. %w/w) were added and mixed for 4 min ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stanozolol chewable tablets. 520.2150b Section 520.2150b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520.1720a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Febantel tablets. 520.903e Section 520.903e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains 27.2 milligrams of febantel for use in dogs, puppies, cats, and...
Purpose: To optimize and formulate promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets that offer a suitable approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Method: The solubility of promethazine theoclate was increased by formulating it as a fast-dissolving tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using ...
Objectives : To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market. Methods : Spectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to ...
K. Rekha Rani , Y. Navya Reddy, R. Mohana Priya, G.Anusha and T. Spurthi
Omeprazole fast disintegrating tablets were prepared by using different superdisintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and Sodium starch glycolate by direct compression. Precompression parameters were conducted for all formulations blend and were found to be satisfactory. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various parameters like content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and In-vitro dissolution. The results indicated...
Cummings, Jeff; Hill, Stephen
Instructors continually search for innovative approaches to interact with and engage students in the classroom. The tablet offers a potential innovation for this purpose. Tablet devices from Apple, Microsoft, and other hardware vendors have overcome many of the challenges of the past (e.g. cost and limited applications) to become useful tools for…
Purpose: To design controlled release ketorolac tromethamol (KT) matrix tablets for increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Waxes (Compritol® ATO 888, Precirol® ATO 5 and stearic acid - SA) and polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - HPMC and xanthan gum - XG) were used in the preparation of the matrix tablets at ...
Purpose: A research was carried out to investigate the incidence of microflora in tablets dispensed from large container packages used in hospitals and community pharmacies. It was designed to provide base-line data on the common biodegrading microorganisms associated with tablets in retail containers and to highlight ...
Purpose: To determine the potential of some anionic exchange resins as tablet disintegrants. Methods: Dowex1® x2, x4 and x8 resins (crosslinked copolymers of styrene and divinylbenzene with quaternary methyl amine functionality) were evaluated as disintegrant for dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate tablets. The best ...
Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Ruijter, Laura P.
In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of
van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.; ben Allouch, Somaya; Ruijter, Laura P.
In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of interviews based on diffusion of innovation theory.…
The Vanderkamp tablet disintegration tester was used to assess the disintegration time, while the dissolution rate test was carried out according to British Pharmacopoeia specifications. Five tablets of each coded sample were singly placed in a dry basket of the dissolution tester and the contents of which were immersed in ...
Comparative quality of fluoroquinolone tablets marketed in some towns in Northern Nigeria. BA Tytler, N Mijinyawa, A Ida. Abstract. Survey of fluoroquinolones tablets marketed in three northern Nigeria towns revealed that in the year 2002-2003, as many as 41 brands were in circulation in this part of the country of which ...
SEM images of the tablets before and after dissolution showed some morphological changes on the tablet surface while FTIR and DSC thermogram studies confirmed ... Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that modified karaya gum is a potential matrix material for formulating suitable sustained-release matrix ...
Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G
To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....
Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G
To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....
ter Laak, Maureen A.; Roos, Carolien; Touw, Daan J.; van Hattum, Paul R. M.; Kwee, Anneke; Lotgering, Frederik K.; Moi, Ben Willem J.; van Pampus, Marielle G.; Porath, Martina M.; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; van 't Veer, Nils E.
Objective: The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent has not been studied in great detail in pregnant women and has instead focused on immediate release tablets and gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablets. The aim of this study was to determine nifedipine slow-release
Ter Laak, Maureen A.; Roos, Carolien; Touw, Daan J.; Van Hattum, Paul R M; Kwee, Anneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290465648; Lotgering, Frederik K.; Mol, Ben Willem J; Van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Porath, Martina M.; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Van Der Post, Joris A M; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; Van'T Veer, Nils E.
Objective: The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent has not been studied in great detail in pregnant women and has instead focused on immediate release tablets and gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablets. The aim of this study was to determine nifedipine slowrelease
Determination of content uniformity of matrix tablets. Tablets were powdered in a mortar. Powder containing KT equivalent to 40 mg were taken into a 100 mL volumetric flask and diluted with 50. mL water. The suspension was kept in an ultrasonic bath for 5 min. The suspension was filtered through a S & S5893 blue ribbon ...
The tablets were compressed using a compression force and compression time of 5 tons and 20 s, respectively. Prior to compression, the die and punch surfaces were sufficiently lubricated with magnesium stearate. In vitro release studies. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were carried out using a six-station.
From the results obtained, all formulated gastroretentive floating matrix (GRFM) granules were free flowing with angle of repose and Carr's index ≤ 30.2º and ≤ 11% respectively. The floating lag time for GRFM tablets formulated with Irvingia gabonesis was ≤ 850 s. The in vitro buoyancy times of GRFM tablets formulations ...
Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo
Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…
Matrix tablets of DTZ were prepared using varying ratios of unmodified karaya gum (K) and MK by direct compression. The matrix tablets were evaluated for pharmacotechnical properties and in vitro release, including release kinetics. The optimized formulation was compared with Dilzem SR which served as reference.
Nielsen, Lisbeth; Stubben, Thomas Waring
Denne artikelsamling har et dobbelt formål. Dels redegør den for aktionsforskningsprojektet Implementering af Tablets som Supplerende og Alternativ Kommunikation (IT-SAK), og dels beskriver den aktionsimplementeringsstrategien meget konkret, så denne kan anvendes som redskab i andre pædagogiske...... omhandler de konkrete resultater af forskningen og implementeringen af tablets som supplerende og alternativ kommunikation....
