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Sample records for profound visual impairment

  1. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...

  2. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES – THE WAY OF SOCIALIZATION OF PEOPLE WITH PROFOUND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii I. Netosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.

  4. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  5. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  7. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  8. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  9. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  10. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  11. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  12. Frequency compression hearing aid for severe-to-profound hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K

    2000-10-01

    Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.

  13. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  14. The visually impaired patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenberg, EA

    2008-01-01

    ... and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy...

  15. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  16. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...

  17. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  18. The visually impaired patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eric A; Sperazza, Laura C

    2008-05-15

    Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting.

  19. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogate Parikshit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

  20. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    N Kozeis

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  1. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  2. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  3. Fears of Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, S. A.; Kratochwill, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of the number, content, and intensity of fears of 42 visually impaired children, aged 5-18, found more fears of potentially physically dangerous situations than of psychologically harmful ones and little difference between the number of mild and severe fears. Counselors' estimations of children's fears generally disagreed with the…

  4. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  5. Prevalence of visual and hearing impairment in a Dutch institutionalized population with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, H M; Theunissen, M; Denkers, I; Verschuure, H; Kemme, H

    2001-10-01

    A screening of hearing and visual function was performed using clinical assessment methods in a Dutch institutionalized population of 672 people with mild to profound intellectual disability (ID). Because the studied population was not comparable to the total Dutch population with ID, subgroups were distinguished according to level of ID, age younger and older than 50 years, and the presence or absence of Down's syndrome (DS). The prevalences of both hearing and visual impairment were considerably increased in all subgroups, as compared with the general population. In the least affected group, i.e. those or = 50 years. To a lesser extent, young adults with severe or profound ID had an increased risk of hearing impairment. Visual impairment and blindness were specifically highly prevalent in people with severe or profound ID (51% or = 50 years were also significant risk factors for visual impairment. There was an alarmingly high prevalence of combined sensory impairment, especially in those with severe or profound ID (20%). Although hearing impairment had been diagnosed prior to this screen in 138 people and visual impairment in 65 individuals, a first diagnosis of hearing impairment was made in 128 subjects and of visual impairment in 90 cases. This highlights the tendency for sensory impairments to go unnoticed in people with ID, which is not restricted to those with severe or profound ID. Therefore, the present authors stress the importance of regular screening as outlined in the existing IASSID international consensus statement.

  6. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  7. Intensive Training Program To Enhance Life Skills among People Who Are Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Saravanabhavan, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a summer program teaching independent living skills to 20 adults with visual impairments. Results suggest the program had a lasting and profound impact on clients' previously low knowledge of job hunting, decision making, stress management, and self-care skills. Interaction with other adults with visual impairments and…

  8. Manneristic behaviors of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Alysha; Rowe, Fiona J

    2011-09-01

    To review the literature on visual impairment in children in order to determine which manneristic behaviors are associated with visual impairment, and to establish why these behaviors occur and whether severity of visual impairment influences these behaviors. A literature search utilizing PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge databases was performed. The University of Liverpool ( www.liv.ac.uk/orthoptics/research ) and local library facilities were also searched. The main manneristic or stereotypic behaviors associated with visual impairment are eye-manipulatory behaviors, such as eye poking and rocking. The degree of visual impairment influences the type of behavior exhibited by visually impaired children. Totally blind children are more likely to adopt body and head movements whereas sight-impaired children tend to adopt eye-manipulatory behaviors and rocking. The mannerisms exhibited most frequently are those that provide a specific stimulation to the child. Theories to explain these behaviors include behavioral, developmental, functional, and neurobiological approaches. Although the precise etiology of these behaviors is unknown, it is recognized that each of the theories is useful in providing some explanation of why certain behaviors may occur. The age at which the frequency of these behaviors decreases is associated with the child's increasing development, thus those visually impaired children with additional disabilities, whose development is impaired, are at an increased risk of developing and maintaining these behaviors. Certain manneristic behaviors of the visually impaired child may also help indicate the cause of visual impairment. There is a wide range of manneristic behaviors exhibited by visually impaired children. Some of these behaviors appear to be particularly associated with certain causes of visual impairment or severity of visual impairment, thus they may supply the practitioner with useful information. Further research into the

  9. [Care of visual impairment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C Y

    1994-03-01

    Visual impairment refers to a loss of visual acuity or one or more functions of the eye and visual system. It is not necessarily a disability or a handicap for the individual. The majority of visually impaired children are multihandicapped. Diagnostic and treatment centers have been introduced in an attempt to resolve present difficulties in providing health care to the multihandicapped. Pseudoretardation can occur in blind children if adequate opportunities are not provided for learning. Early diagnosis of visual impairment is important for obvious medical reasons. Early referral of blind children and their families to agencies for help is crucial. Almost invariably, mothers are the first to suspect that something is wrong with their infants' eyes. An ophthalmological examination, rather than simple reassurance, is needed. How an ophthalmologist leads parents through the period after diagnosis and the following next few weeks will affect the child's life much more than is generally realized. There is a need for a multidisciplinary team approach to evaluation and treatment of blind children. Cerebral palsy and profound visual impairment are a bad combination. Visual impairment alone does not predispose to a specific learning disability. Partially sighted students can be helped in various ways to function in their class.

  10. Noonan Syndrome: An Underestimated Cause of Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment. Which Clues to Suspect the Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alban; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; Cavé, Hélène; Baujat, Geneviève; Gherbi, Souad; Couloigner, Vincent; Marlin, Sandrine

    2017-09-01

    To highlight Noonan syndrome as a clinically recognizable cause of severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. New clinical cases and review. Patients evaluated for etiological diagnosis by a medical geneticist in a reference center for hearing impairment. Five patients presenting with confirmed Noonan syndrome and profound sensorineural hearing impairment. Diagnostic and review of the literature. Five patients presented with profound sensorineural hearing impairment and molecularly confirmed Noonan syndrome. Sensorineural hearing impairment has been progressive for three patients. Cardiac echography identified pulmonary stenosis in two patients and was normal for the three other patients. Short stature was found in two patients. Mild intellectual disability was found in one patient. Inconspicuous clinical features as facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism, or easy bruising were of peculiar interest to reach the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. Profound sensorineural hearing impairment can be the main feature of Noonan syndrome. Associated features are highly variable; thus, detailed medical history and careful physical examination are mandatory to consider the diagnosis in case of a sensorineural hearing impairment.

  11. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  12. Computer Access for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolick, Bettye

    1984-01-01

    Provides information on and evaluation of microcomputer equipment modifications for improving accessibility to the visually impaired. Equipment discussed includes input and visual output modification techniques and devices, software designed for visually impaired users, and braille output peripherals. Lists sources for available peripherals,…

  13. Visual impairment workshop for sighted students

    OpenAIRE

    Habjan, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The education process based on the inclusion concept enables primary school education close to home to children with visual impairment. Before admission of visual impairment pupil, the school environment and didactic materials are adapted and teachers are provided with additional training. The preparation of sighted peers is often ignored, who form erroneous ideas through observing the adaptations and activities of a visual impairment peer, or adopt prejudices and stereotypical beliefs from ...

  14. Evaluating aged mice in three touchscreen tests that differ in visual demands: Impaired cognitive function and impaired visual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Nathalie; van Dorsselaer, Pascal; Steckler, Thomas; Talpos, John C

    2017-08-30

    Normal aging is often accompanied by reductions in cognitive abilities as well as impairments in visual acuity in men and mice. In preclinical models of human cognition this concomitance can make it difficult to assess the relative contributions of declined vision and cognitive ability on behavioral measures of cognition. To assess the influence of age on cognition and the impact of visual decline on the performance of touchscreen-based behavioral paradigms in mice, aged (11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 21 months old) male C57BL/6J mice were compared to young (3 or 4 months old) male C57BL/6J mice using three tests of cognition as well as an assessment of visual acuity. Performance of a Visual Discrimination, Spatial Reversal, and an Automated Search Task were all affected by age. However, there was no relationship between reduced visual acuity and the observed performance impairments. Moreover, the visual acuity of animals with profound cognitive impairments overlapped with those showing normal cognitive ability. Despite the potential confound of impaired visual ability, it appears that the touchscreen approach might be particularly effective in studying age-related cognitive decline. This approach will increase the utility of aged mice as a model of decreased cognitive flexibility and may be particularly important for the study of age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Profound Expressive Language Impairment in Low Functioning Children with Autism: An Investigation of Syntactic Awareness Using a Computerised Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as "monkey…

  16. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  17. Play Environments for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneekloth, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The study compared the motor activities and environmental interactions of sighted and visually impaired children (N=36), ages 7-13. Analysis suggested that some developmental delays in visually impaired children may result from lack of gross motor interactions with the environment. Implications for the design of play environments and personnel…

  18. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  19. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  20. Recess for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…

  1. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  2. Symptoms of stroke-related visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona

    2013-06-01

    Investigate the frequency and type of visual symptoms following stroke. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Vision in Stroke [VIS]) in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. Standardized referral/investigation protocol with detailed assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment/motility, visual field and visual perception, plus quality of life score. A total of 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69.18 years (standard deviation 14.19). Reported symptoms included diplopia, blurred vision, reading difficulty, field loss, perceptual difficulty, and oscillopsia. Sixteen percent (149) had no visual symptoms: 22 patients had normal eye examinations by orthoptic assessment and 127 had diagnoses of central/peripheral visual loss, ocular motility or perceptual abnormalities. Eighty-four percent had visual symptoms, but 50 patients had normal eye examinations. There was no significant difference in type of symptom and quality of life score. Treatment included refraction, prisms, occlusion, orthoptic exercises, low vision aids, and advice. Of those with no visual symptoms, 85% had objectively measured visual impairment. Conversely, 6.5% of those with visual symptoms had normal orthoptic examinations. Thus the presence or absence of visual symptoms does not infer absence or presence of visual impairment and may relate to recovery of visual impairment, cognitive, or communication impairment.

  3. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, H M; Sjoukes, L; Koot, H M; Kooijman, A C

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based questionnaires, prior to expert assessment of visual function. With linear regression analysis the percentage of variance, explained by levels of visual function, was calculated for the total population and per ID level. A total of 107/269 participants were visually impaired or blind (WHO criteria). On top of the decrease by ID visual impairment significantly decreased daily living skills, communication & language, recognition/communication. Visual impairment did not cause more self-absorbed and withdrawn behaviour or anxiety. Peculiar looking habits correlated with visual impairment and not with ID. In the groups with moderate and severe ID this effect seems stronger than in the group with profound ID. Although ID alone impairs daily functioning, visual impairment diminishes the daily functioning even more. Timely detection and treatment or rehabilitation of visual impairment may positively influence daily functioning, language development, initiative and persistence, social skills, communication skills and insecure movement.

  4. Astronomy for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a number of ways of communicating astronomy topics, ranging from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics, to the blind and visually impaired. A major aim of these projects is to provide access which goes beyond the use of the tactile sense to improve knowledge transfer for blind and visually impaired students. The models presented here are especially suitable for young people of secondary school age.

  5. Image Enhancement For The Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, Eli; Peli, Tamar

    1984-02-01

    Application of image processing for the visually impaired is discussed. Image degradation in the low vision patient's visual system can be specified as a transfer function obtained by measurements of contrast sensitivity. The effectiveness of adaptive image enhancement for printed pictures is demonstrated using an optically simulated cataractous lens.

  6. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    OpenAIRE

    Porro, G.L.; Dekker, E.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Schilder, M.B.H.; Wittebol - Post, D.; Schenk-Rootlieb, A.J.F; Treffers, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A serie...

  7. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  8. Navigating Uncertainty: Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Skill, and Confidence in Assessing and Managing Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child’s parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented.

  9. Participation of adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities: Definition and operationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, Gineke; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van der Putten, Annette A J; Waninge, Aly

    2017-02-01

    The available opinions regarding participation do not appear to be applicable to adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities (VSPID). Because a clear definition and operationalization are lacking, it is difficult for support professionals to give meaning to participation for adults with VSPID. The purpose of the present study was to develop a definition and operationalization of the concept of participation of adults with VSPID. Parents or family members, professionals, and experts participated in an online concept mapping procedure. This procedure includes generating statements, clustering them, and rating their importance. The data were analyzed quantitatively using multidimensional scaling and qualitatively with triangulation. A total of 53 participants generated 319 statements of which 125 were clustered and rated. The final cluster map of the statements contained seven clusters: (1) Experience and discover; (2) Inclusion; (3) Involvement; (4) Leisure and recreation; (5) Communication and being understood; (6) Social relations; and (7) Self-management and autonomy. The average importance rating of the statements varied from 6.49 to 8.95. A definition of participation of this population was developed which included these seven clusters. The combination of the developed definition, the clusters, and the statements in these clusters, derived from the perceptions of parents or family members, professionals, and experts, can be employed to operationalize the construct of participation of adults with VSPID. This operationalization supports professionals in their ability to give meaning to participation in these adults. Future research will focus on using the operationalization as a checklist of participation for adults with VSPID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cause of visual impairment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that the patients who reported to the hospital form the tip of the iceberg of patients who have undergone couching. Many of those who are yet to present to the hospital are probably still using one normal eye or they might have accepted their fate in good faith. The poor visual acuity following couching for cataract.

  11. [Ophthalmological rehabilitation of visually impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, E K; Nguyen, N X

    2017-07-01

    There are very few studies on visually impaired children in Germany; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the current spectrum of diseases of visually impaired children and the care of these children in schools and kindergartens with aids and integrative support. In a retrospective study all children (n =303) who attended the outpatient department for the visually impaired of the University Eye Hospital Tübingen in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated. The target values were ophthalmological diagnosis, best corrected visual acuity, needs for magnification, prescribed aids, measures for early support and integrative care and inclusion during schooltime. The most frequent diagnosis in this collective which led to visual impairment in children was optic atrophy (22.4%) followed by hereditary retinal dystrophy (18.5%), congenital nystagmus (9.9%), albinism (8.6%), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, 7.9%), aniridia (4.6%), cerebral visual impairment (CVI, 4.3%) and severe myopia (3%). Of the children 21% suffered from multiple disabilities, 66% were visually impaired (visual acuity ≤0.3 and >0.05), 9% were severely visually impaired (visual acuity ≤0.05) and 6% were legally defined as blind (visual acuity ≤0.02). Of the schoolchildren 52% (n = 241) were able to visit a mainstream school within the framework of integrative care. For 77% of these schoolchildren integrative care was already provided by a special pedagogic institution at the time of presentation for school entry and 73% of all the schoolchildren needed magnifying aids at school: 20% used optical magnifying aids (e.g. reading stones) and 53% needed electronic magnifying aids, such as screen magnifiers or camera reading systems. Particularly for children, the use of magnifying aids for reading is essential for education in schools and 73% of the children used optical or electronic devices for reading. Of the children 52% attended a mainstream school and were additionally supported by special

  12. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H. M.; Kooijman, A. C.; Evenhuis, H.

    This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based

  13. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, H.M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H.M.; Kooijman, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with

  14. Does Visual Impairment Lead to Additional Disability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H. M.; Kooijman, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based questionnaires, prior to expert…

  15. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    since the model is based on data for this group. Likewise, the theoretical model is conservative estimate for the hearing impaired participants moving on horizontal planes. For all tested subpopulations the walking speed decreased with increasing person density, but the visually impaired participants...... and with a special focus on blind and visually impaired people. An experimental program is designed to obtain data on walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs, interaction between participants and their interaction with the building environment. Experiments are conducted in different buildings including...... for a safe and easy evacuation, challenge the movement for occupants having an impairment. Quantitative results on reaction times, walking speeds horizontally and descending stairs are also obtained from the experiments. It is found that N&M model correlates with results found able-bodied. This is expected...

