Ivancic, Martin T.; And Others
The happiness indices in a Fun Time activity were systematically increased for three of four people with profound multiple disabilities by providing their preferred stimuli. The fourth showed decreased unhappiness. However, three people with profound disabilities and minimal movement failed to show any indices of happiness or unhappiness.…
Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity, which is even more true in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Physical activity approaches, particularly for people with PIMD, are more likely to be
Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine
Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…
Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine
People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the methodological approach that was used to achieve this. In this qualitative study, two dyads consisting of a person with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and a teacher or carer were filmed as they engaged in school-based activities. Two 1-hour videotapes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Attuning was identified within the theory proposed here as a central process that calibrates and regulates communication. Attuning is conceptualized as a bidirectional, dyadic communication process. Understanding this process may support more effective communication between people with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and their interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla
Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the
Petry, K.; Maes, B.; Vlaskamp, C.
Background: In a recent study, we constructed an item pool that contains items on the quality of life (QOL) and related aspects of support of people with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). In the present study, a panel of experts assessed the content and the structure of this item pool in order
Aherne, Cian; Coughlan, Barry
Background: Aquatics is an under-researched but possibly appropriate form of activity for people with severe to profound intellectual disabilities (SPIDs). Aim: The current pilot study investigates the suitability of an aquatics programme for service users with SPIDs. Method: Four service users with SPID completed an 8-12-session aquatics…
van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.
Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific
Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.
Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents
van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Vlaskamp, Carla; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Post, Wendy J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A.J.J.M.
Background: People with profound intellectual disabilities experience a high prevalence of visual disabilities, making them more dependent on sound. However, research addressing the influence of the auditory environment is scarce. Method: Observations of the auditory environments (soundscapes) and
Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.
BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people
Hoevenaars-van den Boom, M A A; Antonissen, A C F M; Knoors, H; Vervloed, M P J
In persons with deafblindness, it is hard to distinguish autism spectrum disorders from several deafblind specific behaviours caused by the dual sensory impairments, especially when these persons are also intellectually disabled. As a result, there is an over-diagnosis of autism in persons who are deafblind leading to unsuitable interventions. Autism as specified by the DSM-IV was studied in 10 persons with congenital deafblindness with profound intellectual disabilities. Behaviours of people with deafblindness and autism (n = 5) and of people with deafblindness without autism (n = 5) were observed in a semi-standardised assessment. All people with deafblindness showed impairments in social interaction, communication and language. In contrast to persons without autism, people with deafblindness and autism showed significantly more impairments in reciprocity of social interaction, quality of initiatives to contact and the use of adequate communicative signals and functions. No differences between the groups were found for quantity and persistence of stereotyped behaviour, quality of play and exploration and adequate problem-solving strategies. This study indicates that there are some possibilities to differentiate autism from behaviours specific for deafblindness. It also confirms the large overlap in overt behaviours between people with deafblindness and persons with autism.
Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…
Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C
Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with
Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.
Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…
Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans
The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.
Ine, Hostyn; Heleen, Neerinckx; Bea, Maes
Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes…
Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han
For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the
Maes, Bea; Lambrechts, Greet; Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja
Background: This study provides an overview of empirical research on the effectiveness of quality-enhancing interventions for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Method: Through computerised searches of the PsycINFO and ERIC databases, and using several search criteria specifically relating to the target group and…
Davis, Kathy; Carter, Simone; Myers, Elizabeth; Rocca, Nicola
Research confirms that children and young people with severe learning disabilities do not have the same level of access to high-quality care, health education and health promotion activities as children and young people without disabilities. This article discusses a quality improvement, action research project to investigate alternative approaches to health promotion that enhance the health and well-being of children and young people with complex neurodisabilities. The project involved assessment of school records and completion by staff of an eight-question survey. It found that the proactive approach of school nurses in raising awareness and understanding through questioning was positively received, and reinforced how meaningful and relevant information could be delivered to these young people. The project also had unexpected benefits, including more integrated team working, increased knowledge, greater awareness and understanding of the importance of health promotion participation, and student satisfaction. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Hostyn, Ine; Ine, Hostyn; Neerinckx, Heleen; Heleen, Neerinckx; Maes, Bea; Bea, Maes
Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes resulting from their interactions, and to understand how these variables relate to each other. Video observations of 17 staff-client dyads were coded using partial interval recording. The results showed considerable variation across individuals and dyads. In general, persons with PIMD directed the attention of staff members infrequently. The staff members frequently directed their clients' attention towards a topic of interest but did not often use the tactile modality. Within the staff-client dyad, there was not much joint attention; however, shared attention episodes occurred frequently. Shared attention and joint attention are strongly correlated. A negative correlation was found between clients not using attention-directing behaviours and staff members using tactile methods to direct the attention, and joint attention episodes. This study presents both directions for future research and practical implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick
Background: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions.…
Hoevenaars-van den Boom, M.A.A.; Antonissen, A.C.F.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Vervloed, M.P.J.
In persons with deafblindness, it is hard to distinguish autism spectrum disorders from several deafblind specific behaviours caused by the dual sensory impairments, especially when these persons are also intellectually disabled. As a result, there is an over-diagnosis of autism in persons who are
Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of
Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
Aim: The total study aims at generating knowledge about the best way to motor activate persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in residential facilities. The purpose of the current poster presentation is to present the results of the first step executed in this project
van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.
Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed.
Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.
Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea
Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement behavioural information with information from another source. As it is accepted that emotions consist of language, behaviour and physiology, in this article we investigated if physiology could give information about the emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities. To this aim we tested hypotheses derived from the motivational model of Bradley, Codispoti, Cuthbert, and Lang (2001) about the relation between heart rate and the valence of emotions and between heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature and behavioural expressions of emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disability. We presented 27 participants with 4 staff-selected negative and 4 staff-selected positive stimuli. The situations were videotaped and their heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature was measured. Each behaviour of the participant was coded using the observational method developed by Petry and Maes (2006). As hypothesized, we found a lower heart rate when participants were presented with negative stimuli than when they were presented with positive stimuli in the first 6s of stimuli presentation. Their skin temperature was higher for the expression of low intensity negative emotions compared to the expression of low intensity positive emotions. The results suggest that, as with people without disability, heart rate and skin temperature can give information about the emotions of persons with severe and profound ID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poppes, P.; Putten, van der Annette; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.
BackgroundPrevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the
Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.
Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…
Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla
Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the
Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla
Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures...
Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny
This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in
Buskermolen, M.; Hoekman, J.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
Background and Objective: Studies on people with both Hearing Impairments (HI) and an Intellectual Disability (ID) are rare, although in clinical practice aggressive incidents such as destructive behaviour aimed at objects or other people and self-harming behaviour are mentioned as common problems.
In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...
One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.
Young, Hannah; Garrard, Brenda
Supporting bereaved people with profound learning disabilities still remains an under-researched area. Moreover, the barriers of communication and disenfranchised grief mean that they often do not receive the support they require, leading to emotional and behavioural difficulties. This article describes research using a case study design, which…
Family-centredness of professionals who support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: validation of the Dutch 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP-PIMD).
Jansen, Suzanne L G; van der Putten, Annette A J; Post, Wendy J; Vlaskamp, Carla
A Dutch version of the 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP) was developed to determine the extent to which professionals apply the principles of family-centred care in the rehabilitation of children with physical disabilities. However, no data were available on the reliability and construct validity of this instrument when it comes to supporting people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This study aimed to validate an adapted version of the Dutch MPOC-SP for assessing the family-centred behaviours of professionals who support this group (MPOC-SP-PIMD). A total of 105 professionals took part in the study. A Mokken scale analysis was conducted to determine whether the instrument satisfied the assumptions of both monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity. Loevinger's scalability coefficient (H) was used for the scalability of the entire scale and of each item separately. Rho was calculated as a measure of the internal consistency of the scales. The analyses resulted in two scales: a nine-item scale interpreted as 'Showing Interpersonal Sensitivity', with H=.39 and rho=.76, and a seven-item scale interpreted as 'Treating People Respectfully', with H=.49 and rho=.78. A validated version of the MPOC-SP-PIMD, suitable for supporting people with PIMD, consists of a subset of two scales from the original Dutch MPOC-SP. This instrument can be used to compare the family-centredness of professionals with parent's expectations and views. This information can be used in practice to match the support to the needs of the parents and family of the child with PIMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
“I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent years, there has been greater recognition of the important position of parents and siblings of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities and the importance of the wellbeing of all ...
Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.
Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea
Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.
Irene Hierro Zorrilla
Full Text Available The San Martín Scale is an instrument used to measure the quality of life of people with significant disabilities with adequate levels reliability and validity. In 2012, the San Martín Scale was administered to 85 adults with intellectual disabilities who were provided supports at Obra San Martin Foundation (Santander. In this article, we describe the results obtained at the mesosystem level, an example at the microsystem level, and future areas of work identified from the results.
“I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent
Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.
A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give
Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.
We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…
Everaarts, Sanne; de Boer, Anke; van der Putten, Annette; Minnaert, Alexander
Aim: Although children with disabilities have the right to be included into the school system, children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) are often not included. The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about inclusive education for children with PIMD by identifying
Darling, Joseph A; Circo, Deborah K
This quantitative study assessed whether presentation of preferred items and activities during multiple periods of the day (and over multiple days) increased indices of happiness (over time/sustained) in individuals with PMD. A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to measure changes in indices of happiness of the participants. Participants were recruited from an adult day activity program specializing in providing assistance to individuals with disabilities. For Mary, baseline indices of happiness were 26.67% of intervals, increasing 6.76% during intervention to 33.43%. For Caleb, baseline indices of happiness were 20.84% of intervals, increasing 6.34% during intervention to 27.18%. For Mark, baseline indices of happiness were 40.00% of intervals, increasing 12.75% during intervention to 52.75%. Overall interobserver agreement was 82.8%, with interobserver agreement observations occurring during 63.04% of the observations. The results of the investigation demonstrated that presenting preferred items and activities increased the indices of happiness compared to baseline rates of indices of happiness. Results may have been more robust if the participants were assessed for overall responsiveness patterns prior to the initiation of measurement of indices of happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W
Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p internet (p = 0.02), and believing that smoking is bad (p bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge.
Guy, Barbara; And Others
This study examined whether teacher-implemented classroom measurement procedures of short duration are as reliable as methods used in research studies to determine behavior state (e.g., awake active, awake inactive, asleep, drowsed) of six students with profound mental disabilities. Results indicated that more frequent but briefer measurements…
Munde, V.S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Nakken, H.
In the support of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), assessing the level of alertness is a recurring issue for parents and other direct support persons. Although observations show clear advantages above and beyond other assessment methods, there are problems
Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea
Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…
Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.
Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity
Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea
Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…
Sipowicz, Kasper; Żuraw, Hanna; Witusik, Andrzej; Mokros, Łukasz; Najbert, Edyta; Pietras, Tadeusz
People with severe and profound grade disabilities are the subject of interest in psychiatry, clinical psychology and special pedagogy. Unfortunately, the paradigmatic approach to special education based on postmodern philosophy is in contrast to the biomedical approach that is based on the positivist and Cartesian models. The paper is an attempt to systematize the similarities and differences between the humanistic approach and the modern biomedical model, which, despite the apparent differences, do not differ so much from each other. Work with a person disabled intellectually in the severe or profound degree is governed by the principles of methodical realism, taking into account to an equal extent the principal deficits, the concomitant diseases, limitations and the social context. The deeper the impairment and disability is, the smaller is the role of the humanistic paradigm in work with the client in the medical management and educational process. Changing the paradigms of special pedagogy has drawn attention to the social context of disability, separating, however, special pedagogy from modern medicine and psychology, cognitive-oriented and psychometry-based. The postmodern paradigm has become an ideology, which makes it difficult to work with deeply disabled people. Only the multidirectional approach including a variety of paradigms makes it possible to provide integrational aid to people with severe and profound grade intellectual disabilities. Working with such a disabled person should take into account equally the biomedical and humanistic aspects. © 2018 MEDPRESS.
Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic, ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in Turkey. In this paper, we will
... actually be at an advantage in terms of effective health information exchange in care coordination, due to local ... those patients with a disability had received an exercise recommendation at a doctor ... sponsors health promotion workshops designed to be provided by organizations ...
Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content
Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla
Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of people with PIMD. ISPs for 60 persons with PIMD in the Netherlands were inductively coded and illustrated with quotations. It turned out that every ISP contained information about social contacts. Of all the quotations extracted, 71.2% were about current conditions, 6.2% were about the future and less than 1% concerned actual goals. The social contacts of people with PIMD are mentioned in their ISPs, but this is rarely translated into goals. The results of the current study suggest that attention should be paid to ensuring that professionals understand the importance of social contacts and their application in practice.
Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.
Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from
Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.
Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…
Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Couture, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances
Background: At age 21, access to specialised services for youth with profound intellectual disability is reduced. Few studies have focused on parents' views concerning potential solutions to ease the transition to adulthood, and most existing solutions target young adults with less severe intellectual disability. The aim of this study is to…
This research aimed to develop and design Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for facilitating disabled people by presenting some useful disabled information on the Google Map. The map could provide information about disabled types of people such as blind, deaf and physical movement. This research employed the Multiview 2 theory and method to plan and find out the problems in real world situation. This research used many designing data structure methods such as Data Flow Diagram, and ER-Diagram. The research focused into two parts: server site and client site which included the interface for Web-based application. The clear information of disable people on the map was useful for facilitating disabled people to find some useful information. In addition, it provided specialized data for company and government officers for managing and planning local facilities for disabled people in the cities. The disable could access the system through the Internet access at any time by using mobile or portable devices.
Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin
This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…
Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C
The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Pierce, Patricia A.
Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)
Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie
At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present
Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick
As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.
The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.
Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan
People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the decisions to use specific interventions and the extent to which the rationales underpinning these decisions related to the components of evidence based practice (EBP), namely empirical evidence, clinical experience and client/carer views and values. A questionnaire on communication assessment and intervention for people with PMLD was sent to SLTs in the UK to elicit information on: the communication intervention approaches they used; their rationales for their intervention choices; their use of published evidence to inform decision making. Intensive interaction and objects of reference were the communication interventions most often used with people with PMLD, with some differences between children and adults evident. Rationales provided conformed somewhat to the EBP framework though extension of the existing framework and addition of practical and organizational considerations led to a revised typology of rationale for decision making. Rationales most frequently related to the empowerment, development and behavioural preferences of the person with PMLD. Empirical research evidence was seldom mentioned by SLTs as informing intervention decision making leading to very diverse practice. There is a need for further research on the effectiveness of commonly used but under-evaluated interventions. There is also a need to alert SLTs to the evidence base supporting other approaches, particularly switch-based, cause and effect approaches. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…
Vlaskamp, C.; Cuppen-Fonteine, H.
Background This study describes preliminary stages of developing a checklist to enable practitioners to determine the behavioural responses of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities to sensory stimuli. Reliability of currently used checklists is low, with a focus on the
Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen
Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…
Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.
A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for
Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa
The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…
Axelsson, Anna Karin
Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…
Munde, V. S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.
BackgroundWhile optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is focused on the environment' or alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking.
People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.
Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer
Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.
Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu
Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.
Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C
Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt
This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.
Ying Li, Eria Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.
Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E
To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.; Pullo, Robert E.
Group counseling has been used with a wide range of people who have physical disorders including psychosomatic conditions, sensory (visual and auditory) disabilities, neuromuscular and orthopedic impairments, and life-threatening diseases. The needs and concerns of these people can be generally delineated as physical, psychological, social,…
Batavia, A I
As a group, people with disabilities or chronic conditions experience higher-than-average health care costs and have difficulty gaining access to affordable private health insurance coverage. While the Americans with Disabilities Act will enhance access by prohibiting differential treatment without sound actuarial justification, it will not guarantee equal access for people in impairment groups with high utilization rates. Health care reform is needed to subsidize the coverage of such individuals. Such subsidization can be achieved under either a casualty insurance model, in which premiums based on expected costs are subsidized directly, or a social insurance model, in which low-cost enrollees cross-subsidize high-cost enrollees. Cost containment provisions that focus on the provider, such as global budgeting and managed competition, will adversely affect disabled people if providers do not have adequate incentives to meet these people's needs. Provisions focusing on the consumer, such as cost sharing, case management, and benefit reductions, will adversely affect disabled people if they unduly limit needed services or impose a disproportionate financial burden on disabled people.
Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena
This study aims to analyze the influences of human development factors in the experience of disabled people based on social scenarios of inequality. The data collected were standardized and allocated in thematic categories. The analysis was based on liberal utilitarianism. The conclusion is that there is legislation in Brazil that guarantees the disabled people's development in areas such as health, education and work. However despite the attempts of decision makers in combating discriminatory behaviors and the theory based on equity, these people still face difficulties in breaking the barrier of poverty and achieving all humans rights deserved.
... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...
Francisco Javier Leturia Arrazola
Full Text Available Although the majority of disabled people aren’t or don’t feel ill, and despite that they should be taken care of by the general medical services as many other citizens, most of them need a more intense and frequent health care. This is explained by a higher prevalence of some medical conditions as well as a higher risk of comorbidity among the people with disabilities (in comparison to the general population. At the moment there are many problems concerning accessibility, underdiagnose and overtreatment. National health systems should be able to offer all their services adapted to disabled people in order to obtain results for this group that are similar to those of the rest of the population. To achieve this objective it is necessary to improve professional competencies and skills and develop some specific health programmes.
Fruchterman, James R.
Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.
Leaning, Brian; Adderley, Hope
Raymond, a 62 year old gentleman diagnosed with severe and profound learning disabilities, autistic spectrum disorder and severe challenging behaviour, who had lived in long stay campus-based hospital accommodation for 46 years was supported to move to a community project developed to support people to live in their own bespoke flat. This…
Beadle-Brown, J.; Leigh, J.; Whelton, B.; Richardson, L.; Beecham, J.; Baumker, T.; Bradshaw, J.
Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disabilities often spend substantial time isolated and disengaged. The nature and quality of the support appears to be important in determining quality of life. Methods: Structured observations and staff questionnaires were used to explore the quality of life and quality of support for 110…
Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum
V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...
The book takes account of the key fact that to maximize their potential, people must have lifelong access to the information and services offered through books and libraries. Whether to address concerns of an ageing population or to enable all citizens to contribute fully through meaningful education and work opportunities, more emphasis is being given to promoting library services to people who have disabilities. This book is a compendium of articles focused on serving adults with disabilities in an international setting. From this book, librarians, policy makers and constituents will underst
Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…
Hall, Edward; Wilton, Robert
Western governments have emphasized paid work as a key route to social inclusion for disabled people. Although the proportion of disabled people in "mainstream" employment has increased in recent decades, rates remain significantly below those for non-disabled people. Moreover, disabled workers continue to face discrimination and a lack of…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman
Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.
The intent of this article is to assess the current state of Emergency Warning capabilities in the United States and make recommendations on what needs to be done to cost effectively establish a National Emergency Warning System to best serve the people of the United States, including those with disabilities. As part of this assessment, terminology will be defined, existing systems will be examined, critical needs and functions will be explained, and recommendations made for a system to deliver emergency messages to those people immediately at risk from natural and human-caused disasters in a timely and effective manner, regardless of location or situational circumstance. The assessment will include the needs and available technologies for delivering emergency warnings to people with disabilities, which are generally little understood, poorly addressed, and often ignored.
de Geeter, K.I.; Poppes, P.; Vlaskamp, C.
Background Parents of children with disabilities are increasingly considered as experts in the field of care. Their expertise can deliver an important contribution towards planning their child's care and education. The law is increasingly taking this factor into consideration. On the one hand,
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…
Tabacaru, Cristina Dumitru
The article aims to study ways of achieving human rights by offering everyone a voice, a communicational tool which will allow accessibility and access to quality education for all, regardless of the degree of disability. The main objective of the present study was to describe the profile of communication and study the use of verbal and nonverbal…
Eliana Prado Carlino
Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of computer courses at Methodist City Action computer school for students with psychological and physical disabilities and discusses the motivation behind developing these courses and the original research and development which led to their establishment. It also outlines methods of delivery and the impact of these courses on the students\\' quality of life, independence, social inclusion, literacy, numeracy and employment status. This research was carried out by using available literature found from local libraries and Internet, interviews and classroom observations, and concludes that there is an apparent lack of participation in tertiary education from people with disabilities in New Zealand.
Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny
Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Hussein, S; Manthorpe, J
The life expectancy of people with learning disabilities has increased substantially. Services for older people with learning disabilities are provided by various sectors and practitioners (generic health and social care, or specialist learning disability or old age). The literature suggests that practitioners do not feel well-equipped to support people with learning disabilities as they grow older, and older people's services do not always have the opportunity to share experiences and skills...
Gelšvartas, Julius; Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.
Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities. PMID:29686827
Full Text Available Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.
Learning disability nurses have a key role in addressing the health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities. People with learning disabilities are less likely to participate in bowel screening than other sectors of the population, despite there being evidence of this population being at an increased risk of developing bowel cancer. There are a range of barriers at individual and systemic levels that impact on participation in bowel screening by people with learning disabilities. Actions to address these barriers have been identified in the literature and learning disability nurses are a key agent of change in enabling people with learning disabilities to participate in the national screening programmes.
Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane
The main aim of this paper is to provide relevant information about the labour market situation of disabled people in Denmark. The paper is based on combined survey and register information about approximately 8,000 disabled and non-disabled persons. The paper presents a descriptive analysis...... of disabled peoples’ labour market participation. The findings suggest that the employment ratio of the disabled people is significantly lower than for non-disabled. When it comes to persons in employment only minor differences can be noted between jobs held by the disabled and non-disabled. In conclusion......, it is argued that there seem to be a potential for an improvement of the employment rate of disabled people that may be enhanced through more emphasis on education and vocational rehabilitation measures as well as more flexible working conditions for disabled people....
Full Text Available Background: Caring for intellectually disabled people can be demanding for student nurses who are novices in the nursing profession. To ensure that quality nursing care is provided, student nurses should have an understanding of and a positive attitude towards intellectually disabled people. Nursing intellectually disabled people can be a challenge for the student nurses. Therefore, student nurses need to be able to deal with challenges of caring for intellectually disabled people. Objective: This article aims to explore and describe experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution. Design and method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data were collected through individual in-depth phenomenological interviews, naïve sketches and field notes. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the collected data. Results were contextualised within the literature and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. Ethical principals were also applied throughout the research process. Results: Five themes emerged from the data. Student nurses experienced a profoundly unsettling impact on their whole being when caring for intellectually disabled people; they developed a sense of compassion and a new way of looking at life, and experienced a need for certain physical, mental and spiritual needs to be met. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that student nurses were challenged in caring for intellectually disabled people. However, they developed a sense of awareness that intellectually disabled people have a need to be cared for like any other person. Keywords: experiences, student nurses, caring, intellectually disabled people, public psychiatric institution
Wang, Rushu [China Yangzte Three Gorges Project Development Corp., Yichang Hubei (China)
The Three Gorges dam project on the Yangtze river will have a profound effect on the people, the environment and cultural heritage sites. The dam will be the world's biggest and will provide almost 85 BkWh of hydro power per annum. A noticeable benefit will be a greatly reduced incidence of flooding in the Jingjiang reaches of the river. Additional benefits will be improved local navigation, climate and enhanced water quality. The main unwelcome impacts were loss of farmland and resettlement of people but here the government have been particularly careful to provide the relocated people with a reasonable standard of new accommodation and farmland. The loss of natural vegetation will be small but there are endangered species of birds and animals living in the region. A number of negative environmental affects (dust noise, incidence of certain diseases) and how they are to be mitigated are mentioned. (UK)
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly
The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Echenique, AM; Graffigna, JP; Pérez, E.; López, N.; Piccinini, D.; Fernández, H.; Garcés, A.
The conventional educational environment imposes barriers to education for people with disabilities, limiting their rights, which is a non-discriminative education. In turn, hampers their access to other rights and creates huge obstacles to realize their potential and participate effectively in their communities. In this sense Assistive Technology provides alternative solutions, in order to compensate for a lost or diminished ability. Thus the necessary assistance is provided to perform tasks, including those related to education, improving the inclusion. In this paper some researches had been made in the Gabinete de TecnologiaMedica, in the Facultad de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional de San Juan in order to solve this problem. The researchers are classified by type of disability; sensory (visual and auditory) or motor. They have been designed, developed and experienced through various prototypes that have given satisfactory results. It had been published in national and international congresses of high relevance.
Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C
Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards
Virginia MUÑIZ FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is focused on detecting the support needs of people with intellectual disabilities during the bereavement process in order to guide about professional interventions and practices aimed to provide more adequate individualized support to their real needs. The sample consists of 93 adults with ID, with ages ranging from 21 to 72 years old (M = 49.9; SD = 11.79, who have suffered the loss of a significant person. The professionals who worked with them and knew them well completed two questionnaires: Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ and Bereavement Needs Assessment (BNAT. Beside descriptive analyses, results were analyzed according to several variables (i.e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, and level of dependency. Level of intellectual disability and level of dependency were the ones that resulted significant. In order to provide the best answer to their needs, good practices are suggested such as facilitating the understanding of loss, helping them express feelings and emotions, dealing with each case individually, and encouraging to continue education about death.
Food Security Status of People with Disabilities in Selassie Kebele , Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Individuals with physical type of disabilities accounted for the largest proportion of ...
Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia. ... HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work ... Keywords: qualitative, disability, stigma, Southern Africa ...
Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.
Roha, Abdul Rasid Aida; Fatt, Ong Tah
AbstractDesire to be accepted by other people is one of the basic human needs. Social isolation or rejection is very stressful to person with disabilities. Social acceptance by normal people towards physical activity participation for the disabled plays a vital role in motivating them to be more physically active. A review of literature indicated that there are several factors that influence public acceptance towards participation of people with disabilities in physical activity. The pr...
Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.
Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…
Waninge, A.; Rook, R.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C.P.
Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly
Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and
ten Brug, Annet
In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly
Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and
Chan, J S L; Chien, W T
Recent literature has suggested that relaxation activities can reduce the challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities, particularly in severe and profound grades, due to the counteractive effect of muscle relaxation on emotional frustration or psychological distress. Despite having inconclusive evidence, multisensory environment (MSE) and massage therapy (MT) are the commonly used approaches to relaxation among these people. However, these two approaches have not yet practised or tested in combination for reducing these people's challenging behaviours. A preliminary clinical efficacy trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of MT, MSE and their combined use for residents with intellectual disabilities in a long-term care facility on reducing their challenging behaviours. Eligible residents were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the four study groups (n = 11-12 per group), that is, MT in MSE, MSE alone, MT alone or usual care, for a 10-week intervention after a 1-month washout period. Outcome measures, including the Behaviour Problem Inventory, pulse and respiration rates, Behaviour Checklist and Alertness Observation Checklist, were assessed at recruitment and immediately following the interventions. A total of 42 participants (17 men and 25 women) completed the study. There were no significant differences in frequency and severity of challenging behaviours and most of the outcome measures between the four groups at post-test. Nevertheless, there were statistical significant differences on the active and inactive state (Alertness Observation Checklist) between the three treatment and control groups. Many participants in the three treatment groups changed from an active to inactive state (i.e. reduced activity levels) throughout the interventions, especially the MT in MSE. Such inactivity might suggest the participants' brief exhaustion followed by a period of alertness during the treatment activities. But their attention span and
Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Ginevra, Maria C; Soresi, Salvatore
This study examines the importance of work in life of people with disability and then focuses on employer attitudes towards these people. In the light of Stone and Colella's model, the study examines the employer attitudes and the role of variables such as type of disability, employer experience in the hiring of persons with disabilities, the description of hypothetical hirees with disabilities, the ways in which employers evaluate work performance and social acceptability, and the work tasks that they consider appropriate for workers with disability. Eighty employers were randomly assigned to standard condition (candidates with disability were presented by referring to the disability they presented) or positive condition (candidates were presented with reference to their strengths). It was found that the type of disability and its presentation influence employer attitudes. In addition, realistic and conventional tasks were considered appropriate for hirees with disabilities. Implications were discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, S; Ng, J
This qualitative study identifies areas of expertise and deficits in the specific knowledge and practical skills of nurses in the care of dying patients with profound learning disabilities in one NHS Primary Care Trust in the UK. In response to these findings, we have developed a simple observational checklist applicable to profound learning disability nursing to identify disease-related personality and physiological changes. The method consists of a descriptive case study of five nurses qualified in learning disabilities nursing, using semi-structured interviews. The disease trajectory was used as a framework of reference to guide the data analysis. Themes showed were 'certainty of knowing' about disease-related changes in patients' habits and behaviour and 'uncertainty and ambiguity' in the patho-physiology of advanced diseases and disease progression. This study interprets a lack of patho-physiological knowledge in both malignant and non-malignant diseases leading to delayed diagnosis and timely intervention. Timeliness of observation and intervention are emphasised.
According to the Department of Social Development, disability grants are available to adult South African citizens and permanent residents who are incapacitated and unable to work due to illness or disability. A number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PWAs) have accessed disability grants once they have fulfilled the criteria ...
Rosano, Aldo; Mancini, Federica; Solipaca, Alessandro
People with disability are particularly exposed to poor living conditions: on one hand they have more difficulties in getting an income cause to their inabilities, on the other hand conditions of poverty increase the risk of disability. However, little rigorous quantitative research has been undertaken to measure the real impact of disability on…
This paper raises issues relating to disability and citizenship, especially those concerned with difference, discrimination, power, and the politics of identity. It adopts a social model of disability that is critical of individualized, homogenized, deficit views of people with disabilities and urges an equal opportunities approach in which the…
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.
Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR
Full Text Available There are a few studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of mental illness in people with intellectual disabilities (ID. This study explores the prevalence of mental disorders in adults without previous mental disorder and different degrees of ID. We assessed 142 individuals with varying degrees of ID and with unknown previous psychiatric disorder. We applied the diagnostic battery PAS-ADD based on criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV TR to analyzed the prevalence of mental disorders in people with mild / moderate ID. We applied the Spanish version of the scale DASH-II to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in people with severe and profound ID. We found a psychiatric disorder previously undiagnosed in 29.57% of our sample. In people with mild/ moderate ID the most common psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (33.3%, but in people with severe and profound ID was the anxiety disorder. The most prevalent medical comorbidity was epilepsy (22.5% of the total sample and 39.2% in the population with severe / profound intellectual disabilities. Psychiatric disorders seem to be more common in the population with ID than in the general population, increasing their prevalence and medical comorbidity in severe and profound ID.
Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.
Lee, Melissa Ng; Abdullah, Yen; Mey, See Ching
This study attempts to identify the drivers and inhibitors of employment for people with disabilities in Malaysia. It explores the skills and psychological traits needed by people with disabilities in order to get jobs and the barriers to their employment. Data include interviews detailing the viewpoints of 24 teachers with visual impairments.…
Arnold, Catherine K.; Heller, Tamar; Kramer, John
This qualitative study examines the support needs of adult siblings of people with developmental disabilities. A survey completed by 139 siblings of people with developmental disabilities captured the needs of adult siblings through 2 open-ended questions. A grounded theory approach was used, and the sibling responses anchored the analysis,…
There has been little research attention in the South African context on volunteer motivation for special events for people with disabilities. This study explored the key factors that motivated volunteers to volunteer their services at three major sport events for people with disabilities in South Africa. A 28-item questionnaire was ...
Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Ginevra, Maria C.; Soresi, Salvatore
Background: This study examines the importance of work in life of people with disability and then focuses on employer attitudes towards these people. In the light of Stone and Colella's model, the study examines the employer attitudes and the role of variables such as type of disability, employer experience in the hiring of persons with…
Many factors contribute to the oppression and discrimination of disabled people and to their exclusion from key decisions affecting the quality of their lives. In the last two decades in particular there has been an increasing interest in many societies over the role of research in relation to the empowerment and thus inclusion of disabled people.…
Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.
Bunning, K; Smith, C; Kennedy, P; Greenham, C
Individuals with severe to profound and multiple intellectual disability (S-PMID) tend to function at the earlier stages of communication development. Variable and highly individual means of communicating may present challenges to the adults providing support in everyday life. The current study aimed to examine the communication interface between students with S-PMID and educational staff. An in-depth, observational study of dyadic interaction in a class within the secondary part of a special school was conducted. The designated educational level was Key Stage 3 under the National Curriculum of England, which is typically for children from age 11 to 14 years attending a state school. There were four student-teacher dyads in the class. The students had multiple impairments with severely limited communication skills. Video capture of dyadic interaction was conducted during five English lessons and sampled to 2.5 min per dyad per lesson. The video footage was transcribed into standard orthography, detailing the vocal and non-vocal aspects. A coding framework guided by the principles of structural-functional linguistics was used to determine the nature of dyadic interaction, comprising linguistic moves, functions and communicative modalities. The relative contributions of student and teacher to the interaction were examined. Significant differences were found between the students and educational staff on the majority of the measures. The teachers dominated the interaction, occupying significantly more turns than the students. Teacher turns contained significantly more initiations and follow-up moves than the students, who used more response moves. Teacher communication mainly served the functions of requesting and information giving. Feedback and scripted functions were also significantly greater among teacher turns, with only limited occurrence among the students. Self- or shared-expression was greatest among the students. The modalities of speech, touch, singing and
Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom
The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…
Hemmingsson, H; Bolic-Baric, V; Lidström, H
The United Nations' position is that digital access is a matter involving equality between groups of people, the securing of democratic rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens. This study investigates digital equality in school and leisure between young people with and without disabilities. A cross-sectional design with group comparisons was applied. Participants were young people (10-18 years of age) with disabilities (n=389) and a reference group in about the same ages. Data were collected by a survey focusing on access to and engagement in ICT activities in school and during leisure time. The results demonstrated young people with disabilities had restricted participation in computer use in educational activities, in comparison to young people in general. During leisure time young people with disabilities had a leading position compared to the reference group with respect to internet use in a variety of activities. Beneficial environmental conditions at home (and the reverse in schools) are discussed as parts of the explanation for the differing engagement levels at home and in school, and among young people with disabilities and young people in general. Schools need to prioritise use of ICT by young people with disabilities.
McKenzie, Judith Anne
Disability is emerging as a human rights issue of public concern, rather than an individual tragedy requiring medical attention. The issue of sexuality remains relatively neglected in this agenda, particularly as regards the exploration of the complexities of sexuality encountered by disabled people themselves. This paper focuses on the experiences of sexuality of disabled people and parents of disabled children in settings of poverty in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Three individual interviews and two focus groups were conducted with disabled adults and parents of disabled children. Thematic analysis of the interviews identified three principal themes (1) sexuality development in the family of origin, (2) sexuality in the community and (3) adult sexuality and creating families. Each of these larger themes encompasses various sub-themes that are discussed in the findings. The paper concludes that while sexuality is a very difficult aspect of life for a disabled person due to myths and discrimination against disabled people, it is also an important arena for affirmation and establishing self-worth. It is therefore critical to consider the development of a healthy sexuality amongst disabled people and the promotion of their sexual rights.
Health inequalities start early in life for people with learning disabilities. In the UK, they can arise from various barriers that people experience when trying to access care that should be appropriate, timely and effective. Inequalities in health care are likely to result in many NHS organisations breaching their legal responsibilities, as outlined in the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005, the Equality Act 2010 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (Emerson and Baines 2010). This article seeks to help nurses, healthcare professionals and hospital managers ensure that better services are delivered by encouraging them to explore how reasonable adjustments can improve outcomes for people with learning disabilities.
This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.
Roll, Anne E
Whereas 'health promotion' is a well-known concept for healthcare professionals, the concept of 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' and its unique associated challenges are not well understood. This article provides a systematic analysis of how health promotion is being conceptualised for people with intellectual disabilities and how health promotion can work best in the light of this group's specific needs and limitations. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SocINDEX were searched using the search terms 'health promotion', 'people with intellectual disabilities' and 'developmental disabilities'. This review includes studies published between 1992 and 2014. A total of 52 articles were included. Health promotion for people intellectual disabilities, as discussed in the literature, focuses on four aspects, namely supporting a healthy lifestyle, providing health education, involving supporters and being person-centred. Antecedents of the concept 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' were healthcare access and sensitised healthcare providers. The outcomes were improved health, being empowered, enhanced quality of life and reduced health disparities. This analysis provides a solid foundation for healthcare stakeholders' planning, implementing and evaluating health-promotion activities for people with intellectual disabilities at the policy level and in the community. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.
Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…
Franssen, Janine J. L.; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.
The prevalence of underweight status is relatively high in persons with intellectual disabilities. However, it is not clear whether this is due to malnourishment. The authors sought to examine the awareness and knowledge of physicians, dieticians, and direct care staff regarding malnutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. They also…
Dench, S.; And Others
A British survey of employers examined the recruitment and retention of people with disabilities (PWDs). Telephone interviews were conducted with two samples of employers: a random sample of 1,250 and a sample of 250 registered users of the Employment Service's "Disability Symbol," which sets a good practice standard for the employment…
Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane
The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...
Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Epple, S.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.
Automation processes enter more and more into all areas of life and production. Especially people with disabilities can hardly keep step with this change. In sheltered workshops in Germany people with physical and mental disabilities get help with much dedication, to be integrated into the work processes. This work shows that cooperation between disabled people and industrial robots by means of industrial image processing can successfully result in the production of highly complex products. Here is described how high-pressure hydraulic pumps are assembled by people with disabilities in cooperation with industrial robots in a sheltered workshop. After the assembly process, the pumps are checked for leaks at very high pressures in a completely automated process.
Disability and poverty are interconnected and although this relationship has been recognised, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support any possible causal relationship in this topic, particularly in the context of Latin America (LA). This study tests the hypothesis "Disability increases the risk of multidimensional poverty of people living with disabilities and their families". Using national census data from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico, the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (Global MPI) was calculated with the aim of measuring and comparing the levels of multidimensional poverty of people living in households with and without disabled members in the five countries. We found that in the five countries people with disabilities and their families had higher incidence, intensity and levels of multidimensional poverty compared with people living in other households. Their levels of deprivation were also higher for all the indicators included in the Global MPI and the contribution of this group to the national MPI was higher than their share of the population, thus people with disabilities and their families are overrepresented in those living in multidimensional poverty. People with disabilities and their families are in worse conditions than poor households without disabled members and social policies should aim to reduce their high levels of multidimensional poverty and deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, S. Ry
ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people......ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people...
Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.
Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…
Full Text Available Terminally ill people with disabilities face multiple barriers when seeking physician aid in dying (PAD in the United States. The first is legality. Efforts to legalize the practice have been thwarted in dozens of states in part due to vocal opposition by advocates for people with disabilities who contend that legalized aid in dying discriminates against and harms people with disabilities by leading to their premature and unnecessary deaths. Some disability rights advocates disagree with their colleagues, however, and support legalization on the ground that it promotes autonomy and independence at the end of life. For proponents, legalization in six states is proving to be an illusive victory. Emerging reports from the states where PAD is legal suggest that people with disabilities may face special and impenetrable barriers when seeking legal aid in dying. This article identifies four such barriers: procedural protections embedded in PAD statutes; physician objection; cost; and a rule pertaining to California veterans. The article calls for additional study to determine the extent to which these barriers have a disparate impact on care options available to terminally-ill people with disabilities.
Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…
Zuzda, Jolanta GraŻyna; Borkowski, Piotr; Popławska, Justyna; Latosiewicz, Robert; Moska, Eleonora
Modern technologies enable disabled people to enjoy physical activity every day. Many new structures are matched individually and created for people who fancy active tourism, giving them wider opportunities for active pastime. The process of creating this type of devices in every stage, from initial design through assessment to validation, is assisted by various types of computer support software.
Böhmer, C. J.; Taminiau, J. A.; Klinkenberg-Knol, E. C.; Meuwissen, S. G.
Constipation is a common problem in people with intellectual disability (ID). Laxatives are frequently prescribed with disappointing results. The prevalence of constipation was investigated in a random population of 215 people with ID (IQ < 50) and constipation was correlated with clinical symptoms.
Onaga, Esther E.; McKinney, Kathleen G.; Pfaff, Judy
Interviews were conducted with people affiliated with lodges, a community program for people with psychiatric disabilities, about their perceptions of promising practices. Responses validated the notion that the lodge serves many of the functions of a family. Provides excerpts from interviews to supplement this theme. Discusses implications for…
... plan for pets and service animals. Millions of people have pets and service animals that they love dearly. Owners ... support of friends and neighbors to help with pet care if local shelters are ... Americans and people with disabilities engage in emergency planning so they ...
Full Text Available Both the physical and virtual aspects of our current society are designed for able-bodied people. This means that very often people with disabilities are excluded from participation and faces barriers to living independently. This paper looks at how...
Foley, Alan; Ferri, Beth A.
The potential of technology to connect people and provide access to education, commerce, employment and entertainment has never been greater or more rapidly changing. Communication technologies and new media promise to "revolutionize our lives" by breaking down barriers and expanding access for disabled people. Yet, it is also true that technology…
Hall, Sarah A.
The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…
Tronconi, A.; And Others
The paper describes new software and special input devices to allow physically impaired children to utilize the graphic capabilities of personal computers. Special input devices for computer graphics access--the voice recognition card, the single switch, or the mouse emulator--can be used either singly or in combination by the disabled to control…
Alapetite, Alexandre; Hansen, John Paulin
This paper focuses on digital aids for sight impairment and motor disabilities. We propose an Internet of Things (IoT) platform for discovering nearby items, getting their status, and interacting with them by e.g. voice commands or gaze gestures. The technology is based on Bluetooth Low Energy...
Full Text Available Given the fact that, only in Europe, there are over 80 million people, with some type of disability, and that these figures will be constantly on the increase according to the projections of World Health Organization, it implies that accessible tourism market, which is now unfortunately neglected, has great potential for future development. The term 'access' implies the absence of barriers in using facilities, and as such, perceived within the tourism and hospitality market mainly entails the accessibility of accommodation facilities for disabled persons. This paper aims at presenting and familiarizing with the term 'disability' as well as highlighting the importance of accessible tourism together with the need to adapt accommodation to people with disabilities. The methods used for data collection are based on the desk research with the use of national and foreign academic literature, primarily in the field of tourism and hospitality. For data processing we mostly relied on the methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison. The paper is organized as follows: the first part is entitled 'Definition and Models of Disability', the second part deals with 'Accessibility and Legislation', whereas the third part tackles 'Accessibility and Hospitality'. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that disabled persons are faced with serious problems upon choosing and selecting a hotel, which is partly caused by the disrespect for their rights and the lack in adaptability of accommodation facilities as well as the lack of employees' awareness about the needs of people with disabilities.
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, firstly, present the findings of an empirical study in which the human resource management practices associated with the employment of people with disabilities were investigated. The human resource management challenges related to employment of people with disabilities were also identified in the empirical study and are presented in this paper. A further purpose of this paper is to propose a number of recommendations focused on human resource management practices and principles aimed at assisting managers and human resource management specialists in their endeavours to effectively deal with the employment of people with disabilities. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is based on an empirical study in which interviews were conducted with respondents from 19 different organisations identified in the Financial Mail's 'Top 100 Organisations in South Africa' list. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that very few organisations are dealing with the employment of people with disabilities as a priority in their equity strategies. Where attention is being given to this issue, respondents seem to either address it as a legal compliance issue or a social responsibility 'project'. Furthermore, very little has been done to review current human resource management practices to determine whether they are discriminatory towards people with disabilities. Based on the insights gained from these findings and in line with best practice principles identified in the relevant literature, a number of recommendations focusing on human resource management practices and principles in relation to the employment of people with disabilities are proposed. Implications: This paper provides a number of practical steps to consider as part of an organisation's response to equity strategies related to the employment of people with disabilities. Originality/Value: In the Employment Equity Commission's Annual Report
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Cancer incidence among people with learning disabilities is rising. There have been no published studies of the needs and experiences of people with learning disabilities and cancer, from their own perspective. To provide insight into the experiences and needs of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. Prospective qualitative study, using ethnographic methods. Participants' homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices in London and surrounding areas. The participants were 13 people with learning disabilities ranging from mild to severe, who had a cancer diagnosis. The main method of data collection was participant observation (over 250 hours). The median length of participation was 7 months. Participants' cancer experiences were shaped by their previous experience of life, which included deprivation, loneliness, and a lack of autonomy and power. They depended on others to negotiate contact with the outside world, including the healthcare system. This could lead to delayed cancer diagnosis and a lack of treatment options being offered. Most participants were not helped to understand their illness and its implications. Doctors did not make an assessment of capacity, but relied on carers' opinions. Urgent action is warranted by findings of late diagnosis, possible discrimination around treatment options, and lack of patient involvement and assessment of capacity in decision making. There are significant gaps in knowledge and training among most health professionals, leading to disengaged services that are unaware of the physical, emotional, and practical needs of people with learning disabilities, and their carers.
Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.
Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi
This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.
Plinta, Ryszard; Sobiecka, Joanna
The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: What factors determine that disabled people take up systematic sport activity or should make such a decision? What reasons are able to eliminate the handicapped from process of regular going in for sport? Three groups of men participated. The group of disabled sportsmen included 39 subjects, the group of non-active disabled people 36 subjects and the group of able-bodied students 45 subjects. All the involved people answered the questions of the questionnaire, which concerned factors associated with sport activity of the handicapped and their socio-demographic characteristics, among other things. The opportunity of improvement of the health status is the main advantage of the sport for disabled people (53%). The chance of self-testing and sport competition was pointed out by 47% of subjects. The most common reason for taking up sport activity was sport passion (over 50%). The others were: possibility of creating new contacts with people, improvement of the physical condition, chance of self-testing and passing free time (23%). The lack of free time was the factor eliminating from sport activity in the second group (28%). The other problem was the shortage of appropriate clubs, equipment, infrastructure etc. (almost 25%). Students concluded that sport for disabled people aims to improve the mental condition mainly (42%). Quite similar percentage of the group (38%) didn't see any reason that was able to exclude the handicapped from goingin for sport. (1) Not only does active going in for sport improve the physical condition of the handicapped but strengthen them psychically as well. (2) The lack of sport activity in disabled people is to a high degree a result of low number of sport clubs, organisations, buildings as well as presence of architectural barriers.
McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen
Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986
McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen
Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.
Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen
Investigations around ageing with an intellectual disability have increased substantially in the past three decades. A research gap continued to exist regarding the detection of ageing issues in this cohort of people, particularly in rural areas where access to specialist support continued to be limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the main signs of ageing in rural people with intellectual disabilities. A multi-round Delphi design was used to examine what signs of ageing were observed by disability support staff, who assisted people with intellectual disability. The project was conducted across nine of the ten rural regions (as defined by the government funding body) in New South Wales (NSW). There were 31 participants representing 14 non-government organisations. The group was composed of 26 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 47 years, who averaged 10-year experience with people with intellectual disabilities. The objective was to gain the direct input of rurally based disability workers to identify the main signs of ageing in people with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two specific signs of ageing, including emerging mental health issues, grief, loss of identity and aggression, were identified. A thematic analysis indicated two main categories: mental/emotional functioning and physical functioning. When carers have the information and skills needed to identify the main signs of ageing, they can more accurately recognise and address potential problems in a timely manner. Such understandings have the potential to reduce premature admissions to residential aged-care. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Ludmila Daniela Manea
Full Text Available Abiding human rights for all citizens is a core value shared by all democratic societies. Ensuring the welfare of all European citizens, without any discrimination, is currently a main EU objective. “European Disability Strategy 2010-2020: A Renewed Commitment to a Barrier-Free Europe” starts from the reality of a number of approximately 80 million people with disabilities, that range from mild to severe, who exist in the EU. The poverty level of these individuals with disabilities is 70% higher than the average, which is partly due to their limited access to employment.
Lisa S. Patchner
Full Text Available During the past fifty years a revolution in how we recognize advocate, medically treat, and interact with people with disabilities has taken place within contemporary society. From historical civil rights legislation to greater access to society’s rights and benefits, to technological advances and population longevity, people with disabilities are integrating themselves into society. As we begin to explore the 21st Century new concerns regarding the cost of chronic care and society’s desire to fund these costs are beginning to emerge. The desire to qualify the cost of care by functional longevity has begun to emerge in both private and public service delivery systems. As professional social workers begin to expand their sociopolitical influence, they will be challenged to uphold the rights of self-determination that people with disabilities have striven to attain.
Larsen, Jeppe Veirum; Overholt, Daniel; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Many forms of enabling technologies exist today. While technologies aimed at enabling basic tasks in everyday life (locomotion, eating, etc.) are more common, musical instruments for people with disabilities can provide a chance for emotional enjoyment, as well as improve physical conditions thro...... instruments, music-supported therapy, and recent trends in the area. The overview is extrapolated to look at where the research is headed, providing insights for potential future work.......Many forms of enabling technologies exist today. While technologies aimed at enabling basic tasks in everyday life (locomotion, eating, etc.) are more common, musical instruments for people with disabilities can provide a chance for emotional enjoyment, as well as improve physical conditions...... through therapeutic use. The field of musical instruments for people with physical disabilities, however, is still an emerging area of research. In this article, we look at the current state of developments, including a survey of custom designed instruments, augmentations / modifications of existing...