Purpose: To develop bioadhesive tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride with a unique combination of bioadhesion and drug release. Method: Tablets were prepared by physical blending of diltiazem hydrochloride with two polymers, viz., carbopol and hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose in different ratio along with other excipients.
Purpose: To formulate double-layer tablets of lornoxicam (LRX) prepared by direct compression method and evaluate their physical and drug release characteristics. Methods: The outer layer of tablets, composed of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch and lactose, incorporated tan initial or prompt dose of the drug (4 ...
The influence of granulating solvents on release of indomethacin from tablets containing grewia gum was evaluated. The tablets were prepared by either wet granulation or direct compression. The experimental design was based on a 3x5 factorial design. The drug/gum ratio was varied at three levels, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2.
Dubé, Adam K.; McEwen, Rhonda N.
Using Luhmann's communication theory and affordance theories, we develop a framework to examine how kindergarten-grade 2 students interact with tablet computers. We assessed whether cognitive ability and device configuration influence how successfully children use tablet computers. We found that children's limited ability to direct their cognitive…
Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of different low molecular weight (LMW chitosans (CS1; 22 kDa, CS2; 38 kDa, CS3; 52 kDa, CS4; 81 kDa were examined for possible use in extended-release tablets. The criteria used were the ability of the chitosans to reduce Cu2+, and hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and N-centered radicals derived from 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, via the use of ESR spectrometry. CS2 showed the highest scavenging activity. CS1 and CS3, however, were much less effective and CS4 was not a viable antioxidant. The results suggest that CS2 could be useful in combating the development of oxidative stress. A series of chitosan tablets were prepared using a spray drying method and evaluated as an extended-release matrix tablet using theophylline (TPH as a model drug. The release of TPH from the different MW chitosan tablets increased with increasing MW of the chitosan used. CS2, CS3 and CS4 showed a reasonable release activity, but CS1 showed the shortest release activity. Moreover, the CS2-TPH tablet showed the highest scavenging activity of the three chitosan tablets (CS2-CS4 using 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. These results suggest that a CS2-TPH tablet could be potentially useful in an extended-release matrix tablet with a high antioxidant activity.
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse and explore the potential opportunities offered by mobile devices to improve the higher education scenario. In particular, the study was conducted within a teacher education programme. The students attended a course called Educational Technology, which focussed on the use of mobile devices (smartphones and tablets inside and outside the classroom. We examined the impact of mobile learning on students’ university activities and the changes in the organisation of their studying activity, their learning strategies and their interaction/cooperation levels. After the course, we administered a questionnaire that highlighted some findings concerning the differences between smartphones and tablets in supporting these aspects. We found that both types of devices improved the interaction/collaboration among students and the search for information, which was useful for studying. However, the organisation of studying and the learning strategies were supported only by tablets and for specific aspects of learning. This exploratory research suggests, on the one hand, some possible solutions to improve the quality of university activities, and on the other, it underlines some difficulties that will be analysed more thoroughly in further studies.
Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate
The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 ± 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 ± 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets. PMID:24381598
Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate
The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 ± 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 ± 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets.
Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Harinath, Eranda; Martinez, Alexander R; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Braatz, Richard D; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L
We demonstrate the coating of tablets using an injection molding (IM) process that has advantage of being solvent free and can provide precision coat features. The selected core tablets comprising 10% w/w griseofulvin were prepared by an integrated hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM) process. Coating trials were conducted on a vertical injection mold machine. Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide based hot melt extruded coat compositions were used. Tablet coating process feasibility was successfully demonstrated using different coating mold designs (with both overlapping and non-overlapping coatings at the weld) and coat thicknesses of 150 and 300 μm. The resultant coated tablets had acceptable appearance, seal at the weld, and immediate drug release profile (with an acceptable lag time). Since IM is a continuous process, this study opens opportunities to develop HME-IM continuous processes for transforming powder to coated tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study reviews the potential of tablet technology for teaching and learning. In autumn 2012, we conducted a focused survey comprising quantitative and qualitative questions with Finnish teachers (N = 171, from 54 schools. We focused on perceived pedagogical opportunities and the actualized pedagogical potential of tablets at schools. The survey results indicate that the actual usefulness of tablets in schools was significantly less than what teachers perceived as the pedagogical potential. However, the results demonstrate the positive impact these devices are having on teaching and learning, as well as prompting changes in pedagogical perspectives. Teachers stated that tablets can diversify and enhance teaching and learning in many ways, particularly in supporting learners’ motivation and independent learning, and promoting engaging teaching methods. Nevertheless, teachers voiced concern that the student-to-device ratio at the moment is too low, thus serving as a barrier to widespread use of tablets.
Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Denham, Mike; Barylski, Ian
A comprehensive commercial control strategy for tablet content and content uniformity focussed on the unit operation of compression is presented and is proposed to enable real time release for these critical quality attributes. The control strategy is based on process understanding, process control through compaction force weight control on the tablet press, periodic checks of mean and individual tablet weight combined with at-line testing of tablet content by near infrared (NIR). The application of the at-line NIR tablet content method is discussed and an acceptance criteria based on a parametric tolerance interval test (PTIT) is proposed. Sample handling limitations and spectral acquisition time for the NIR content method limit the sample size, however the chosen PTIT assures an appropriate level of batch coverage. Data are presented for ten commercial-scale batches that demonstrates the control strategy delivered the quality standard for content and content uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antonio Carrillo Andrés
Full Text Available Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but they have not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable and efficient teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a traditional blackboard does. However, the tablet is more versatile, being able to integrate graphic material such as tables, graphs, colours, etc. In addition to that, lecture notes can be saved and posted on a course website. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of tablet technology in undergraduate engineering teaching by sharing experiences made using a graphics tablet for lecturing a second year Thermal Engineering course. Students’ feedback is definitely positive, though there are some caveats regarding technical and operative problems.
Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M
In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression.
Jayvadan K. Patel
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating-bioadhesive tablets to lengthen the stay of glipizide in its absorption area. Effervescent tablets were made using chitosan (CH, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbopolP934 (CP, polymethacrylic acid (PMA, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets with 5% effervescent base had longer lag time than 10%. The type of polymer had no significant effect on the floating lag time. All tablets floated atop the medium for 23-24 hr. Increasing carbopolP934 caused higher bioadhesion than chitosan (p < 0.05. All formulations showed a Higuchi, non-Fickian release mechanism. Tablets with 10% effervescent base, 80% CH/20% HPMC, or 80% CP/20% PMA seemed desirable.
Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Zeitler, J. Axel
The applicability of off-line multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain...... measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, two of which contained UV active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly...... translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and non-destructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated...
Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...
Changquan Calvin Sun
Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.
Pamuk, Sonmez; Cakir, Recep; Ergun, Mustafa; Yilmaz, H. Bayram; Ayas, Cemalettin
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the early implementation results of the "Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology", abbreviated as FATIH project from the perspectives of participating teachers and students. Specifically, to investigate (a) whether or not Interactive Boards (IB) and Tablet Computers…
Full Text Available Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs have received more interest in the pharmaceutical industry for those categories of drug which show slow dissolution and less oral bioavailability. Nowadays various technologies have been developed for FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. FDTs tablets provide an advantage particularly for the pediatric and geriatric patients who have difficulty in swallowing and also for that who are travelling for a long and suffers from lack of water availability. Lyophilization (freeze-drying is a process in which water is sublimated from the product after freezing at a specific temperature and pressure. Lyophilization technique is used in order to improve the dissolution of the given substance and improve the oral bioavailability of the drugs with poor solubility and high permeability. In this work, chlorpheniramine maleate FDTs was formulated by lyophilization method. The prepared tablets were subjected to various evaluation such as hardness (2.4–2.9 kg/cm2, friability (0.68–0.79%, disintegration time (10–19 s, drug content (95.32–99.09%, water absorption ratio (31–53%, wetting time (64–106 s and in-vitro drug release shown in 5 min (96.04–99.92%. FTIR studies showed that there is no interaction between drug and polymer. Stability studies showed that there is no change in drug content within three and six months. Results revealed that fast dissolving tablets of chlorpheniramine maleate prepared by lyophilization method result in rapid dissolution.
Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takahiro; Shirotori, Kaede; Oishi, Takuya; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori
In this study, we evaluated the correlation between the response surfaces for the tablet characteristics of placebo and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing tablets. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Ten tablet formulations were prepared. The tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) of tablets were measured as tablet characteristics. The response surfaces for TS and DT were estimated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation, and were then compared with those of placebo tablets. A correlation was clearly observed for TS and DT of all APIs, although the value of the response surfaces for TS and DT was highly dependent on the type of API used. Based on this knowledge, the response surfaces for TS and DT of API-containing tablets were predicted from only two and four formulations using regression expression and placebo tablet data, respectively. The results from the evaluation of prediction accuracy showed that this method accurately predicted TS and DT, suggesting that it could construct a reliable response surface for TS and DT with a small number of samples. This technique assists in the effective estimation of the relationships between design variables and pharmaceutical responses during pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz
El-Nahas, Amira E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H
Eudragit-loaded silymarin nanoparticles (SNPs) and their formulation into buccal mucoadhesive tablets were investigated to improve the low bioavailability of silymarin through buccal delivery. Characterisation of SNPs and silymarin buccal tablets (SBTs) containing the optimised NPs were performed. Ex vivo permeability of nominated SBTs were assessed using chicken pouch mucosa compared to SNPs and drug suspension followed by histopathological examination. Selected SNPs had a small size (77%) with drug release of about 90% after 6 h. For STBs, all physicochemical parameters were satisfactory for different polymers used. DSC and FT-IR studies suggested the presence of silymarin in an amorphous state. Ex vivo permeation significantly emphasised the great enhancement of silymarin permeation after NPs formation and much more increase after formulating into BTs relative to the corresponding drug dispersion with confirmed membrane integrity. Incorporation of SNPs into BTs could be an efficient vehicle for delivery of silymarin.
Vawdrey, David K; Wilcox, Lauren G; Collins, Sarah A; Bakken, Suzanne; Feiner, Steve; Boyer, Aurelia; Restaino, Susan W
Building on our institution's commercial electronic health record and custom personal health record Web portal, we developed a tablet computer application to provide interactive information to hospital patients. Using Apple iPad devices, the prototype application was provided to five patients in a cardiology step-down unit. We conducted detailed interviews to assess patients' knowledge of their inpatient care, as well as their perceptions of the usefulness of the application. While patients exhibited varying levels of comfort with using the tablet computer, they were highly enthusiastic about the application's ability to supply health information such as their inpatient medication histories and photographs of their care providers. Additional research is warranted to assess the benefit such applications may have for addressing inpatient information needs, enhancing patient-provider communication and improving patient satisfaction.