  16. Questions of Needs of Elderly People with Visual Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    JEŽEK, Václav

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical part charactrises groups of visual acuity, mostly eye diseases in elderly people, mostly needs elderly people with visually impairment, global rehabilitations of the seniors with visually impairment, special optical aids and compensation aids for visually impairment and social services and social benefits for seniors with visually impairment.Teoretical part of this workconserning seniors with visually impairmend has a edition practical part with report of pilot study provided ...

  17. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maria Aparecida Onuki; Sampaio, Marcos Wilson; Oltrogge, Ernst Werner; Kara-José, Newton; Betinjane, Alberto Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 x magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  18. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  19. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  20. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  1. Web Widgets Barriers for Visually Impaired Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas Pereira, Letícia; Archambault, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Currently, websites are mainly composed of web widgets, dynamic elements and updatable sections - like autosuggest list, carousel, slideshow etc. In order to contribute with the development of accessible rich internet applications, this work aims to better understand the interaction of severely visually impaired users with these pages, gathering their main barriers and difficulties.

  2. TOWARDS A CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWILDT, GJ; KOOIJMAN, AC; DUMBAR, G; CORNELISSEN, FW

    1992-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of people with impaired vision, it is essential to have adequate (preferably quantitative) information about their residual visual functions. Special attention is given to the extra information provided by the results of measurement of the contrast sensitivity, especially in

  3. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  4. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaul, David

    2016-09-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  5. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Performance Visualization for Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Hiraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We have been teaching computer music to hearing impaired students of Tsukuba College of Technology for six years. Although students have hearing difficulties, almost all of them show an interest in music. Thus, this has been a challenging class to turn their weakness into enjoyment. We thought that performance visualization is a good method for them to keep their interest in music and try cooperative performances with others. In this paper, we describe our computer music class and the result of our preliminary experiment on the effectiveness of visual assistance. Though it was not a complete experiment with a sufficient number of subjects, the result showed that the show-ahead and selected-note-only types of performance visualization were necessary according to the purpose of the visual aid.

  7. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    -D). The mean free walking speed descending stairs for category C and D were found to be comparable with values found in Danish and Swedish guidelines. The walking speed of people with visible impairments was not affected by an increasing density on stairs to the same extent as the walking speed of able......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...

  8. Profound expressive language impairment in low functioning children with autism: an investigation of syntactic awareness using a computerised learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as 'monkey flies'. The game progressed in levels from 2 to 4 word sequences, contingent upon success at each stage. Although performance was highly variable across participants, a detailed review of their learning profiles suggested that no child lacked syntactic awareness and that elementary syntactic control in a non-speech domain was superior to that manifest in their spoken language. The reasons for production failures at the level of speech in children with autism are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of quality of life of visually impaired

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; de Araújo, Moziane Mendonça; Braga, Fernanda Cavalcante; Fernandes, Giselle Taveira; Costa, Samira Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the quality of life of visually impaired using WHOQOL-100. exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, performed between April and May 2013 with 20 visually impaired of the Blind Association of Ceará...

  10. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Implicit Mentalizing Persists beyond Early Childhood and Is Profoundly Impaired in Children with Autism Spectrum Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwerk, Tobias; Jarvers, Irina; Vuori, Maria; Sodian, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC). This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and non-verbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.

  12. Psychological and special pedagogical strategies acceptance of progressive visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Helebrantová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on psychological and special pedagogical strategies acceptance of progressive visual impairment. The first chapter deals with the psyche of individuals with progressive visual impairment. It seeks to chart the possibilities of managing this difficult situation. Attention is also paid to the child's personality with progressive visual impairment. The second chapter focuses on issues of progressive visual impairment from a medical point of view. Describes a progressive...

  13. Implicit mentalizing persists beyond early childhood and is profoundly impaired in children with autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schuwerk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC. This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and nonverbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.

  14. Views of Children with Visual Impairment on the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the views of children with visual impairment on the challenges of inclusion. A questionnaire was administered on 20 children with visual impairment. These had been randomly selected from three schools that were including children with visual impairment in their teaching and learning ...

  15. The Role of Resource Persons of the Visually Impaired in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of resource persons in facilitating the education of the visually impaired in the mainstreaming institutions in Ghana. All the eight mainstreaming institutions for the visually impaired in Ghana were used for the study. A total sample of III students with visual impairment, 8 heads ...

  16. Visually Impaired Students' Perceptions of Their Social Integration in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jan S.; Keller, M. Jean

    1999-01-01

    A study identified the perceptions of six college students with visual impairments on what influenced their social activity on campus. It found influences were different for visually-impaired students than for traditional students. The need to intervene in the social development of students with visual impairments before college is stressed.…

  17. Visual Impairment and Ocular Findings among Deaf and Hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual Impairment and Ocular Findings among Deaf and Hearing Impaired School Children in Central Region, Ghana. ... The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 5.8% among hearing impaired school children in the Central Region of Ghana. ... Keywords: Disability, eye, ear, refractive error, ocular deviation .

  18. Sonar bat for visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrero Rodríguez, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Visually impaired people have many difficulties when traveling because it is impossible for them to detect obstacles that stand in their way. Bats instead of using the sight to detect these obstacles use a method based on ultrasounds, as their sense of hearing is much more developed than that of sight. The aim of the project is to design and build a device based on the method used by the bats to detect obstacles and transmit this information to people with vision problems to improve the...

  19. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  20. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  1. Web-based multimodal graphs for visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W; Reid, D.; Brewster, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of Web-based multimodal graphs designed for visually impaired and blind people. The information in the graphs is conveyed to visually impaired people through haptic and audio channels. The motivation of this work is to address problems faced by visually impaired people in accessing graphical information on the Internet, particularly the common types of graphs for data visualization. In our work, line graphs, bar charts and pie charts are acc...

  2. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 × magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  3. Developing a Sense of Knowing and Acquiring the Skills to Manage Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairments: Mothers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with profound cognitive impairment (PCI are a heterogenous group who often experience frequent and persistent pain. Those people closest to the child are key to assessing their pain. This mixed method study aimed to explore how parents acquire knowledge and skills in assessing and managing their child’s pain. Eight mothers completed a weekly pain diary and were interviewed at weeks 1 and 8. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and the quantitative data using descriptive statistics. Mothers talked of learning through a system of trial and error (“learning to get on with it”; this was accomplished through “learning to know without a rule book or guide”; “learning to be a convincing advocate”; and “learning to endure and to get things right.” Experiential and reflective learning was evident in the way the mothers developed a “sense of knowing” their child’s pain. They drew on embodied knowledge of how their child usually expressed and responded to pain to help make pain-related decisions. Health professionals need to support mothers/parents to develop their knowledge and skills and to gain confidence in pain assessment and they should recognise and act on the mothers’ concerns.

  4. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  5. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…

  6. Causes of visual impairment among commercial motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human factor contributed 27.7% to the cause of accidents. Causes of visual impairment included refractive error, glaucoma and cataract. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant association between RTA and visual impairment but there was statistically significant association between RTA and visual field defect ...

  7. Visual impairments and their influence on road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is an important source of information when driving a car. Visual impairments of drivers will therefore have an effect on performing the driving task. However, the effects on the crash rate are limited. The reason is, among other things, that people with visual impairments often

  8. Coping in the Dark: Counseling Adults with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that, as the population ages, the number of adults with visual impairments grows proportionately. Explores the population of visually impaired adults and discusses suggestions for counselor education relevant to preparing counselors to meet the needs of adults with visual handicaps. (Author/NB)

  9. Unilateral visual impairment in an urban population in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence and causes of unilateral visual impairment in the urban population of Hyderabad city as part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling was used to select 2,954 subjects from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad. Eligible subjects underwent detailed eye examination including logMAR visual acuity, refraction, slitlamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilatation, cataract grading, and stereoscopic evaluation of fundus. Automated threshold visual fields and slitlamp and fundus photography were done when indicated by standardised criteria. Unilateral visual impairment was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 in the worse eye and ≥6/12 in the better eye, which was further divided into unilateral blindness (visual acuity <6/60 in the worse eye and unilateral moderate visual impairment (visual acuity <6/18-6/60 in the worse eye. A total of 2,522 subjects (85.4% of eligible, including 1,399 ≥30 years old, participated in the study. In addition to the 1% blindness and 7.2% moderate visual impairment (based on bilateral visual impairment criteria reported earlier in this sample, 139 subjects had unilateral visual impairment, an age-gender-adjusted prevalence of 3.8% (95% confidence interval 2.7-4.9%. The major causes of this visual impairment 39.9% were refractive error (42.9%, cataract (14.4%, corneal disease (11.5%, and retinal disease (11.2%. Of this unilateral visual impairment was blindness. The major causes of unilateral blindness were corneal disease (23.2%, cataract (22.5%, retinal disease (18%, and optic atrophy (12.9%. On the other hand, the predominant cause of unilateral moderate visual impairment was refractive error (67% followed by cataract (9%. Of the total unilateral visual impairment, 34.3% was present in those <30 years old and 36.2% in those 30-49 years old. Unilateral visual

  10. Currency features for visually impaired people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Sandra L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Shannon, Robert R.; Baer, Norbert S.

    1996-03-01

    The estimated 3.7 million Americans with low vision experience a uniquely difficult task in identifying the denominations of U.S. banknotes because the notes are remarkably uniform in size, color, and general design. The National Research Council's Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired assessed features that could be used by people who are visually disabled to distinguish currency from other documents and to denominate and authenticate banknotes using available technology. Variation of length and height, introduction of large numerals on a uniform, high-contrast background, use of different colors for each of the six denominations printed, and the introduction of overt denomination codes that could lead to development of effective, low-cost devices for examining banknotes were all deemed features available now. Issues affecting performance, including the science of visual and tactile perception, were addressed for these features, as well as for those features requiring additional research and development. In this group the committee included durable tactile features such as those printed with transparent ink, and the production of currency with holes to indicate denomination. Among long-range approaches considered were the development of technologically advanced devices and smart money.

  11. Does Visual Impairment Affect Social Ties in Late Life? Findings of a Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Lühmann, D; Eisele, M; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Weeg, D; Heser, K; Jessen, F; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how visual impairment affects social ties in late life longitudinally. Population-based prospective cohort study. Individuals in old age were recruited via general practitioners' offices (at six study centers) in Germany. They were interviewed every 18 months. Individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline. Follow-up wave 2 (36 months after baseline, n=2,443) and wave 4 (72 months after baseline, n=1,618) were used for the analyses presented here. Social ties were assessed using the 14-item form of the questionnaire for social support (F-SozU K-14). Visual impairment was self-rated on a three level Likert scale (no impairment, mild visual impairment, or severe/profound visual impairment). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, hearing impairment and comorbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of mild visual impairment decreased the social support score, in particular the emotional support score. Additionally, the onset of mild hearing impairment decreased the social support score in men. Moreover, increasing age decreased the social support score in the total sample and in both sexes. Loss of spouse and increasing comorbidity did not affect the social support score. Our results highlight the importance of visual impairment for social ties in late life. Consequently, appropriate strategies in order to delay visual impairment might help to maintain social ties in old age.

  12. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-I...

  13. Effect of visual impairment upon oral health care: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, E K; Kumar, N; Porter, S R

    2008-01-26

    The incidence of visual impairment is increasing globally and in the United Kingdom due to local and systemic disease, medical advances, and the increasing age of population groups. Despite there being a large number of people resident in the UK with a visual impairment, there is little information available regarding the dental health care and needs of such individuals. As reported in other groups of patients with special needs, many individuals with a visual impairment may only seek oral health care when a problem arises, such as pain. Visual impairment may have a negative effect upon oral hygiene with many blind and partially sighted individuals having worse oral hygiene than sighted peers. This review article was undertaken to examine the literature relating to visual impairment, oral health and dental care. This article will discuss the dental aspects of visual impairment, its implications for obtaining dental care, associated oral conditions and medical complications.

  14. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, H.M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H.M.; Kooijman, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with

  15. Effects of Multisensory Speech Training and Visual Phonics on Speech Production of a Hearing-Impaired Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnini, Cindy M.; Antia, Shirin D.

    1993-01-01

    This study of the effects of intensive multisensory speech training on the speech production of a profoundly hearing-impaired child (age nine) found that the addition of Visual Phonics hand cues did not result in speech production gains. All six target phonemes were generalized to new words and maintained after the intervention was discontinued.…

  16. Auditory Assessment of Visually Impaired Preschoolers: A Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of audiological terms and types of hearing impairments to help teachers of visually impaired preschoolers work more effectively with audiologists. Both functional auditory assessment and formal audiometric evaluations are discussed. (Author/CL)

  17. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Visual impairment is the leading cause of age-related disability, but the social patterning of loss of vision in older people has received little attention. This study’s objective was to assess the association between social position and onset of visual impairment, to empirically evidence health inequalities in later life.Method: Visual impairment was measured in 2 ways: self-reporting fair vision or worse (moderate) and self-reporting poor vision or blindness (severe). Correspond...

  18. Quality of life of visually impaired goalball players

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Title: Quality of life of visually impaired goalball players Purpose: Main objective of this study is to characterize a goalball game, to find out and compare quality of life of visually impaired active goalball players. Methods: 30 respondents participated in this study. They are players of the game for visually impaired called goalball. Age of respondents ranged from 18 to 60 years. It was a quantitative research of methodological type of observation. The SQUALA questionnaire method was use...

  19. [Epidemiological survey of visual impairment in Funing County, Jiangsu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zhang, J F; Zhu, R R; Kang, L H; Qin, B; Guan, H J

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of visual impairment and factors associated with visual impairment among people aged 50 years and above in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Random cluster sampling was used in selecting individuals aged ≥50 years in 30 clusters, and 5 947 individuals received visual acuity testing and eye examination. Stata 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect possible factors of visual impairment such as age, gender and education. Statistical significance was defined as Pvisual impairment classification and presenting visual acuity, 138 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 1 405 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 2.32% and 23.63%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 25.95%. Based on the criteria of WHO visual impairment classification and best-corrected visual acuity, 92 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 383 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 1.55% and 6.44%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 7.99%. Concerning presenting visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity, the prevalence of blindness and low vision was higher in old people, females and less educated persons. Cataract (46.63%) was the leading cause of blindness. Uncorrected refractive error (36.51%) was also a main cause of visual impairment. Conclusion: The prevalence of visual impairment is higher in old people, females and less educated persons in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Cataract is still the leading cause of visual impairment. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 502-508).