Adolfsson, Päivi; Lindstedt, Helena; Janeslätt, Gunnel
People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person's capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. A model representing the respondents' experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life, four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition.
Watson, Nick J.; Parker, Andrew
The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore the role of sport (longdistance running) in the lives of a father and his son who is congenitally blind and has profound intellectual disabilities. Drawing on the works of Jean Vanier, Stanley Hauerwas, Henri Nouwen and John Hull, the major themes explored are relational and religious trust, suffering, sacrificial love, embodiment and blindness. A series of one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with the father (and mother) c...
Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina
National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of culture on attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore how young people from White British and South Asian backgrounds differ in their attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and above all, how they arrive at their beliefs. A qualitative design utilizing focus groups and individual interviews with White British and South Asian adolescents aged 16-19 years (N = 61) was employed. Questionnaire data were collected to compare this sample to findings from a larger study run concurrently (Attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities: a cross cultural study. Thesis, University College London). Interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis yielded five themes and pointed to widespread confusion about the concept of 'intellectual disability', not helped by the continuing invisibility of people with intellectual disabilities in the media. Participants expressed many positive beliefs, yet closer analysis revealed that underlying these may be more ambivalent or even hostile attitudes. Key differences between the two cultural groups are discussed. The findings highlight the need for raising public awareness and the importance of culturally sensitive support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special computation rules for people who had... Computation Rules for People Who Had A Period of Disability § 404.250 Special computation rules for people who had a period of disability. If you were disabled at some time in your life, received disability...
Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of mobile devices is increasingly frequent. In many occasions they are used as a means of entertainment for people through video games. Serious games is a category of video games used as teaching methods in different environments. They use fun as a strategy for the learning process. However, the vast majority do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with cognitive disabilities, because they do not consider accessibility parameters in their design. Some video games development companies have proposed general guidelines for the implementation of accessible video games, but they have not been formalized as good practices or standards. This article presents a compilation and analysis of different accessibility guidelines for the development of mobile serious games for people with cognitive disabilities. It also proposes a model to evaluate the access of serious games for people with cognitive disabilities and applies it in a case study. Finally, an evaluation tool is proposed for mobile serious games developers focused on people with cognitive disabilities.
Beckett, Angharad E.
In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…
Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul
There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.
Full Text Available Practiced in educational institutions but also in leisure, sport became a profession requiring not only active involvement but also participation to the show offered by him, thus having a large social area. Purpose. Emphasizing the importance of sport as a primary approach of social integration for people with mental disabilities. Methods. We analyzed the specialized literature using bibliographic study and we identified a total of 23 references from which we selected a number of 12 bibliographic materials that were representative to bring an additional argument to the importance of sport as a primary approach of social integration of persons with mental disabilities. In terms of form documents were consulted books and journals, various graphic and electronic information sources (internet. Results. Bibliographic references cited support the idea of the importance of social integration of people with mental disabilities through sports and they are addressing different aspects that together provide an overview of the complexity of this process, emphasizing the necessity to develop the right environment, both in terms of material and human resources, to achieve this goal in optimal conditions. Discussions. Scientific research results and practical experience have shown the importance of exercise practice in general, and sport, especially for people with disabilities, which leads to the idea that the state, society must give more importance to the role of sport in his social policy and strategy regarding the protection of persons with disabilities.
Full Text Available This paper presents national and international documents, as well as the current situation of the institutionalized and deinstitutionalized care, principles and aims in the process of the deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities and children with developmental disabilities and their problems in the Republic of Macedonia. Recommendations and activities were presented to enhance the level of psycho-social support of the biological families for taking care of children with developmental disabilities and increase the compensation, as preconditions for decrease of the need for stay in institutions for social care.Strategic directions and activities for the process of deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities, participants in carrying out this process in the Republic of Macedonia were presented. The activities and the dynamic of carrying out the process of deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities in the Republic of Macedonia, planned in three phases for the period from 2008 to 2018, were also given.
Angel Jaramillo-Alcázar; Sergio Luján-Mora; Luis Salvador-Ullauri
Nowadays, the use of mobile devices is increasingly frequent. In many occasions they are used as a means of entertainment for people through video games. Serious games is a category of video games used as teaching methods in different environments. They use fun as a strategy for the learning process. However, the vast majority do not focus on vulnerable groups such as people with cognitive disabilities, because they do not consider accessibility parameters in their design. Some video games de...
Severe motion impairments can result from non-progressive disorders, such as cerebral palsy, or degenerative neurological diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), or muscular dystrophy (MD). They can be due to traumatic brain injuries, for example, due to a traffic accident, or to brainstem strokes [9, 84]. Worldwide, these disorders affect millions of individuals of all races and ethnic backgrounds [4, 75, 52]. Because disease onset of MS and ALS typically occurs in adulthood, afflicted people are usually computer literate. Intelligent interfaces can immensely improve their daily lives by allowing them to communicate and participate in the information society, for example, by browsing the web, posting messages, or emailing friends. However, people with advanced ALS, MS, or MD may reach a point when they cannot control the keyboard and mouse anymore and also cannot rely on automated voice recognition because their speech has become slurred.
Lewis, V M; Williams, K; KoKo, C; Woolmore, J; Jones, C; Powell, T
Depressive symptoms occur frequently in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and rates of suicide ideation are higher than the general population. There is evidence for a direct association between disability and depression, disability and suicide ideation, and depression and suicide ideation in MS. However, the relationship between all three, i.e. the mediating role of depression between disability and suicidal ideation, has not been investigated. Exploring this relationship could highlight risk factors, alerting clinicians to the need for timely intervention. Seventy five people with progressive MS attending two out-patient clinics took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Beck Suicide Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale and Guy's Neurological Disability Scale. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between perceived and actual disability and suicide ideation. Different types of disability were associated with suicidality, including: 'tremors' and 'taking longer to do things'. A small sub-group of participants were identified who reported suicide ideation in the presence of only mild levels of depression. There may be a sample bias in this study as all participants were attending out-patient clinics and receiving support which may not be available to everyone with MS. It is important for clinicians to screen regularly for both depression and suicide ideation, to be alert to specific types of disability for which a higher level of suicide ideation might be present and to consider the possibility of suicidal thoughts being present in people who show minimal or no depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Rehabilitation has emerged as a comprehensive approach to addressing intellectually-disabled peoples' skill deficits, improving competencies and facilitating optimal functioning in order to provide the greatest possible measure of social and economic participation, self-reliance and independence. Objective: ...
C.F. de Winter (Channa)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia
May, Michael E.
From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Jia-Lin; Li, Chien-De; Kuo, Fang-Yu
The present study analyzed national data from "Domestic Violence Report System" derived primarily from the Council of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults Prevention, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan, to describe the reported prevalence of domestic violence in people with disabilities and to examine the time-effect on the prevalence…
Embregts, P.; van den Bogaard, K.; Hendriks, L.; Heestermans, M.; Schuitemaker, M.; van Wouwe, H.
Given that sexually offensive behavior on the part of people with intellectual disabilities has been identified as a significant problem, we developed a risk assessment questionnaire, that takes not only various static and dynamic factors into account but also environmental risk variables. Psychologists and staff members completed this Risk…
Chan, Jacob Yui-Chung; Keegan, John P.; Ditchman, Nicole; Gonzalez, Rene; Zheng, Lisa Xi; Chan, Fong
Objective: To determine whether employment outcomes of people with disabilities can be predicted by the social-cognitive/attribution theory of stigmatization. Design: Ex post facto design using data mining technique and logistic regression analysis. Participants: Data from 40,585 vocational rehabilitation (VR) consumers were extracted from the…
Gajewska, Urszula; Trigg, Richard
Background: Day and community learning centres aim to provide intellectually disabled (ID) people with social support, life skills and greater control over their lives. However, there is little research exploring the benefits of attendance from the perspective of attendees and whether these goals are met. Materials and methods: Unstructured…
Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Marcelino, Miguel Abud; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; Uhr, Deborah
The article analyzes the social protection policy for people with disabilities in Brazil. It describes the patterns of demand and eligibility for Continued Benefit of Social Assistance (Benefício de Prestação Continuada - BPC) in the 1996-2014 period. The article argues that BPC is a direct result of the social pact achieved by the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988. BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years. Disabled person eligibility depends on means-test, and social and medical evaluation by public bureaucracy. The research strategy was based on time series, and cross-sectional data collection and analysis. Dummy qualitative variables were also used to describe the pattern of demand and eligibility. The article demonstrates that BPC has provided income to disabled and elder people. However, systematic barriers were identified to disabled people's access to BPC. The work suggests that the pattern of refusal could be associated to a means testing application by street-level-bureaucracy. In this sense, the work draws attention to the necessary revision of street-level-bureaucracy tools and procedures to increase BPC positive discrimination.
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith
Background: Love is important aspect of life, including to people with learning disabilities both historically and more recently. Participants value the companionship, support and social status associated with a partner. Relationships are considered mechanisms to meet certain needs including feeling loved, company, intimacy and enabling…
Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla
Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in life skills of young people with and without disability in chronological age from 18-35 year-old in Tuzla Canton. The respondents sample consists of two sub-samples. First sub-sample contains 50 young people with disability, chronological age from 18-35 of both genders. Second sub-sample contained 50 young people without disability, chronological age from 18- 35 of both genders. Research data were analysed using method of parametric and non-parametric statistics. Frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency have been calculated (arithmetic mean and standard deviation. P-values have been used for examining the difference between variables and variance analysis has been used for examining the importance of differences. The results show that there is a significant statistical difference between young people with and without disabilities in the of life skills assessed: job retention skills, skills to cope in danger. Based on the results obtained, it is recommended to start the program and training in early age which will make life easier to disabled persons and their families.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy
In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.
Dodd, Philip; Doherty, Ailbhe; Guerin, Suzanne
Suicidality in people with intellectual disability has not been extensively researched. To identify the nature of the research that has actually been conducted on this topic. A search of research databases was conducted according to predefined criteria. Key information was extracted and rated for methodological merit. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The aspects of suicidality investigated, which varied among studies, included suicidal attempts, behavior, ideation, and completed suicide. Thirteen studies highlighted risk factors for suicidality in this population. The most frequently noted risk factors were a concurrent mental health difficulty and the level of intellectual disability. Eight studies referred to people with intellectual disabilities' understanding of the concept of death or suicide. Various methodological issues were identified in the studies included. In what we believe to be first systematic review of suicidality in people with intellectual disabilities, it was apparent that well-designed, standardized research studies on the topic are scarce. There is consequently limited evidence to guide prevention and intervention strategies for suicidality in this population.
Full Text Available This paper considers Indra Sinha's Animal's People (2007, a fictional re-telling of the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster, as a productive site of mutual engagement between postcolonial studies and disability studies, two fields rarely in dialogue. Dominant models of disability, I argue, do not translate to formerly colonial sites and/or sites that bear the burden of global capitalism. The uneven processes of globalization—which produce disabling environments—necessitate that we revise established conceptions of disability, which are derived largely from US/UK contexts. I explore a socio-spatial model that emphasizes the necessity of specific locational axes in figurations of disability. This enables more flexible understandings of embodiment, which may shift and be shifted by the particularities of space. A victim of the disaster, Animal--the novel's protagonist--navigates Bhopal’s streets on all fours. His unique spatial imaginary, contingent on his particular form of embodiment, produces a local and embodied knowledge that foregrounds points of convergence between anti-colonial, anti-capitalist, and disability politics. Keywords: postcolonialism, globalization, Bhopal India, Union Carbide, neoliberalism, transnational, contemporary English literature, industrial disaster, environmental studies
Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin
This study aimed to generate prioritised goals for oral health services for people with disabilities as a first step in meeting the need for evidence based oral health services for people with disabilities in Ireland.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); H.J. Finkenflügel (Harry)
textabstractPeople with disabilities are barred from microcredit schemes. A literature search on the participation of people with disabilities in microcredit schemes resulted in 16 documents. The statements, recommendations and generalisations in these documents are not supported with strong
... minimum height, width, backsets, gaps, energy absorption, height retention, backset retention... Accommodate People With Disabilities, Head Restraints AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... in the context of vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities. The rule facilitates...
Wadensten, Barbro; Ahlström, Gerd
The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of persons with severe functional disabilities who receive personal assistance in their homes, the focus being on their daily life in relation to the ethical principles represented in the Swedish Disability Act: autonomy, integrity, influence and participation. Qualitative interviews were performed with 26 persons and thereafter subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The experiences of personal assistance were very much in accordance with the said principles, the most important factor being that one is met with understanding. The participants described situations in which their integrity was violated in that they were not treated as competent adults. This indicates the importance of future efforts in nursing to support personal assistants with ethical knowledge and supervision so that they can empower people with disabilities and thereby enable them to maintain their self-esteem and dignity.
Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher
Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.
Carers and people with disabilities are two disadvantaged groups at risk of social exclusion. Work is an important route to social inclusion, but carers and people with disabilities are under-represented in the work force. The present paper reports key findings from a new study that evaluated People into Employment (PIE), a pilot employment project in the north-east of England designed to support people with disabilities, carers and former carers in gaining mainstream work. The study aimed to identify what clients, partner agencies and employers perceived to be PIE's most important services, its strengths and areas where there was scope for further development. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data at the mid-point and at the end of the project through two questionnaire surveys, and interviews with PIE clients, the project development officer, partner agencies and employers. Drawing on the 'pathway model', the findings show that PIE's interventions included mobilising, matching, mediating and supporting activities. Key ingredients in PIE's success include: tailor-made job-search activities and training; adjusting the pace at which people move towards sustained employment; recognising and responding to the differing needs of people with disabilities, carers and former carers; confidence boosting; accompanying clients to job interviews; good job matching; and ongoing practical and emotional support for both clients and employers. Rudimentary calculations suggest that the cost per job to the project is less than the cost per job for large national projects. Overall, these findings illustrate how access to employment via flexible job-search services geared up to the local labour market can successfully promote social inclusion for carers and people with disabilities.
Evren Burak Enginöz
Full Text Available According to World Health Organization (WHO, 10% of the population in developed countries and 12% of the population in developing countries are disabled people. And also researches by TUİK, in 2003, 12% of the population in our country are disabled. The problems that are faced in daily life, do not only affect disabled people but also their family. Therefore, it is said to be that half of our population have a disabled life. According to Scherrer, “Anyone, who has handicaps, is not a disabled person in an accessible place. But healthy person will become disabled in a place without accessibility.” (Scherrer 2001. Accessibility can be provided through the continuity of interrelated daily activities without any interruption. When the connection between the activities breaks off, we cannot mention about accessibility. Accessibility is not only plays an important role on disabled people by providing daily activities and physical requirements without any interruption but also by sustaining to live as independent individuals in society. Therefore, we have to re-design our urban accessibility to achieve uninterruptible and independent daily life in cities. In our country, disabled people also have difficulties to access indoors and outdoors and also have to face significant problems to be included in daily life despite the current regulations and laws. However, disabled people are entitled to have all social and cultural benefits independently as healthy people do. Realization of this act can be possible, if we re-design our buildings, transportation systems and the city life to achieve the accessibility requirements of disabled people. All around the world and also in our country, various laws, design rules and standards are tried to level the playing field on accessibility for public transportation systems with their service stations. However, despite of ensuring laws, regulations and standards on accessibility, lack of reglementation and
González, Marta; Luis Fernández, José
the purpose of this paper is to show that reporting the corporate commitment to labor exclusion of people with disability correlates with the increase of consumer loyalty. It is a theoretical revision that will relate consumer loyalty to three main topics: disability and labor exclusion, responsible consumerism toward disability, and corporate communication to increase loyalty of those consumers that are concerned about this problem. • Disability is an invisible phenomenon that concerns the whole of human society. So, the exclusion of the collective appears as a great social problem that might be dealt by the companies to be perceived as responsible. • Responsible companies are awarded with the loyalty of the consumers. • Clear corporate information about the commitment with this problem will reinforce the loyalty toward the brand. • This information can be given in an informal way or by following a certification process. The impact of those methods will depend on how disability is understood by each consumer. This paper focuses on a topic usually neglected by companies and even by literature. However, the fact that more and more companies are paying attention to this problem allows us to think that we are facing a social change that will challenge companies.
González, Marta; Luis Fernández, José
Purpose: the purpose of this paper is to show that reporting the corporate commitment to labor exclusion of people with disability correlates with the increase of consumer loyalty. Methodology: It is a theoretical revision that will relate consumer loyalty to three main topics: disability and labor exclusion, responsible consumerism toward disability, and corporate communication to increase loyalty of those consumers that are concerned about this problem. Findings: • Disability is an invisible phenomenon that concerns the whole of human society. So, the exclusion of the collective appears as a great social problem that might be dealt by the companies to be perceived as responsible. • Responsible companies are awarded with the loyalty of the consumers. • Clear corporate information about the commitment with this problem will reinforce the loyalty toward the brand. • This information can be given in an informal way or by following a certification process. The impact of those methods will depend on how disability is understood by each consumer. Originality/value: This paper focuses on a topic usually neglected by companies and even by literature. However, the fact that more and more companies are paying attention to this problem allows us to think that we are facing a social change that will challenge companies. PMID:27445880
Bekir Busatlic; Nejdet Dogru; Isaac Lera; Enes Sukic
Smart home refers to the application of various technologies to semi-unsupervised home control It refers to systems that control temperature, lighting, door locks, windows and many other appliances. The aim of this study was to design a system that will use existing technology to showcase how it can benefit people with disabilities. This work uses only off-the-shelf products (smart home devices and controllers), speech recognition technology, open-source code libraries. The Voice Activated Sm...
Suffering from communication disabilities limits a person’s ability to participate in communicative and social interactions, public democratic debates and learning activities. The possibility of trying out ideas and opinions is weakened and it might have an impact on the ability to tell one’s life...... inclusion and empowering people with communication difficulties are offered. However, more knowledge about how learners with special challenges benefit from ICT in their communication and learning and what kind of technology that qualify rehabilitation is needed. Based on research with people suffering from...
Buchanan, Robert J; Radin, Dagmar; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula
About 30% of the people with multiple sclerosis (MS) require some form of home care assistance and 80% of that assistance is provided by informal or unpaid care givers. This study focusses on the care givers for 530 more disabled people with MS, with the objective of learning more about informal care giving to people with greater dependency and need for assistance. The data presented in this study were collected in a national survey of 530 people who provided informal care to more disabled people with MS. Almost half of these care givers reported that they provided more than 20 h of care per week to the person with MS, with more than 9 in 10 shopping for groceries, doing indoor housework, preparing meals or providing transportation for the person with MS. More than 4 in 10 employed care givers reduced the amount of time worked in the previous 12 months because of their care giving responsibilities. Although more than half of the MS care givers in our study reported that care giving was demanding, time consuming or challenging, about 90% of these MS care givers were happy that they could help. About two in three of these MS care givers found that care giving was rewarding, with more than 8 in 10 proud of the care they provided. More than a quarter of the informal care givers to people with MS thought they would benefit from treatment or counselling provided by mental health professionals. Not only it is necessary to provide access to mental health services for people with MS, but it is also important to assure that their informal care givers also have access to appropriate mental health care, given the scope of their care giving responsibilities.
Goodley, Dan; Runswick-Cole, Katherine
This paper explores the shifting landscape of civil society alongside the emergence of ‘Big Society’ in the UK. We do so as we begin a research project Big Society? Disabled people with learning disabilities and Civil Society [Economic and Social Research Council (ES/K004883/1)]; we consider what ‘Big Society’ might mean for the lives of disabled people labelled with learning disabilities (LDs). In the paper, we explore the ways in which the disabled body/mind might be thought of as a locus o...
Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J
Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wederson Rufino dos Santos
Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.
Evaluating the Quality of the Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff: A Preliminary Application of Three Observation Scales from Parent-Infant Research
Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja; Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea
Background: Affective and reciprocal interactions with others are essential for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), but it is a challenge to assess their quality. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of instruments from parent-infant research to evaluate these interactions. Method: Eighteen videotaped…
Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M; Khatutsky, Galina; Armour, Brian S
This study estimates additional average health care expenditures for overweight and obesity for adults with disabilities vs. without. Descriptive and multivariate methods were used to estimate additional health expenditures by service type, age group, and payer using 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. In 2007, 37% of community-dwelling Americans with disabilities were obese vs. 27% of the total population. People with disabilities had almost three times ($2,459) the additional average obesity cost of people without disabilities ($889). Prescription drug expenditures for obese people with disabilities were three times as high and outpatient expenditures were 74% higher. People with disabilities in the 45- to 64-year age group had the highest obesity expenditures. Medicare had the highest additional average obesity expenditures among payers. Among people with prescription drug expenditures, obese people with disabilities had nine times the prevalence of diabetes as normal weight people with disabilities. Overweight people with and without disabilities had lower expenditures than normal-weight people with and without disabilities. Obesity results in substantial additional health care expenditures for people with disabilities. These additional expenditures pose a serious current and future problem, given the potential for higher obesity prevalence in the coming decade. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.
Background: Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability perceive their support staff as autonomy supportive.…
The increasing population of older people with learning disabilities may lead to higher demand for contact with registered nurses. To date, little research has been undertaken regarding the role of registered nurses in meeting the health and care needs of this client group. In this article, the author reports on the second stage of a three-stage research study that used six case studies to explore this issue. Implications for nursing were identified in areas such as health needs, record keeping, medication, advocacy, social aspects, ageing in place, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, spirituality and end-of-life care. The author concludes that registered nurses will need to continue to remain up to date to meet the complex needs of older individuals with learning disabilities.
Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Dougall, Alison; Stapleton, Siobhan; McGeown, Danielle; Nunn, June; Guerin, Suzanne
Background: In Ireland, people with learning disabilities have poor oral health. This is in part due to inappropriate oral health services. Recognising the value of inclusive approaches to research and healthcare planning, this study sought to include a group of people with learning disabilities in priority setting for oral health services in…
The discomfort reported by the general public at the prospect of personal contact with marginalised groups is an expression of the stigma they experience. This has been widely studied in relation to ethnic minorities and immigrants but less so for persons with disabilities. A national survey with a representative sample of over 1100 Irish adults provided an opportunity to examine reported discomfort with persons who had different impairments, including mental health conditions, with four other minority groups. Moreover, the personal and situational variables associated with expressions of discomfort were identified. Respondents were most comfortable having persons with physical and sensorial disabilities living in their neighbourhood or in their workplace but less so for persons with intellectual disabilities and even less for people with mental health conditions. They were much less comfortable with the four other social groups: gay, lesbian or bisexual people; Eastern European migrant workers; black and ethnic minority groups and least of all, travellers. Moreover, a factor analysis confirmed that the scores given to the impaired groups were significantly correlated with each other but less so with the other four social groupings, although these were significantly inter-correlated among themselves. Respondents who were more comfortable with both sets of minority groups tended to have more social connections in their personal lives and to reside in towns or villages rather than cities. They also expressed more positive attitudes to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in Irish society. The gradient in levels of public discomfort across minority groups may provide a sensitive indicator of the differential stigma experienced by persons with impairments within societies but there remains the possibility that an alliance with other minority groups would also help to promote more positive attitudes and reduce their wider social exclusion. Copyright © 2015
Parmenter, Trevor R.
From a Westerner's perspective of the place of people with a disability in Asian society, there are similarities and differences between the two societies. A major problem for the Asian countries is their lack of reliable disability prevalence data. The stigmatization of people with a disability remains an international problem and is not confined…
National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.
This report discusses the growth of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), or the information superhighway, and its implications for people with disabilities. Advantages for people with disabilities include: increasing the ability of individuals with some types of disabilities to access and use information; decreasing personal isolation…
Agran, Martin; MacLean, William; Andren, Katherine Anne Kitchen
Despite an increasing commitment in promoting the full inclusion of people with intellectual disability in their communities, it appears that few adults with intellectual disability participate in elections as registered voters. We surveyed a variety of stakeholders about voting by people with intellectual disability using quantitative and…
Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…
Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…
de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Valero-Aguayo, Luis; de la Rubia-Cuestas, Ernesto J.