, the regulatory authorities, and the pharmaceutical manufacturers. The PAT tools include a wide range of disciplines, including process analyzers (e.g. spectroscopic sensors), multivariate statistical analysis (e.g. chemometric data treatment), process control, continuous improvement, and knowledge management...... (API) concentrations and at different hardness (compression force) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sample orientation, powder segregation, and compression force on the NIT spectra. Therefore, samples were taken at different production time points, at different...... compression forces, and measured with the spectrometer in different orientations. The study showed that a minimum of 18 tablets from each level of API concentrations (90 spectra in total) were required to establish a robust NIT calibration. Further, it was shown that the spectra from tablets with the scored...
Charoo, Naseem A; Shamsher, Areeg A A; Zidan, Ahmed S; Rahman, Ziyaur
The focus of the current investigations was to apply quality by design (QbD) approach to the development of dispersible tablets. Critical material and process parameters are linked to the critical quality attributes of the product. Variability is reduced by product and process understanding which translates into quality improvement, risk reduction and productivity enhancement. The risk management approach further leads to better understanding of the risks, ways to mitigate them and control strategy is proposed commensurate with the level of the risk. Design space in combination with pharmaceutical quality management system provide for flexible regulatory approaches with opportunity for continuous improvement that benefit patient and manufacturer alike. The development of dispersible tablet was proposed in the current study through a QbD paradigm for a better patient compliance and product quality. The quality target product profile of a model biopharmaceutical class II drug was identified. Initial risk analysis led to the identification of the critical quality attributes. Physicochemical characterization and compatibility studies of the drug with commonly used excipients were performed. Experiments were designed with focus on critical material and process attributes. Design space was identified and risk factors for all the possible failure modes were below critical levels after the implementation of control strategy. Compliance to the design space provides an opportunity to release batches in a real time. In conclusion, QbD tools together with risk and quality management tools provided an effective and efficient paradigm to build the quality into dispersible tablet. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sravya, Maddukuri; Deveswaran, Rajamanickam; Bharath, Srinivasan; Basavaraj, Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan, Varadharajan
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555987
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.
Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed
Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency.
toluenesulphonic acid and vanadium pentoxide9, hexa-amine cobalt (III) tricarbanato cobaltate10 and 2-iodoxybenzoate in aqueous acetic acid11. ... Equipment: UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Unicam Aurora,. Helios Scan Software v 1.1, Pye Unicam,.
Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.
Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose
Bioequivalence, Food Effect, and Steady-State Assessment of Dapagliflozin/Metformin Extended-release Fixed-dose Combination Tablets Relative to Single-component Dapagliflozin and Metformin Extended-release Tablets in Healthy Subjects.
Chang, Ming; Liu, Xiaoni; Cui, Dapeng; Liang, Dan; LaCreta, Frank; Griffen, Steven C; Lubin, Susan; Quamina-Edghill, Donette; Boulton, David W
Simplification of therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can provide convenience that leads to improved compliance. Dapagliflozin/metformin extended-release (XR) fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets offer the convenience of once-daily dosing. Two pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were conducted to establish bioequivalence for 2 doses of dapagliflozin/metformin XR FDC versus the same dosage of the individual component (IC) tablets in healthy adults. Two open-label, randomized, 4-period, 4-arm crossover studies were conducted to assess the bioequivalence and PK properties of dapagliflozin and metformin FDCs in healthy subjects under fed and fasting conditions. Participants received single oral doses or once-daily dosing of dapagliflozin/metformin XR (5 mg/500 mg [study 1] or 10 mg/1000 mg [study 2]) for 4 days in an FDC formulation or corresponding strengths of IC tablets. For both of the studies, dapagliflozin and metformin 5 mg/500 mg or 10 mg/1000 mg FDC tablets were bioequivalent to the respective IC tablets. The 90% CIs of the ratio of the adjusted geometric means for all key PK parameters (Cmax, AUC0-T, and AUC0-∞) were contained within the predefined 0.80 to 1.25 range to conclude bioequivalence for both dapagliflozin and metformin. Once-daily dosing to steady state of each FDC tablet had no effect on the PK properties of dapagliflozin or metformin. When the FDCs were administered with a light-fat meal, there was no effect on metformin PK values and only a modest, nonclinically meaningful effect on dapagliflozin PK values. There were no safety or tolerability concerns. Bioequivalence of the FDCs of dapagliflozin/metformin XR and the ICs was established, and no safety issues of clinical concern were raised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas
Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol,
Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink
Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen.......Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen....
Kizony, Rachel; Zeilig, Gabi; Dudkiewicz, Israel; Schejter-Margalit, Tamara; Rand, Debbie
Touch screen tablet technology might be suitable for self-training of impaired dexterity poststroke. We compared performance of app-based hand activities in individuals without a disability from 3-age groups, and assessed the feasibility of using tablet apps in individuals with stroke. Experiment I included 172 Individuals without a disability: 79 young adults (26.2 [3.9] years old), 61 middle-aged adults (55.9 [5.1] years old), and 32 older adults (68.7 [3.0] years old). Experiment II included 20 individuals with stroke, aged 59.3 ± 13.7 years with impairment of the upper extremity. All participants performed the app-based "Tap-it" (tapping) task twice and the Nine Hole Peg Test. The stroke group practiced with additional apps and underwent clinical assessments. Significant differences in the tapping task performance were found between the 3 age groups (dominant hand time: F(2,169) = 30.57; P = 0.0001; and accuracy F(2,169) = 25.20; P = 0.0001; nondominant hand time: F(2,169) = 35.09; P = 0.0001; and accuracy F(2,169) = 19.62; P = 0.0001). Of the 20 individuals with stroke, 15 were able to complete the 2 trials of the tapping task, but all participants reported enjoying the experience and thought the apps may have potential for stroke rehabilitation to improve performance of the stroke-affected hand. Performance of tablet app-based hand activities was affected by impaired hand dexterity in older participants without a disability and in participants with stroke. Tablet apps may potentially provide a way to facilitate self-training of repetitive, task-oriented, isolated finger and hand movements to improve hand dexterity and function after stroke.Video abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A118).