  20. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  2. Perceptual learning in children with visual impairment improves near visual acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS: Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  3. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  4. Visual impairment registration: evaluation of agreement among ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, E; Bouliotis, G; King, A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate consistency among consultant ophthalmologists in registration of visual impairment of patients with glaucoma who had a significant visual field component to their visual loss. Thirty UK NHS consultant ophthalmologists were asked to grade data sets comprising both visual acuity and visual fields as severely sight impaired, partially sight impaired, or neither. To assess intra-consultant agreement, a group of graders agreed to repeat the process. Kappa for inter-consultant agreement (n=30) for meeting the eligibility criteria for visual impairment registration was 0.232 (95% CI 0.142-0.345), the corresponding inter-class correlation score was 0.2 (95% CI 0.172 to 0.344). Kappa for intra-consultant agreement (n=16) ranged from 0.007 to 0.9118. When presented with the clinical data necessary to decide whether patients with severe visual field loss are eligible for vision impairment registration, there is very poor intra- and inter-observer agreement among consultant ophthalmologists with regard to eligibility. The poor agreement indicates that these criteria are open to significant subjective interpretation that may be a source of either under- or over-registration of visual impairment in this group of patients in the UK. This inconsistency will affect the access of visually impaired glaucoma patients to support services and may result in inaccurate recording of the prevalence of registerable visual disability among glaucoma patients with severe visual field loss. More objective criteria with less potential for misclassification should be introduced.

  5. What is the global burden of visual impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO suggests that 161 million persons worldwide have visual impairment, including 37 million blind (best-corrected visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye and 124 million with visual impairment less severe than blindness (best-corrected acuity less than 6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye. This estimate is quoted widely, but because it is based on definitions using best-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected refractive error as a cause of visual impairment is excluded. Methods We reviewed data from population-based surveys of visual impairment worldwide published 1996 onwards that included presenting visual acuity, and estimated the proportion of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error in different sub-regions of the world. We then extrapolated these data to estimate the worldwide burden of visual impairment including that caused by uncorrected refractive error. Results The total number of persons with visual impairment worldwide, including that due to uncorrected refractive error, was estimated as 259 million, 61% higher than the commonly quoted WHO estimate. This includes 42 million persons with blindness defined as presenting visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye, and 217 million persons with less severe visual impairment level defined as presenting visual acuity less than 6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye, 14% and 75% higher, respectively, than the WHO estimates based on best-corrected visual acuity. Sensitivity analysis, taking into account the uncertainty of the proportion of visual impairment caused by refractive error, revealed that the number of persons in the world with visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error could range from 82 to 117 million. Conclusion The actual burden of visual impairment worldwide, including that caused by uncorrected refractive error, is substantially higher than the commonly quoted WHO estimate that is

  6. Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Durham, T.; Otto, C.; Grounds, D.; Davis, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006 there have been 6 reported cases of altered visual acuity and intracranial pressure (ICP) in long duration astronauts. In order to document this risk and develop an integrated approach to its mitigation, the NASA Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and Human Research Program (HRP) have chosen to use the Human System Risk Board (HSRB) and the risk management analysis tool (RMAT). The HSRB is the venue in which the stakeholders and customers discuss and vet the evidence and the RMAT is the tool that facilitates documentation and comparison of the evidence across mission profiles as well as identification of risk factors, and documentation of mitigation strategies. This process allows for information to be brought forward and dispositioned so that it may be properly incorporated into the RMAT and contribute to the design of the research and mitigation plans. The evidence thus far has resulted in the identification of a visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) project team, updating of both short and long duration medical requirements designed to assess visual acuity, and a research plan to characterize this issue further. In order to understand this issue more completely, a plan to develop an Accelerated Research Collaboration (ARC) has been approved by the HSRB. The ARC is a novel research model pioneered by the Myelin Repair Foundation. It is a patient centered research model that brings together researchers and clinicians, under the guidance of a scientific advisory panel, to collaborate and produce results much quickly than accomplished through traditional research models. The data and evidence from the updated medical requirements and the VIIP ARC will be reviewed at the HSRB on a regular basis. Each review package presented to the HSRB will include an assessment and recommendation with respect to continuation of research, countermeasure development, occupational surveillance modalities, selection criteria, etc. This process will determine the

  7. Epidemiology, aetiology and management of visual impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2014-04-01

    An estimated 19 million of the world's children are visually impaired, while 1.4 million are blind. Using the UK as a model for high income countries, from a population-based incidence study, the annual cumulative incidence of severe visual impairment/blindness (SVL/BL) is estimated to be 6/10 000 by age 15 years, with the incidence being highest in the first year of life. The population of visually impaired children within high, middle and lower income countries differ considerably between and within countries. The numerous and mainly uncommon disorders which can cause impaired vision result in heterogeneous population which includes a substantial proportion (for SVI/BL, the majority) of children with additional systemic disorders or impairments whose needs differ substantially from those with isolated vision impairment. Paediatricians and other paediatric professionals have a key role in early detection and multidisciplinary management to minimise the impact of visual impairment (VI) in childhood.

  8. Visual impairment and traits of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kapias, Joanna; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Kocur, Józef

    2017-04-30

    Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.

  9. The Social Experiences of High School Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Glenda; Bundy, Anita C.; Broom, Alex; Hancock, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the social experiences in high school of students with visual impairments. Methods: Experience sampling methodology was used to examine (a) how socially included students with visual impairments feel, (b) the internal qualities of their activities, and (c) the factors that influence a sense of inclusion. Twelve…

  10. Social Acceptance of Adolescent Mainstreamed Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavey, Katherine Owen; Leff, Debra

    2002-01-01

    Five adolescents with visual impairments participated in trust engendering activities in five separate peer focus groups. At the completion of the intervention, four of the students with visual impairments showed marked improvement in their social acceptance and had higher scores on the Social Skills Assessment Tool for Children with Visual…

  11. The Need for Visually Impaired Students Participation in Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the counselling implication of the need for the visually impaired students' participation in science education. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study while a validated structured questionnaire tagged visually impaired students perception of science education (VISPSE) was administered ...

  12. Self-Defense Training for Visually Impaired Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, W. S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development and pilot testing of a curriculum to teach rape prevention and self-defense skills to visually impaired women. As a result of the course, five visually impaired women improved their physical self-defense skills, self-confidence, and problem-solving ability in hypothetically dangerous situations. (Author/DB)

  13. A Customized Transportation Intervention for Persons with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; Antonelli, Karla; O'Mally, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Transportation can be an employment barrier for persons with disabilities, particularly those with visual impairments. A customized transportation intervention for people with visual impairments, based on concepts associated with customized employment, was devised, implemented, and evaluated. Methods: A pretest and posttest…

  14. Implications of Paraprofessional Supports for Students With Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Erika M.; Holbrook, M. Cay

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of high quality and carefully individualized educational programs carried out by qualified professionals has been shown to largely mitigate the impact of visual impairment on development. Research has also shown that, in the absence of high quality, specialized intervention, children who are blind or have visual impairments may…

  15. Contribution of refractive errors to visual impairment in patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the contribution of refractive error to visual impairment in visually impaired patients attending Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Method: This study was conducted over a period of 1 year beginning October 2002 at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Every 4th consecutive new case attending the eye ...

  16. Burden, etiology and predictors of visual impairment among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background: Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in plan- ning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with child- hood visual impairment among the children ...

  17. Visual Impairment and Blindness in 5 Communities in IMO State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa showed that 21.4 million people are visually impaired with 4.8 million of these blind. Approximately 80% of these are preventable or curable through the delivery of cost-effective eye care services. Aim: This study aims to determine the burden of visual impairment and blindness in Imo ...

  18. Avoidable visual impairment among elderly people in a Slum of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In developing countries major causes of visual impairment are known to be preventable, however there is no information about the situation in Ethiopia. Objective: To identify the major avoidable causes of visual impairment in elderly people. Methods: A survey was conducted between November and ...

  19. Prevalence of Refractive Error and Visual Impairment among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of ...

  20. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilay Açıl, MSN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.

  1. Challenges faced by visually impaired students at Makerere and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, constraining limitations in the methods of instruction and assessment used and the instructional materials provided were noted. On the basis of these findings, recommendations towards the better education of the visually impaired students are made. Keywords: Visual impairment; Inclusive education; Special ...

  2. Employment Opportunities for the Visually Impaired in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey study examined current employment status of visually impaired individuals in Ghana. It looked at some of the factors that militate against the successful employment and sustainability of individuals with visual impairment in the country. It reviewed some policies that relate to employment of persons with disability ...

  3. Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.

    To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (a parts per thousand yen55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical,

  4. A Glance at Worldwide Employment of People with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Spungin, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 75 countries investigated jobs performed by adults with visual impairments throughout the world. Although there is a greater diversity in the range of jobs in developed countries, people who are visually impaired do not have the same range of opportunities available to them as sighted people. (Contains references.) (CR)

  5. Adapting the Brief COPE for Chinese Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-fang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present research pioneered the effort in assessing adolescents' coping with visual impairment through adapting the Brief COPE in an eastern context. The first study preliminarily explored the applicability of the Brief COPE to Chinese adolescent students with visual impairments. Based on the results, the Brief COPE was modified…

  6. Identity Development in German Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here assessed the exploration of identity and commitment to an identity in German adolescents with and without visual impairments. Methods: In total, 178 adolescents with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and 526 sighted adolescents completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Results: The levels of…

  7. Perceived social support in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2013-11-01

    The study assessed perceived availability of support from parents, peers, and teachers in adolescents with and without visual impairment. Adolescents with visual impairment perceived lower levels of parental support but higher levels of support from teachers than sighted adolescents, and these differences remained stable across a 2-year interval. There was considerable heterogeneity within the groups as adolescents with visual impairment were most often found in clusters with high levels as well as low levels of all assessed sources of support. High perceived support from all sources showed positive associations with life-satisfaction of adolescents with and without visual impairment. As lower levels of perceived parental support of students with visual impairment were based on students from residential schools, we conclude that measures would be welcomed for improvement of parent-child contacts during the school days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual impairment in stroke patients--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, K M; Midelfart, A; Thomassen, L; Melms, A; Wilhelm, H; Hoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of all stroke patients suffer from post-stroke visual impairment. Hemianopia is the most common symptom, but also neglect, diplopia, reduced visual acuity, ptosis, anisocoria, and nystagmus are frequent. Partial or complete recovery of visual disorders can occur, but many patients suffer permanent disability. This disability is often less evident than impairment of motor and speech functions, but is negatively correlated with rehabilitation outcome and can lead to a significant reduction in day-to-day functioning. To be visually impaired after stroke reduces quality of life and causes social isolation because of difficulties in navigating/orientating in the surroundings. A thorough diagnosis including targeted examination and later follow-up with eye examination and perimetry is essential in order to establish the extent of the visual impairment and to select the best rehabilitation strategy. Patients seem to profit from visual rehabilitation focused on coping strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Psycho acoustical Measures in Individuals with Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushlendra; Thomas, Teenu; Bhat, Jayashree S; Ranjan, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    In congenital visual impaired individuals one modality is impaired (visual modality) this impairment is compensated by other sensory modalities. There is evidence that visual impaired performed better in different auditory task like localization, auditory memory, verbal memory, auditory attention, and other behavioural tasks when compare to normal sighted individuals. The current study was aimed to compare the temporal resolution, frequency resolution and speech perception in noise ability in individuals with congenital visual impaired and normal sighted. Temporal resolution, frequency resolution, and speech perception in noise were measured using MDT, GDT, DDT, SRDT, and SNR50 respectively. Twelve congenital visual impaired participants with age range of 18 to 40 years were taken and equal in number with normal sighted participants. All the participants had normal hearing sensitivity with normal middle ear functioning. Individual with visual impairment showed superior threshold in MDT, SRDT and SNR50 as compared to normal sighted individuals. This may be due to complexity of the tasks; MDT, SRDT and SNR50 are complex tasks than GDT and DDT. Visual impairment showed superior performance in auditory processing and speech perception with complex auditory perceptual tasks.

  10. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy…

  11. Development of educational PC software for visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Klára

    2010-01-01

    The diploma work is focused on development of educational PC software dedicated to visually impaired children. It is intended for junior school-aged children with visual abilities in category of middle and high level of low vision and also for children with disorders of binocular vision. The intention of this sotware is education of visually impaired children especially in domain of knowledge about the world of animals. It also helps children to reeducate their vision abilities.

  12. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç; Aysun İdil; Hüban Atilla; Ayşen Topalkara; Cem Alay

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination inc...

  13. Automatically Adapting Home Lighting to Assist Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Euan; Wilson, Graham; Brewster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    For visually impaired children, activities like finding everyday items, locating favourite toys and moving around the home can be challenging. Assisting them during these activities is important because it promotes independence and encourages them to use and develop their remaining visual function. We describe our work towards a system that adapts the lighting conditions at home to help visually impaired children with everyday tasks. We discuss scenarios that show how they may benefit from ad...

  14. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. Results: A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05, 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3, and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3. The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2% and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%. Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. Conclusion: The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  15. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl Kızıltunç, Pınar; İdil, Aysun; Atilla, Hüban; Topalkara, Ayşen; Alay, Cem

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children's medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05), 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3), and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3). The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2%) and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%). Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  16. 38 CFR 4.75 - General considerations for evaluating visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating visual impairment. 4.75 Section 4.75 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... § 4.75 General considerations for evaluating visual impairment. (a) Visual impairment. The evaluation of visual impairment is based on impairment of visual acuity (excluding developmental errors of...

  17. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  18. Cortical Visual Impairment in Young Children with Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, M. T.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses terminology and probable causes of cortical visual impairment, normal visual development, and visual dysfunctioning. Also considered are educational implications for this population such as the importance of clarifying activity goals and utilizing persons, objects, and events that are intrinsically important and rewarding to…

  19. The combined effect of visual impairment and cognitive impairment on disability in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Heather E; Cousins, Scott W; Burchett, Bruce M; Hybels, Celia F; Pieper, Carl F; Cohen, Harvey J

    2007-06-01

    To determine the risk of disability in individuals with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment and to compare the magnitude of risk associated with visual impairment, cognitive impairment, or the multimorbidity. Prospective cohort. North Carolina. Three thousand eight hundred seventy-eight participants in the North Carolina Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly with nonmissing visual status, cognitive status, and disability status data at baseline Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (cognitive impairment defined as > or =4 errors), self reported visual acuity (visual impairment defined as inability to see well enough to recognize a friend across the street or to read newspaper print), demographic and health-related variables, disability status (activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mobility), death, and time to nursing home placement. Participants with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment were at greater risk of IADL disability (odds ratio (OR)=6.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.34-9.75), mobility disability (OR=4.04, 95% CI=2.49-6.54), ADL disability (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.87-4.32), and incident ADL disability (OR=3.66, 95%, CI=2.36-5.65). In each case, the estimated OR associated with the multimorbidity was greater than the estimated OR associated with visual or cognitive impairment alone, a pattern that was not observed for other adverse outcomes assessed. No significant interactions were observed between cognitive impairment and visual impairment as predictors of disability status. Individuals with coexisting visual impairment and cognitive impairment are at high risk of disability, with each condition contributing additively to disability risk. Further study is needed to improve functional trajectories in patients with this prevalent multimorbidity. When visual or cognitive impairment is present, efforts to maximize the other function may be beneficial.