This study aims to test how an intervention based on virtual reality (VR) may enhance visuospatial skills amongst people with disability. A quasi-experimental intra-group study was therefore conducted. Participants were 20 people with severe disability (65% males; 34.35 years, on average, and 84.95% of disability rate according to the Andalusian…
Bertoli, S; Battezzati, A; Merati, G; Margonato, V; Maggioni, M; Testolin, G; Veicsteinas, A
Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and osteoporosis are the most frequent pathologies among people with a severe reduction of physical activity. The impairment in nutritional status, consequent to quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of diet, could be one of the first steps in the development of co-morbidities in disabled subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis we investigated the nutritional status and the food intake in patients with physical or mental disabilities. Thirty-seven disabled subjects (24 with exclusively physical inactivity and 13 with mental retardation and physical inactivity) mean age 33.5+/-9.2 years and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 31.0+/-9.3 years) were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake and biochemical parameters were collected for each subject. Forty percent of disabled were overweight and 14% were obese. Fat free mass (FFM) and bone mineral content (BMC) was lower and fat mass (FM) was higher than able-bodied control. Absolute resting energy expenditure (REE) was lower in disabled subjects, but this difference disappeared when REE was normalized to FFM. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (16%, 31%, 50% of total daily energy intake derived from protein, lipid and carbohydrate respectively) with a distribution of dietary fatty acid quite far from the recommended ratio [3.1(SFA):4.1(MUFA):1.0(PUFA)] and an excessive consumption of simple carbohydrates (mean intake 17.5+/-4.9%). Insufficient intake of fibre, iron, calcium, potassium and zinc was also found. Finally, alterations in the cholesterol profile were evident in more than one third of the disabled subjects, whereas fasting glucose intolerance was evident in one fourth. This study shows a consistent nutritional status impairment in disabled patients resulting in an reduction of FFM and BMC, in an over-representation of FM and in a number of biochemical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The
Earp, Brian D; Moen, Ole Martin
Thomsen (2015) argues that people with disabilities should be granted an exception to a general prohibition on paying for sex. In this response, we argue that Thomsen's call for an exception does not withstand careful scrutiny. The concerns that appear to motivate his argument point instead, we argue, to a case for legalization of prostitution, coupled with sensible health and safety regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Neely-Barnes, Susan Louise; Elswick, Susan E
The philosophy of inclusion for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has evolved over the last 50 years. Over time, inclusion research has shifted from a focus on deinstitutionalization to understanding the extent to which individuals with IDD are meaningfully involved in the community and social relationships. Yet, there has been no agreed on way to measure inclusion. Many different measurement and data collection techniques have been used in the literature. This study proposes a brief measure of inclusion that can be used with family members and on survey instruments.
Mental health in the workplace today are ubiquitous and cause significant dysfunction in organizations (turnover, absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, long sick…). Statements of professional unfitness for depression is of particular concern. The human and financial costs associated with the support of mental disability is important, in France it is estimated to 14 billion euros. Mental disorder in the workplace also has a significant impact on the individual. If not always leads to actual inability to work, it usually causes, from the disclosure of the disorder, professional inequalities related to perceived environmental work disability. Therefore, this type of public remains largely on the sidelines of a stable occupation and all forms of recognition and undergo disqualifications and some forms of exclusion. Instead of saving, the workplace can promote relapse and even constitute a real obstacle to improving health. These exclusionary behavior result in persistent employment resistance in France and elsewhere, especially because of the prejudice of employers. These resistances persist despite legal obligations in this regard (e.g. in France: Law of 11 February 2005 on Equal Rights and Opportunities). To address the issue of sustainable professional inclusion (recruitment, integration and job preservation) of people with mental disabilities, studies are especially developed for the rehabilitation in the workplace of this public or accompanying us in their professional reintegration into protected workplaces. We propose a reflection on the adaptation of knowledge about psychological processes of hiring discrimination in the particular employment situation of people with mental disabilities in ordinary workplaces. Researches on social representations, stereotypes and prejudices applied in the workplace help to understand the negative attitudes and resistance to the hiring of people with mental disabilities despite regulations. Representations of
Michelle Ferreira Mazetto
Full Text Available Environment accessibility influences the quality of performance of the activities developed by individuals in their daily lives with autonomy and independence, and also guarantees the equal right to ‘come and go’. Thisstudy aimed to assess the parking spaces reserved for people with disabilities at bank branches in Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, analyzing whether they are in accordance with the current technical standards of accessibility. The study is characterized by being a quantitative survey with a sample consisting of bank branches established in the municipality. Data was collected using a form with nine questions to be filled through observation of space - outdoor parking spaces at the agency. The data were processed using the technique of content analysis, pointing as a result four categories according to the verification carried out, namely: (i signaling, (ii parking spaces, (iii accessible route, and (iv other elements. Thirty-seven banks were listed; eight were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 29 banks included in the study, only nine had reserved parking spaces for people with disabilities and, from those, six were adequate.
Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan
Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…
Evett, Lindsay; Ridley, Allan; Keating, Liz; Merritt, Liz; Merritt, Patrick; Shopland, Nick; Brown, David
Serious games are effective and engaging learning resources for people with disabilities, and guidelines exist to make games accessible to people with disabilities. During research into designing accessible interfaces and games, it was noted that people who are blind often report enjoying playing Wii Sports. These games are pick-upand- play games…
Ryan, Travis A.; Scior, Katrina
Background: People with intellectual disabilities experience serious health inequalities (e.g. they die younger than people without intellectual disabilities). Medical students' attitudes towards health care for this population warrant empirical attention because, as tomorrow's doctors, they will affect the health inequalities that people with…
Kim, Kyung Mee; Shin, Yu Ri; Yu, Dong Chul; Kim, Dong Ki
This study sets out to examine and understand the meaning of social inclusion for people with disabilities, as constructed by people with disabilities themselves. Focus group interviews with 34 people who have physical impairments, cerebral palsy, or hearing or visual impairments were conducted for the study. Using the data obtained from these…
Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah
Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…
Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark
People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.
...) should notify Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or... Taylor Roach, Senior Advisor, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities, The...
This article discusses the main advances and challenges for understanding and evaluating disability as a restriction for social participation. This new understanding has its origins in the 2006 WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health - ICF, the 2001 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and more recently, the July 2015 Brazilian Inclusion of People with Disabilities Act (IPDA), also known as the Statute on Persons with Disabilities. The change in the understanding of disability from a merely biomedical perspective, to an understanding that is based on oppression and social inequality reinforces the idea that disability is not an individual attribute, but the result of a society that is not prepared for human diversity. Based on a legislative analysis of the many documents on policies regarding persons with disabilities, notably the IPDA and the evaluations of disability that the ICF already uses in Brazil, the main contention proposed is that classifying and valuing disability is challenging for professional evaluators as well as for Brazilian public policy. This is mainly due to the challenges of recognizing the barriers and environmental factors that hamper the full participation in society of people with disabilities.
Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…
Dammeyer, Jesper; Chapman, Madeleine
The aim of the study was to quantify levels of violence and discrimination among people with disabilities and analyze the effects of gender and the type and degree of disability. The study analyzed data on self-reported violence and discrimination from a Danish national survey of 18,019 citizens, of whom 4519 reported a physical disability and 1398 reported a mental disability. Individuals with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of violence than those without. Specifically, individuals reporting a mental disability reported higher levels of violence and discrimination. Significant gender differences were found with regard to type of violence: while men with disabilities were more likely to report physical violence, women with disabilities were more likely to report major sexual violence, humiliation and discrimination. Neither severity nor visibility of disability was found to be a significant factor for risk of violence. This large-scale study lends support to existing research showing that people with disabilities are at greater risk of violence than people without disabilities. Further, the study found that people with mental disabilities were significantly more likely to report all types of violence and discrimination than those with physical disabilities. The findings also show that gender is significant in explaining the type of violence experienced and the experience of discrimination.
Powell, Robyn; Gilbert, Sheldon
This paper focuses on the effects of the hurricanes on people with all types of disabilities. The National Council on Disability (NCD) released another report that addressed in detail the specific challenges for people with psychiatric disabilities. Please refer to "The Needs of People with Psychiatric Disabilities During and After Hurricanes…
Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.
Full Text Available Smart home refers to the application of various technologies to semi-unsupervised home control It refers to systems that control temperature, lighting, door locks, windows and many other appliances. The aim of this study was to design a system that will use existing technology to showcase how it can benefit people with disabilities. This work uses only off-the-shelf products (smart home devices and controllers, speech recognition technology, open-source code libraries. The Voice Activated Smart Home application was developed to demonstrate online grocery shopping and home control using voice comments and tested by measuring its effectiveness in performing tasks as well as its efficiency in recognizing user speech input.
Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel
Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability
Jaarsma, E A; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B; Dekker, R
Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical disabilities other than amputation or spinal cord injuries (SCI) are unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature focusing on barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for all people with various physical disabilities. Four databases were searched using MeSH terms and free texts up to April 2012. The inclusion criteria were articles focusing on people with physical disabilities, sports and barriers and/or facilitators. The exclusion criteria were articles solely focusing on people with cognitive disabilities, sensory impairments or disabilities related to a recent organ transplant or similar condition. Fifty-two articles were included in this review, with 27 focusing on people with SCI. Personal barriers were disability and health; environmental barriers were lack of facilities, transport and difficulties with accessibility. Personal facilitators were fun and health, and the environmental facilitator was social contacts. Experiencing barriers to and facilitators of sports participation depends on age and type of disability and should be considered when advising people about sports. The extent of sports participation for people with physical disabilities also increases with the selection of the most appropriate sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alix Solángel García Ruiz
Full Text Available This document presents a discussion aboutdisability, social inclusion, equality and diversityAlix Solángel García Ruiz*, Aleida Fernández Moreno†Recibido: junio de 2005Aceptado: agosto de 2005* Terapeuta Ocupacional UN. Magíster en desarrollo socialy educativo UPN. Coordinadora del programa deprevención y manejo de la discapacidad. SecretaríaDistrital de Salud de Bogotá. Miembro grupo de investigaciónrehabilitación e integración social de la personacon discapacidad. Universidad del Rosario.email@example.com† Terapeuta Ocupacional UN. Magíster en desarrollo socialy educativo UPN. Docente Departamento de laOcupación Humana y Maestría en Discapacidad e InclusiónSocial. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacionalde Colombia. firstname.lastname@example.org on different paradigms on the approach tosocial reality of people with disability.From Diaz (1, a reflexion is made aboutdisability form esencialist, materialistic andpostmodernist points of view; and about anunderstanding and application of the conceptsof inclusion and equity used daily by entities intheir policies, programs, plans and projects.Different organizations positions from the liberal,Marxist and poststructuralist paradigmsallow us to understand from where actionproposal are made.Finally, the social answer according to Avaría (2is organized from cultural matrix of overprotectionand effort. Alternatives postulated by Santos(3 and Diaz (1 state that diversity and recognitionof differences, such as inclusion and freedom,recover the staring rol disable people, theirlocal environment ant the state
Pelleboer-gunnink, H.A.; Van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J.; Van Weeghel, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Equal access to mainstream healthcare services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) still requires attention. Although recent studies suggest that health professionals hold positive attitudes towards people with ID, stigmatising attitudes may influence their efforts to serve
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Research has generally amalgamated minority ethnic (all called "Asian" or "black") disabled young people's experiences and failed to acknowledge the multiple aspects of Asian and black disabled identities, for example how the combined attributes of race, ethnicity, religion, gender, culture, class and disability shape their…
Niort, Jannick; Hernández Vázquez, Francisco Javier
Following on from the studies by McManus and Cornish [(1997). Fractionating handedness in mental retardation: What is the role of the cerebellum? Laterality, 2(2), 81-89] and Cornish, Pigram, and Shaw [(1997). Do anomalies of handedness exist in children with fragile-X syndrome? Laterality, 2(2), 91-101], the aim of this paper was to determine laterality in people with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The sample comprised three study groups: the first with 30 people with FXS (mean age 17.9 years), the second 34 people with various intellectual disabilities (ID, mean age 20.9 years), and the third 160 people with typical development (mean age 14.7 years). Laterality was assessed with a test adapted for this study. The results confirm the preponderance of right-handedness (93.3%) in people with FXS and present new data regarding footedness and sensory dominance (eyedness and earedness), indicating inconsistent footedness and ocular cross-dominance. Almost three-quarters (73.5%) of people with other ID were right-handed. The results corroborate those of McManus and Cornish (1997). People with FXS tend to be right-handed but have ocular cross-dominance.
Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Physical activity is a very important part of everyone's life. It has positive effect on the functioning of the body of both healthy people and people with disabilities. Many disabled people take competitive sports with very good results. These individuals can find support in a number of organizations cooperating with disabled athletes. The main aim of this article is to compare the knowledge of students of medical and non-medical universities about sport of disabled people. Material and methods: Research was carried out among students of medical and non-medical universities. Tested 152 people - 93 women and 59 men. Diagnostic survey questionnaire method was used during the test. The questionnaire consisted of 17 questions and specifications relating to sport for the disabled. Results: The definition of a disabled person were able to identify by 70% of the surveyed students. 42% of respondents could not indicate the names of the disabled athlete. The majority of respondents (medical and non-medical professions have seen competition of disabled people on television or the Internet. Rehabilitation and improvement of mental health, were indicated by respondents as the most important benefits of doing sport for disabled. Conclusions: The level of knowledge of students about sport for the disabled can be considered as satisfying.
Perera, Bhathika; Courtenay, Ken
People with Intellectual Disability (ID) have cognitive impairments that affect their level of functioning the causes of which are multiple and often unknown. Behavioural difficulties are common among people with ID. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised more among people with Intellectual Disability and could be a cause of problem behaviours. Screening and assessing for ADHD in people with ID is difficult because of the paucity of robust assessment tools and diagnostic criteria.
Aline Sarturi Ponte
Full Text Available The present study addresses a discussion on attitudinal accessibility, which is a very important resource to assist disabled people in exercising their citizenship. The study aims to develop a reflection on how people with disabilities and without disabilities perceive, face and/or understand attitudinal barriers. It is a qualitative research by means of focus group interventions. Two groups were organized for data collection: one consisted of people with disabilities and the other of those without disabilities. The groups were organized at the beginning of the school semester of 2012. Information was collected from a script with questions. For better presentation of the group discussions, three categories were created: one for the group of disabled people and two for the group of non-disabled people. During the study, it was possible to observe that architectural barriers are the major problem faced by people with disabilities, attitudinal barriers are not visible as physical barriers, most often, they are unconscious and difficult to be recognized by those who practice them. It is considered that ignorance is the basis for the advancement of attitudinal barriers, and the occupational therapist is the professional who, in addition to working on the strengths and skills of disabled people, will also stimulate social integration, respecting the subjectivity of each individual and the context in which they are inserted.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between six-minute walk test and muscle pain, muscle strength in visually disabled people. The study includes 50 visually disabled people, aged between 17, 21 ± 5,3. Participants were classified into three categories according to their degree of vision (B1, B2, B3). All participants were…
Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael
People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…
Wagemans, A.M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van; Proot, I.M.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.M.G.
Background: Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. Aim: To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. Design: A qualitative study
Whittle, Erin Louise; Fisher, Karen R.; Reppermund, Simone; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Trollor, Julian
Background: It is well established that people with an intellectual disability have high rates of mental health problems, yet rates of uptake of services do not match need. Aim: To identify the current literature pertaining to the barriers and facilitators to access to mental health services for people with an intellectual disability. Method: A…
Bullock, Charles C.; Mahon, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Charles L.
Ultimately, all successful recreation programs center around its participants wants and needs. Serving people with disabilities is no exception. "Introduction to Recreation Services for People with Disabilities" is intended to be an introductory book for anyone planning or working in the parks, recreation, and leisure service industry. Through…
Baker, Warren; Bramston, Paul
People (n=103) with mild intellectual disabilities responded to several scales of anger, hostility, aggression, and personality. Results were consistent with earlier studies of relationships among anger, hostility, and aggression conducted with the general population. Findings suggest that people with intellectual disabilities may benefit from…
Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Walley, Robert M.
Background: The prevalence of obesity, inactivity and related morbidity and mortality is higher amongst people with intellectual disabilities than in the population in general, an issue of global concern. This research examined the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities and their carers, on exercise and activity. Materials and…
Although there is an increasing awareness of the rights of people with intellectual disabilities, limited progress has been made in supporting people with intellectual disabilities to create and sustain intimate personal relationships in Greece. This article looks at the attitudes of 66 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities…
Heslop, Pauline; Glover, Gyles
Background: At present, there is limited statistical information about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England. This study explores the data that are currently available. Materials and Methods: Four recent sources of data about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England are reviewed: the Confidential…
Chadwick, Darren D.; Quinn, Sally; Fullwood, Chris
Background: Information and communication technologies, with the Internet at the forefront, have the potential to enhance the knowledge, service, employment, development and social interactional opportunities available to people with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, people with intellectual disabilities are not accessing the Internet to…
The paper presents the first systematic approach to the classification of inclusive information and communication technologies (ICT)-based learning technologies and ICT-based learning technologies for disabled people which covers both assistive and general learning technologies, is valid for all disabled people and considers the full range of…
Hence, the focus of management for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted to issues relating to function and Quality of Life (QoL). Information is scarce on disability issues and quality of life among people living with HIIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This was the premise of this study that assessed the level of disability and ...
People with learning disabilities have talents and skills, but rarely do they get the chance to start their own business. In Business was designed to challenge this and to make self employment a realistic option for some by setting out to support and capture the journey to business for people with a learning disability and those who support them.…
Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna
Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…
Head, Annabel; Ellis-Caird, Helen; Rhodes, Louisa; Parkinson, Kathie
Background: People with learning disabilities are moving out of hospitals as part of the Transforming Care programme, although thus far their views on how they have experienced this have not been researched. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used to explore how people with learning disabilities experienced moving as part of…
Shier, Michael; Graham, John R.; Jones, Marion E.
Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one-to-one…
Palley, Howard A.; Van Hollen, Valerie
Explores how the trends toward long-term community care affecting people with developmental disabilities developed. Appropriateness of care and quality of life issues are discussed. Reviews the development of long-term care for frail and disabled elderly people and explores the arguments for a continuum of care that have developed in this area.…
WA10 Working in partnership with people with learning disabilities: academics and people with learning disabilities working together to disseminate the findings of a confidential inquiry into deaths of people with learning disabilities through film.
In England, between 2010-2013, a Confidential Inquiry into premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities was commissioned by the Department of Health. This took place in SW England led by Norah Fry Research Centre at Bristol University. Findings from the investigations into 247 deaths included that men with learning disabilities die, on average 13 years sooner and women, on average 20 years sooner, than the general population. Over 1/3 (37%) were found to be avoidable, being amenable to good quality healthcare. A number of key recommendations were made which required understanding by a range of audiences including people with learning disabilities and their carers. This workshop will demonstrate how academics can work with actors with learning disabilities to disseminate research findings about a sensitive subject in a thought provoking and accessible way. Academics worked with the MISFITs theatre company to make a DVD about the findings and recommendations of the Confidential Inquiry. The DVD presents the findings of the Confidential Inquiry through the stories of John, Bill, Karen and Emily. It powerfully illustrates the importance of diagnosing and treating illness of people with learning disabilities in a timely and appropriate manner and highlights the measures that could be taken to reduce premature deaths in this population. The session provides an example of how the voices of people with learning disabilities can communicate research messages effectively to people with learning disabilities, health and social care practitioners and others who support the learning disability population. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Adrienne McGhee; Pat Dorsett
Abstract While the attainment of late life represents a significant achievement for people with an intellectual disability, increased life expectancy has resulted in growing concerns about the extent to which disability service providers are ready to meet the changing needs of increasing numbers of older people and facilitate their ongoing social inclusion. Training of frontline disability staff is widely accepted as an effective strategy for increasing organisational capacity to contribu...
The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...
Findings from needs assessments and abandonment studies point to issues with health care providers, particularly in their ability to listen to the needs of the consumer and important others regarding AT-EI. Professionals need to listen to what people are telling them or, in many cases, what they are not telling them. Actions and nonverbal messages can speak very loudly. Strategies to communicate and collaborate with consumers need to be developed. Regardless of ability to communicate or the severity of the impairments the person may be experiencing, it is important to withhold judgments that may underestimate a person's potential or desire to be in control of life decisions. AT-EI service have often seen people labeled with severe or profound intellectual disabilities challenge that diagnosis after accessing a communication or access system. Likewise, a person with a severe disability has the right to supportive resources and to the same level of respect, dignity, and quality of life as any other member of society. Using the technology and adapting the environment to provide opportunities for consumers to "voice" their wishes and control their lives can be an effective strategy to collaborate. When focusing on a rights-based philosophy, recognizing the difference between physical independence (e.g., physical and/or cognitive ability to do a task by oneself) and self-care management (e.g., access to and power to manage the supportive resources to live in the community regardless of level of physical ability) is important. We all rely on supports in our lives, whether it be tools or technology to help us do a job or another person, yet when we evaluate people with disabilities, the expectation is for people to function independently [23,24]. They even receive lower scores on functional assessments if they are using a piece of technology to do an activity. By shifting the focus to management of and access to resources versus level of physical dependence or burden
Full Text Available The analyses of the legal framework concerning the employment rights of the disabled people in the Republic of Macedonia is a significant research challenge because of its importance regarding the employment rights regulation of the disabled people in all. When analyzing the regulation regarding the disabled people, the editing of their rights is of great importance as a source and promoter of many crucial changes and value components when creating a democratic society with no discrimination. Considering this, the influence of the degree of respecting the value principles and standards is particularly emphasized along with the human rights and freedom of the disabled people when it comes to the development of the democracy and the rule of law. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Macedonian legal framework for the employment rights of the disabled people and to present the provisions of the most important legal acts concerning this subject.
Park, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jae-Young; Henderson, Terrence
Employment provides not only income but also opportunities for social participation. This is especially important for people with disabilities, but the employment of disabled people in many countries is subject to significant barriers. This study examines the actual state of employment of people with mobility disabilities in Korea and which characteristics affect employment among people with mobility disabilities. Analysis of responses to the Community Integration Questionnaire and independent variables among the study participants showed that the rate of employment among people with mobility disabilities (34.2%) is much lower than that of the general population (60.3%), with only 13.2% in full-time positions. Gender appeared to be a statistically significant factor influencing employment. Other demographic characteristics such as age, level of education and cohabitation did not influence employment in this study, but people with less severe disability had a higher probability of being employed. Disability acceptance appeared to be a vital factor in the process of vocational rehabilitation. The use of vocational rehabilitation services did not have a significant effect on employment. These results suggest that the role of the formal services system in the employment process of disabled people is insufficient.
Isaac, Rebecca; Raja, B. William Dharma; Ravanan, M. P.
A full understanding of disability recognizes that it has a powerful human rights dimension and is often associated with social exclusion, and increased exposure and vulnerability to poverty. Disability is a human rights issue. The World Bank (1999) report points out that one in five of the world's poorest are disabled, for whom access to basic…
Randell, M; Cumella, S
Hospital closure programmes in England have generally sought to attain a fulfilling life for people with an intellectual disability by locating them in domestic-style housing in urban settings. Few have been placed in intentional or 'village' communities. Yet comparative studies of different housing types have found that intentional communities have better or similar outcomes for their residents than dispersed housing or residential clusters on former hospital sites. A possible explanation is the distinctive pattern of social relationships that exist in many intentional communities and the impact this has on the lives of their residents. This paper reports the results of research that explores the perceptions of people with an ID living in an intentional community and the meaning of their community to them. The research used an ethnographic approach to interview a sample of 15 residents in a large intentional community (Botton Village), which is part of the Camphill Movement. Interviews used Makaton, pictures and symbols where required. Respondents included 10 men and 5 women aged between 38 and 78 years. Length of residence in Botton Village ranged from 5 to 50 years. All lived with the families of co-workers and valued these relationships. All but one (who had retired) worked in a diverse range of employment in the village. Almost all were positive about their work. Respondents reported that they took part in both individual and communal leisure activities and all but two had a network of friends. Opportunities for friendship were enhanced by proximity to other people with an ID and a sense of personal security in the village. As in many villages and communities in society in general, these advantages were balanced by some loss of privacy. Results confirm those from earlier studies of intentional communities and suggest that positive outcomes derive from the absence of the overt subordination of residents to staff, the facilitation of friendship with other people
Frawley, Patsie; Bigby, Christine
Civil and political participation lies at the core of citizenship. Increasingly, people with intellectual disability are members of disability advisory bodies. This study investigated the political orientations of advisory body members with intellectual disability, their participatory experiences, and the types of support they received. The 9 people with intellectual disability who in 2005 were members of disability advisory bodies at a state, national, and Victorian local government level were interviewed, together with 12 other members or secretariat staff of these bodies. Observations were also conducted of advisory body meetings. The political perspective of members with intellectual disability varied, but all had a background in self-advocacy. They found the work hard but rewarding and encountered both practical and intangible obstacles to participation. Members received varying types of practical support, but a supportive collegial milieu was characteristic among members who felt most confident about their participation. The milieu, structures, and processes of advisory bodies must all be adjusted to accommodate people with intellectual disability if they are to participate meaningfully.
Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin
This study aimed to generate prioritised goals for oral health services for people with disabilities as a first step in meeting the need for evidence based oral health services for people with disabilities in Ireland.
Apdullah Yayık; Yakup Kutlu
This paper aims to develop brain-computer interface system based on electroencephalography that can aid disabled people in daily life. The system relies on one of the most effective event-related potential wave, P300, which can be elicited by oddball paradigm. Developed application has a basic interaction tool that enables disabled people to convey their needs to other people selecting related objects. These objects pseudo-randomly flash in a visual interface on computer screen. The user must...
Rhodes, Penny J; Small, Neil A; Ismail, Hanif; Wright, John P
This paper reports on a study of Pakistani people with epilepsy. It explores their attitudes towards their condition, others' attitudes, its impact on their lives, and the extent to which they considered themselves as disabled. Epilepsy was variously interpreted within biomedical, folk and religious paradigms. In line with popular understandings, participants associated disability with stable, permanent and visible physical impairments and did not consider themselves as disabled. However, they also recognised a social dimension to their experience. Much of the distress and disadvantage they experienced was socially determined, both through direct prejudice and discrimination, and indirectly through a fear of others' negative reactions. However, the invisible and unpredictable nature of epilepsy meant that they could conceal their condition and thereby mitigate its social effects. 'Disability' was not experienced as a static and permanent state but as a potential identity that was both contingent and contested. The literature portrays people moving from biomedical to social interpretations of disability. However, the tensions experienced by people in the study were more between competing religious interpretations of their condition and, to some extent, between religious and medical approaches. Conceptions of disability, which are presented in the literature as antagonistic and mutually exclusive, were experienced as different dimensions reflecting the complexity of experience. The paper concludes by suggesting that for many people, for whom disability is an ambiguous, contingent and contested identity, public self-identification as disabled is an unrealistic goal. Rather than conceiving of disability as primarily physical or primarily social, it would be better construed as a complex interweaving of multiple factors--physical, environmental, socio-cultural and psychological factors.
Hultqvist, Jenny; Eklund, Mona; Leufstadius, Christel
Empowerment is essential in the rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities and knowledge about factors that may play a key role within this process would be valuable for further development of the day centre services. The present study investigates day centre attendees' perceptions of empowerment. The aim was to investigate which factors show the strongest relationships to empowerment when considering occupational engagement, client satisfaction with day centres, and health-related and socio-demographic factors as correlates. 123 Swedish day centre attendees participated in a cross-sectional study by completing questionnaires regarding empowerment and the targeted correlates. Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. Empowerment was shown to be significantly correlated with occupational engagement and client satisfaction and also with self-rated health and symptoms rated by a research assistant. The strongest indicator for belonging to the group with the highest ratings on empowerment was self-rated health, followed by occupational engagement and symptom severity. Occupational engagement added to the beneficial influence of self-rated health on empowerment. Enabling occupational engagement in meaningful activities and providing occupations that can generate client satisfaction is an important focus for day centres in order to assist the attendees' rehabilitation process so that it promotes empowerment.
Full Text Available In this paper are presented the authors contributions on designing and evaluation of a mechanical transmission intended to be used to wheelchairs for disabled people. In most cases the wheelchairs propulsion system solution consist of two DC motors, mounted on wheels shafts directly, or by means an intermediary transmission with chains or belts. In this case the wheelchair must be equipped with a controller, generally based on a PWM technology. Proposed solution consists of a mechanical transmission based on differential gears, which uses two motors, for steering and for propulsion. For this design architecture the control solution is much simple and easy cost to design, consisting in one servo controller for two motors. Based on dimensional synthesis of transmission gears, is developed the design solution of the robotic wheelchair. The wheelchair motion simulation is studied in Adams software, for the case of traction, steering and combined motion. From Adams simulations are obtained the wheelchair motion trajectories, kinematic and dynamic parameters. Obtained results are analyzed and compared to other wheelchairs design solution, concluding that proposed design solution of this transmission can be successful used to a wheelchair experimental prototype.
BÃ„Æ’bÃ„Æ’iÃˆâ€ºÃ„Æ’ Carmen Mihaela
Full Text Available Internationally, elaborated research about the tourism of people with disabilities are rather limited, and they focus more on the lack of physical access to certain services in hotels. But very few studies have been published on the issue of tourism and people with disabilities. In this context, this paper draws attention to the issue of the tourism of people with disabilities in Romania. The aging population is a growing phenomenon worldwide and it leads to the shaping of a new market segment with a visible and complex dynamic, namely that of persons with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to identify other potential external barriers related to the development of tourism of people with disabilities in Romania, such as hotel infrastructure. At the same time it has been tested the degree to which managers of these hotels are aware of the phenomenon itself and their opinions on the development of this area.
Hermans, H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Evenhuis, H.M.
Objectives Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may experience more and different symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. Study questions: (1) Is the reported severity of anxiety in this group similar to that in the general older population; (2) Are specific
Moscoso-Porras, Miguel G; Alvarado, German F
Experiences of discrimination lead people from vulnerable groups to avoid medical healthcare. It is yet to be known if such experiences affect people with disabilities (PWD) in the same manner. To determine the association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with disabilities and to explore differences of this association across disability types. We performed a cross-sectional study with data from a national survey of people with disabilities. Perceived discrimination and care-seeking behavior were measured as self-reports from the survey. Dependence for daily life activities, possession of health insurance, and other disability-related variables were included and considered as confounders. We used Poisson regression models and techniques for multistage sampling in the analyses. A stratified analysis was used to explore effects of discrimination across types of disability. Most of PWD were 65 years or older (67.1%). Prevalence of healthcare seeking was 78.8% in those who perceived discrimination, and 86.1% in those who did not. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of not seeking care was higher in people who reported perceived discrimination (adjusted PR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.04-1.28). In a stratified analysis, significant effects of discrimination were found in people with communication disability (adjusted PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.07-1.67) and with physical disability (adjusted PR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34). People with disabilities who perceive discrimination are less likely to seek healthcare. This association was higher for people with communication and physical disabilities. These results provide evidence to institutions who attempt to tackle discrimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota
To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with
Marsden, Daniel; Giles, Rachel
Background People with learning disabilities experience significant inequalities in accessing healthcare. Legal frameworks, such as the Equality Act 2010, are intended to reduce such disparities in care, and require organisations to make 'reasonable adjustments' for people with disabilities, including learning disabilities. However, reasonable adjustments are often not clearly defined or adequately implemented in clinical practice. Aim To examine and synthesise the challenges in caring for people with learning disabilities to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. This framework would assist ward staff in identifying and managing the challenges of delivering person-centred, safe and effective healthcare to people with learning disabilities in this setting. Method Fourth-generation evaluation, collaborative thematic analysis, reflection and a secondary analysis were used to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments in the hospital setting. The authors attended ward manager and matron group meetings to collect their claims, concerns and issues, then conducted a collaborative thematic analysis with the group members to identify the main themes. Findings Four main themes were identified from the ward manager and matron group meetings: communication, choice-making, collaboration and coordination. These were used to develop the 4C framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. Discussion The 4C framework has provided a basis for delivering person-centred care for people with learning disabilities. It has been used to inform training needs analyses, develop audit tools to review delivery of care that is adjusted appropriately to the individual patient; and to develop competencies for learning disability champions. The most significant benefit of the 4C framework has been in helping to evaluate and resolve practice-based scenarios. Conclusion Use of
Ernest J. Sechoaro
Objective: To synthesise critically and summarise the best available evidence of the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people. Method: Literature searches of different electronic databases and manual searches were conducted using selected keywords. Studies on the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people were selected systematically, appraised critically for methodological quality and summarised. Results: Rehabilitation interventions indicated good outcomes with regard to intellectually-disabled people. Findings showed that people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities improved in terms of activities of daily living (ADL after rehabilitation. Improvement was noted in ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated positive rehabilitation effects on intellectually-disabled people. This study contributes to the comprehensive nursing care of intellectually-disabled people by endorsement of the effectiveness of rehabilitation in terms of ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. The collected evidence of this study may contribute to the education of more effective nurse practitioners involved in the daily care and rehabilitation of intellectually-disabled people.
Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Alli, Farzana
HIV and disability are interrelated providing a double burden to HIV endemic countries in East and Southern Africa and their already fragile health systems. Although literature reveals that people with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to HIV and that HIV, its opportunistic infections and treatments can cause disability, only few interventions target this issue and none have been evaluated in this region. Formative evaluation was undertaken with regard to the effectiveness of a workshop-based intervention for healthcare workers and people with disabilities on the intersection of disability and HIV in order to inform the further development of this intervention. The formative evaluation assessed participants' perception of the inclusion of disability in HIV services and of opportunities to initiate change after the workshops. It also captured their experiences in utilising knowledge and skills after the workshops using quantitative (short checklist and ranking exercise) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) methods of inquiry. Frequencies and conventional content analysis were used in the analysis of the data. This study presents an example of applied research conducted under real-world conditions. 60 healthcare workers and people with disabilities took part in this pilot workshop training and participated in the formative evaluation. Healthcare workers and people with disabilities alike identified various barriers to access health services. Reasonable accommodation was perceived as being mainly absent by most participants, while some participants indicated a lack of physical accessibility in the form of universal design. Participants also identified a lack of integration of services and disability-related skills within the healthcare staff. Participants reported a number of enablers, success and challenges while implementing the knowledge from the workshops related to structural issues, service provision and integration. While participants worked on
Lennox, Nicholas; Van Driel, Mieke L; van Dooren, Kate
The vast health inequities experienced by people with intellectual disability remain indisputable. Persistent and contemporary challenges exist for primary healthcare providers and researchers working to contribute to improvements to the health and well-being of people with intellectual disability. Over two decades after the only review of supports for primary healthcare providers was published, this paper contributes to an evolving research agenda that aims to make meaningful gains in health-related outcomes for this group. The present authors updated the existing review by searching the international literature for developments and evaluations of multinational models of care. Based on our review, we present three strategies to support primary healthcare providers: (i) effectively using what we know, (ii) considering other strategies that offer support to primary healthcare professionals and (iii) researching primary health care at the system level. Strengthening primary care by supporting equitable provision of health-related care for people with intellectual disability is a much needed step towards improving health outcomes among people with intellectual disability. More descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, as well as intervention-based research underpinned by rigorous mixed-methods evaluating these strategies at the primary care level, which is sensitive to the needs of people with intellectual disability will assist primary care providers to provide better care and achieve better health outcomes. Many people with intellectual disability have poor health. The authors reviewed what has been written by other researchers about how to improve the health of people with intellectual disability. In the future, people who support adults with intellectual disability should continue doing what they do well, think of other ways to improve health, and do more research about health. At all times, the needs of people with intellectual disability should be the
The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…
Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.
Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been researched and operationalised in the empirical literature, and aimed to determine what evidence exists about the extent of social inclusion by people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. A thematic analysis of the 14 papers identified that social inclusion has been poorly defined and measured, and that the little research that has occurred in respect of people with challenging behaviour has demonstrated their potential to be socially included. Clearer conceptualisation of inclusion, and greater understanding of practices that support social inclusion and system level mechanisms, which ensure goals around inclusion gain prominence in funding and support plans, may address the neglect of this critical quality-of-life domain for people with challenging behaviour.
Schäper, S; Graumann, S
In the coming years, a growing number of people with an intellectual disability will reach retirement age. In line with the change of paradigms, the leading ideas of participation, inclusion and self-determination have become the principles of the ideological and conceptual framework in social services for people with disabilities. However, in many places convincing concepts and arrangements of support for elderly people with intellectual disabilities are lacking, particularly beyond institutionalized concepts. The research project "Lebensqualität inklusiv(e)" (quality of life included) tries to bridge this gap. On the base of an estimation of the demographic development for this group of people, models of best practice have been documented and evaluated focusing on living conditions and the special requirements for elderly people with intellectual disabilities in order to gather ideas for the development of arrangements of support. The results show that an interdisciplinary cooperation is indispensable.
Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Alexanderson, K; Westerlund, H; Lange, T
The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people. The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions. The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002. We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.
若林, 功; 八重田, 淳
The importance of support in the workplace for persons with disabilities to adjust to working life has long been recognized in the literature. However, the effects of workplace support on the work adjustment of persons with disabilities have not been well documented. This paper examines whether workplace support is related to job satisfaction, performance (as evaluated by employers), organizational commitment, workplace integration, and their intention to quit their jobs. A survey of people w...
Col?, Elisa; Rissotto, Antonella
The reform of mandatory employment in Italy, performed by the national Law 68/99, represented a crucial step not only for the assertion of the right to work for disabled people, but also a cultural innovation in the matter of workplace inclusion. Is this law sufficient to ensure this process? What are the aspects that, in the point of view of people with disabilities, are able to promote or hinder their inclusion? The literature on working inclusion of people with disabilities has focused mai...
Palley, H A; Van Hollen, V
This article explores how the trends toward long-term community care affecting people with developmental disabilities developed. Appropriateness of care and quality of life issues are discussed. The article also reviews the development of long-term care for frail and disabled elderly people and explores the arguments for a continuum of care that have developed in this area. The authors conclude that future policies with respect to meeting long-term care needs for people with developmental disabilities must be addressed flexibly on an individual basis, related to individual needs, and must provide a continuum of care services.
O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; García-Iriarte, Edurne
Inclusive research with people with intellectual disabilities is growing internationally but with few studies examining its feasibility. In undertaking a national study exploring what life was like in Ireland for people with intellectual disabilities, a community of practice was developed involving a core group of co-researchers: five people with intellectual disabilities, four university researchers and three service support staff. An additional cadre of 15 co-researchers with intellectual disabilities was recruited to undertake data gathering and analysis with 23 focus groups involving 168 participants. The research experience was documented through oral feedback, progress reports, minutes and a project review. The key learning is documented arising from the setting up of an inclusive advisory group and implementation of each of six research steps. The study demonstrates feasibility and the added value of university co-researchers recruiting and developing skills together with co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. Topics for further research and development are identified. This paper tells you about how people with intellectual disabilities worked with a group of university researchers. Both groups were called co-researchers and together they ran 23 focus groups across Ireland. People with intellectual disabilities talked about their lives and what could make them better. They said they needed to have a good place to live; a job; enough money; relationships; and acceptance as respected citizens. The university co-researchers wrote about what it was like doing research together and how people with intellectual disabilities joined the advisory group; decided on the questions; ran focus groups; and presented findings. Together they grew into a community of researchers where the university co-researchers shared their research skills and people with intellectual disabilities shared what it was like living with a disability. They both saw great value in
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reviews issues affecting the empowerment of people with disabilities in Nigeria so they can be productive and contribute to the development of the nation. The questions of concern are: What is known about the extent people with disabilities are empowered to contribute to national development in Nigeria? What challenges do people with disabilities in Nigeria encounter in their attempt to contribute to national development? What are the implications of these challenges regarding strategies that could enhance the empowerment of people with disabilities to facilitate their contribution to national development? Method: This paper addresses these questions by reviewing available research on issues pertaining to (1 legislative mandates on provision of services to individuals with disabilities in the country, (2 funding for services by the government, (3 accessing education and related services, which can ensure that people with disabilities are able to develop their potential and be able to contribute to national development as workers, administrators or employers of labour. Findings: Available evidence indicates that people with disabilities in Nigeria encounter challenges in accessing essential services that could enhance their contribution to national development due to factors such as the absence of legislation protecting their rights to receive these services, inadequate funding of services, absence of effective inclusion programmes, and lack of facilities, personnel, and resources. Suggestions and conclusion: The author recommended some strategies that could produce better outcomes and enhance the opportunities for people with disabilities to be empowered so that they can contribute their quota to national development. These strategies include: enacting and implementing а national disability legislation, utilisation of community-based strategies in the provision of services, and increased advocacy activities by
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have a considerably worse health than people without ID, for a great part related to the quality of healthcare provision and health communication. This research studied health information exchange (HIE) between people with ID, their support network, and
Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. van
Background: The prevalence of diabetes is relatively high in people with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about how people with ID experience having diabetes and how they manage the condition. Method: Seventeen people with mild to moderate ID who have diabetes were interviewed.
Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.
Małgorzata M. Machaj
Full Text Available Introduction : One of the regulations governing employment on the open labour market is the Act for vocational and social rehabilitation and employment of people with disabilities, which defines disability in the context that it impacts upon a person’s ability to work. Aim of the research : To evaluate the level of hospital staff awareness of the financial impacts of employing people with disabilities at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior in Warsaw. Material and methods: The sample and control groups consisted of people working at the hospital, comprising 247 individuals, including 194 women and 53 men, aged between 25 and 60 years. The sample group consisted of people with disabilities. The control group consisted of colleagues with disabilities, of both sexes, and of the same age range. There was also a separate sample group comprising 60 people from middle management and senior management. The sample and control groups were provided with a questionnaire about issues relating to the economic aspects of employing people with disabilities. The results were compared with data from the questionnaire for management and from hospital statistics. The methodology of mathematical statistics was used. Results : Discrepancies were found between sample and control groups, and hospital statistics pertaining to people with disabilities as employees in terms of the burden placed on the business, such as sick leave, breaks from work in the general sense, additional leave, accessing specialist tests during working hours, and earnings, in particular reimbursement of the cost of workplace equipment and funding for salaries. Conclusions: There is a significant degree of divergence between managers’ and employees’ notions of privileges for disabled workers and their actual scale. There is misunderstanding and lack of knowledge of the applicable provisions of the Act for the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of
Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Mortaji, Neda; Karon, Leora
Purpose We reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Increasing attention is being paid to the role of people with disabilities in the workplace. Although most research focuses on employers' concerns, many companies are now beginning to share their successes. However, there is no synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Methods Our team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases from 1997 to May 2017. We selected articles for inclusion that were peer-reviewed publications, had a sample involving people with disabilities, conducted an empirical study with at least one outcome focusing on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities, and focused on competitive employment. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted the data, and rated the study quality. Results Of the 6176 studies identified in our search, 39 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings show that benefits of hiring people with disabilities included improvements in profitability (e.g., profits and cost-effectiveness, turnover and retention, reliability and punctuality, employee loyalty, company image), competitive advantage (e.g., diverse customers, customer loyalty and satisfaction, innovation, productivity, work ethic, safety), inclusive work culture, and ability awareness. Secondary benefits for people with disabilities included improved quality of life and income, enhanced self-confidence, expanded social network, and a sense of community. Conclusions There are several benefits to hiring people with disabilities. Further research is needed to explore how benefits may vary by type of disability, industry, and job type.
Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene
Full Text Available Education is one of the most important ways to form human capital. Individual can get profit from investment in human capital. Although education situation of the disabled is getting better slowly during the process of modernization, the study of return to education of disabled has been largely ignored for many years. Furthermore, there are still a number of challenges need to pay more attention. This paper based on CHNS data in the economic transition period using Mincer Equation to study the returns to education in the disabled people in China. The results show that the education level has significant positive relationship with the rate of return to education; Return to education of the disabled is lower than non-disabled and male higher than female. The paper suggested more special education supply are required, female disabled people should be pay more attention especially on their education.
Ostrow, Laysha; Nemec, Patricia B; Smith, Carina
Self-employment is an alternative to wage employment and an opportunity to increase labor force participation by people with psychiatric disabilities. Self-employment refers to individuals who work for themselves, either as an unincorporated sole proprietor or through ownership of a business. Advantages of self-employment for people with psychiatric disabilities, who may have disrupted educational and employment histories, include opportunities for self-care, additional earning, and career choice. Self-employment fits within a recovery paradigm because of the value placed on individual preferences, and the role of resilience and perseverance in business ownership. Self-employment creates many new US jobs, but remains only a small percentage of employment closures for people with psychiatric disabilities, despite vocational rehabilitation and Social Security disability policies that encourage it. This commentary elucidates the positive aspects of self-employment in the context of employment challenges experienced by individuals with psychiatric disabilities and provides recommendations based on larger trends in entrepreneurship.
Mei, He; Turale, Sue
In this qualitative, descriptive study, we explored the perspectives of older, community-dwelling Chinese people regarding their experiences of coping with a physical disability and their health concerns. Twenty participants were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Five themes with 13 subthemes emerged that described older people's experiences of coping with health concerns and disability: (i) ignoring health concerns; (ii) managing self; (iii) seeking medical help; (iv) living with physical disability; and (v) relying on limited resources. Most participants did not have sufficient access to health services due to physical disability and financial deficits, so they tended to ignore their health conditions or tackle them independently before seeking medical help. At the same time, they were impacted on by social and cultural factors. Policies are required that offer more resources to community-dwelling people with disabilities in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cook, Judith A; Burke, Jane
A "sea change" in public attitudes, legislation, and political power at the end of the 20th century in the United States has helped set the stage in the early 21st century for the entry of people with disabilities into the labor force. Major pieces of federal legislation have altered national policy with the intention of maximizing the work force participation of people with disabilities. At the same time, a new theoretical paradigm of disability has emerged, which emphasizes community inclusion, accommodation, and protection of civil rights. This "New Paradigm" of disability can be applied in concert with rigorous behavioral science methodologies to shed light on the outcomes of recent federal policy changes regarding the labor force participation of people with disabilities. In so doing, social science can be used in more meaningful ways to understand both the intended and unintended consequences of federal policy. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður
This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…
Grumstrup, Brianna; Demchak, MaryAnn
This review of literature focuses on health issues for individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD), and Multiple Impairments (MI). This population has two to three times higher overweight and obesity prevalence than typically developing individuals. Furthermore, they have higher risk for…
Full Text Available Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.
Rowiński, Rafał; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Geigle, Paula Richley
Health conditions associated with aging might be related to disability and lead to decreased independence. Physical activity assists in maintaining independence throughout life as well as improves quality of life. Individuals with disabilities demonstrate overall less activity than sedentary persons without disabilities. Efforts to reduce age-related functional autonomy decline and to increase physical activity may require separate approaches for older adults with and without disabilities. The aim of the study was to compare physical activity and participation in leisure activities and tourism among older people with and without disabilities in Poland. A cross-sectional, multicenter study (PolSenior) randomly recruited participants aged 65 years and over, in a stratified, proportional draw performed in three stages from all 16 Polish provinces. 3743 people, 2653 (70.9%) without disabilities, and 1090 (29.1%) with disabilities responded providing general sociodemographic characteristics and various health behaviors including subjective physical activity level, leisure time activities, tourism and activity limitations. Older males without disability reported more physical activity than women with disability, while no differences were observed for females with and without disability. Polish older people with and without disability were more involved in gardening and staying in a garden allotment or a holiday home rather than participating in organized forms of sport, physical activity, and tourism. Health conditions arose as the most frequently indicated barrier toward participation in sport physical activity and tourism. In conclusion, strategies and programs to increase physical activity among older Polish people, with and without disability, should focus on preserving health and physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Kroon, A.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Kroon, A.; Embregts, P.C.J.M.
Background: Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a
Batterbury, Sarah C. E.
Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) across the world have developed their own languages and visuo-gestural-tactile cultures embodying their collective sense of Deafhood (Ladd 2003). Despite this, most nation-states treat their respective SLPs as disabled individuals, favoring disability benefits, cochlear implants, and mainstream education over language…
O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.
This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…
Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.
People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…
Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena
Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…
Mattila, Jenni; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina
The phenomenon of falling in love among people with intellectual disability has not received much attention in research. In this study, seven Finnish young adults (5 women and 2 men) with mild intellectual disability (ID) were asked about their experiences of falling in love. They were interviewed with a qualitative themed interview method. The…
Written from the perspective of a disability practitioner and equity manager working in the Australian tertiary education sector for over twenty-five years, this paper reviews some of the significant social, equity, and education policy developments and associated legislation, which have influenced the inclusion of people with disabilities in…
van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.
Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support workers evaluate the intervention? What did they learn…
Pan, Lu; Ye, Jingzhong
Background: Welfare for the disabled is becoming an important issue in China and care for people with intellectual disability is challenging because of the inadequacies in formal support and the social service system. Material and Method: Based on ethnographic research in two villages in North China, this paper analyses the dilemmas of family care…
van Asselt-Goverts, A.E.; Embregts, P.J.C.M; Hendriks, A.H.C.
Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support
Achterberg, T. J.; Wind, H.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
Introduction The aim of this systematic review was to study factors which promote or hinder young disabled people entering the labor market. Methods We systematically searched PubMed (by means of MESH and text words), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for studies regarding (1) disabled
Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue
The aim of this paper is to encourage debate about the use of creative visual approaches in intellectual disability research and discussion about Internet publication of photographs. Image-based research with people with intellectual disability is explored within the contexts of tighter ethical regulation of social research, increased interest in…
Webb, Rosemary; Greco, Veronica; Sloper, Patricia; Beecham, Jennifer
Across the world countries are advocating the education of children and young people with disabilities in mainstream schools. There is also increasing interest in developing effective coordination of the specialist services pupils with disabilities receive from different agencies. This is accompanied by growing recognition that such care…
Wahlström, Lina; Bergström, Helena; Marttila, Anneli
Deinstitutionalisation has influenced the life situation for people with intellectual disabilities, whilst the experiences of health promotion in group homes now are limited. This study aimed to explore aspects important to consider when promoting health amongst persons with intellectual disabilities in group homes, from the perspective of…
Reich, Christine A.
This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…
Nind, Melanie; Chapman, Rohhss; Seale, Jane; Tilley, Liz
Background: This study explores the training involved when people with learning disabilities take their place in the community as researchers. This was a theme in a recent UK seminar series where a network of researchers explored pushing the boundaries of participatory research. Method: Academics, researchers with learning disabilities, supporters…
Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.
This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…
Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Regnard, Claud
The End of Life Care Strategy takes as inclusive an approach as possible, but can it make a difference for people with learning disabilities who are dying? Therefore we must ask ourselves 'Does one size fit all?'
Shahrbanoo Ghafarpoor Nafchi
Conclusion Acceptance of people with disability is necessary for their presence in the society and their social relations. We should provide the opportunity for their presence in the society and improve their life through creating proper conditions and possibilities.
... Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, via e-mail at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or via... contact Laverdia Taylor Roach, Director, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities...
... are the requirements to qualify for the service? Cost: The fees for transportation services will vary and may include a reduced rate or no-cost service for older adults and people with disabilities. ...
Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. van
Objective: To explore how professional caregivers in communal living arrangements support people with a mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID) who have diabetes. Methods: A qualitative study, 13 caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. Results: Professional caregiver support in
Frielink, N.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Motivational interviewing is a promising method to increase treatment motivation for people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. The purpose of the present study was to identify how professionals could adapt motivational interviewing techniques for use with
Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley
Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.
Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van
OBJECTIVE: To explore how professional caregivers in communal living arrangements support people with a mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID) who have diabetes. METHODS: A qualitative study, 13 caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Professional caregiver support in
Reports. Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technology in the ... program on the lives of People with Disabilities - Final Scientific Report ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.
Whitington, Jane; Ma, Peng
People with learning disabilities often experience inequalities in accessing general health services. This group, their families and carers need access to effective palliative care when facing a life limiting illness. This article describes the development and implementation of a fast track referral pathway for people with learning disabilities at St Francis Hospice in Essex. Our aim is to share this pathway so others can replicate the collaborative working to improve access to palliative care services for this group.
Mohammad Reza Shahbazi
Conclusion: Disability in older people had a significant relationship with their depression, cognitive status, and morale. Thus, the degree of their disability can be lowered by prevention and early treatment of depression, promotion of memory, delaying cognitive disorders, as well as providing morale enhancement programs, creating a positive attitude toward old age, and increasing life satisfaction in older people.
Adapted physical activity, from an education perspective is entered process of integration especially in the education of people with special needs of all ages. The aim of this work is to analyze the issue of the integration of children and young people with disabilities in sport competition environment with a focus on public perceptions. Educational goal for children with disabilities is helping a harmonious development of their personality, how is it possible under the circumstances and thi...
People with physical disabilities represent a very diverse group of people with special needs. Physical disabilities differ according to the type and the degree of impairment. Some individuals are physically impaired to the extent that they need a wheelchair to cover the distance or for any kind of mobility. However, a wheelchair in and of itself does not suffice for their ability to cover the distance, successful integration into society and the fulfilling daily life. Adjustments and accessi...
Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H
Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McLean, Kenneth A; Hardie, Samantha; Paul, Abigail; Paul, Gary; Savage, Iain; Shields, Paul; Symes, Rebecca; Wilson, Joanna; Winstanley, Catherine; Harden, Jeni
People with disabilities in the Republic of Moldova continue to experience considerable discrimination and social exclusion. The Moldovan government recently affirmed their commitment to promote community integration. However, there remains limited evidence to facilitate understanding of these issues, and barriers to the integrative process. This study explored the knowledge and attitudes towards disability of young people within Moldova. A qualitative approach was adopted and 3 semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with schoolchildren (n = 12), aged 13-15 years. These interviews focussed on different aspects of disability, and community integration. Pictorial and written vignettes were used to stimulate discussion. The interviews were conducted and recorded in Romanian, and were subsequently translated into English to facilitate thematic data analysis. Identified themes included: (1) Knowledge and understanding of disability. The young people's knowledge was limited and framed by the medical model of disability; (2) Attitudes towards community integration. A bias against long-term care institutions, but differing views regarding integration; (3) Perceptions of barriers to community integration: (i) Cultural barriers. Negative, even hostile attitudes towards disability; (ii) Policy barriers. Poor support services; and (iii) Physical barriers. Ongoing issues regarding accessibility. People with disabilities in Moldova experience negative cultural attitudes linked to an outdated conception of disability itself. There are inadequate community support services and infrastructure which act as barriers to inclusion. At present, there can be limited interaction and participation of people with disabilities within local communities, and so few opportunities to refute persistent stereotypes and stigma surrounding disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.
The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…
Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuura, Kenshin; Tamura, Osamu; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki
While it has been reported that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in homeless people than in the national population, few studies have investigated the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disability among the homeless. In this study, we conducted a survey to comprehensively assess these mental problems among homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. The subjects were 18 homeless men. Mental illness was diagnosed with semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. We used the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III to diagnose intellectual disability. Discrepancies between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III subtest scores were used as criteria for developmental disability. Eleven of the 18 participants were diagnosed with mental illness: six with mood disorder, two with psychotic disorder, and six with alcohol problems. The mean IQ of all subjects was 83.4 ± 27.4. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was 96.2-69.1. Seven participants were found to have intellectual disability. Three men showed discrepancies of more than 10 between subtest scores, and all of them were diagnosed with a mental illness. We divided the participants into four groups: those with mental illness only; those with intellectual disability only; those with both problems; and those without diagnosis. The men with intellectual disability only were significantly younger and had been homeless since a younger age than the other groups. Participants diagnosed with a mental illness had been homeless for longer than those without mental health problems. Although the sample size was limited, this study revealed the high prevalence of mental illness and intellectual disability, 61% (95%CI, 35-83%) and 39% (95%CI, 17-64%), respectively, in homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Lauer, Emily; McCallion, Philip
Background: Monitoring population trends including mortality within subgroups such as people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and between countries provides crucial information about the population's health and insights into underlying health concerns and the need for and effectiveness of public health efforts. Methods: Data from…
Owens, J; Jones, K; Marshman, Z
To conduct a user-friendly questionnaire survey of the oral health and service needs of adults with learning disabilities. Researchers collaborated with local self-advocacy services to develop a questionnaire adapted from one used in a regional postal survey. The questionnaire, which covered dental status, oral health and dental services use, was sent to a random sample of people from the learning disability case register. Of 2,000 questionnaires mailed, 117 were returned undelivered and 625 were completed (response rate 31.3%). The self-reported dental status of people with learning disabilities appeared similar to that of the 2008 postal survey of the general population in Sheffield. The major difference in dental status was 11.5% of people with learning disabilities wore upper dentures and 7.2% wore lower dentures, compared to 21.2% and 12.1% of the general population in Sheffield. Using the case register as a recruitment instrument may have excluded people with learning disabilities not registered. Time and finances only permitted one mailing. Analysis on the basis of deprivation could not be conducted. Contrary to current practice, it is possible to include people with learning disabilities in oral health surveys. A multidisciplinary team was essential for enabling the progression and implementation of inclusive research and for people with learning disabilities and their supporters to engage meaningfully. This level of collaboration appears necessary if we are committed to ensuring that people with learning disabilities and their supporters are made visible to policy and decision-makers. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd
BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified
Ingrid L. Potgieter
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has faced a number of discriminatory practices in the past. Most of these practices are still present today. Although a considerate amount of attention has been given to discrimination based on gender, race and religion, limited emphasis has been placed on discrimination based on disability, specifically within the workplace. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of individuals living with a disability with regards to career advancement challenges they face in the South African workplace. Motivation for study: The research literature shows that irrespective of employment equity legislation, employees with disabilities have restricted opportunities to advance in their careers. Research is needed to assist these employees with their career development. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research design with an exploratory approach was followed. Probability, purposeful and snowballing sampling techniques were applied in this study on 15 employed individuals with declared disabilities. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and the verbatim transcriptions were analysed by content analysis. Main findings/results: The findings indicated that people with disabilities generally experience career advancement challenges and reach career plateau. Managers and colleagues’ lack of knowledge about disability has an adverse impact on the careers of people living with a disability. The study found that human resource practices, especially promotion opportunities, discriminate against employees with disabilities. Furthermore, the study further indicated that there is prejudice against invisible disabilities, and as a result, employees are reluctant to declare their disability. Practical implications: Human resource practitioners and managers need to recognise the influence that disabilities have on the career advancement of individuals living with a
Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Corazon, Sus Sola; Ekholm, Ola
There is increasing awareness of the importance and health benefits of living near green spaces. Research usually focuses on the general population's use of green spaces and there has been little focus on the use of green spaces by specific groups, such as people with mobility disabilities. This represents a significant knowledge gap with regard to facilitating access to healthy green environments by all population groups. This study aims to provide knowledge of the use of green spaces by people with mobility disabilities. The study was based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2005. The study participants consisted of 11,238 adult Danes, 383 of whom reported mobility disabilities, meaning that they were dependent on assistive devices for walking or moving around. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between mobility disability and use of green spaces. The results show that respondents who reported mobility disabilities visited green spaces less often than respondents without mobility disabilities. The severity of the mobility disability was associated with the frequency of visits. Frequency of visits was also related to the respondents' health-related quality of life status. These results highlight the need for further research into the constraints faced by people with mobility disabilities with regard to visiting green spaces.
Khoo Suet Leng
Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates employers’ perspective towards employing people with disabilities in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. The research also endeavoured to identify factors that promote or hinder gainful employment of people with disabilities in Malaysia.Method: The data was collected through postal questionnaires distributed to several types of industries in the northern region of Malaysia.Results: The results indicated that most of the employers are in favour of employing persons with disabilities. However, very few have such enabling policies, or a mechanism to handle issues related to persons with disabilities, or a built environment which is fully accessible to persons with disabilities. They are also concerned about the ability of workers with disabilities to comprehend and follow orders, as well as the costs involved in employing and training them. These results imply that if employers want to fulfil their intentions of recruiting persons with disabilities, a lot has to be done to employ and sustain them in their jobs.Key words: Employment, People with Disabilities, Malaysiadoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.28
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Recio, Patricia; Magallares, Alejandro; Molero, Fernando; García-Ael, Cristina
The purpose of this study is to assess the discourse of people with disabilities regarding their perception of discrimination and stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten adults with physical disabilities, ten with hearing impairments and seven with visual impairments. The agreement between the coders showed an excellent reliability for all three groups, with kappa coefficients between .82 and .96. Differences were assessed between the three groups regarding the types of discrimination they experienced and their most frequent emotional responses. People with physical disabilities mainly reported being stared at, undervalued, and subtly discriminated at work, whereas people with hearing impairments mainly reported encountering barriers in leisure activities, and people with visual impairments spoke of a lack of equal opportunities, mockery and/or bullying, and overprotection. Regarding their emotional reactions, people with physical disabilities mainly reported feeling anxious and depressed, whereas people with hearing impairments reported feeling helpless, and people with visual impairments reported feeling anger and self-pity. Findings are relevant to guide future research and interventions on the stigma of disability.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyse the availability of financial resources for people with disabilities and to assess the needs satisfaction level of the disabled in order to eliminate architectural and technical barriers in Poland. The research conducted among the disabled affected by physical disability indicates that mobility barriers and obstacles remain among the most important problems encountered by people with disabilities. The research has shown that the problem of barriers increases with age. The elimination of architectural barriers requires, each time, higher financial expenditure, whereas the elimination of technical barriers improves the life quality of people with disabilities at low financial outlays. The average funding in Poland amounted to PLN 827.53 in 2016, including the funding of EUR 1453.60 for the elimination of architectural barriers and approx. EUR 582 for the removal of technical barriers. The financial resources allocated for this purpose do not cover the actual needs of the people with disabilities. The analysis revealed that the demand for investment in the elimination of barriers is increasing with age, whereas the expenditure of the Polish state is decreasing.
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Butler, Gary
People with learning disabilities have been included in research as co-researchers since the 1990s. However, there is limited literature about the processes of involving people with learning disabilities in the more intellectual and analytical stages of the research process. To examine the potential contribution of people with learning disabilities to data analysis in qualitative research. This article is a reflection on one research experience. The two authors include one researcher with and one without learning disabilities. They each describe their experience and understanding of user involvement in analysing the data of an ethnographic study of people with learning disabilities who had cancer. The researcher with learning disabilities was given extensive vignettes and extracts from the research field notes, and was supported to extract themes, which were cross-compared with the analysis of other members of the research team. The researcher with learning disabilities coped well with the emotive content of the data and with the additional support provided, he was able to extract themes that added validity to the overall analysis. His contribution complemented those of the other members of the research team. There were unexpected benefits, in particular, in terms of a more reciprocal and supportive relationship between the two researchers. It is possible and valuable to extend involvement to data analysis, but to avoid tokenism and maintain academic rigour, there must be a clear rationale for such involvement. Extra support, time and costs must be planned for.
State and other social service agencies as well as service providers are governed by laws that often provide unclear guidance regarding the rights of people with disabilities. Although some standards can be, and have been, developed to protect the rights of people with disabilities, all people with disabilities are not the same and therefore, each can require very different types of accommodations. Some aspects of disability rights must be individually based, including the requirement that people with disabilities receive educational services in the least restrictive environment and care in the most inclusive setting. The current interpretation of these mandates suggests that agency decisions rely on professional judgments. Unless professionals work with their clients, this reliance can serve to disempower those whom the law was intended to protect. Though much debated, the legal definition of a person with a disability is unclear. This article examines the concept of disability and that of the least restrictive environment as well as that of the "most inclusive setting," explains to whom they apply, discusses how they have been defined both in statutes and case law, and elaborates on the role of social workers as a result of the law's reliance on professional judgment in ascertaining client rights.
Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth
Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.
Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann
People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.
Dossa, P A
The literature refers to older people with developmental disabilities as the "new service population." How and why this population emerged as a special category is discussed conceptually with reference to social systems theory. A brief review of social systems theory and some basic systemic tenets are presented. Systemic tenets are employed in examining the historical development of social gerontology and present trends in the service-delivery system. I show that the systemic variable of the economic model of human development has significantly impacted on the making of older people with developmental disabilities a dependent population. In the conclusion the systems perspective is explored in relation to recognizing the liminal, in-between parts between components. It is argued that such a perception minimizes the dichotomy between older people with developmental disabilities and the non-disabled population, paving the way for a genuine encounter.
Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C
Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather
Cleary, Josephine; Doody, Owen
To explore nurses' experiences of caring for older people with intellectual disability and dementia. Ageing and dementia prevalence is increasing along with the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability. As a population group, people with intellectual disability have a high prevalence of dementia, which is higher within the subpopulation of Down syndrome. People with intellectual disability live in residential care, community or residential settings, and nurses are required to adapt their practices to meet the changed needs of the individual. A qualitative Husserlian descriptive phenomenological methodology facilitated the researcher to become absorbed in the quintessence of meaning and explore nurses' experience of working with older people with intellectual disability and dementia. Ethical approval was obtained, and data were collected utilising semistructured interviews (n = 11). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework for data analysis. Three key themes were identified: 'knowledge of dementia', 'person-centred care' and 'transitioning within the service'. The study highlights the need for proactive planning, life story books of the patient, and funding to support client and staff. Overall, the study highlights the importance of knowing the person, supporting the individual and recognising presenting behaviours as outside the control of the individual. This article presents the experiences of nurses caring for the older person with intellectual disability and dementia. Transitions are often very difficult for both the person and their peers, and they experience benefit from the efforts of a multidisciplinary team facilitating a person-centred approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Significant health disparities exist between the general population and people with disabilities, particularly with respect to chronic health conditions. Mobile healthcare—the delivery of healthcare via mobile communication devices—is witnessing tremendous growth and has been touted as an important new approach for management of chronic health conditions. At present, little is known about the current state of mobile healthcare for people with disabilities. Early evidence suggests they are not well represented in the growth of mobile healthcare, and particularly the proliferation of mobile health software applications (mHealth apps for smartphones. Their omission in mHealth could lead to further health disparities. This article describes our research investigating the current state of mHealth apps targeting people with disabilities. Based on a multi-modal approach (literature review, Internet search, survey of disabled smartphone users, we confirm that people with disabilities are under-represented in the growth of mHealth. We identify several areas of future research and development needed to support the inclusion of people with disabilities in the mHealth revolution.
Jones, Michael; Morris, John; Deruyter, Frank
Significant health disparities exist between the general population and people with disabilities, particularly with respect to chronic health conditions. Mobile healthcare-the delivery of healthcare via mobile communication devices-is witnessing tremendous growth and has been touted as an important new approach for management of chronic health conditions. At present, little is known about the current state of mobile healthcare for people with disabilities. Early evidence suggests they are not well represented in the growth of mobile healthcare, and particularly the proliferation of mobile health software applications (mHealth apps) for smartphones. Their omission in mHealth could lead to further health disparities. This article describes our research investigating the current state of mHealth apps targeting people with disabilities. Based on a multi-modal approach (literature review, Internet search, survey of disabled smartphone users), we confirm that people with disabilities are under-represented in the growth of mHealth. We identify several areas of future research and development needed to support the inclusion of people with disabilities in the mHealth revolution.
Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such participation. Providing people with disabilities with information regarding accessible paths and accessible urban places therefore plays a vital role in achieving these goals. The accessibility of urban places and pedestrian networks depends, however, on the interaction between human capabilities and environmental factors, and may be subdivided into physical or social factors. An optimal analysis of accessibility requires both kinds of factors, social as well as physical. Although there has been considerable work concerning the physical aspects of the environment, social aspects have been largely neglected. In this paper, we highlight the importance of the social dimension of environments and consider a more integrated approach for accessibility assessment. We highlight the ways by which social factors such as policies can be incorporated into accessibility assessment of pedestrian networks for people with motor disabilities. Furthermore, we propose a framework to assess the accessibility of pedestrian network segments that incorporates the confidence level of people with motor disabilities. This framework is then used as a tool to investigate the influence of different policies on accessibility conditions of pedestrian networks. The methodology is implemented in the Saint-Roch neighborhood in Quebec City and the effectiveness of three policy actions is examined by way of illustration.
Conway, Sally; Meyer, Donald
In the USA and UK, at least one in ten children and young people have special health, developmental and mental health concerns. Most of these people have typically developing brothers and sisters. As the people who, over the course of their lifetimes together, will be most involved with their siblings with special needs, it is important that…
Sahin, Hatice; Akyol, Asiye D
The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of students towards disabled people and provide suggestions to make necessary changes in the curricula. Disabled people suffer from rejection, exclusion and discrimination. The undergraduate education of future health professionals should include processes of critical thinking towards and analysis of the disabled. Cross-sectional design was used. All the preclinical medical and nursing students in our institution were included in study. Data were collected using the Turkish Attitudes towards Disabled Person Scale (TATDP) and demographical variables. TATDP Scale was scored according to five-point Likert Scale. Students' mean attitude score is 120.57 (SD 15.24). Subscale mean scores are 53.61 (SD 7.25) for compassion (CP), 50.47 (SDS 7.26) for social value (SV) and 16.49 (SD 2.89) for resource distribution (RD). Whilst nursing students had less contact with the disabled, medical students had a closer contact with them. Medical students acquired more prior knowledge about attitudes towards the disabled. Total attitude scores of female students were above the students' mean attitude score when compared to those of male students. Only if early contact is established with patients and the disabled, practical educational strategies are adopted, and the students are provided with information on attitudes about the disabled, will a social model of disability be introduced into the curriculum. This study results were presented to curriculum planning committees of nursing and medical schools, so that they should use them as needs assessment data in developing a disability awareness curriculum. The curriculum will be implemented in cooperation with not only schools but also other social institutions. For instance, clerkship applications will be accomplished by cooperating with nursing homes and organisations of disabled people.
Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen
This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. © The Author(s) 2015.
Venema, Eleonora; Vlaskamp, Carla; Otten, Sabine
Background: Physical integration is believed to be a precondition for social integration. One might expect that in so-called reversed integration, where people without intellectual disabilities (ID) actively choose to live next to people with ID, conditions for physical integration are more optimal,
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.
To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…
Hare, Dougal Julian; Chapman, Melanie; Fraser, Janelle; Gore, Sarah; Burton, Mark
A survey of service providers for people with learning disabilities in the Manchester (England) region identified a total of 174 people with either a confirmed or a suspected autistic spectrum disorder. Discussion of current and historical factors in estimating incidence suggests that the usual 10% of service users represents the lowest estimate…
Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.
Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…
Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina
Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…
Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…
Kramer, John; Hall, Allison; Heller, Tamar
Sibling relationships are some of the longest-lasting relationships people experience, providing ample opportunities to build connections across the life span. For siblings and people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), these connections take on an increased significance as their families age and parents can no longer provide…
Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick
Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). While national and international information has been available on homicides of people in general, little attention has been given to homicides of PWDD specifically. This paper provides a preliminary description of homicides as…
Bouras, N.; Martin, G.; Leese, M.; Vanstraelen, M.; Holt, G.; Thomas, C.; Hindler, C.; Boardman, J.
Although there is an increased risk of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses (SSP) in people with intellectual disability (ID), there is a paucity of research evidence into clinical presentation of the disorder in comparison with research into SSP in people without ID. Aims The aims of the study were to compare clinical, functional, and social factors…
Gawrylowicz, Julie; Gabbert, Fiona; Carson, Derek; Lindsay, William R.; Hancock, Peter J. B.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are as likely as the general population to find themselves in the situation of having to identify and/or describe a perpetrator's face to the police. However, limited verbal and memory abilities in people with ID might prevent them to engage in standard police procedures. Method: Two…
Kiddle, Hannah; Drew, Neil; Crabbe, Paul; Wigmore, Jonathan
Memory cafés have been found to normalise experiences of dementia and provide access to an accepting social network. People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of developing dementia, but the possible benefits of attending a memory café are not known. This study evaluates a 12-week pilot memory café for people with learning…
Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational inclusion is one of the major contemporary challenges in promoting the human rights of people with disabilities in any country. Objective: To carry out a theoretical discussion and analysis of public policy through the characteristics of the legislative framework of the Latin American countries with their respective initiatives, policies and programs to promote the labor inclusion of people with disabilities. Method: The documents were analyzed, with emphasis on content analysis, in order to form a analysis framework on the main characteristics, similarities and challenges faced by these countries. Results: The main initiatives of the Latin American countries have been: 1. approval of legislation with mandatory vacancies in companies and public service; 2. creation of national computerized occupational intermediation systems; 3. Entrepreneurship of people with disabilities and 4. policies for personalized follow-up of the labor inclusion itinerary. Conclusion: The main challenges common to Latin American countries, which become barriers to inclusion, are: 1. To comply with the quotas reserved and to carry out supervision; 2. To increase the educational and professional qualification of the people; 3. To reconcile benefits of non-contributory / social security incomes with occupational contributions, 4. Raise awareness among businesses, families and society about the productivity and capacities of people with disabilities, and 5. Create tax exemptions and other incentives for companies to hire people with disabilities.
BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified
Ann, Ong Chin; Theng, Lau Bee
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate an idea of producing an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) tool that uses natural human computer interfacing to accommodate the disabilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and assist them in their daily communication. Design/methodology/approach: The authors developed a…
In this article, the author gives an overview of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights convention that sets out the fundamental human rights of people with disabilities. The Convention sets out general and specific obligations for…
Moon, Nathan W; Linden, Maureen A; Bricout, John C; Baker, Paul M A
Telework has been promoted as a viable workplace accommodation for people with disabilities since the 1990s, when information and communication technologies (ICT) had developed sufficiently to facilitate its widespread adoption. This initial research and accompanying policy recommendations were prescriptive in nature and frequently aimed at employers. This article adds to existing policy models for facilitating successful telework outcomes for people with disabilities. Drawing upon two studies by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations, we expound on employee-side considerations in the implementation of telework. Our policy model utilizes established typologies for policy evaluation to develop a process model that considers rationales and implementation factors for telework among people with physical disabilities. Telework may be used as an accommodation for disability, but employee rationales for telework are more complex, involving work-life balance, strategies for pain and fatigue not formally recognized as disability, and expediency in travel and transportation. Implementation of telework as a component of workplace operations is similarly multifaceted, involving non-technology accommodations to realize job restructuring left incomplete by telework. Our model grounds new empirical research in this area. We also renew our call for additional research on effective telework practices for people with disabilities.
Marella, Manjula; Devine, Alexandra; Armecin, Graeme Ferdinand; Zayas, Jerome; Marco, Ma Jesusa; Vaughan, Cathy
International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities. A population-based survey was undertaken in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City. 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older were selected with probability proportion to size sampling from both locations. The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) survey was used to identify people with disabilities based on their responses to activity limitations. The levels of well-being and access to the community for people with disabilities were compared with controls matched by age, gender, and cluster. Information on barriers to accessing the community was also collected. The prevalence of disability was 6.8 (95 % CI: 5.9, 7.9) and 13.6 % (95 % CI: 11.4, 16.2) in Quezon City and Ligao City respectively. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported condition in both locations, although it was often reported with a co-morbid condition related to sensory, physical, cognitive, and communication difficulties. The prevalence of disability was associated with age and no schooling, but not associated with poverty. People with disabilities had significantly lower well-being scores and reduced access to health services, work, rehabilitation, education, government social welfare, and disaster management than people without disability. Having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious
Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse
Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased
Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse
Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants' profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is
Full Text Available The United Nations exclaims "all human beings have the right to be treated with dignity and respect" (Annan, 2005, p. 34. Yet, disabled people have long been denied respect in the United States and have been subjected to disability oppression and ableism. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between respect and disability, particularly respect's impact on the quality of life of disabled people. We had two research questions: (1. what factors predict disabled people being respected? and, (2. how does being respected impact the quality of life of disabled people? To explore these questions, we used secondary Personal Outcome Measures® data from approximately 1,500 disabled people; we analyzed this data to examine relationships between disabled people's interpretations of feeling and being respected, and their quality of life. Our findings revealed being respected had a significant impact on every area of ones' quality of life. Problematically, this also included areas which should be considered non-negotiable fundamental human and civil rights, that should not depend on if, and how, people respect disabled people. While the attitudes underlying the disrespect of disabled people are harmful and problematic, human and civil rights should be inalienable – ones' access to exercise their rights, to safety, to health, and to many other domains should not depend on others' attitudes about, and treatment toward, you.
Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona; Kayabu, Bonnix; Fitzgerald, Geraldine; Sheaf, Greg; Dinsmore, John; McConkey, Roy; Clarke, Mike; MacLachlan, Malcolm
The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the interaction between intellectual disability, assistive technology, community living and social inclusion. The review will consider studies from all settings: geographical, socioeconomic and care (institutional and community care), published in English. Studies reported in other languages with abstracts in English will be included if they can be translated using Google Translate, otherwise such studies will be included in the appendix. The review will include both qualitative and quantitative studies. The intervention in this review refers to the use of assistive technology to promote community participation or interpersonal relationships (social inclusion) for people with intellectual disability. The outcomes will be behavioural and social benefits of using assistive technology by people with intellectual disability. Enhanced interpersonal relationships and community participation by people with intellectual disability. Data analysis will be in two phases. The first phase will involve analysis of individual study designs separately. The second phase will be narrative/thematic synthesis of all study groups. The review will not create any ethical or safety concerns. At least one peer-reviewed article in a leading journal such as the BMJ is planned. The findings will also be disseminated through a seminar session involving internal audience at Trinity College Dublin and within the Assistive Technologies for people with Intellectual Disability and Autism research programme. CRD42017065447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article
Matthew C. Saleh
Full Text Available Work is an important part of life, providing both economic security and a forum to contribute one’s talents and skills to society, thereby anchoring the individual in a social role. However, access to work is not equally available to people with disabilities globally. Regulatory environments that prohibit discrimination and support vocational training and educational opportunities constitute a critical first step toward economic independence. However, they have not proven sufficient in themselves. In this article, we aim to infuse deeper consideration of employer practice and demand-side policy reforms into global policy discussions of the right to work for people with disabilities. We begin by documenting the employment and economic disparities existing for people with disabilities globally, followed by a description of the international, regional, and local regulatory contexts aiming to improve labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Next, we examine how policies can leverage employer interests to further address inequalities. We discuss employer policies and practices demonstrated in the research to facilitate recruitment, hiring, career development, retention, and meaningful workplace inclusion. The goal of the article is to synthesize existing international literature on employment rights for people with disabilities with the employer perspective.
Full Text Available Participation in the workforce is lower among people with disabilities worldwide. In this study we explore how people with disabilities perceive their inclusion in working life. Twenty women and men were interviewed. The sample comprises a group of working people experiencing different kinds of physical and sensory disabilities. The employment barriers found were related to accessibility, cooperation among welfare agencies, technical aids and welfare services. We named them as follows: the environmental participation barrier, the jungle of devices, the catch 22 situations, and, the inflexibility of welfare services. According to our interpretation these external barriers hinder people with disabilities from engaging in work and civic life to the extent that they want. Most interviewees in our sample were well-educated and successfully employed, nevertheless they all had experienced barriers in relation to remaining in work. Although the intentions in Sweden and most welfare states is to include people with disabilities in working life there are several obstacles in implementation of this intention.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore caregivers’ views about the risks of the Internet for people with intellectual disabilities and their preparation and ability to use prevention strategies to address them. The participants (20 family members and 24 staff members belonged to a non-profit association working with people with developmental and intellectual disabilities and were asked to respond to a questionnaire about Internet safety and risks. Findings show some concerns from caregivers with regard to the use of the Internet by people with intellectual disabilities and suggest that this group is more vulnerable to online risks. Participants use different kinds of strategies to prevent the risks but they have not received any formal training. They think that this training should come from the Administration and other organisations. Some differences were found between family and staff members’ responses. Training programmes for all the groups involved in this process (i.e. people with intellectual disabilities, staff and family members should be designed, implemented and assessed to promote the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in the digital arena.
Kuiper, L.; Bakker, M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
The aim of this study is to discuss the role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities. Purpose: Finding and maintaining a paid job is known to be more difficult for people with a disability. The aim of the study is to explore the use which people with
Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen
An audit was conducted across Surrey to investigate pain recognition and management with people with learning disabilities. This section of the audit looked at what people with learning disabilities understood and experienced when they had pain compared to good practice from the literature. The results show that people with learning disabilities…
Full Text Available In the present paper we explore how employees with physical disabilities and their human resource managers perceive practices aimed at entry, integration, and development of disabled employees. The results indicate that both sets of respondents want to treat people with disabilities as ‘regular’ employees and take attention away from disability. The results also indicate that employees would like to get additional help, but are afraid to ask. Employers do not offer additional support unless asked, not wanting to highlight the disability given fears of stigmatisation. Given this reluctance from both employees and employers, it is possible that people with disabilities remain an underutilised resource.
Bourgarel, Sophie; Piteau-Delord, Monique
To analyse the logic for the distribution of home care services for disabled children (SESSAD) in a context of under-equipment. Questionnaire-based survey of 75 units (82% of the region's SESSAD units) concerning patient transport. Equipment and transport mapping. Support units for disabled children are often set up in the housing facilities that contributed to their creation. These sites are sometimes situated a long way from densely populated regions, thereby generating unnecessary travel times and expenses. Chronic under-equipment makes these sites viable, as the various units are always full, despite their distance from the children for whom they provide support. Mapping illustrates the extensive recruitment zones overlapping several units managing similar patients. The major revision of accreditation of these units, planned for 2017, could lead to redefinition of geographical zones of accreditations. New unit opening procedures based on ARS calls for tenders may help to improve the geographical distribution of this supportive care.
Helen P Hartnett
Full Text Available AbstractThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA requires employersto provide reasonable accommodations for any qualified individual with adisability. By examining the ongoing evaluation data from the Job AccommodationNetwork (JAN, this study seeks to investigate whether or not genderdifferences are present in the reasonable accommodation process. Open andclosed-ended data are collected using a 20-minute structured telephoneinterview of JAN customers (n= 1,247; 44% response rate. The results show veryfew differences between men’s and women’s accommodation request types, whetheror not accommodations were granted, the costs of requested accommodations, andsatisfaction with JAN. A significant difference, however, was found by genderon the effectiveness of the accommodation. Key Words: Accommodations, Disabilities, Gender, Employment, Social Work Practice
McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue
This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Rickson, Daphne; Warren, Penny
We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some. However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.
There is growing recognition that good ethics and CSR can have a positive economic impact on the performance of firms on large organisations (Joyner & Payne: 2002), however does micro and small businesses have the same good business ethics or values. Moral beliefs and social attitudes of organisations to what they see as the lesser import ethical issues such as disabilities are at best claim their moral merit or their opinion for / or against participation of people with disabilities in their...
Norris, Lucy K.
Background: Only 2% of people with disabilities in developing countries have access to basic services and rehabilitation. Objectives: To bridge this gap, Motivation has been running Peer Training activities since 1993 and has identified that there is a growing need for Peer Training. The overall aim of Peer Training is for wheelchair users (Peer Trainers) to provide others (with similar disabilities) with the relevant knowledge on health issues, rights and skills to achieve a basic level o...
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of accessibility and quality of higher education for students with disabilities. We describe our experience in organising network interaction between the MSUPE Resource and Training Center for Disabled People established in 2016-2017 and partner universities in ‘fixed territories’. The need for cooperation and network interaction arises from the high demand for the cooperation of efforts of leading experts, researchers, methodologists and instructors necessary for improving the quality and accessibility of higher education for persons with disabilities. The Resource and Training Center offers counseling for the partner universities, arranges advanced training for those responsible for teaching of the disabled, and offers specialized equipment for temporary use. In this article, we emphasize the importance of organizing network interactions with universities and social partners in order to ensure accessibility of higher education for students with disabilities.
Haryanti, R. H.
Vocational education is positioned within the framework of Vocational Education for All. Therefore, the alignment between the world of education and the world of work is an issue that is always actual within the framework of vocational education, including being an actual issue for people with disabilities. This article aims to map how the state frames disability and vocational education issues within the framework of public policy. The research was conducted using qualitative research method in which the data obtained from the study of documentation. Analysis of the data using content analysis. The results of the study show that the State Policy has not fully framed the issue of vocational education for the disabled into special policies. The vocational education policy for the disabled is still integrated in the major policies in certain institutions. No policy innovations have yet significantly provided a special place for the disabled.
White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam
Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.
Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona
People with intellectual disability (ID), are some of the most stigmatized and marginalized social groups. Ongoing global initiatives such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCPD) and Strategic Development Goals (SDGs) aim to accelerate their inclusion into the society. In many high-income countries, deinstitutionalization of care for people with ID forms part of the broader social inclusion agenda for people with ID into the society. Access to appropriate assistive technology (AT) can mediate the ongoing normalization/inclusion efforts for people with ID. AT can enable users with ID to access societal processes such as education, employment, socialization or independent living. Effective use of AT can also enhance the formation and/or maintenance of interpersonal relationships by people with ID, thus promote their social support.
Fogden, Billy C; Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P
Studies have suggested that people with intellectual disability are disproportionately involved in crime both as perpetrators and victims. A case linkage design used three Australian contact-level databases, from disability services, public mental health services and police records. Rates of contact, and official records of victimisation and criminal charges were compared to those in a community sample without intellectual disability. Although people with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have an official record of victimisation and offending overall, their rates of violent and sexual victimisation and offending were significantly higher. The presence of comorbid mental illness considerably increased the likelihood of victimisation and offending; several sex differences were also noted. People with intellectual disability are at increased risk for both violent and sexual victimisation and offending. The presence of comorbid mental illness aggravates the risk of offending and victimisation. Future research should focus on a more nuanced exploration of the risks associated with intellectual disability and specific mental disorders and related indices of complexity.
Marsin, J M; Ariffin, S I; Shahminan, R N R
Heritage towns and buildings are invaluable cultural assets of a nation, and are extremely useful in manifesting place identity, and crucial in promoting tourism. These places of cultural significance should be made accessible to everyone including people with mobility or sensory impairments, the elderly, parents with small children and those who are temporarily disabled due to injury or illness. By creating a accessible heritage environment not only can you cater towards the increasing population of disabled people, but you could increase the number of cultural properties as resources of a nation through 'accessible tourism'. However the differences in implementation of barrier-free tourism for historic buildings and places are rather large between developed and developing countries such as Malaysia. This paper serves as preliminary study on accessibility of heritage environment in Malaysia. First, review of some related definitions, perception toward disability, and background studies in disability movement will be discussed to achieve better understanding of the increasing population of disabled people and how it would affect the development of infrastructure in the built environment. Second, it will look into existing legislation concerning heritage conservation and legislation on provision of access for the disabled in Malaysia and other developing countries. Finally, this paper seeks to find gaps between these legislations and conclude with some recommendations
Marsin, J. M.; Ariffin, S. I.; Shahminan, R. N. R.
Heritage towns and buildings are invaluable cultural assets of a nation, and are extremely useful in manifesting place identity, and crucial in promoting tourism. These places of cultural significance should be made accessible to everyone including people with mobility or sensory impairments, the elderly, parents with small children and those who are temporarily disabled due to injury or illness. By creating a accessible heritage environment not only can you cater towards the increasing population of disabled people, but you could increase the number of cultural properties as resources of a nation through 'accessible tourism'. However the differences in implementation of barrier-free tourism for historic buildings and places are rather large between developed and developing countries such as Malaysia. This paper serves as preliminary study on accessibility of heritage environment in Malaysia. First, review of some related definitions, perception toward disability, and background studies in disability movement will be discussed to achieve better understanding of the increasing population of disabled people and how it would affect the development of infrastructure in the built environment. Second, it will look into existing legislation concerning heritage conservation and legislation on provision of access for the disabled in Malaysia and other developing countries. Finally, this paper seeks to find gaps between these legislations and conclude with some recommendations.
Carroll, Clare; Guinan, Nicole; Kinneen, Libby; Mulheir, Denise; Loughnane, Hannah; Joyce, Orla; Higgins, Elaine; Boyle, Emma; Mullarney, Margaret; Lyons, Rena
Although Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression", for people with communication disability this may not be a reality. This commentary shares a practical example of how people with communication disabilities together with speech-language pathology (SLP) students, academics and clinical staff co-designed and co-implemented a Communication Awareness Training Programme for catering staff to enable communication access in coffee shops and restaurants. This is an example of how SLPs can embrace their social responsibility to break down barriers for people with communication disabilities. This commentary shares the reflections of those involved and how they felt empowered because they had learned new skills and made a difference. This commentary highlights the need for co-design and co-delivery of programs to raise awareness of communication disability among catering staff and how the stories of people with communication disabilities served as a catalyst for change. It also highlights the need to SLPs to move intervention to a social and community space.
Full Text Available To improve the service quality of service robots for the disabled, immune system is applied on robot for its advantages such as diversity, dynamic, parallel management, self-organization, and self-adaptation. According to the immune system theory, local environment condition sensed by robot is considered an antigen while robot is regarded as B-cell and possible node as antibody, respectively. Antibody-antigen affinity is employed to choose the optimal possible node to ensure the service robot can pass through the optimal path. The paper details the immune system applications on service robot and gives experimental results.
Del Val, Lara; Jiménez, María I.; Alonso, Alonso; de La Rosa, Ramón; Izquierdo, Alberto; Carrera, Albano
Disabled people already profit from a lot of technical assistance that improves their quality of life. This article presents a system which will allow interaction between a physically disabled person and his environment. This system is controlled by voluntary muscular movements, particularly those of face muscles. These movements will be translated into machine-understandable instructions, and they will be sent by means of a wireless link to a mobile robot that will execute them. Robot includes a video camera, in order to show the user the environment of the route that the robot follows. This system gives a greater personal autonomy to people with reduced mobility.
Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne
The World Health Organization's World report on disability calls upon all nations to 'remove the barriers which prevent [people with disabilities] from participating in their communities; getting a quality education, finding decent work, and having their voices heard' (p. 5). People with communication disability (PWCD), as a consequence of their atypical communication, may be more likely to be excluded from society, and denied their basic human rights, than other people with disability. Fiji, a multicultural and multilingual nation in the south-western Pacific Ocean, has limited services for PWCD. Service providers in Fiji include disability care workers, special education teachers, traditional healers, and a small number of visiting volunteer speech-language pathologists. This paper outlines the historical and current barriers to, and drivers of change for, service development for PWCD in Fiji. Five barriers to service development for PWCD in Fiji were identified. (1) A major structural barrier is the small population size to develop appropriate infrastructure including professional education programs. (2) Geographical barriers include the dispersed geography across 300 islands, low population density, the rural-urban divide, and risk of disaster from cyclones and flooding. (3) Linguistic diversity, while culturally important, can present a barrier to the provision of quality services that are available in the languages spoken by PWCD. (4) Cultural barriers include historical political instability, although Fiji has become more stable due to the recent democratic elections. The social climate affects development of services that are appropriate for different dominant cultural groups. (5) Financial barriers include low gross domestic product, low financial security and low human development index; however, the financial outlook for Fiji is steadily improving due to the change in political stability. Three levels of drivers of change were identified. Macro
Lightfoot, Elizabeth B; LaLiberte, Traci L
This exploratory study examines the delivery of child protection services by county child protection agencies involving cases with a family member with a disability. Telephone surveys were conducted with the directors or their designees of 89% of the child protection agencies in a Midwestern state. Respondents were asked about the policies and/or procedures for approaching cases involving a person with a disability and the barriers and strengths agencies have in serving people with disabilities. Only 6.7% of respondents reported their agency had a written policy related to serving persons with a disability. There were 18 different approaches to serving clients with a disability within child protection, with the most common being informally teaming for information, dual case assignment, and teaming with an outside consultant. Five counties had specialty workers who were experts in both child protection and disability. Barriers reported varied between rural and non-rural counties, with the most important barriers being lack of resources, lack of knowledge regarding disabilities, systems conflicts, and rural issues, such as lack of providers and lack of transportation. Strengths included accessing and coordinating services, individualizing services, good collaboration and creativity. While few county agencies had any written policies, both formal and informal collaboration is happening at the individual level. The lack of standardization in providing services indicates a need for more attention to issues regarding disability within child protection, including more training for workers, the development of models of collaborative case management and the removal of systemic barriers.
Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder
Medicaid, America's largest government-funded health insurance program, plays a pivotal role in providing health services to eight million adults with disabilities. Since the mid-1990s, many Medicaid programs have aggressively introduced managed care, which reconfigures service delivery using...... business principles. Most states have insufficient experience in developing managed care plans for Medicaid beneficiaries with disabilities. Middle-aged adults with physical disabilities present their own constellation of health care issues that is not readily appreciated in health and social services....... The purpose of the study was to understand their experiences in accessing physical health care services and to ascertain the effects of managed care on their health and well-being. This study found beneficiaries encounter numerous barriers in accessing preventative, treatment, and acute care services. Overall...
People with learning disabilities who have a life-threatening illness, are as entitled as other members of the population to receive good palliative care in their home of choice. However, professional carers of people with learning disability are generally unaware of the meaning of palliative care, and how they can access palliative care support. More importantly, they may feel they are not capable of caring for a resident with a life-threatening illness in the home environment. This article uses a case study to help illustrate the value of compiling a resource booklet for professional carers of people with learning disabilities. By providing information on palliative care, that is easy to understand and easily accessible, professional carers of these people can have a valuable resource which will enable them to provide general palliative care when needed. (I use the term professional carers to refer to carers who are paid to look after people with learning disabilities either in care homes, or in supported living homes in the general community).
Park, Yung Keun; Kim, Je Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine prejudices and attitudes of students in the department of physical therapy, in order to suggest basic data for constructing an effective program to develop a positive attitude toward people with disabilities and lower social distance from them. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, students in the department of physical therapy participate in the survey examining prejudices and attitude towards people with disabilities. [Results] First, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had contact on a frequent basis currently with those who have disabilities. Second, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had an experience of being harmed by people with disabilities. Third, there was a correlation among prejudices against people with disabilities with each other that is articulated in the eighth domain. Finally, as a result of regression analysis, the students' attitudes towards people with disabilities were explained appropriately by the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. [Conclusion] It is crucial to create an environment where University students in the department of physical therapy can have positive interactions with people with disabilities, to reduce the overall prejudices, and specifically, the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and about NIMBY syndrome.
Smyth, Phil; McDowell, Claire; Leslie, Julian C; Leader, Geraldine; Donnelly, Mark; Simpson, Elizabeth; Skelly, Laura
Obesity is a significant health challenge. People with Intellectual Disability (ID) are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity. Mobile technology has been developed to support the management of weight and obesity in the form of apps, although not with people with an ID in mind. As a result existing off-the-shelf weight management apps currently available may not be functional in supporting weight reduction within this population. This paper presents the results of consultations with people with ID regarding weight management, comfort with mobile technology and desired characteristics in apps designed for people with ID that target weight management.
Stendal, Karen; Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith
Virtual worlds, such as Second Life[R], are the latest star in the online communication sky. Created by Linden Lab, Second Life is a three-dimensional environment that provides a context for avatars to communicate and socialise with other avatars in a variety of settings (Bell, 2009). Virtual worlds have been used to train people with intellectual…
Northway, Ruth; Howarth, Joyce; Evans, Lynne
The aim of this paper is to explore how making reasonable adjustments to the process of securing ethical approval for research can facilitate the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities as members of a research team. This is achieved through critical reflection upon the approach taken within one participatory research study whose objective was to explore how people with intellectual disabilities understand abuse. Internationally participatory research studies (in which active involvement of community members in all stages of the research process is sought) are becoming increasingly common in the context of health care and, more specifically, within research involving people with intellectual disabilities. However, whilst it is acknowledged that participatory research gives rise to specific ethical challenges, how (or if) involvement in securing ethical approval is facilitated, is not discussed in most research reports. The significance of this paper is that it seeks to address this gap by exploring how meaningful participation can be promoted by making reasonable adjustments. Within the study, the research team worked in collaboration with the ethics committee to identify potential barriers that could prevent the participation of members of the research team who had intellectual disabilities. Reasonable adjustments (such as redesigning forms) were made to the processes involved in securing ethical approval. This study demonstrated that it is possible to ensure that ethical standards are upheld and the requirements of ethics committees met whilst also facilitating the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities. The reasonable adjustments approach explored within this paper can be translated into the context of clinical practice: making changes to the way that services are delivered can promote greater involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in their own health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Munymana, J B; M'kumbuzi, V R P; Mapira, H T; Nzabanterura, I; Uwamariyai, I; Shema, E
To determine the prevalence of HIV among persons with physical disabilities in Rwanda. Across-sectional HIV diagnostic study. A national referral rehabilitation centre in Rwanda. Persons aged 5 to 49 years with lower or upper limb impairments that were obtaining rehabilitation services at the centre. Blood samples were collected from the subjects who voluntarily accepted to participate in the study. Blood samples (4mls) were collected in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to obtain serum which was analyzed using standard HIV rapid tests-determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ag, SD-Bioline and UNI-Gold Recombigen HIV as a tie-breaker. The HIV status of participants--negative or positive. Descriptive statistics were computed to characterize the sample and proportions for the HIV test results. All one hundred and fifty-seven subjects, 59 (37.6%) male and 98 (62.4%) female, completed the study. The HIV prevalence obtained was 5.73%. All participants that tested positive were female and all tested positive for HIV-1. The prevalence obtained was higher than the population prevalence of 3.0% reported for Rwanda. Targeted HIV prevention is required for PWDs in Rwanda, with at least as much rigor as programs targeted towards the general population. Further, this should address the wide range of gender inequalities that make women particularly vulnerable to HIV. Further research needs to be conducted on a larger sample that draws participants from non-institutional settings and from other disability categories; as well as to study more specifically, the risk factors for HIV infection among PWDs in Rwanda.