Abd El Rasoul, Saleh; Shazly, Gamal A
Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crospovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmellose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.
Saleh Abd El Rasoul
Full Text Available Propafenone HCl (PPH, an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH, an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crospovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmellose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.
Mohamed A El-Nabarawi
Full Text Available Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min. Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug′s absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6 tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH
Choudhury, A; Das, S; Bahadur, S; Saha, S; Roy, A
Omeprazole pellets containing mucoadhesive tablets were developed by direct punch method. Three mucoadhesive polymers namely hydroxypropylemethylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxy methylcellulose, carbopol-934P and ethyl cellulose were used for preparation of tablets which intended for prolong action may be due to the attachment with intestinal mucosa for relief from active duodenal ulcer. Mucoadhesive tablets were coated with respective polymer and coated with Eudragit L100 to fabricate enteric coated tablets. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different physical parameters and dissolution study were performed in three dissolution mediums like 0.1N hydrochloric acid for 2h, pH 6.5 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution for 12hr. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose showed above 95% release within 10 h where as carbopol-934P showed slow release about 88% to 92% over a period of 12 h. having excellent mucoadhesive strength but ethyl cellulose containing tablets showed less than 65% release. The release mechanism of all formulation was diffusion controlled confirmed from Higuchi's plot. Thus, the present study concluded that, carbopol-934P containing mucoadhesive tablets of omeprazole pellets can be used for local action in the ulcer disease as well as for oral controlled release drug delivery.
Choi, H; Jung, J; Yong, C S; Rhee, C; Lee, M; Han, J; Park, K; Kim, C
For the development of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets, we studied the release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by buccal adhesive tablets composed of sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), magnesium oxide and croscarmellose sodium. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets. The analysis of the release mechanism showed that croscarmellose sodium changed the release profile of omeprazole from first- to zero-order release kinetics by forming porous channels in the tablet matrix. However, it decreased the bioadhesive forces and stability of omeprazole tablets in human saliva. The tablet is composed of omeprazole-sodium alginate-HPMC-magnesium oxide-croscarmellose sodium (20:24:6:50:10 mg). It may be attached to the human cheek without collapse and it enhanced the stability of omeprazole in human saliva for at least 4 h, giving a fast release of omeprazole. The plasma concentration of omeprazole in hamsters increased to reach a maximum of 370 ng/ml at 45 min after buccal administration and remained at the high level of 146-366 ng/ml for 6 h. The buccal bioavailability of omeprazole in hamsters was 13.7+/-3.2%. These results demonstrate that the omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet would be useful to deliver omeprazole which degrades very rapidly in acidic aqueous medium and undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration.
Kakimi, Kazuyuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi
A rotary tablet machine fitted with 8-mm diameter flat-faced punches was used to measure scraper pressure (SCR), a type of shear stress, to evaluate sticking behavior. The shear stress between the surfaces of the tablet and lower punch was determined using an SCR detection system. Mean surface roughness (R(a)) of tablets, measured by a scanning laser-microscope, was used to estimate the magnitude of sticking. Tablet tensile strength tended to increase with compression pressure at either of the tablet production velocities tested, which was consistent with previous reports. SCR decreased with increasing compression pressure for samples at all compression velocities, and showed a tendency to increase with binder concentration. SCR also tended to increase with compression velocity for samples at all compression pressures, suggesting that the frequency of tablet sticking increased as compression velocity increased. R(a) associated with sticking increased with SCR, indicating that the adhesive force between the particles of the tablet surface and the lower punch surface plays an important role in sticking.
Full Text Available Introduction: Simvastatin is an inhibitor of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To enhance its bioavailability by inclusion complexation, as host molecule randommethyl-β-cyclodextrin had been used. After evaluating the complexes we chose the kneading product in 1:2 molar ratio for incorporation of 10 mg simvastatin tablets. Materials and methods: We prepared homogenous mixtures of the inclusion complex and some excipients. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated in regard to: weight uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile. Results: Weights are in the range of 196-208 mg, diameter 6.83-6.86 mm, height 3.86-4.01 mm, hardness 78.3-113.1 N, friability 0.75- 1.19 %, disintegration above 15 minutes. The dissolved amounts of simvastatin from the tablets are higher compared to the dissolution of pure simvastatin, but lower than the dissolution of the complex itself. Excipients, like disintegrants and lubricants greatly influence the dissolution properties of the tablets. Conclusions: According to our results, tablets containing inclusion complex of simvastatin exhibit better solubility, according to the dissolved amount of simvastatin, than pure drug alone. Proper physical parameters of the tablets are obtained by application of 5 % Primellose
Serhii I. Netosov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.