  20. Comprehensive visual impairment evaluation for cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.

  1. Sedentary behavior in adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkoff, Brooke E; Lenz, Elizabeth K; Lieberman, Lauren; Foley, John

    2016-10-01

    Specific sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with risk factors for preventable chronic health conditions in adults, yet time participating in SB has increased over the years. To explore the SB habits of individuals with visual impairments (VI) and the relationship with self-reported visual acuity (VA). Individuals participated in this cross-sectional study by completing the Patient-centered Assessment & Counseling for Exercise (PACE+) Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) for adults to assess estimated time spent in nine SB. Means and frequencies of SB were conducted and 2 × 4 ANOVAs were used to explore differences in SB by gender and VA. Seventy-one men (36.1 ± 14.2 yrs; 28.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)) and sixty-nine women (35.9 ± 12.3 yrs; 29 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) with VI participated in this study. Individuals reported spending most time watching television (TV), traveling, and doing paperwork/computer work. Participants spent 9.95 ± 4.78 h per day engaging in SB during the week and 8.53 ± 4.29 h per day on the weekend. Significant differences were found between VA for reading on weekdays (B1 = 1.41 ± 1.81 vs. B4 = 0.42 ± 0.60 h/day) and weekend days (B1 = 1.55 ± 1.75 vs. B4 = 0.48 ± 0.67 h/day), as well as for watching TV on the weekends (B4 = 2.69 ± 1.61 vs. B1 = 1.39 ± 1.52 h/day). When reducing SB it may be important to target specific SB based upon the individual. Programs that support the reduction of SB must be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Visually impaired caregivers: perspectives from patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bethany S; Williams, Michael; Fuhr, Patti

    2009-01-01

    With the aging of the population, more persons who are severely visually impaired are now caring for a spouse or significant other. The purpose of this qualitative study is to learn more about this previously unreported, yet vulnerable, population of visually impaired caregivers. Focus groups and 1-on-1 interviews were conducted with legally blind U.S. English-speaking adults who served as informal caregivers of adults. Visually impaired caregivers discussed the challenges of caregiving and how their visual impairment affected their caregiving responsibilities. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. Standardized questionnaires captured demographic and social characteristics. Fourteen adults participated. Seven major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) impact of lack of transportation, (2) concern over care recipient's quality of life, (3) utilization of support, (4) all encompassing demand, (5) cyclical adaptations, (6) anxieties of the caregivers, and (7) positive aspects of caregiving. Although visually impaired caregivers experience challenges similar to other caregivers, they differ in their report of added burden because of visual impairment, with extraordinary difficulty in transportation issues and the necessity of cyclical adaptations as their vision worsens. This is, to our knowledge, the first qualitative study of visually impaired caregivers and brings to light the unique problems faced by this special cohort of caregivers.

  3. Oral characteristics of children with visual or auditory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, Enrique; Jerrell, Roy G; Weaver, James P; Dailey, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the demographics and oral characteristics of deaf or blind children and adolescents receiving dental treatment at an institution for the deaf and blind (DBC); (2) compare this information to children and adolescents with no systemic disease or impairments attending a dental university clinic (UC); and (3) compare the oral characteristics between visually or auditorily impaired children and adolescents. The demographics and oral characteristics of 120 DBC patients and 119 UC patients and between 35 visually impaired and 85 auditorily impaired were compared using analysis of variance, chi-square, Fisher's exact, and multiple regression analyses. When controlling for age, there was no statistically significant difference between the UC and the DBC patients regarding caries prevalence. A significantly higher proportion of DBC children had gingival inflammation. Visually impaired patients had a statistically higher level of dependence on caretakers and higher gingivitis and plaque scores than the auditorily impaired. Under oral health supervision, children and adolescents with or without hearing or visual impairment develop similar dental caries prevalence. Oral hygiene and resulting gingival inflammation are a challenge for the visually impaired and, to a lesser degree, the auditorily impaired.

  4. [Impairment in visual cognition in patients with Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Kazumi; Ishioka, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    Neural pathway for visual information processing involves retina, lateral geniculate body, primary visual cortex, and higher visual cortical areas, all of which have been reported to be disordered either functionally or pathologically in Parkinson disease (PD). As elementary visual disorders, there have been studies that reported reduced contrast sensitivity for middle to high spatial frequencies and impaired blue color perception. Most of those studies suggested retina as the damaged cite that is responsible for the impairments, whereas some studies pointed to the possible cortical involvement. Impairments of higher visual functions also have been reported. In the dorsal stream, impairments of object localization, depth perception, and mental rotation have been reported. In the ventral stream, object perception and visual integration of objects have been found to be impaired. A meta-analysis study, however, concluded that although there may be impairments in higher order functions like attention and problem solving capacity there is no firm evidence for the impairments of higher visual functions. Neuroimaging studies have found a relationship between reduced metabolism centered in the parietal lobe and impaired performance in higher visual functions. Impaired identification of overlapping figures has been reported in dementia with Lewy bodies a disease that is akin to PD. Capacity to discriminate textured areas has been found to be damaged in PD. We conducted a FDG-PET study to explore the relationship between brain metabolism and perception of overlapping figures, perception of shapes defined by texture differences and perception of subjective contours in PD. It revealed that there is a correlation between reduced activation in lateral occipital complex and impaired performance for these tasks, suggesting some compromised ventral rout functions.

  5. What explains health in persons with visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissner, Juliane; Coenen, Michaela; Froehlich, Stephan; Loyola, Danny; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-05-03

    Visual impairment is associated with important limitations in functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) adopted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) relies on a globally accepted framework for classifying problems in functioning and the influence of contextual factors. Its comprehensive perspective, including biological, individual and social aspects of health, enables the ICF to describe the whole health experience of persons with visual impairment. The objectives of this study are (1) to analyze whether the ICF can be used to comprehensively describe the problems in functioning of persons with visual impairment and the environmental factors that influence their lives and (2) to select the ICF categories that best capture self-perceived health of persons with visual impairment. Data from 105 persons with visual impairment were collected, including socio-demographic data, vision-related data, the Extended ICF Checklist and the visual analogue scale of the EuroQoL-5D, to assess self-perceived health. Descriptive statistics and a Group Lasso regression were performed. The main outcome measures were functioning defined as impairments in Body functions and Body structures, limitations in Activities and restrictions in Participation, influencing Environmental factors and self-perceived health. In total, 120 ICF categories covering a broad range of Body functions, Body structures, aspects of Activities and Participation and Environmental factors were identified. Thirteen ICF categories that best capture self-perceived health were selected based on the Group Lasso regression. While Activities-and-Participation categories were selected most frequently, the greatest impact on self-perceived health was found in Body-functions categories. The ICF can be used as a framework to comprehensively describe the problems of persons with visual impairment and the Environmental factors which influence their lives. There are plenty of

  6. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2016-02-03

    Visual impairment is the leading cause of age-related disability, but the social patterning of loss of vision in older people has received little attention. This study's objective was to assess the association between social position and onset of visual impairment, to empirically evidence health inequalities in later life. Visual impairment was measured in 2 ways: self-reporting fair vision or worse (moderate) and self-reporting poor vision or blindness (severe). Correspondingly, 2 samples were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). First, 7,483 respondents who had good vision or better at Wave 1; second, 8,487 respondents who had fair vision or better at Wave 1. Survival techniques were used. Cox proportional hazards models showed wealth and subjective social status (SSS) were significant risk factors associated with the onset of visual impairment. The risk of onset of moderate visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest and second lowest wealth quintiles, whereas the risk of onset of severe visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest, second, and even middle wealth quintiles, compared with the highest wealth quintile. Independently, lower SSS was associated with increased risk of onset of visual impairment (both measures), particularly so for those placing themselves on the lowest rungs of the social ladder. The high costs of visual impairment are disproportionately felt by the worst off elderly. Both low wealth and low SSS significantly increase the risk of onset of visual impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Loneliness, adaptation to vision impairment, social support and depression among visually impaired elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraten, P.F.J.; Brinkmann, W.L.J.H.; Stevens, N.L.; Schouten, J.S.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of loneliness among visually impaired elderly, and its relations with adaptation to vision loss, received social support and depression. Clients aged 55 years or older who contacted Sensis, a rehabilitation centre for visually impaired

  8. Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team...

  9. Causes of visual impairment among patients referred to a visual rehabilitation clinic in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Alireza; Pardis, Maasome; Rafati, Nasrin; Kazemi-Moghaddam, Mohsen; Katibeh, Marzieh; Rostami, Pooya; Dehghan, Mohammad Hossein; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Rabbanikhah, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiologic evaluation and investigating the causes of visual impairment in any society is a matter of concern and has a direct effect on the country's health care planning. In this study we describe causes of low vision and blindness in Iranian patients referred to rehabilitation clinics for taking vision aids. In this cross-sectional study, visual acuity was classified based on best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye according to the World Health Organization definition (blindness, visual acuity [VA] visual impairment, VA visual impairment, VA visual impairment, severe visual impairment and blindness were present in 122 (28.8%), 196 (46.4%) and 105 (24.8%) of the patients, respectively. The main causes of visual impairment were retinal and choroidal diseases (74.5%), optic nerve and optic tract diseases (9.8%), vitreous and globe disorders (5.3%), congenital cataract (3.1%), and glaucoma (2.6%). The distribution pattern of the causes was similar in all age subgroups. Diseases of the retina and choroid are the main cause of visual impairment among patients referred to an academic visual rehabilitation clinic in Iran.

  10. Social communicative variation in 1-3-year-olds with severe visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, N J; Tadić, V; Sonksen, P

    2014-03-01

    Although the social communicative domain is recognized as being at risk in young children with visual impairment (VI), few tools are available for identifying those most at risk or the aspects that are most vulnerable. A standard parent interview - Social Communication Interview for young children with visual impairment (SOCI-VI), was developed and tested with 55 parents of 17 profoundly, 15 severely VI and 23 normally sighted children; mean age 22 months (range 10-40 months). The 35-item SOCI-VI 35 showed adequate inter-rater and test-retest reliability (P 0.75) and concurrent validity with the Vineland adaptation questionnaire within a randomized VI subgroup (r 0.8, P social communicative development in the young VI population and provides preliminary reliability and validity testing for future research within a clinical context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2017-03-21

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  12. Early support developmental journal for children with visual impairment: the case for a new developmental framework for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, N; Salt, A

    2007-11-01

    Congenital visual impairment has serious consequences for early development, particularly in those with the most profound impairment. Although there is individual variation, developmental delays and risks, including 'developmental setback', are widespread. There is no scientifically robust developmental framework grounded in contemporary theory and scientific knowledge to guide early intervention which may prevent or minimize the risk factors and developmental difficulties. The UK governmental initiative, Early Support, gave the impetus for developing a new developmental framework for babies and young children with visual impairment. This paper reports on the scientific literature that underpins the new framework and the limitations of existing intervention materials. The case for focusing on particular vulnerable areas and developing a new developmental framework, the Early Support Developmental Journal for babies and children with severe visual impairment, is presented. The future direction for service delivery and evaluation is briefly described.

  13. Does Visual Impairment Affect Mobility Over Time? The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal analyses found visually impaired older adults were more likely to report mobility disability than their nonvisually impaired counterparts. But mobility disability trajectories were not steeper in the visually impaired than in the nonvisually impaired over the 8-year study.

  14. Stroke survivors' views and experiences on impact of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-09-01

    We sought to determine stroke survivors' views on impact of stroke-related visual impairment to quality of life. Stroke survivors with visual impairment, more than 1 year post stroke onset, were recruited. Semistructured biographical narrative interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic approach to analysis of the qualitative data was adopted. Transcripts were systematically coded using NVivo10 software. Thirty-five stroke survivors were interviewed across the UK: 16 females, 19 males; aged 20-75 years at stroke onset. Five qualitative themes emerged: "Formal care," "Symptoms and self," "Adaptations," "Daily life," and "Information." Where visual problems existed, they were often not immediately recognized as part of the stroke syndrome and attributed to other causes such as migraine. Many participants did not receive early vision assessment or treatment for their visual problems. Visual problems included visual field loss, double vision, and perceptual problems. Impact of visual problems included loss in confidence, being a burden to others, increased collisions/accidents, and fear of falling. They made many self-identified adaptations to compensate for visual problems: magnifiers, large print, increased lighting, use of white sticks. There was a consistent lack of support and provision of information about visual problems. Poststroke visual impairment causes considerable impact to daily life which could be substantially improved by simple measures including early formal visual assessment, management and advice on adaptive strategies and self-management options. Improved education about poststroke visual impairment for the public and clinicians could aid earlier diagnosis of visual impairments.

  15. Demographic Characteristics and Impairments of Louisiana Students with Usher's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Of 51 Louisiana students with Usher's Syndrome (a genetic condition characterized by hearing loss and progressive blindness), 71 percent manifested visual impairment and hearing loss, 9 percent had neither, 10 percent had visual impairments but a less-than-profound hearing loss, and 10 percent had profound hearing loss and no visual impairment.…

  16. Impact of cataract surgery in reducing visual impairment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Sudhan, Anand; Jain, B K; Deshpande, Madan; Dole, Kuldeep; Shah, Mahul; Shah, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of cataract surgeries in reducing visual disabilities and factors influencing it at three institutes of India. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2013. Data of 4 years were collected on gender, age, residence, presenting a vision in each eye, eye that underwent surgery, type of surgery and the amount the patient paid out of pocket for surgery. Visual impairment was categorized as; absolute blindness (no perception of light); blind (visual impairment (SVI) (visual impairment (6/18-6/60) and; normal vision (≥6/12). Statistically analysis was performed to evaluate the association between visual disabilities and demographics or other possible barriers. The trend of visual impairment over time was also evaluated. We compared the data of 2011 to data available about cataract cases from institutions between 2002 and 2009. There were 108,238 cataract cases (50.6% were female) that underwent cataract surgery at the three institutions. In 2011, 71,615 (66.2%) cases underwent surgery. There were 45,336 (41.9%) with presenting vision visual disability. The goal of improving vision related quality of life for cataract patients during the early stages of visual impairment that is common in industrialized countries seems to be non-attainable in the rural India.

  17. Burden, etiology and predictors of visual impairment among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago ...

  18. Work Evaluation of the Visually Impaired: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Lawrence E.

    1975-01-01

    Work evaluation of the visually impaired is discussed in terms of available assessment tools such as the Clawson Work Sample Test, the needs and differences of individual clients, and the techniques of situational assessment and transitional employment. (SB)

  19. Association between visual impairment and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Rojas, E Ruthy; Comas, Mercè; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the association between visual impairment (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis) and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery. A cohort of 104 patients aged 60 years and over with bilateral cataract was assessed preoperatively, after first-eye surgery (monocular pseudophakia) and after second-eye surgery (binocular pseudophakia). Partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and linear regression models were calculated. In patients with bilateral cataracts, visual disability was associated with visual acuity (PCC = -0.30) and, to a lesser extent, with contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.16) and stereopsis (PCC = -0.09). In monocular and binocular pseudophakia, visual disability was more strongly associated with stereopsis (PCC = -0.26 monocular and -0.51 binocular) and contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.18 monocular and 0.34 binocular) than with visual acuity (PCC = -0.18 monocular and -0.18 binocular). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis accounted for between 17% and 42% of variance in visual disability. The association of visual impairment with patient-reported visual disability differed at each stage of cataract surgery. Measuring other forms of visual impairment independently from visual acuity, such as contrast sensitivity or stereopsis, could be important in evaluating both needs and outcomes in cataract surgery. More comprehensive assessment of the impact of cataract on patients should include measurement of both visual impairment and visual disability.

  20. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  1. Managing the care of patients who have visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Sue; Scott, Eileen

    An ageing population means that the incidence of people who are visually impaired will increase. However, extending the role of ophthalmic nurses will promote delivery of a more effective health service for these patients. Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a basis for addressing the care of patients with visual impairment is a means of ensuring that they receive high quality, appropriate care at the right time.