One of the most pressing problems faced by people recovering from psychiatric disabilities at Singapore Anglican Welfare Council (SAWC) continues to be difficulty in finding jobs. It is posited that recognized certification in various practical, marketable, vocational skills increases employment opportunities for people with psychiatric disabilities. In an effort to provide more effective training and to enhance integration, SAWC started two innovative in-house training programs: the On-tbe-Job Training (OJT) program and the Certificate in Office Skills (COS), both programs approved by the Singapore Institute of Technical Education (ITE). It has been found that people, after completion of the OJT; work with greater confidence and their work quality levels also increase. The COS started in September 1999 and will be completed in November 2000; however, people who participated in the course have responded with great enthusiasm because they were able to focus on a more definite goal in their future.
Devereux, Paul G; Bullock, Charles C; Gibb, Zebbedia G; Himler, Heidi
People with physical disability report lower amounts of emotional and informational social support compared with other populations but it is unclear how influences at the broader societal level impact support in this population. To address this question, Berkman and Glass's social-ecological model was used to examine the influence of upstream factors on interpersonal support in people with physical disability. It was predicted that these factors would influence support even after controlling for the traditional measures linked to social support. 331 adult participants with physical disability (43% female; mean age = 42.7; 88% White) completed an online cross-sectional survey measuring types and sources of social support, social integration, disability impact in social domains, environmental barriers, and relevant psychosocial variables such as depression. A hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that level of disability, perceived tangible support, social integration, depressive symptoms, environmental barriers, occupational independence, and having family or friends as primary support sources were significantly associated with perceived support at the final step (R(2) = .60, F(22, 255) = 17.68, p disability than typical measures studied in the literature. Improving environmental factors will help improve social support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri
This study determines and compares the attitudes of dentists to the provision of care for people with learning disabilities according to gender, qualification, previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities and work experience of dentists. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 dentists (166 men and 81 women) using a pretested structured questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed the respondent's attitude towards learning-disabled patients in five categories: beliefs about treating them, their capabilities, discrimination against these patients, their social behaviour and quality of care to be received by these patients. The information on dentist's gender, qualification, work experience and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities was also collected through questionnaire. The Student's t-test and anova test were used for statistical analysis. The mean attitude score was found to be 71.13 ± 8.97. A statistically significant difference was found in the mean attitude scores of dentists with work experience (p = 0.000). Study subjects with postgraduate qualification and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities had significantly greater mean attitude score than their counterparts (p = 0.000). The overall attitude of dentists towards provision of care for people with learning disabilities was favourable, which increased with higher qualification and past experience. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Bollard, Martin; Lahiff, John; Parkes, Neville
There is limited evidence that explores how to effectively include people with learning disabilities in nurse education in the U.K. The majority of reported work relates to mental health nursing and social work training (Morgan and Jones, 2009). This paper specifically reports on the processes and activities undertaken by the authors with people with learning disabilities in the development of a new BSc learning disability nursing programme, a specific branch of nursing in the U.K. In doing so, findings and discussion from two separate projects involving students and people with learning disabilities will be integrated into the paper. EPICURE (Engagement, Processing, Interpretation, Critique, Usefulness, Relevance and Ethics (Stige et al. 2009) is adopted as a qualitative framework throughout the paper to evaluate the reported work that took place between September 2006 and October 2010. Suggestions are therefore made regarding the benefits and challenges of striving towards an inclusive approach to user involvement in nurse education, with particular reference to learning disability. The work presented in the paper demonstrates how through careful involvement of this population, deeper learning opportunities for all nursing students can be created. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mylene Rose Benigno
Full Text Available Introduction: It is estimated that 15% of the world’s population has a disability, and disasters increase their risk and vulnerability. Rehabilitation services were limited in the area of the Philippines that was affected by Typhoon Haiyan. This study describes the initial rehabilitation needs assessment and activities to increase rehabilitation services conducted in Leyte province of Region 8 after Haiyan. Method: A rehabilitation needs assessment for people with disabilities and injuries needing physical and functional rehabilitation care and assistive devices was conducted in health facilities, evacuation centres and selected municipalities in Leyte province between 9 November 2013 and 30 April 2014 by a consortium of agencies. Improvements to service delivery and referrals were documented. Results: Rehabilitation services were reduced immediately after Haiyan, but they increased in the following months and peaked four months after Haiyan. There were 2998 individuals needing medicine and rehabilitation management, functional care and assistive devices. These included persons with pre-existing disabilities whose situations had worsened and people who had sustained injuries in the typhoon. Additional improvements included rehabilitation services with provision of assistive devices at the regional hospital, development of a directory of disability services in the region and advocacy through community-based rehabilitation. Discussion: Information services and community knowledge for people with disabilities improved in Region 8 after Typhoon Haiyan, demonstrating that strengthening rehabilitation systems is a realistic goal after disasters.
Borghouts - van de Pas, Irmgard; Freese, Charissa
Many countries struggle with non-participation of vulnerable groups. Countries give priority to Active Labour Market Policies (ALMP) to help unemployed and disabled people get back to work, preferably in regular employment. In recent years, some innovative policies have tried to involve employers. There seems to be a paradox between desired social policy outcomes, such as getting people out of social security into regular jobs, and preferred Strategic HRM outcomes, such as being a highly prod...
John T. Morris
Full Text Available Introduction: People with disabilities are generally more vulnerable during disasters and public emergencies than the general population. Physical, sensory and cognitive impairments may result in greater difficulty in receiving and understanding emergency alert information, and greater difficulty in taking appropriate action. The use of social media in the United States has grown considerably in recent years. This has generated increasing interest on the part of national, state and local jurisdictions in leveraging these channels to communicate public health and safety information. How and to what extent people with disabilities use social and other communications media during public emergencies can help public safety organizations understand the communication needs of the citizens in their jurisdictions, and plan their social media and other communications strategies accordingly. Methods: This article presents data from a survey on the use of social media and other communications media during public emergencies by people with disabilities conducted from November 1, 2012 through March 30, 2013. Results: The data presented here show four key results. First, levels of use of social media in general are high for people with disabilities, as well as for the general population. Second, use of social media during emergencies is still low for both groups. Third, levels of use of social media are not associated with income levels, but are significantly and strongly associated with age: younger people use social media at higher rates than older people in both groups (p,0.001. Fourth, differences in the use of social media during emergencies across disability types are slight, with the exception of deaf and hard-of-hearing respondents, the former more likely to have used social media to receive (p¼0.002, verify (p¼0.092 and share (p¼0.007 emergency information . Conclusion: These last two results suggest that effective emergency communications
The purpose of this article is to analyse the incidence of part-time employment among people with disabilities within a European context. Particular attention is paid to the type of part-time employment (voluntary vs. involuntary) and the levels of job satisfaction that people with disabilities report. Using data from the European Community Household Panel for the period 1995-2001, we estimate part-time rates, preferences and levels of job satisfaction for people with and without disabilities for 13 European countries. The results show that a higher number of people with disabilities work part-time, compared to non-disabled workers. This is mainly due to disabled part-time workers having a much higher preference for part-time working than people without disability. This finding is corroborated when we analyse the levels of job satisfaction for disabled part-time workers. Part-time employment becomes a relevant instrument for policy makers and employers to improve the social inclusion, income and labour conditions of the people with disabilities because it allows these people to achieve a much better balance between their personal and health needs and working life.
Horner-Johnson, W; Keys, C B; Henry, D; Yamaki, K; Watanabe, K; Oi, F; Fujimura, I; Graham, B C; Shimada, H
Staff attitudes may affect choices available to persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined attitudes towards people with ID among staff working with people with ID in Japan and the United States. Attitudes of staff working with people with ID in Japan and the United States were compared using the Community Living Attitudes Scale, Intellectual Disabilities Form. Responses were examined via multivariate analysis of variance. In unadjusted analyses, Japanese staff exhibited a greater tendency towards Sheltering and Exclusion of people with ID and lower endorsement of Empowerment and Similarity of people with ID. After controlling for covariates, the country effect was no longer significant for Sheltering and Exclusion. Age and education were significantly associated with attitudes in the adjusted model. While attitudes in Japan appeared less supportive of community inclusion of people with ID, some of the differences between countries were attributable to other staff characteristics such as age and education. Findings provide new information about how attitudes of staff in each country compare with each other. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rimmer, James H; Riley, Barth; Wang, Edward; Rauworth, Amy
We sought to examine the accessibility of health clubs to persons with mobility disabilities and visual impairments. We assessed 35 health clubs and fitness facilities as part of a national field trial of a new instrument, Accessibility Instruments Measuring Fitness and Recreation Environments (AIMFREE), designed to assess accessibility of fitness facilities in the following domains: (1) built environment, (2) equipment, (3) swimming pools, (4) information, (5) facility policies, and (6) professional behavior. All facilities had a low to moderate level of accessibility. Some of the deficiencies concerned specific Americans with Disabilities Act guidelines pertaining to the built environment, whereas other deficiency areas were related to aspects of the facilities' equipment, information, policies, and professional staff. Persons with mobility disabilities and visual impairments have difficulty accessing various areas of fitness facilities and health clubs. AIMFREE is an important tool for increasing awareness of these accessibility barriers for people with disabilities.
Coates, Janine; Vickerman, Philip B
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11-16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.
Fulford, Casey; Cobigo, Virginie
The purpose of this thematic synthesis was to review qualitative studies on perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities regarding friendships and intimate relationships. A literature search was conducted, including studies published between 2004 and 2014, involving participants 14 years of age or older, who had intellectual disabilities, and participated in focus groups or interviews. Eighteen studies were included. Three master themes were identified: (i) How do I know someone is my friend? (ii) How do I know someone is my boyfriend or girlfriend? and (iii) What helps and hinders relationships? Understanding how people with intellectual disabilities describe relationships, and being aware of factors that support and impede relationships, will aid stakeholders in developing training, policies, programmes and services. Knowledge translation of research that focuses on strategies aimed at supporting relationships is crucial to affect change in applied settings and improve quality of life for persons with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nelma Alves Marques Pintor
Full Text Available This work aims to reflect on the importance of dialogue between education and health, basic thought of as public policy in the context of comprehensive care to people with disabilities. These findings emphasize the difficulty faced by these areas to establish a dialogue that results in convergent planning intersectoral action for health promotion, quality of life and social and educational inclusion of disabled people, especially the mentally handicapped. Based on studies of Brazilian authors seek to clarify some facts that underscore the need for dialogue and do not justify the perpetuation of the gap between these fields of knowledge. Presents the partial results of an experience of intersectionality between these areas in the municipal schools of Niterói (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with students with disabilities, which stresses the absence of a culture of popular participation in local public policies.
Full Text Available The paper discribes experience in the implementation of a new educational module “Philosophical and Socio-legal Bases of Supporting for Disabled People” developed by a professional team of Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical Minin University. Forming the communicative competency of disabled people supporting specialist is one of the main tasks of the module. Program developers believe that the structure and content of the educational subjects and practical training programs enables graduates to be prepared for variative communication forms providing educational, social, and cultural support of disable people as well as in the professional field as a whole. The ability of the graduate to communicate efficiently and effectively is required for professional mobility in teaching and non-teaching areas; so this module is a multi-purpose educational development.
Almudena MARTORELL CAFRANGA
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the main barriers that people with intellectual disabilities who have suffered sexual abuse have to face when they access the Justice system. Regarding these barriers, the Victim Support Unit for People with Intellectual Disabilities of the Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce proposes the inclusion in the judicial process of a helper advisor. The entry into force in 2015 of the Law 4/2015, in 27 April, the Statute of the crime victim represents an exemplary opportunity to ensure the incorporation of support proposals involving the insertion of the helper advisor in the judicial process in cases where the victim is a person with intellectual disabilities. In this paper we analyse the impact of the helper advisor, with particular emphasis on cases that have been dismissed under instruction.
Full Text Available The article provides information about the international movement of Abilympics and its development in the Russian Federation: the purposes, tasks and means of career guidance for people with disabilities. Particular attention is paid to the issues of employment of the disabled and to the measures taken by the regional executive authorities responsible for training and employment of the population, including people with disabilities. The article analyses the results of the II National championship of professional skills among people with disabilities and the main data regarding the employment of its participants. Proposals are made on the introduction of career guidance mechanisms and the promotion of employment for people with disabilities through the change in the calculation of ratings of educational institutions, the formation of competence centers and the development of the movement, the involvement of employers in the preparation of competition tasks and evaluation materials for professional skills competitions.
von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Leinonen, Raija; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkinen, Eino; Törmäkangas, Timo; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Rasinaho, Minna; Karhula, Sirkka; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina
To study the effect of a physical activity counseling intervention on instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) disability. Primary care-based, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. City of Jyväskylä, central Finland. Six hundred thirty-two people aged 75 to 81 who were able to walk 500 meters without assistance, were at most moderately physically active, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score greater than 21, had no medical contraindications for physical activity, and gave informed consent for participation. A single individualized physical activity counseling session with supportive phone calls from a physiotherapist every 4 months for 2 years and annual lectures on physical activity. Control group received no intervention. The outcome was IADL disability defined as having difficulties in or inability to perform IADL tasks. Analyses were carried out according to baseline IADL disability, mobility limitation, and cognitive status. At the end of the follow-up, IADL disability had increased in both groups (Pphysical activity counseling intervention had no effect on older sedentary community-dwelling persons with a wide range of IADL disability, although it prevented incident IADL disability. The results warrant further investigation to explore the benefits of a primary care-based physical activity counseling program on decreasing and postponing IADL disability.
Hamzaid, N. H.; Flood, V. M.; Prvan, T.; O'Connor, H. T.
Background: Good nutrition knowledge among carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) living in group homes is essential as they have a primary role in food provision for residents. Research on the nutrition knowledge of carers is limited. Method: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience…
Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha
Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…
Fellinger, J.; Holzinger, D.; Dirmhirn, A.; van Dijk, J.; Goldberg, D.
Background: Early identification of deaf-blindness is essential to ensure appropriate management. Previous studies indicate that deaf-blindness is often missed. We aim to discover the extent to which deaf-blindness in people with intellectual disability (ID) is undiagnosed. Method: A survey was made of the 253 residents of an institute offering…
Methodologies of embodied learning, radical pedagogies and applied drama offer a lens through which to investigate the empowerment of young people with learning disabilities in Northern Ireland, thus counteracting more traditional, disempowering methods. According to Helen Nicholson, the "participatory, dialogic and dialectic qualities as…
This paper examines transition scenarios to adult and active life in Spain from an inclusive viewpoint. For people with learning disabilities, the transition to adult life is a particularly complex process worldwide, and this is especially true in Spain. The multitude of services and professionals involved, the diversity of views regarding what…
Cherney, James L.
Examines the potential benefits and limitations of cyborg politics. Explores depictions of cyborgs in science fiction stories and examines the deaf culture's arguments in the cochlear-implant debate. Investigates the current viability of cyborg politics as a mode of advocacy for people with disabilities. (SC)
Winter, L.J. de; Hoyng, C.B.; Froeling, P.G.A.M.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of remediable visual disability among institutionalised elderly people, resulting from inappropriate use or non-use of low-vision aids, is reported to be high, but largely rests on anecdotal evidence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of binocular low vision and underlying
Disability and Quality of Life among People Living. With HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, ... activities of daily living as well as challenges with. 7,8 ... infected individuals, their family and the society at large. ... Independence, Social Relationships, Environment ..... efavirenz on neuropsychological performance .... Acta paul. enferm. 2015 ...
Nazirzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Çagiltay, Kürsat; Karasu, Necdet
It is understood that, for mentally disabled people, it is hard to generalize skills and concepts from one setting to another. One approach to teach generalization is solving the problems related to their daily lives, which helps them to reinforce some of their behaviors that would occur in the natural environment. The aim of this study is to…
Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer
The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…
Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley
People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…
Full Text Available Aims: Daily work with people with mental disabilities is extremely demanding, both physically and psychologically. This study aims to characterize different workers of institutions that deliver care to people with intellectual disabilities regarding their stress vulnerability, personality type, coping strategies and psychopathological symptoms and explore associations between these variables and some sociodemographic and professionals variables. Methods: 68 professionals from institutions that work with people with mental disabilities, aged between 19 to 62 years (M = 36.3, SD = 11.65, answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 23-Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire (23-QVS, the Eysenck Personality Inventory-12 (EPI-12, the Brief Cope, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI. Results: In this sample of workers, higher levels of stress vulnerability were associated with higher levels of neuroticism and of psychopathological symptoms. Women presented higher levels of somatization, younger professionals and with less education were more vulnerable to stress. Work overload was associated to stress vulnerability and to psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: This study confirms that workers of institutions that receive people with intellectual disabilities present higher levels of stress vulnerability and higher risk of developing psychopathological symptoms. It is urgent to implement intervention measures (preventive and/or therapeutic to relieve these professionals stress, improving their mental health. It seems that workers with higher levels of neuroticism might benefit more from these interventions.
Hatton, Chris; Wigham, Sarah; Craig, Jaime
Background: There is an absence of research concerning the assessment of housing support worker job performance, particularly in the development of job performance measures that reflect the priorities of people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Method: A worker-oriented job analysis method was used to develop four short job…
For some, community inclusion facilitates access to alcohol and drugs and, therefore, the potential for developing substance abuse disorders. However, little is known about substance abuse treatment use among people with intellectual disabilities. Using standardized performance measures, substance abuse treatment utilization was examined for…
Favazza, Paddy C.; Odom, Samuel L.
This study examined the effects of contact, books, and discussions on attitudes of kindergarten-age children (N=46) toward people with disabilities. At posttest, significant gains in acceptance were found only in a high-contact group who participated in a program designed to promote acceptance through storytime at school and home, structured play,…
... Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, via e-mail at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or via... contact Laverdia Taylor Roach, Director, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities... and universally designed technologies. Dated: May 24, 2011. Laverdia Taylor Roach, Director, PCPID...
...) should notify Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or... contact Laverdia Taylor Roach, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities, The... universally designed technologies. Dated: June 27, 2011. Laverdia Taylor Roach, PCPID. [FR Doc. 2011-16604...
Mergler, S.; Lobker, B.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Reduced mobility in case of motor impairment and the use of anti-epileptic drugs contribute to the development of low BMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of the heel bone is a non-invasive and radiation-free method for measuring bone…
Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Bezyak, Jill L.; Keegan, John
Health promotion has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research. Health promotion research contributes to theory building and provides the foundation for empirically supported interventions that can improve the health-related quality of life and employment outcomes of people with chronic illness and disability. In this…
O'Leary, Lisa; Taggart, Laurence; Cousins, Wendy
Background: The health-related behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities may be determined by organisational influences. This innovative study aimed to explore managers' and staffs' perspectives on organisational influences on the promotion of healthy behaviours for this population. Method: A qualitative methodology was employed. Four…
Leggett, Janice; Goodman, Wendy; Dinani, Shamim
This article describes a small qualitative study investigating the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have been interviewed by the police, including their views on Appropriate Adults (AAs). Of concern, but consistent with other research in this area, a significant proportion of this, albeit small, group were not afforded the…
Hanna, L. M.; Taggart, L.; Cousins, W.
Background: As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are living longer, their chances of developing cancer also increases. However, recognising the early signs and symptoms of cancer in a population with cognitive impairment and communication difficulties poses difficulties for both family carers and professional care staff. Engagement in…
Robertson, Janet; Chadwick, Darren; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris
Dysphagia (feeding and swallowing disorder) is associated with serious health complications and psychosocial sequelae. This review summarizes international research relating to the prevalence of dysphagia in people with intellectual disability. Studies published from 1990 to July 2016 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of…
Moran, Thomas Eugene; Taliaferro, Andrea R.; Pate, Joshua R.
Community-based physical activity programs for people with disabilities have barriers that are unique to their program leader qualifications and the population they serve. Moran and Block (2010) argued that there is a need for practical strategies that are easy for communities to implement, maximize resources, and minimize the impact of barriers…
Clarke, Zara Jane; Thompson, Andrew R.; Buchan, Linda; Combes, Helen
There are few measures of pain for people with limited ability to communicate. Eight parents of adults with a known learning disability and associated physical health complaint were interviewed to explore their experience of identifying and managing the pain felt by their children. The parents did not often perceive their son or daughter to be in…
A.P. Visser; Dr. A.L. van Staa; Dr. H.A. van der Stege; Dr. S.R. Hilberink
The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals’ intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional
Chadwick, Darren D.; Mannan, Hasheem; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne; McConkey, Roy; O'Brien, Patricia; Finlay, Frieda; Lawlor, Anne; Harrington, Gerry
Background: Families in Ireland remain the main providers of support for people with Intellectual disabilities, and the aim of this study was to map their life experiences whilst involving their family members as co-researchers. Materials and Method: This qualitative, participatory study involved 10 focus groups attended by 70 parents and siblings…
Dunn, Kirsty; Hughes-McCormack, Laura; Cooper, Sally-Ann
Background: People with intellectual disabilities may have inequalities in hospital admissions compared with the general population. The present authors aimed to investigate admissions for physical health conditions in this population. Methods: The present authors conducted a systematic review, searching six databases using terms on intellectual…
Hillman, A.; Donelly, M.; Whitaker, L.; Dew, A.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Knox, M.; Shelley, K.; Parmenter, T. R.
Background: This research describes issues related to human rights as they arose within the everyday lives of people in nine personal support networks that included adult Australians with an intellectual disability (ID). Method: The research was part of a wider 3-year ethnographic study of nine personal support networks. A major criterion for…
Marks, Beth; Sisirak, Jasmina; Heller, Tamar
For people with disabilities, a good health and nutrition program can have life-changing results: more energy, increased knowledge, more confidence and self-esteem, and fewer serious health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. This innovative, easy-to-implement curriculum is the perfect way to help adults build healthy…
as the basic principle in social law. This does not mean, however, that the use of coercive measures is removed from social law. In this paper our focus is on two social groups who historically have been the target of comprehensive compulsory interventions – adult substance abusers and mentally disabled people...
Full Text Available South Africa is one of the countries facing the challenge of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sanitation. At least five percent of the South African population consists of people with disabilities (PWDs) and the question remains...
Bonell, Simon; Ali, Afia; Hall, Ian; Chinn, Deborah; Patkas, Ioannis
Background: Little has been published regarding the views of family members of people with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in out-of-area psychiatric hospitals. This study explores this area with specific reference to whether culturally appropriate services were being provided. Materials and Methods: Sixteen family members were…
Marwood, Hayley; Chinn, Deborah; Gannon, Kenneth; Scior, Katrina
Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) should be able to access the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, currently a main provider of mainstream mental health services in England. IAPT offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to individuals experiencing mental health problems, although its effectiveness…
Fillary, Rose; Pernice, Regina
Background: Research evidence suggests that investigation of workplace culture assists in enhancing social inclusion of and job retention by people with intellectual disability. Method: This research explored the potential of using Hagner's (2000) "Workplace Culture Survey" to identify inclusive characteristics of eight New Zealand…
Wagemans, A.; Schrojenstein Lantman, H.M.J. van; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Widdershoven, G.; Curfs, L.M.G.
BACKGROUND: While end-of-life decisions in the general population have received attention in several countries, not much is known about this in people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Therefore, the prevalence and nature of end-of-life decisions were investigated in a Dutch centre providing
McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana
The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…
Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris
Background: Poor postural care can have severe and life-threatening complications. This scoping review aims to map and summarize existing evidence regarding postural care for people with intellectual disabilities and severely impaired motor function. Method: Studies were identified via electronic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and…
Vos, E.L. de
In the Netherlands growing numbers of young people and adolescents are in receipt of special education, mental health care services and benefits because of long-term illness, handicap or chronic disease. The most alarming increase is in those covered by the Disablement Assistance Act for Handicapped
Allen, David; Langthorne, Paul; Tonge, Bruce; Emerson, Eric; McGill, Peter; Fletcher, Robert; Dosen, Anton; Kennedy, Craig
Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary…
This article reports on an evaluation of four family support programmes in Ireland for families of people with a physical or an intellectual disability or autism. The focus of the evaluation, which took place within a year of the programmes\\' completion, was on establishing whether the programmes had an impact on families\\' capacity to effectively support their family member.