Lupo, Noemi; Fodor, Benjamin; Muhammad, Ijaz; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas
Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the S-protected chitosan were evaluated regarding water uptake capacity, disintegration behaviour, residence time on vaginal mucosa, release of the encapsulated drug and antimicrobial activity. S-protected chitosan displayed 160±19 (CS-MNA-160) and 320±38 (CS-MNA-320)µmol of ligand per gram of polymer. At pH 4.2, CS-MNA-160 and CS-MNA-320 showed 5.2-fold and 6.2-fold increase in mucus viscosity in comparison to unmodified chitosan (One-way ANOVA, pS-protected chitosan remained stable against oxidation in presence of 0.5%v/v hydrogen peroxide. Metronidazole tablets consisting in S-protected chitosan showed prolonged residence time on vaginal mucosa and improved water uptake capacity and disintegration time in comparison to tablets consisting of unmodified chitosan. Moreover, CS-MNA-320 metronidazole tablets displayed prolonged drug release and antimicrobial activity. On the basis of the achieved results, entirely S-protected chitosan represents a promising excipient for the development of metronidazole vaginal tablets. S-protected thiomers are polymers modified with thiol groups protected by aromatic ligands and characterized by strong mucoadhesive properties and high stability against oxidation. Up to date, the entirely S-protection of thiol groups was achieved via the synthesis of the ligand 2-((2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)disulfanyl)nicotinic acid) which can be directly bound to the backbone of polymers bearing carboxylic moieties as pectin
Muller, Claudia; Mazel, Vincent; Dausset, Caroline; Busignies, Virginie; Bornes, Stéphanie; Nivoliez, Adrien; Tchoreloff, Pierre
The beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health are now widely acknowledged, and this has prompted growing interest in research and development in the pharmaceutical field. However, to be viable when they reach their target, the bacteria must be able to survive during the manufacturing process and the biological pathway. Tablet form best meets the requirements for protecting acid labile drugs, but the tableting process could be an additional stress for the bacteria. This study evaluated the initial effect of compression pressure on the Lcr35® strain in a vaginal (Lcr regenerans®) and an intestinal (Lcr restituo®) formulation. A stability study was also performed on the tablets and revealed a beneficial effect of this form. The obtained destruction rates (k) demonstrated that the bacterial stability was greater in tablets than in powders (kpowders>ktablets). A new mathematical model was developed combining compression and temperature parameters to predict the bacterial viability at any pressure and time. Moreover, the genetic profile of Lcr35® (Rep-PCR, microarrays), its resistance to acidity and its ability to inhibit Candidaalbicans growth, after compression, were determined to evaluate the target product profile (TPP) in a Quality by Design (QbD) approach. The Rep-PCR analysis validated the strain identity and the microarrays demonstrated the genetic stability of Lcr35® strain after compaction. Additionally, ability to inhibit the C. albicans growth was maintained and the resistance to gastric conditions of Lcr35® was even improved by tableting. As a dosage form, tablets containing probiotic can guarantee that an adequate amount of bacteria reaches the therapeutic target (intestinal or vaginal) and that the product remains stable until the time of consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shi, Zhenqi; Hermiller, James G; Gunter, Thomas Z; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Reed, Dave E
This article proposes a new sample selection strategy to simplify the traditional content uniformity (CU) test in early research and development (R&D) with improved statistical confidence. This strategy originated from the prescreening of a large amount of tablets by a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based high-volume tablet tester to the selection of extreme tablets with highest, medium, and lowest content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for further high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test. The NIRS-based high-volume tablet tester was equipped with an internally developed and integrated automated bagging and labeling system, allowing the traceability of every individual tablet by its measured physical and chemical signatures. A qualitative NIR model was used to translate spectral information to a concentration-related metric, that is scores, which allowed the selection of those extreme tablets. This sample selection strategy of extreme tablets was shown to provide equivalent representation of CU in the process compared with the traditional CU test using a large number of random samples. Because it only requires reference tests on three extreme samples per stratified location, the time- and labor-saving nature of this strategy is advantageous for CU test in early R&D. The extreme sampling approach is also shown to outperform random sampling with respect to statistical confidence for representing the process variation. In addition, a chemometric approach, which utilizes only pure component raw materials to develop an NIRS model sensitive to API concentration, is discussed with the advantage that it does not require tablets at multiple API levels. Prospective applications of this sample selection strategy are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gorbunova Irina B.
Full Text Available The article highlights issues associated with the introduction of cloud-centric and tablet (mobile devices in music education, use of which confronts the teacher-musician fundamentally new challenges. So, it's a development of practical teaching skills with the assistance of modern technology, a search of approaches to the organization of educational process, a creation of conditions for the continuity between traditional music learning and information technologies in educational process. Authors give the characteristics of cloud computing and the perspective of its use in music schools (distance learning, sharing, cloud services, etc.. Also you can see in this article the overview of some mobile applications (for OS Android and iOS and their use in the educational process.
Lu, Yan; Zhou, Siyuan
A facility is connected to an electricity utility and is responsive to Demand Response Events. A plurality of devices is each individually connected to the electricity grid via an addressable switch connected to a secure network that is enabled to be individually switched off by a server. An occupant of a room in control of the plurality of devices provides via a Human Machine Interface on a tablet a preferred order of switching off the plurality of devices in case of a Demand Response Event. A configuration file based at least partially on the preferred order and on a severity of the Demand Response Events determines which devices which of the plurality devices will be switched off. The server accesses the configuration file and switches off the devices included in the configuration file.