  2. Development of parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children.

    OpenAIRE

    GOŠOVÁ, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor´s thesis is the development of parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children. The thesis puts a target in presenting parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children and subsequently finds out real possibilities of development of parenting skills in educational consultancy devices in the capital of the Czech Republic. In compliance with the goals mentioned above were formulated two partial goals: to make a discovery of real possibilities of deve...

  3. Visual impairment in children with congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Lawrence, Linda; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Ana; Gois, Adriana L; Cavalcanti, Milena M; Barros, Eveline A; Dias, Natalia C; Berrocal, Audina M; Miller, Marilyn T

    2017-08-01

    To describe the visual impairment associated with ocular and neurological abnormalities in a cohort of children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). This cross-sectional study included infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco, Brazil, from May to December 2015. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the Zika virus on the cerebrospinal fluid samples was positive for all infants. Clinical evaluation consisted of comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity, visual function assessment, visual developmental milestone, neurologic examination, and neuroimaging. A total of 32 infants (18 males [56%]) were included. Mean age at examination was 5.7 ± 0.9 months (range, 4-7 months). Visual function and visual developmental milestone could not be tested in 1 child (3%). Visual impairment was detected in 32 infants (100%). Retinal and/or optic nerve findings were observed in 14 patients (44%). There was no statistical difference between the patients with ocular findings and those without (P = 0.180). All patients (100%) demonstrated neurological and neuroimaging abnormalities; 3 (9%) presented with late-onset of microcephaly. Children with CZS demonstrated visual impairment regardless of retina and/or optic nerve abnormalities. This finding suggests that cortical/cerebral visual impairment may be the most common cause of blindness identified in children with CZS. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of visual impairment in children with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mufarriq; Khan, Mirzaman; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Mohammad Younas; Saeed, Nasir

    2011-02-01

    To determine the main causes of visual impairment in children with low vision. To assess the need of spectacles and low vision devices (LVDs) in children and to evaluate visual outcome after using their LVDs for far and near distance. Observational study. Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June 2006 to December 2007. The clinical record of 270 children with low vision age 4-16 years attending the Low Vision Clinic were included. All those children, aged 4-16 years, who had corrected visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 in the better eye after medical or surgical treatment, were included in the study. WHO low vision criteria were used to classify into visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind. Results were described as percentage frequencies. One hundred and eighty nine (70%) were males and 81 (30%) were females. The male to female ratio was 2.3:1. The main causes of visual impairment included nystagmus (15%), Stargardt's disease (14%), maculopathies (13%), myopic macular degeneration (11%) and oculocutaneous albinism (7%). The percentages of visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind were 33.8%, 27.2% and 39.0% respectively. Spectacles were prescribed to 146 patients and telescopes were prescribed to 75 patients. Spectacles and telescope both were prescribed to 179 patients while Ocutech telescope was prescribed to 4 patients. Retinal diseases nystagmus and macular conditions were mainly responsible for low vision in children. Visually impaired children especially with hereditary/congenital ocular anomalies benefit from refraction and low vision services which facilitate vision enhancement and inclusive education.

  5. Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Mokdad, Ali H; Saaddine, Jinan B; Balluz, Lina

    2012-02-01

    To examine whether alcohol drinking status and drinking pattern are associated with self-reported visual impairment. We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone health survey conducted by random-digit dialing among non-institutionalized US adults. The Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care module was implemented among 42, 713 adults aged 50 years and older in 2005 and 2006. Visual impairment was defined as any degree of difficulty experienced in recognizing a friend across the street or reading print in newspaper, magazine, recipe, menu, or numbers on the telephone with usual correction. Drinking patterns included drinking quantity (drinks per drinking day), frequency (drinking days in the past month), and binge drinking. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, smoking status, Body Mass Index, history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and eye diseases, current drinking status was not associated with distance and/or near vision impairment. However, drinking more than 1 drink per drinking day (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.09-1.35) and binge drinking (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53) were associated with visual impairment among current drinkers. Among current drinkers, drinking patterns were significantly associated with near and distance vision impairment. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether drinkers who drink beyond drinking guidelines, especially binge drinkers, are at higher risk of visual impairment than those who drink at lower levels.

  6. The mobility of visually impaired people: Removing the architectural barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Maša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The needs and abilities of visually impaired people require an adequate analysis of the influence of existing physical environment characteristics on the mobility of these people, which serves as a prerequisite for understanding the activities that should be undertaken towards positive changes. This text reviews the concept of architectural disability as a fundamental factor of exclusion of visually impaired people from the society. The two dominant socio-culturally constructed models of disability are discussed in the text - the biomedical and the socio-political model, as well as the disability approaches that arise from these models. The text presents characteristic research data that indicate a negative influence of the physical environment characteristics on the mobility of visually impaired people, which influences their quality of life. These physical environment characteristics, which inhibit and prevent the mobility of visually impaired people, are architectural barriers that further create architectural disability. The concluding part provides examples of the recommended ways, arising from the socio-political model, in which it is possible to change the architectural design according to the needs of the visually impaired. One possibility is to apply a universal design which facilitates their mobility and contributes to their independence, hence improving their quality of life in its entirety. Before starting a discussion on any specific further inclusion, it is vital for visually impaired people to be able to reach certain places and find their way in given space.

  7. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Working with Hispanic Parents of Visually Impaired Children: Cultural Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, V. I.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the critical issues involved in working with Hispanic families who have visually-impaired children (such as difficulty in accepting the impairment and cultural and linguistic differences) and the ways in which teachers can plan appropriate educational interventions. A demographic profile of Hispanic Americans is provided.…

  9. A Computerized System for Workplace Design for Visually Impaired Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-G; Hou, C-A

    1991-01-01

    VITAL (Vision Impaired Task and Assignment Lexicon) is an integrated computerized system that performs workplace design tasks for visually impaired workers. VITAL consists of three modules: ergonomics consultation, disability index, and work measurement. Evaluation indicated that VITAL could be used as a tool to help nonprofessional vocational…

  10. A Narrative of Two Preservice Music Teachers with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Draves, Tami J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to re-story the student teaching experience of two preservice music education majors who are visually impaired or blind. While music education scholars have devoted attention to P-12 students with disabilities, research with preservice music teachers with impairments is seemingly nonexistent. Using a…

  11. Visual impairment among commercial motorcyclists | Edema | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One point four percent (1.4%) had subnormal visual acuity, while 5.3% had refractive errors. Ocular pathologies were found in 11.5% of the eyes examined. Conclusion: Most commercial motorcyclists may pass the Federal Road Safety Corps. However Colour vision and visual field testing may give a more reliable result.

  12. Hearing Screening in a School for the Severely-Profoundly Intellectually-Impaired and Multiply-Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Results were considered significant in that 11 percent of the students screened were identified as potentially hearing impaired as compared to 4 percent of the regular Baltimore City School student population who failed hearing screenings. (Author)

  13. Visually impaired children and haptic intelligence test scores: intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the results of verbal and haptic intelligence tests for the whole population of the visually impaired, braille-educated Dutch children and Dutch-speaking children in Belgium. The scores of children with and without usable vision generally confirmed expectations. Children with usable vision had higher spatial test scores. Those without usable vision did better on verbal memory tests and school-achievement tests for writing accuracy and technical reading. Children in regular or integrated education scored higher on verbal, reasoning and school-achievement tests. Evaluation of the effect of systematically varied task factors in four spatial tests indicated that, for two of the tests, having usable vision interacted with the task factors.

  14. An investigation of ultramarathon-associated visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Corrigan, Genevieve K; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics under which ultramarathon-associated visual impairment occurs and to seek to identify its physiological basis and risk factors. Through an online questionnaire, distributed worldwide, we obtained information from 173 self-identified ultramarathon runners who had experienced visual impairment during an ultramarathon. We attempted to characterize this vision impairment-its symptoms, duration, and the conditions under which it occurs. Select characteristics were compared with a reference group of 412 registrants of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. Ultramarathon-associated visual impairment was typically characterized as painless clouding of vision that resolved either during (13.5%) or after racing within a median of 3.5 hours (range 0 to 48 hours) upon cessation of running. The mean (±SD) distance at which vision impairment occurred was 73±40 km, and the 161-km distance was the most frequent race distance (46.8%) in which visual impairment occurred. Visual impairment was often recurrent, with respondents reporting having it develop during a median of 2 races. Respondents with a history of refractive surgery had more episodes than those without such history (median 3.5 vs 2 episodes, P=.010). Compared with the reference group, runners with visual impairment were nearly twice as likely (23.7% vs 12.1%, Pvisual impairment typically presents as a painless clouding of vision that is self-limited but tends to recur in certain runners. Risk appears higher among those with a history of refractive surgery, which is relevant for ultramarathon runners who are considering, or who have a history of, refractive surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Atakunmosa West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... objective of this study was to define areas of eye care need and develop programme for elimination of avoidable blindness in the region. Multistage ... Blindness was defined as presenting visual acuity (pva) of <3/60 in the better eye and visual impairment ..... to the needy in this region is expected to reduce.

  16. Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: An Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Thymakis, Paraskevas

    2014-01-01

    Children with visual and motor disabilities constitute a distinct group with a unique set of educational needs. Such children are often grouped with the broader population of children with multiple disabilities and visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) (Erin, 2000; McLinden, 1997). The chief characteristic of…

  17. Effects of early identification and intervention on language development in Japanese children with prelingual severe to profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Norio; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omori, Kana; Sugaya, Akiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Early identification and intervention for prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss is supposed to reduce the delay in language development. Many countries have implemented early detection and hearing intervention and conducted regional universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, the benefits of UNHS in later childhood have not yet been confirmed, although language development at school age has a lifelong impact on children's future. Our Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders project attempted to reveal the effects of UNHS and those of early intervention on the development of verbal communication in Japanese children. In this study, 319 children with prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 4 to 10 years of age, were evaluated with the Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development used as an objective variable. Participation in UNHS and early intervention were used as explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated after adjusting several confounding factors with use of logistic regression analysis. In addition, caregivers' answers were obtained by a questionnaire, and the process of diagnosis with and without UNHS was analyzed retrospectively. Early intervention was significantly associated with better language development (AOR, 3.23; p identification leads directly to early intervention.

  18. Post-stroke visual impairment: a systematic literature review of types and recovery of visual conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hepworth, Lauren; Rowe, Fiona; Walker, Marion; Rockliffe, Janet; Noonan, Carmel; Howard, Claire; Currie, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to determine the reported incidence and prevalence of visual impairment due to stroke for all visual conditions including central vision loss, visual field loss, eye movement problems and visual perception problems. A further aim was to document the reported rate and extent of recovery of visual conditions post stroke.\\ud \\ud Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including all languages and translations obtained. The review cov...

  19. Screening for Cerebral Visual Impairment: Value of a CVI Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ortibus, E; LAENEN, Annouschka; Verhoeven, J.; Cock, P. de; Casteels, I; Schoolmeesters, B.; Buyck, A.; Lagae, L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the screening utility of a questionnaire for cerebral visual impairment (CVI) by correlating the questionnaire with diagnostic tools such as the L94, the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills - Revised and the Visual Perception subtask of the Beery test of VisuoMotor Integration. Methods: The questionnaire consisted of 46 items, exploring different characteristics of CVI. We consecutively recruited 91 children. Parents filled out the questio...

  20. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıl, Dilay; Ayaz, Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Disability is a significant problem and is accepted globally as a health priority in childhood. Like nonvisually impaired children, visually impaired children also need to use health services during childhood. The purpose of this study was to determine the health problems of visually impaired children. A descriptive design was used. The subjects were 74 children with visual impairment attending primary school (aged 5-14 years), who agreed to participate and whose parents gave permission. Data were collected via physical examination including questionnaires and a physical assessment form. The health screening included physical measurements for height, weight, blood pressure, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis. The mean age of children was 10.43 ± 2.9 years. When the health screening results of children were examined, it was found that 25.7% of the children were overweight or obese, 35.1% of them had dental problems, 27.0% had hearing problems, and 39.2% had scoliosis risk. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were normal in 91.8% and 93.2% of the children, respectively. These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S. Tomeka

    Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this qualitative study six blind and visually impaired students attended three community colleges in one Mid-Atlantic state. They shared their experiences inside the mathematics classroom. Five of the students were enrolled in developmental level math, and one student was enrolled in college level math. The conceptual framework used to explore how blind and visually impaired students persist and succeed in math courses was Piaget's theory on constructivism. The data from this qualitative study was obtained through personal interviews. Based on the findings of this study, blind and visually impaired students need the following accommodations in order to succeed in community college math courses: Accommodating instructors who help to keep blind and visually impaired students motivated and facilitate their academic progress towards math completion, tutorial support, assistive technology, and a positive and inclusive learning environment.

  3. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  4. Perceptual learning in children with visual impairment improves near visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-09-17

    This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three groups: a magnifier group (n = 12), a crowded perceptual learning group (n = 18), and an uncrowded perceptual learning group (n = 15). Children with normal vision also were divided in three groups, but were measured only at baseline. Dependent variables were single near visual acuity (NVA), crowded NVA, LH line 50% crowding NVA, number of trials, accuracy, performance time, amount of small errors, and amount of large errors. Children with visual impairment trained during six weeks, two times per week, for 30 minutes (12 training sessions). After training, children showed significant improvement of NVA in addition to specific improvements on the training task. The crowded perceptual learning group showed the largest acuity improvements (1.7 logMAR lines on the crowded chart, P visual impairment benefit from perceptual training. While task-specific improvements were observed in all training groups, transfer to crowded NVA was largest in the crowded perceptual learning group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the improvement of NVA by perceptual learning in children with visual impairment. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR2537.).

  5. Physical fitness of visually impaired adolescent goalball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ilkim Citak; Aki, Esra; Ergun, Nevin

    2009-02-01

    This study compared the physical fitness of 28 visually impaired goalball players (M=13 yr.) and a group of 27 less active age-matched adolescents. Physical characteristics (age, height, weight, sex) and visual acuity of the children were recorded. Body composition (Body Mass Index, skinfold thickness of triceps plus calf), musculoskeletal function (trunk-lift, curl-up, isometric push-up, shoulder-stretch tests) and aerobic function (1-mile run/walk test) were evaluated according to the Brockport Physical Fitness Test Battery. Also, anaerobic power was assessed by a vertical jump test. Physical fitness of visually impaired goalball players was higher than that of the more sedentary group (p.05). It was considered that directing visually impaired children to participation sports or recreational activities such as goalball has importance in improving their physical fitness.

  6. The impact of visual impairment on health, function and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Maaravi, Yoram; Cohen, Aaron; Stessman, Jochanan

    2005-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of visual impairment on self-rated health, function and mortality amongst a community-dwelling elderly cohort. The study design was prospective and longitudinal, subjects being taken from an age-homogeneous, community-dwelling cohort comprising 452 subjects aged 70 in 1990 and 839 subjects aged 77 in 1998. Comprehensive data were collected by structured interviews and medical examinations carried out during home visits. Data included each subject's demographic and socio-economic profile, medical history, physical findings, functional status and self-rated health status. Visual acuity was measured using a Snellen chart and visual impairment was defined as best-eye corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse on Snellen chart testing. Measured and self-reported visual impairment correlated closely, and were significantly more prevalent amongst subjects with low education and poor financial status. Visually impaired subjects showed significantly greater dependence in ADL and IADL, poor self-rated health, less ability to rely on friends, increased loneliness and, in men aged 77, increased visits to the emergency room and hospital admissions. Visual impairment at age 70 significantly predicted poor self-rated health (p=0.029, OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.09-5.10), dependence in ADL (p=0.007, OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.34-6.33), general tiredness (p=0.037, OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.06-5.44), and mortality, with a two-and-a-half-fold increase in risk of death at seven years (p=0.0017,OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.48-5.46). Visual impairment in the elderly increases the risk of social, functional and medical decline.

  7. Impaired Visual Habituation in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Jacqueline; O'Desky, Ilyse H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Habituation has an important role in attention. By reducing one's sensitivity to a constant source of stimulation, it frees up attention resources to process new distinct items. Impaired habituation may disrupt sustained attention via inability to modulate the repeated intrusion of irrelevant stimuli. Method: Using Troxler fading, this…

  8. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golpour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study performed on 10 normal-hearing children with mean age of 4-5, from Gazvin kindergartens and 10 hearing impaired children with similar IQ and age from Nioosha Rehabilitation Center. The language and non language information was received by spontaneous and descriptive speech, and questionnaire, respectively and for comparing syntax comprehension, Specific language impairment test was used. Then these results were compared between two groups. Results: Difference between spontaneous speech and descriptive speech in hearing impaired child is just like normal child. These differences are that the number of utterance, the mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme in spontaneous speech is greater than descriptive speech but the mean length of utterance and richness of vocabulary in descriptive speech is greater than spontaneous speech. Mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme and richness of vocabulary related to morphological part and the number of utterance, the mean length of utterance and syntax comprehension related to syntax, in spontaneous and descriptive speech of normal children speech is greater than hearing impaireds`. Conclusion: According to recent researches, compared with normal child, the hearing impaired child nearly never to reach equal level, and for this reason, training for this group is necessary. It is concluded that although these children have severe to profound hearing loss they are developing their

  9. Impaired Visual Attention in Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    A cue-target visual attention task was administered to 25 children (ages 10-12) with dyslexia. Results showed a general pattern of slower responses in the children with dyslexia compared to controls. Subjects also had longer reaction times in the short and long cue-target interval conditions (covert and overt shift of attention). (Contains…

  10. Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Manna A; Van der Mei, Sijrike F; Groothoff, Johan W; Suurmeijer, Theo P B M

    2012-02-01

    To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (≥55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical, social and psychological factors, and personal values) of participation were identified in four domains of participation: (1) domestic life; (2) interpersonal interactions and relationships; (3) major life areas; and (4) community, social, and civic life. Study participants completed telephone interviews. Age, physical fitness, and helplessness were determinants of participation in domestic life. Social network size was associated with participation in major life areas. The personal value attached to participation (i.e., perceived importance) was a determinant of participation in interpersonal interactions and relationships, major life areas, and community, social and civic life. Vision-related characteristics (i.e., self-perceived vision and degree of visual impairment) were not associated with participation. Across the participation domains, perceived importance is a major determinant of social participation among visually impaired older adults. Physical health along with social and psychological status, also affect participation. Knowing how participation is determined can be used to develop rehabilitation interventions to enhance participation of visually impaired older adults.

  11. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F Nienke; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group of children with normal sight (n = 66). Children with visual impairment and children with normal sight aged 4-8 years executed two types of movements (cyclic and discrete) in two orientations (vertical or horizontal) over two distances (10 cm and 20 cm) with two objects resembling the size and shape of regularly prescribed stand and dome magnifiers. The visually impaired children performed slower movements than the normally sighted children. In both groups, the accuracy and speed of the reciprocal aiming movements improved significantly with age. Surprisingly, in both groups, the performance with the dome-shaped object was significantly faster (in the 10 cm condition and 20 cm condition with discrete movements) and more accurate (in the 20 cm condition) than with the stand-shaped object. From a controllability perspective, this study suggests that it is better to prescribe dome-shaped than cylinder-shaped magnifiers to young children with visual impairment. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medication-handling challenges among visually impaired population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhi-Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Visually impaired individuals are particularly at higher risk for experiencing a medication error. The aim of this study is to identify the problems encountered by the visually impaired population when handling their medication. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-guided questionnaire with 100 visually impaired individuals. The questionnaire comprised a series of questions in medication management. Results: All of the respondents perceived that self-administration of medication was a challenging task. A total of 89% of respondents were unable to read the prescription labels, 75% of respondents did not know the expiry date of their own medication, and 58% of respondents did not know the name of the medication. With regard to storage of medication, 72% of respondents did not practice appropriate methods to store their medication, and 80% of respondents kept the unused medication. All of the respondents disposed leftover medication through household rubbish. A total of 64% of respondents never practice medication review. Most (96% of them did not tell health-care providers when they faced difficulties in handling their medication. Conclusion: Most of the visually impaired individuals did not receive appropriate assistance regarding medicine use and having low awareness in medication management. This can lead to increased risk of medication errors or mismanagement among visually impaired population. Hence, effective strategies, especially in pharmaceutical care services, should be structured to assist this special population in medication handling.

  13. Clinical Services: Hearing Impaired, Visually Impaired, Deaf-Blind (Multi-Handicapped).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Special Education.

    Briefly described are educational and medical clinical services and evaluation procedures for hearing impaired, visually impaired, and deaf-blind children in Ohio. The services are said to assess individual student needs and to facilitate educational placement and programing in special education classes or at state schools for the blind or the…

  14. Helping the Visually Impaired Student with Electronic Video Visual Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visualtek, Inc., Santa Monica, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Video visual aids are Closed Circuit TV systems (CCTV's) which magnify print and enlarge it electronically upon a screen so partially sighted persons with some residual vision can read and write normal size print. These devices are in use around the world in homes, schools, industries and libraries,…

  15. Severe structural and functional visual system damage leads to profound loss of vision-related quality of life in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Zimmermann, Hanna; Mikolajczak, Janine; Oertel, Frederike C; Pache, Florence; Weinhold, Maria; Schinzel, Johann; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are characterized by devastating optic neuritis attacks causing more structural damage and visual impairment than in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to compare vision-related quality of life in NMOSD and MS patients and correlate it to structural retinal damage and visual function. Thirty-one NMOSD and 31 matched MS patients were included. Vision-related quality of life was assessed with the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). All patients underwent retinal optical coherence tomography and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements. Vision-related quality of life was reduced in NMOSD compared to MS patients. This difference was driven by a higher incidence of bilateral and more severe optic neuritis in the NMOSD group. Retinal thinning and visual impairment were significantly greater in the NMOSD cohort. Lower vision-related quality of life was associated with more retinal damage and reduced visual function as assessed by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. NMOSD-related bilateral ON-attacks cause severe structural damage and visual impairment that lead to severe loss of vision-related quality of life. The NEI-VFQ is a helpful tool to monitor vision-related quality of life in NMOSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial impact of visual impairment in working-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, S R; Gosney, M A; Victor, C R

    2010-11-01

    To review the evidence for the presence of lower levels of psychosocial well-being in working-age adults with visual impairment and for interventions to improve such levels of psychosocial well-being. Systematic review of quantitative studies published in English from 2001 to July 2008 that measured depression/mental health, anxiety, quality of life, social functioning or social support. Included were 29 studies that measured one or more outcomes (N = 52). Working-age adults with visual impairment were significantly more likely to report lower levels of mental health (mean difference = 14.51/100), social functioning (MD = 11.55/100) and quality of life. Studies regarding the prevalence of depressive symptoms produced inconsistent results but had methodological limitations. Future research is required into the prevalence of loneliness, anxiety and depression in adults with visual impairment, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for improving psychosocial well-being such as counselling, peer support and employment programmes.

  17. Corneal Complications And Visual Impairment In Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Abdus Salam; Aaqil, Bushra; Siddiqui, Afsheen; Nazneen, Zainab; Farooq, Umer

    2017-01-01

    Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis (VKC) is an infrequent but serious form of allergic conjunctivitis common in warm and humid areas where air is rich in allergens. It affects both eyes asymmetrically. Although VKC is a self-limiting disease but visions affecting corneal complications influence the quality of life in school children. The aim of this study was to list the corneal complications due to this condition and to find out the extent of visual impairment among VKC patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Hospital on 290 eyes of diagnosed cases of VKC. The diagnosis of VKC was made on the basis of history and examination. Visual acuity was recorded using Snellen's notation and visual impairment was classified according to World Health Organization classification for visual disabilities. The mean age of presentation was 10.83±6.13 years. There were 207 (71.4%) males and 83 (28.6%) females. Corneal scarring was observed in 59 (20.3%) eyes. Keratoconus was found to be in 17 (5.9%) eyes. Shield ulcer was detected in 09 (3.1%) eyes while 07 (2.4%) eyes had corneal neovascularization. Majority of the patients with visual loss had corneal scarring and the complication that led to severe visual loss in most of the eyes was Keratoconus. Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis in the presence of corneal complications is a sight threatening disease and can lead to severe visual impairment.

  18. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Boonstra, Frouke N

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired children seem to choose a standard but less

  19. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  20. Communicative competence in a group of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M; Shapiro, G

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of verbal and non-verbal communicative competence of five visually-impaired six and seven year old children were investigated. The Profile of Communicative Appropriateness (Penn, 1983) was used to assess communicative competence in one discourse interaction with a known interlocutor (mother). The results indicated that the subjects were predominantly appropriate in terms of verbal communication, and predominantly inappropriate in terms of non-verbal communication. Severity of visual impairment influenced performance in terms of non-verbal communication. Research and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  1. [Survey on avoidable blindness and visual impairment in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maritza; Brea, Ileana; Yee, Rita; Yi, Rodolfo; Carles, Víctor; Broce, Alberto; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged ≥ 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged ≥ 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.

  2. Image jitter enhances visual performance when spatial resolution is impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lynne M; Strang, Niall C; Scobie, Fraser; Love, Gordon D; Seidel, Dirk; Manahilov, Velitchko

    2012-09-06

    Visibility of low-spatial frequency stimuli improves when their contrast is modulated at 5 to 10 Hz compared with stationary stimuli. Therefore, temporal modulations of visual objects could enhance the performance of low vision patients who primarily perceive images of low-spatial frequency content. We investigated the effect of retinal-image jitter on word recognition speed and facial emotion recognition in subjects with central visual impairment. Word recognition speed and accuracy of facial emotion discrimination were measured in volunteers with AMD under stationary and jittering conditions. Computer-driven and optoelectronic approaches were used to induce retinal-image jitter with duration of 100 or 166 ms and amplitude within the range of 0.5 to 2.6° visual angle. Word recognition speed was also measured for participants with simulated (Bangerter filters) visual impairment. Text jittering markedly enhanced word recognition speed for people with severe visual loss (101 ± 25%), while for those with moderate visual impairment, this effect was weaker (19 ± 9%). The ability of low vision patients to discriminate the facial emotions of jittering images improved by a factor of 2. A prototype of optoelectronic jitter goggles produced similar improvement in facial emotion discrimination. Word recognition speed in participants with simulated visual impairment was enhanced for interjitter intervals over 100 ms and reduced for shorter intervals. Results suggest that retinal-image jitter with optimal frequency and amplitude is an effective strategy for enhancing visual information processing in the absence of spatial detail. These findings will enable the development of novel tools to improve the quality of life of low vision patients.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood visual impairment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezabih L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidiya Bezabih,1 Tilaye Workneh Abebe,1 Robera Olana Fite2 1Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Adama General Hospital and Medical College, Adama, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Visual impairment is a significant loss of vision. It has an impact on the prosperity of different countries. It has been difficult to plan preventive measures against visual impairment due to the scarcity of data about the extent of the problem.Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and identifying factors associated with visual impairment among school-age children in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in four randomly selected schools found in Addis Ababa from May 15 to June 14, 2016. A total of 804 school-age students were selected using the simple random sampling method. Bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were conducted. A p-value <0.05 was taken as a significant association.Results: A total of 718 students participated in the study, obtaining a response rate of 89.3%. In all, 7.24% of school-age children were visually impaired, of whom 3.9% had low vision and 3.34% had severe visual impairment. Factors associated with visual impairment were being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–3.50, being in the age group of 10–13 years (AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.36–6.22, being in the age group of 14–18 years (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 2.17–11.95, being a private school student (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81–4.41, watching television for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.37–7.34, watching television at <1 m (AOR, 7.65; 95% CI, 2.59–34.61, watching television at 1–2 m (AOR, 6.89; 95% CI, 1.74–25.27, mobile exposure for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.35–4.58, mobile exposure for >4 hours/day (AOR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1

  4. Developmental abilities in children with mild visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyzing the relation between visual acuity and developmental abilities (perceptive functions, verbal and non-verbal abilities in younger school children. The sample consists of 1165 children from urban, suburban, and rural parts of Belgrade, of both genders, aged between 7.5 and 11. American 'Lighthouse' Optotype was used for screening assessment of visual acuity. Mild visual impairment, i.e. near visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, was detected in 7.9% of the pupils. ACADIA test of developmental abilities was used for the assessment of developmental abilities. When compared to the examinees with visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 (mild amblyopia, the examinees with normal visual acuity achieved better results in visuomotor coordination, non-verbal reasoning (Visual Association subtest, and concept formation in non-verbal domain (Sequence and Coding subtest. No significant differences were determined in constructive praxis (Drawing Shapes subtest and representational dimension of a drawing (Drawing subtest. According to the criterion of age standard deviation, a statistically significant difference was determined between the examinees with mild visual impairment and the examinees with normal vision (χ2=13,425, df=2, p=0,001; ρ=0,103, p≤0,000. The results of 24.8% of the examinees with mild visual impairment deviate from age norms in one or two SD (14.9% in one SD, and 9.9% in two SD. In the group of examinees with normal vision 12.5% of the results deviate from age norms in one or two SD (8.7% in one SD, and 3.8% in two SD.

  5. Assessment and management of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Taha A; El Sada, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Boshra; Sabra, Neveen M; Abdel Aleem, Hanan M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of low vision aids in improving visual performance and response in children with low vision. Prospective clinical case series. This study was conducted on 50 patients that met the international criteria for a diagnosis of low vision. Their ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Assessment of low vision included distance and near visual acuity assessment, color vision and contrast sensitivity function. Low vision aids were prescribed based on initial evaluation and the patient's visual needs. Patients were followed up for 1 year using the tests done at the initial examination and a visual function assessment questionnaire. The duration of visual impairment ranged from 1 to 10 years, with mean duration +/- SD being 4.6+/- 2.3299. The near visual acuities ranged from A10 to A20, with mean near acuity +/- SD being A13.632 +/- 3.17171. Far visual acuities ranged from 6/60 (0.06) to 6/24 (0.25), with mean far visual acuity +/- SD being 0.122 +/- 0.1191. All patients had impaired contrast sensitivity function as tested using the vision contrast testing system (VCTS) chart for all spatial frequencies. Distance and near vision aids were prescribed according to the visual acuity and the visual needs of every patient. All patients in the age group 5-7 years could be integrated in mainstream schools. The remaining patients that were already integrated in schools demonstrated greater independency regarding reading books and copying from blackboards. Our study confirmed that low vision aids could play an effective role in minimizing the impact of low vision and improving the visual performance of children with low vision, leading to maximizing their social and educational integration.