Marra, Wouter; Groothengel, Marin; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Karssenberg, Derek; Stouthamer, Esther
Excursions and fieldworks are valuable components for geosciences education. However, field activities can be time consuming for teachers and pose a logistical challenge to fit in regular courses. Furthermore, the participation of students diminishes with group size in case of instructor-led outings. We are developing excursions that students can follow autonomously without a teacher present, using instructions, assignments and background information on tablets and smartphones. The goal of this approach is to increase the level of active participation, and to reduce logistical and time table issues. We developed a bike-excursion about the landscape and geology in the vicinity of our University. Such excursion was on the wish-list for several years, but posed a logistical challenge for the group of about 80 students in the available timeslot. In our approach, students had a time-window of two weeks in which they could finish the excursion in groups of 2. 8-Inch tablets with water- and shock-proof cases were available for this excursion. For the excursion we used three apps: 1) IZI-Travel for providing the route, spoken navigation instructions, spoken explanations at stops, location-related images, assignments as text, and multiple-choose questions. 2) PDF-Maps for providing geo-referenced maps. 3) ESRI Collector which the students used to digitize polygons on a map, and to collect geo-referenced photos with explanation. These data were answers to assignments and were later used in a tutorial on campus. The assignments where students had to collect data, and the small group size (pairs) increased the level of active participation. The use of a final tutorial on campus was important for the autonomous excursion, as it gave students the opportunity to discuss their observations and questions with their teacher. The developed teaching materials are available online to use and adapt for others. Parts could be useful for other universities and schools in the vicinity of
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO recognizes point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT technologies as effective means to improve water quality. This paper investigates long-term performance and social acceptance of a novel PoUWT technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. When placed in a water storage container, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet releases silver ions into water, thereby disinfecting microbial pathogens and leaving the water safe for human consumption. As a result of its simplicity and efficiency, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet can serve as a stand-alone PoUWT method and as a secondary PoUWT to improve exisitng PoUWT methods, such as ceramic water filters. In this paper, three PoUWT interventions were conducted to evaluate the silver-embedded ceramic tablet: (1 the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a stand-alone PoUWT method, (2 ceramic water filters stand-alone, and (3 a filter-tablet combination. The filter-tablet combination evaluates the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a secondary PoUWT method when placed in the lower reservoir of the ceramic water filter system to provide residual disinfection post-filtration. Samples were collected from 79 households over one year and analyzed for turbidity, total silver levels and coliform bacteria. Results show that the silver-embedded ceramic tablet effectively reduced total coliform bacteria (TC and E. coli when used as a stand-alone PoUWT method and when used in combination with ceramic water filters. The silver-embedded ceramic tablet's performance as a stand-alone PoUWT method was comparable to current inexpensive, single-use PoUWT methods, demonstrating 100% and 75% median reduction in E. coli and TC, respectively, after two months of use. Overall, the the filter-tablet combination performed the best of the three interventions, providing a 100% average percent reduction in E. coli over one year. User surveys were also conducted and indicated
Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan
This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seekin...
Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg
Compaction of multiparticulates into tablets, particularly into orodispersible tablets (ODTs), is challenging. The compression of pellets, made by solid lipid extrusion/spheronization processes, presents peculiar difficulties since solid lipids usually soften or melt at relatively low temperature ranges and due to applied mechanical forces. Until now, there are no reports in literature about the development of ODTs based on solid lipid pellets. To investigate the feasibility of producing such tablets, a design of experiment (DoE) approach was performed to elucidate the influence of compression force and amount of two co-processed excipients (Ludiflash® and Parteck® ODT) on properties of the tablets (friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time). ODTs (15 mm, flat-faced) with solid lipid pellets (250-1000 µm in diameter) containing 500 mg of metformin HCl, presenting immediate drug release profile and taste-masked properties, were targeted. During compression, a strong lamination of the tablets containing Parteck® ODT was observed. This phenomenon was prominently observed when high compression forces (≥5 kN) and high excipient amounts (≥40%; w/w) were used. On the other hand, the DoE focused on tablets with Ludiflash® showed better results regarding the production of ODTs. A positive influence of the compression force on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets, regarding specifications of the Ph. Eur., was observed. The increase in the amount of this excipient resulted in fast disintegrating tablets, however, a negative influence on the tensile strength was noticed. After optimization of the parameters and formulation, based on the DoE results and considering the Ph. Eur. specifications for tablets, ODTs based on lipid pellets containing metformin HCl presenting immediate release profile (85% drug release in less than 30 min) and taste-masked properties (determined by an electronic tongue) were successfully obtained
Kim, Joo-Il; Park, Sang-Wook; Lim, Jhong-Jae; Sohn, Se-Il; Shin, Ji-Su; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Chung, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Tae
In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effect of an isopropanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps (IPAP) and developed a gastroretentive floating tablet of IPAP (IPAP-FR) for maximized local gastroprotective effects. Pre-treatment with IPAP ameliorated the gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in ethanol/HCl- or indomethacin- treated rats. IPAP decreased mucosal hemorrhage of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or indomethacin plus pyloric ligation in rats. The optimized floating tablet, IPAP-FR, floated on medium surface with more sustained eupatilin release compared to the non-floating control tablet. X-ray photographs in beagle dogs showed that IPAPFR was retained for > 2 h in the stomach. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model, the gastric hemorrhagic lesion was improved more substantially with IPAP-FR compared to the non-floating control tablet. Based on these data, our data suggest that IPAP-FR has an improved therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul
The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS is the main active gradient of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng. Although its prominent therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated by various researchers, the broader application is restricted by the low bioavailability of PNS. This article aims to discuss PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS to beagle dogs and improve its bioavailability in comparison with normal tablet. The bio-adhesive tablet was prepared according to our previous patent, using chitosan as main excipient. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysis of PNS in dog's plasma was developed in our previous study, and was validated to apply in the pharmacokinetics study in this work. Three ingredients: Notoginsenoside R1 (R1, Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1 (Figure 1, were chosen as indicators of PNS to analyze it in vivo. Statistically significant increase (P
Lepek, P; Sawicki, W; Wlodarski, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Paluch, M; Guzik, L