  6. Optokinetic nystagmus as a measure of visual function in severely visually impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Sara T; Rizzo, Joseph F; Balkwill, M David; Wall, Conrad

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) as an objective measurement of vision in severely visually impaired patients, in whom it is difficult to measure visual function reliably. Objective visual acuity (VA) measurements would be useful in the pre-and postoperative assessment of severely visually impaired patients who are potential candidates for visual rehabilitation strategies, such as retinal prostheses, neural and stem cell transplantation, and molecular approaches. Full-field visual stimuli were used to evoke horizontal OKN responses in 17 subjects. Eye movements were recorded and analyzed to determine the maximum stimulus velocity (V(max)) at which subjects could maintain an OKN response. This endpoint was compared to logMAR VA and Goldmann visual field (VF) test results. V(max) was dependent on VA, VF, and the spatial frequency (SF) of the stimulus, yielding the equation V(max) = 14.2 . log(VA) - 6.20 . log(SF) + 0.22 . VF + 25.0. The findings suggest that V(max) in the presence of full-field OKN stimuli may provide an objective measure of VA and peripheral vision. OKN testing may be useful as an additional, more objective means of assessing visual function in a select group of severely visually impaired patients who are being considered as candidates for new visual rehabilitative strategies.

  7. Bilateral childhood visual impairment: child and parent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Laura; Leske, David A; Hatt, Sarah R; Castañeda, Yolanda S; Wernimont, Suzanne M; Cheng-Patel, Christina S; Birch, Eileen E; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2017-06-01

    To identify specific health-related quality of life and visual function concerns affecting children with bilateral visual impairment as expressed by children or one of their parents (proxy) and concerns affecting the parents themselves. A total of 37 children visual impairment (visual acuity worse than 20/70 in the better eye) and one parent for each child were prospectively enrolled. Semistructured individual interviews were performed with children 5-15 years of age (n = 16) and with one parent for each child (ages 0-15 years, N = 37). Interview transcripts were analyzed using NVivo software. Categories of concern were identified from both child and parent interviews, from which broad themes were identified. The frequencies of the themes and specific categories of concerns were calculated. Regarding the child's experience, categories of concern were grouped into 6 themes: visual function (expressed by 13 of 16 children [81%] and 33 of 37 parents [89%]), treatment (63% and 54%), emotions (50% and 68%), social (50% and 70%), physical discomfort (50% and 22%), and worry (38% and 8%). Concerns expressed regarding the parents' own experience were grouped into 5 themes: worry (100%), compensate-adjust for condition (89%), treatment (84%), emotions (81%), and affects family (46%). Individual interviews identified a wide spectrum of concerns in children with visual impairment and their parents, affecting functional, emotional, social and physical domains. Specific concerns will be used to develop patient-derived questionnaires for quantifying the effects of visual impairment on children and parents in everyday life. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired visual processing preceding image recognition in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; de Jong, Bauke M.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; van Laar, Teus

    2009-01-01

    Impaired visual processing may play a role in the pathophysiology of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. In order to study involved neuronal circuitry, we assessed cerebral activation patterns both before and during recognition of gradually revealed images in Parkinson's disease patients

  9. Benign Visual Hallucinations, or "Phantom Vision" in Visually Impaired and Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, W. E.; Taylor, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Benign visual hallucinations ("phantom vision") were examined in 2 studies, involving a total of 443 adventitiously blinded and sight-impaired veterans. In one study, unusual visual events were reported by 38.7 percent, with 30.6 percent reporting complex hallucinations. Causes of the hallucinations and their treatment are discussed.…

  10. Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

  11. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Singh Senjam; Praveen Vashist; Noopur Gupta; Sumit Malhotra; Vasundhara Misra; Amit Bhardwaj; Vivek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's E chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was

  12. Hopelessness and social comparison in Turkish adolescent with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, S; Ergun, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine visually impaired adolescents' level of hopelessness and how they perceive of themselves socially compared to other individuals. Another purpose of this study was to look for relationships between hopelessness and social comparison in adolescents with visual impairment. The research population was comprised of 130 students at a secondary school for the visually impaired in Istanbul, Turkey. Our study demonstrated a weak relationship between social comparison and hopelessness (r=-0.46, P visual impairment was 4.59 ± 3.12 (girls: 4.23 ± 3.10; boys: 4.83 ± 3.11) and social comparison score was 87.50 ± 11.19 (girls: 88.67 ± 11.62; boys: 86.60 ± 10.85). Hopelessness and social comparison were not affected by being blind from birth compared to later or from being a full-time boarding student compared to being a day student. The hopeless (Beck Hopelessness Scale score ≥ 9) adolescents' social comparison scores were found lower than hopeful ones' scores (P social comparison were feelings about their father, teacher and school. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. The Social Lives of Canadian Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Deborah; Shaw, Alexander; Wolffe, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This survey of the social and leisure experiences of Canadian youths with visual impairments found that, in general, youths with low vision experienced more social challenges than did their peers who were blind. Levels of social support were not found to differ on the basis of level of vision, sex, or age. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  14. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Dietetic Assistant. Visually Impaired. [Vol 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Barbara; And Others

    This instructional package is one of two designed for visually impaired students on the vocational area of dietetic assistant. The forty-seven learning modules are organized into three units: nutrition; menu planning and food ordering; and housekeeping and safety. Each module, printed in large block type, includes these elements: a performance…

  15. ICT Use in Information Delivery to People with Visual Impairment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in information delivery for people with visual impairment and on wheelchairs in Tanzanian academic libraries. A pragmatism paradigm and the social model of disability of Oliver were employed using both quantitative and qualitative ...

  16. Graphical Analysis and the Visually Impaired in Undergraduate Economics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Penny; Andrews, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that legal mandates increase the probability that postsecondary instructors will have blind and visually impaired students in their classrooms. The graphical and symbolic notations used in economics courses present special problems for these students. Recommends and describes the usage of tactile graphs and raised line drawings. (MJP)

  17. Everyday Information Behaviour of the Visually Impaired in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Yu, Jieli

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Visually impaired people in China are socially excluded in multiple ways, such as employment, social status and information access. The purpose of this study is to examine their information needs and information seeking behaviour. Method: Two ways of data collection were employed: a telephone survey with a questionnaire in the first…

  18. Guideline for the development of products for visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Richter do Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concern about the needs of disabled people has grown, worldwide and in Brazil. The government seeks to address this issue. Visually impaired people represent 48,1% of the disabled person group in Brazil. Brazilian products that are used by visually impaired people are not developed specifically for this group and this fact is a big gap. Predominantly, product development approaches do not study methodologies to design products for people that can not see. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the development and application of a guideline for the development of products for visually impaired people. The proposed model is the result of literature review and product analysis. The Guideline is structured in groups and subgroups, helping the designer to find the correct recommendation. Each recommendation has a description and example. An illustrative application shows how the guideline works. An experimental application illustrates that the proposed guideline is: i consistent with the recommended products for the visually impaired people; ii applicable for experienced and novice designers; iii applicable for the “Conceptual Design” phase; iv tool for improve the quality of product conception and for reducing the design lead time.

  19. Self-reported occupational visual and hearing impairment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occupational visual and hearing impairment among dental professionals in Edo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey of dental surgeons, dental surgery assistants (DSA), dental therapists and dental technologists was conducted in ...

  20. prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a nairobi urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract. Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.

  1. Empowering Visually Impaired People to Access Their Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors are discussed that should influence the planning and development of rehabilitation services for visually impaired people: social perceptions/expectations (media influence, leisure, health, quality of life, and equality of opportunity) and external environmental influences (demographic, economic, social, political, and physical).…

  2. Detection of Childhood Visual Impairment in At-Risk Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Heleen; van der Graaf, Gabrielle; Walinga, Margreet; Bindels-de Heus, Karen; van Genderen, Maria; Verhoeff, Marleen; Lantau, Kathleen; van der Meulen-Ennema, Helen; Meester, Nelleke; Wienen, Lien; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline

    2007-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities have an increased risk of visual impairment, caused by both ocular and cerebral abnormalities, but this risk has not been quantified. The same applies to preterm children and children with cerebral palsy with a normal intelligence. Many cases probably go unidentified, because participation of these children…

  3. Effective and efficient stand magnifier use in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  4. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  5. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  6. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G.H. van; Cillessen, A.H.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. METHODS: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  7. How to measure spatial abilities in visually impaired people?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Frank

    2012-01-01

    For the measurement of spatial abilities in sighted persons various tests exist. However, since these rely on vision, they are useless for visually impaired persons (VIPs). This study aimed at founding two self-constructed vision-free tests for spatial ability measurement of VIPs on existing

  8. Setting Curricular Priorities for Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Amanda Hall

    1999-01-01

    Presents a step-by-step method for identifying curricular priorities for students who are visually impaired once a comprehensive educational assessment has been completed. This methodological approach to analyzing instruction needs provides data to substantiate informed decisions about what to teach and the amount of instruction time required. (CR)

  9. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Lee, Cheng-Che; Chiang, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them. PMID:28608811

  10. Internet Use and Cybersecurity Concerns of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Fethi A.; Namin, Akbar S.; Pogrund, Rona L.; Jones, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty individuals with visual impairments were surveyed in order to (a) understand their Internet use and (b) examine relations between metrics related to Internet use and cybersecurity-related knowledge, skills, confidence, and attitudes. Participants used the Internet for various purposes, including information search, communication, chatting,…

  11. Assistive Device For Visually Impaired People By Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hninn Nandar Aye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The visually impaired people need some aid to walk and move safety in their surroundings. The ordinary people cannot know how hard it is to live and move in daily life for the blindness the visually impaired people and the old person who has poor vision. Although the sighted people cannot help the blindness to regain the eyesight the visually impaired one can try to make easier the daily routine by using the assistive device that can detect the obstacles near the blindness and the visually impaired people and warn the alert to the users before accidence. This assistive device like walking stick contains ultrasonic sensors PIC microcontroller Peripheral Interface Controller LDR vibrator servo motor buzzer and LED. Ultrasonic sensors are used for sensing and detecting the obstacles near the user to avoid the dangerous condition. Vibrator and buzzer are used for providing the alert to know that the obstacle is near. Servo motor is used for turning the wheel easily without effort. LDR and LED is used for lighting in low light room and at night to know the ordinary or sighted people where the walking stick is so this assistive device will be safe from the other peoples hit.

  12. Through the Spattered Windshield: A Visually Impaired Teacher's Internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas James

    2000-01-01

    A visually impaired student teacher, her cooperating teachers, and college supervisor cooperated to make her internship successful. Adaptations included making early contact to enable adaptation of resources, focusing on capabilities rather than limitations of challenged interns, empowering interns to determine their own solutions to problems,…

  13. Conceptual Understanding of Geological Concepts by Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Farrand, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen middle and high school students with visual impairments participated in a weeklong field-based geology summer camp. This paper reports the curriculum, strategies, and what the students learned about Earth science by climbing in and out of caves, collecting fossils, exploring a bog, and interacting with experts in the field. Students were…

  14. Blindness and visual impairment in Okoboh, a rural community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other causes of bilateral blindness were optic atrophy (16.7%), bilateral corneal opacity (8.3%) and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) (8.3%). Conclusion: Visual impairment and blindness are common in the Okoboh rural community. Cataracts, glaucoma, corneal opacity and age- related macular degeneration ...

  15. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Boonstra, F.N.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Cox, R.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. Methods: This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with

  16. Visual Impairment and Blindness in 5 Communities in IMO State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eberechukwu O Achigbu

    2.46 million adults in Nigeria.[7]. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract, the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment[8] are most commonly found in rural, often remote, underdeveloped areas.[9] Unfortunately, access to eye care services is limited, especially in rural areas and amongst the urban poor,[7] due to ...

  17. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  18. Resilience in Parents of Young Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Heidi; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the adaptation of parents with children with visual impairment in South Africa. The results showed that familial values (such as attitude toward the disability, religious faith, and familial closeness) permit a process of inclusion (through the use of resources and acceptance of help) and the development of a…

  19. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  20. Blindness and Visual Impairment among Adults in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To plan and implement appropriate management of patients with blindness and visual impairment (VI) requires the knowledge of the common presenting causes. Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the common causes of VI in adults and develop a template for eye care delivery. Materials and ...

  1. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  2. Program Accountability for Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, Nancy M.; Blankenship, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    Administrators across the U.S. are collecting and analyzing program and student-specific data to meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004), and state performance plans. Although most states are not required to disaggregate data for students who are visually impaired,…

  3. prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a nairobi urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a ... Conclusions: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of ... oldest (6)and largest city slum (223.4 Km2) in Kenya. (7). The Division is ...

  4. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  5. The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

  6. Teaching the Meaning of Words to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…

  7. Young persons with visual impairment: challenges of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Karhula, Maarit E

    2014-07-01

    To describe the challenges to activity and participation faced by young people with visual impairment within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). 14 young persons (aged 16-22 years) with visual impairment and their parents (n = 22) participated in the study. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe challenges of participation as perceived by the young persons themselves. Individual interviews with the young persons and their parents were used to investigate in more depth the challenges the young persons face with regard to participation. Young persons with visual impairment face challenges to participation most frequently with regard to mobility, domestic life, interpersonal interaction and relationships, major life areas, and leisure activities. The environment in which they live has a central role as a barrier or facilitator of participation. The challenges related to activities and participation that young persons with visual impairment face are diverse. It is important that these challenges are assessed individually and with the help of subjective measures. Serving as a broad framework for classifying the data, the ICF proved to be a useful tool, but used strictly at category level it may limit the coding of data and narrow interpretation.

  8. The Abacus: Instruction by Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Sheila; Hong, Sunggye; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article, based on a study of 196 teachers of students with visual impairments, reports on the experiences with and opinions related to their decisions about instructing their students who are blind or have low vision in the abacus. Methods: The participants completed an online survey on how they decide which students should be…

  9. ATTITUDE PARENTS TO EARLY INTERVENTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992. It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early development of a child in several ways:· motor functioning;· concept development;· social skills;· range of experience;· ability to move independently;· play etc.All these obstacles in early development create the necessity of Early Intervention programs which should start immediately after child’s is diagnosed.As it was said above the best approach to involve parents in early Intervention programs is to develop strategies, which fit individual family needs. This means to take into account many factors important for each family. Some of them are:· future believes and expectations;· educational background and culture;· religion;· financial situation.

  10. Visual Speech Perception in Children with Language Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Evans, Sam; Snell, Caroline; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the ability of children with developmental language learning impairments (LLIs) to use visual speech cues from the talking face. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 41 typically developing children (mean age: 8 years 0 months, range: 4 years 5 months to 11 years 10 months) and 27 children with…

  11. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them.

  12. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major public health and social problems worldwide. The problem is worse in the developing countries due to ignorance, infections, malnutrition and lack of adequate eye care services especially in the rural areas. The misfortune of losing one's eyesight is worsened by ...

  13. Visual impairment in South Africa: achieve-ments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Sacharowitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in South Africa are reviewed against the existing services and limitations in the country. The magnitude1 of visual impair-ment  and  the  projected  increase  worldwide over the coming decades have been recognized as having potentially far-reaching social, eco-nomic and quality of life implications for not only the affected individuals but also for their families and communities. Two-thirds or more of all blindness is avoidable, in that the causes are  preventable  or  treatable.2,  3  Early  detec-tion, prevention and management programs are needed to reduce the impact of visual impair-ment. Approximately 80% of the South African population is indigent, relying on public hospi-tals and clinics and the remaining 20% of the population has access to private health care.4 As the majority of eye care professionals are in private practice, access to eye care services are available to only a minority of the population. This paper reviews the current services in South Africa and the challenges that lie ahead.