Telmisartan (TLM), a poorly water-soluble angiotensin II receptor antagonist in crystalline form, was transformed into the amorphous state by the melt quench technique, as well as a cryogenic grinding method, in order to improve its physiochemical properties. The chemical stability of TLM, that is, the tendency of the material to resist change or decomposition due to internal reaction, or due to the effects of air, heat, light, pressure, etc., during formation of the amorphous phase was assessed by monitoring high performance liquid chromatography. The existence of the amorphous state was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The glass transition occurred at T(g)=401K. In the next stage, the solubility of TLM in 0.1M HCl, phosphate buffer, pH=6.8, and water (25°C and 37°C) was determined. Both amorphous forms of TLM (vitrified and cryogrinded) had a higher solubility (μg/ml) than their crystalline counterpart. An important and interesting problem of the study was to evaluate how the tableting process was affected by the choice of either a crystalline or an amorphous form of TLM. Eight different tablet formulations were evaluated using both the crystalline and the amorphous form of TLM. Measurements of the physical properties and dissolution tests of G4 formulations tablets with telmisartan in crystalline and amorphous form after different storage periods were also performed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anti-HIV combination therapies in a single formulation currently target only HIV-1 reverse transcriptase via two different mechanisms of action by associating a nucleoside and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. These combination therapies are therefore referred to as multi-class combination products. The elvitegravir Quad pill (Gilead Sciences), when approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, will become the first once-daily dual-target anti-HIV tablet. This "4 in 1" tablet targets HIV-1 integrase by elvitegravir boosted by the pharmaco-enhancer cobicistat and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by the two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. A second pill referred to as the 572-Trii pill (Shionogi-ViiV Healthcare, LLC), also based on the dual inhibition of integrase and reverse transcriptase, is currently in late-phase clinical trials. The availability of these novel once-daily anti-HIV tablets will improve treatment adherence and offer new perspective for patient failing existing antiviral regimens.
Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study rapid melt tablets (RMT’s of carvedilol were prepared by using ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. Carvedilol is beta-adrenergic antagonist and its oral bioavailability is about 25-35% because of first pass metabolism. Methods: The spray-dried microparticles were formulated into RMT’s using a wet granulation process. The Formulation and optimization of carvedilol loaded RMTs using nano and microparticulate chitosan based system (NMCS was done by using 32 factorial designs. Results: Drug entrapment efficiency of about 64.9 % (w/w and loading capacity of 14.44% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which were ranged from 1 μm to 4 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated RMTs could be completely dissolved within 40 seconds. Dissolution studies suggested that Carvedilol is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing Carvedilol that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. Conclusion: Results shown that the development of new RMTs designed with crosslinked microparticle might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional RMTs and the side effects related to Carvedilol intrinsic characteristics. The development of Carvedilol NMCS using ludiflash as RMTs could be used as a promising approach for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of water insoluble drug.
Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie
specific needs. The lack of understanding of these needs makes it difficult to introduce solutions tailored to their reality. The results of this current study suggest that many needs of young adults with profound ID and their parents are not met despite existent transition planning services. Transition to adulthood seems particularly difficult for these families who face many challenges. Parents in this study proposed different obstacles during transition to adulthood that could be improved for creation of future solutions adapted to their reality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R
Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively), or...
van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.
Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific
Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.
Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…
van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla
Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the
Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.
Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical
Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.
Background: Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical research evidence. In general, there is a lack of…
The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…
Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana
In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…
Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea
Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,
Zijlstra, HP; Vlaskamp, C
Background The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records
Burley, Suzanne; And Others
Evaluation of using a hearing peer tutor to provide daily 20-minute math instruction for a profoundly deaf sixth-grade girl indicated that the peer tutoring intervention was highly successful, with the tutee meeting accuracy criteria for each of 4 curriculum objectives after only a brief period of intervention. (Author/DB)
Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa
A case study of the psychometric characteristics of two profoundly gifted girls, one with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the other without ASD, is used to describe the nuances and subtleties most relevant in understanding the relationship between extreme giftedness and social difficulties. Through the presentation of the results from…
Moore, Ernest J.; And Others
An audiometric screening survey was conducted on a severely and profoundly mentally retarded population using noise-makers and pure tone audiometry. Of those tested with noise-makers, 83% gave an identifiable response to sound, 7% did not respond, and 10% were considered difficult-to-test. By contrast, 4% passed, 2% failed, and 94% were…
Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.
Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…
Jansen, S. L. G.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.
Background The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound
Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to
Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.
Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…
Squires, Kathryn C.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Thaker, Premal H.
► Eptifibatide is associated with profound thrombocytopenia and thrombosis secondary to a HITT-like mechanism associated with drug-dependant antibodies. ► Caution with eptifibatide use is needed in those pre-disposed to hypercoaguability, particularly those with an underlying malignancy.
Siegel, Martin A.; Clapp, Elizabeth Jane
The 2 year project (July 1, 1978 through June 30, 1980) sought to determine the viability, attractiveness, and effectiveness of computer based instruction with approximately 225 severely and profoundly mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled institutionalized children and adults. Over 100 instructional formats were developed by staff…
Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea
Background Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the
Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon
Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.
Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon
Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.
Vlaskamp, Carla; Hiemstra, Saskia J.; Wiersma, Linda A.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.
In the Netherlands, the Dutch government instituted policies that enable persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to attend day services. Over the past 15 years, surveys have indicated a progressive increase in the number of hours that such adults spend at day activities centers. However, information about how these…