  14. Visual selective attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Anderson, Nicole D; Rich, Jill B; Chertkow, Howard; Murtha, Susan J E

    2014-11-01

    Subtle deficits in visual selective attention have been found in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, few studies have explored performance on visual search paradigms or the Simon task, which are known to be sensitive to disease severity in Alzheimer's patients. Furthermore, there is limited research investigating how deficiencies can be ameliorated with exogenous support (auditory cues). Sixteen individuals with aMCI and 14 control participants completed 3 experimental tasks that varied in demand and cue availability: visual search-alerting, visual search-orienting, and Simon task. Visual selective attention was influenced by aMCI, auditory cues, and task characteristics. Visual search abilities were relatively consistent across groups. The aMCI participants were impaired on the Simon task when working memory was required, but conflict resolution was similar to controls. Spatially informative orienting cues improved response times, whereas spatially neutral alerting cues did not influence performance. Finally, spatially informative auditory cues benefited the aMCI group more than controls in the visual search task, specifically at the largest array size where orienting demands were greatest. These findings suggest that individuals with aMCI have working memory deficits and subtle deficiencies in orienting attention and rely on exogenous information to guide attention. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Dorsal simultanagnosia: An impairment of visual processing or visual awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Georgina M; Shepherd, Tracy; Mueller, Sven C; Husain, Masid; Jackson, Stephen R

    2006-07-01

    When presented with two objects patients with simultanagnosia show a marked impairment at naming both items. This has led many authors to conclude that the second item is not being processed (e.g., Robinson, 2003). However, this deficit may instead reflect a deficit with explicit, or conscious report. We investigated this issue using a semantic priming paradigm that allowed us to assess implicit processing of the second "unseen" item. We presented a patient, with bilateral parietal damage, with pairs of pictures that were either from the same or a different semantic category. The patient was asked to either classify one of the pictures or to name both pictures. When the items were from different categories the patient's classification performance was significantly poorer than when they were from the same category, even though he could rarely explicitly report both items. These findings are consistent with the notion that the meaning of the "unseen" item influenced the reporting of the "seen" item. Consequently, the deficit seen in this patient does not seem to reflect an inability to process more than one item simultaneously but rather a deficit in explicitly identifying multiple items.

  16. Internet use: Perceptions and experiences of visually impaired older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Emeka Okonji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many older people are increasingly using the internet. This study investigated the experiences of visually impaired older people on internet use and explored how it fits into their lives. 20 visually impaired older people aged 60 years and over were recruited from a voluntary organisation for blind people. Qualitative interviews were conducted with all participants to investigate how they perceive the relevance of internet use to their daily lives. Findings suggest that the internet not only has potential to promote their ability to perform daily tasks, cope with vision impairment and feel socially included. However, the rapid pace of technological advancement is feared as a development that could further widen the digital divide if they are not carried along by addressing barriers to their internet.

  17. Space Vision: Making Astronomy Accessible to Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M. R.; Jurgens, T. D.; Pruett, K. M.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomy, with good reason, is thought of as a visual science. Spectacular images of deep space objects or other worlds of our solar system inspire public interest in Astronomy. People encounter news about the universe during their daily life. Developing concepts about celestial objects presents an extra challenge of abstraction for people with visual impairments. The Texas Space Grant Consortium with educators at the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired have developed a 2 day workshop to be held in April 2004 to help students with visual impairments understand these concepts. Hands-on activities and experiments will emphasize non-visual senses. For example, students will learn about: - Constellations as historical ways of finding one's way across the sky. - The size and structure of the Solar System by building a scale model on a running track. They will also: - Plan a planetary exploration mission. - Explore wave phenomenon using heat and sound waves. In preparation for the workshop we worked with teens involved in the countywide 4-H Teens Leading with Character (TLC) program to create the tactile materials necessary for the activities. The teens attended solar system education training so they would have the skills necessary to make the tactile displays to be used during the workshop. The results and evaluation of the workshop will be presented at the meeting. Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy inspired this workshop, and it is supported by HST Grant HST-ED-90255.01-A.

  18. Causes of severe visual impairment in children and their prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-30

    Concerning the fact that regarding causes of congenital visual impairment or visual impairment occurring during the first years of life, especially on the aetiology many problems have never been resolved, on instigation of The Netherlands a "Committee for the special study of severe visual impairment in children" has been founded by the International Association for Prevention of Blindness. The intention was that provisionally in this committee only 5 small West European countries should be represented, having more or less the same social and hygienic conditions, so that one could expect that comparison of the gained information in these countries should give some results concerning the aetiology. The contributing countries were: Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and The Netherlands. For this purpose criteria for definition of severe visual impairment, a questionnaire and a codinglist were drawn up. The classification scheme of causes of blindness and partial sightedness of the I.A.P.B. was utilized for answering the questions "by site and type and by aetiology" of the eye affections. The total number of children who were involved in the investigation was 4306. The investigation confirmed that heredity still occupies the first place in the aetiology of the congenital severe visual impairment. Moreover, the investigation could prove that besides the already known role of rubella, toxoplasmosis and dysoxygenation, probably also other affections occuring during pregnancy, prematurity, and too low birth weight (dysmaturity) and birth injuries, like asphyxia of the new-born child, are of great importance. Probably there is a correlation with certain eye affections (cataracta congenita and optic nerve atrophy). Attention is paid to the possibilities of prevention. From the results it appears that a renewed investigation is necessary where one should have to dispose of more and especially more reliable information concerning pregnancy and delivery. Suggestions in this

  19. Should we add visual acuity ratios to referral criteria for potential cerebral visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Ymie J; Stiers, Peter; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    To determine whether the assessment of visual acuity ratios might improve the referral of children with (sub)normal visual acuity but at risk of cerebral visual impairment. In an exploratory study, we assessed visual acuity, crowding ratio and the ratios between grating acuity (Teller Acuity Cards-II) and optotype acuity (Cambridge Crowding Cards) in 60 typically developing school children (mean age 5y8m±1y1m), 21 children with ocular abnormalities only (5y7m±1y9m) and 26 children with (suspected) brain damage (5y7m±1y11m). Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for targets and controls from the perspective of different groups of diagnosticians: youth health care professionals (target: children with any visual abnormalities), ophthalmologists and low vision experts (target: children at risk of cerebral visual impairment). For youth health care professionals subnormal visual acuity had the best sensitivity (76%) and specificity (70%). For ophthalmologists and low vision experts the crowding ratio had the best sensitivity (67%) and specificity (79 and 86%). Youth health care professionals best continue applying subnormal visual acuity for screening, whereas ophthalmologists and low vision experts best add the crowding ratio to their routine diagnostics, to distinguish children at risk of visual impairment in the context of brain damage from children with ocular pathology only. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional assessment and diet quality of visually impaired Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The visually impaired represents a fairly numerous group in Spain although no data on their nutritional status has previously been published. This work aims to assess the nutritional state of a sample of visually impaired children and the quality of their diet. The sample comprised 229 boys and girls aged between 8 and 18 years (mean = 14, SD = 2.6), all of whom had a visual discapacity and were students of the Centros de Recursos Educativos (CREs; Educational Resources Centres) of the Organización Nacional de Ciegos de España (ONCE; Spanish National Organization for the Blind). This sample featured a high prevalence of overweight (25.8%) and obesity (11.8%) according to the international standard. The mean daily energy consumption and the quantity of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fibre were greater in boys (2604 kcal day(-1); 290 g of carbohydrates, 126 g of fats and 90 g of proteins) than in girls (2159 kcal day(-1), 232 g of carbohydrates, 107 g of fats and 80 g of proteins). No differences in diet intake according to degree of visual impairment were found. Their diet was unbalanced in comparison with the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population, since consumption of carbohydrates was low and that of fats was very high. The results relating to the quality of the diet reveal quite large deviations from the Mediterranean model. Only 11.9% of the whole sample had a value corresponding to a good quality diet. The pattern of dietary consumption was the same as that observed in non visually impaired children in Spain in quantity and quality, nevertheless the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher than in children without visual handicaps.

  1. Should Individuals Who Do Not Fit the Definition of "Visual Impairment" Be Excluded from Visual Impairment Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Mary T.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral or cortical visual impairment (CVI) is not the unknown condition it was 50 years ago. Although research had been conducted and papers published, it was not until the 1980s that it really became an issue of concern and much debate for educators. This interest was primarily sparked by the increasing numbers of children who had been…

  2. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  3. NASA's Spaceflight Visual Impairment and Intracranial Hypertension Research Plan: An accelerated Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Fogarty, J.; Grounds, D.; Davis, J.

    2010-01-01

    To date six long duration astronauts have experienced in flight visual changes and post flight signs of optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, hyperoptic shifts and or raised intracranial pressure. In some cases the changes were transient while in others they are persistent with varying degrees of visual impairment. Given that all astronauts exposed to microgravity experience a cephalad fluid shift, and that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients have exhibited optic nerve sheath edema on MRI, there is a high probability that all astronauts develop in-flight idiopathic intracranial hypertension to some degree. Those who are susceptible, have an increased likelihood of developing treatment resistant papilledema resulting in visual impairment and possible long-term vision loss. Such an acquired disability would have a profound mission impact and would be detrimental to the long term health of the astronaut. The visual impairment and increased intracranial pressure phenomenon appears to have multiple contributing factors. Consequently, the working "physiological fault bush" with elevated intracranial pressure at its center, is divided into ocular effects, and CNS and other effects. Some of these variables have been documented and or measured through operational data gathering, while others are unknown, undocumented and or hypothetical. Both the complexity of the problem and the urgency to find a solution require that a unique, non-traditional research model be employed such as the Accelerated Research Collaboration(TM) (ARC) model that has been pioneered by the Myelin Repair Foundation. In the ARC model a single entity facilitates and manages all aspects of the basic, translational, and clinical research, providing expert oversight for both scientific and managerial efforts. The result is a comprehensive research plan executed by a multidisciplinary team and the elimination of stove-piped research. The ARC model emphasizes efficient and effective

  4. Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagelsir, Azza; Khogli, Ahmed Eltigani; Nurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa

    2013-07-17

    Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan. A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren. Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (agechildren suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11-13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life. Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life.

  5. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Izabela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys. The division for partially sighted people (61 and the blind (66 was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05, as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001. The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20% or well-below (60% the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

  6. Severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cable, Noriko

    2003-10-25

    Prevention of visual impairment and blindness in childhood is an international priority. However, many countries do not have contemporary information about incidence and causes, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. In the UK, children aged younger than 16 years newly diagnosed with severe visual impairment or blindness (SVI/BL, WHO criteria) during 2000 were identified through national active surveillance schemes in ophthalmology and paediatrics. From these data, we calculated yearly age-group specific incidence and cumulative incidence. Causes were classified by the anatomical site or sites affected and by timing of the insult or insults and causal factors, where known. Of 439 newly diagnosed children, 336 (77%) had additional non-ophthalmic disorders or impairments (SVI/BL plus). Total yearly incidence was highest in the first year of life, being 4.0 (95% CI 3.6-4.5) per 10000, with a cumulative incidence by 16 years of age of 5.9 (5.3-6.5) per 10000. 10% (44) of all children died within 1 year of diagnosis of blindness. Prenatal causal factors affected 61% (268) of children, with perinatal or neonatal and childhood factors each affecting 18% (77). Incidence and causes varied with presence of non-ophthalmic impairments or disorders, birthweight, and ethnic origin. At least 75% (331) of children had disorders that were neither potentially preventable nor treatable, with current knowledge. Severe visual impairment and blindness in childhood in the UK is more common, occurs more frequently in the context of complex non-ophthalmic impairments, and has greater associated mortality, than previously assumed. An increased rate in children of low birthweight and from ethnic minority groups, together with the observed diversity and complexity of the causes, reflect recent secular changes in the population at risk, specific risk factors, and strategies available for treatment.

  7. Association between visual impairment and depression in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Su, Tung-Ping Tom; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Chou, Pesus

    2003-02-01

    Visual disturbances greatly influence daily activities and social activities of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between impaired vision and depression among the elderly in a metropolitan community. A population-based survey of eye diseases among subjects 65 years of age and older was conducted in Taipei between July 1, 1999, and December 31, 2000. A total of 2045 subjects were invited to participate, and 1361 (66.6%) participated in the survey. A structured questionnaire was used for door-to-door data collection. Interviewers also collected information on subjects' demographic characteristics, medical history, and from the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-S). Those subjects who had been interviewed were invited to the hospital for detailed eye examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity measurement. Among the participants, the prevalence of impaired vision (visual acuity less than 6/12 in the better eye) was 7.2% and the percentage with depression (GDS-S scores of > or = 5) was 8.8%. Impaired vision [p impact of impaired vision on each depressive item of the GDS-S. After controlling for all other covariates, impaired vision was a positive predictor for the following 4 items of the GDS-S: elderly with impaired vision feel unhappy most of the time [OR = 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01 to 2.88]; they do not think it is wonderful to be alive now (OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.64); they feel worthless the way they are now (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.24 to 3.90); and they feel that their situation is hopeless (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.03 to 3.52). Visual impairment was associated with feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness in this community population of older adults. However, elderly people often ignore disturbances or impact associated with worsening vision. There is an ongoing need for public education regarding the need for elderly people to pay active attention to visual care in their later life.

  8. Two patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 presenting with profound binocular visual loss yet minimal ophthalmoscopic findings

    OpenAIRE

    Thurtell, Matthew J.; Fraser, J. Alexander; Bala, Elisa; Tomsak, Robert L.; Biousse, Valérie; Leigh, R. John; Newman, Nancy J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two patients with genetically-confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA-7), who presented with progressive central visual loss and dyschromatopsia. Ocular funduscopic changes were subtle, with only mild retinal artery attenuation and subtle macular changes. Despite this, the electroretinogram (ERG) was abnormal in both patients. Both patients also had slowing of saccades and partially limited ductions, although neither reported diplopia. Although the older patient had cerebellar ...

  9. Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Tagelsir, Azza; Khogli, Ahmed Eltigani; Nurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI)...

  10. Executive abilities in children with congenital visual impairment in mid-childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; De Haan, Michelle; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi Jane

    2016-11-03

    The role of vision and vision deprivation in the development of executive function (EF) abilities in childhood is little understood; aspects of EF such as initiative, attention orienting, inhibition, planning and performance monitoring are often measured through visual tasks. Studying the development and integrity of EF abilities in children with congenital visual impairment (VI) may provide important insights into the development of EF and also its possible relationship with vision and non-visual senses. The current study investigates non-visual EF abilities in 18 school-age children of average verbal intelligence with VI of differing levels of severity arising from congenital disorders affecting the eye, retina, or anterior optic nerve. Standard auditory neuropsychological assessments of sustained and divided attention, phonemic, semantic and switching verbal fluency, verbal working memory, and ratings of everyday executive abilities by parents were undertaken. Executive skills were compared to age-matched typically-sighted (TS) typically-developing children and across levels of vision (mild to moderate VI [MVI] or severe to profound VI [SPVI]). The results do not indicate significant differences or deficits on direct assessments of verbal and auditory EF between the groups. However, parent ratings suggest difficulties with everyday executive abilities, with the greatest difficulties in those with SPVI. The findings are discussed as possibly reflecting increased demands of behavioral executive skills for children with VI in everyday situations despite auditory and verbal EF abilities in the typical range for their age. These findings have potential implications for clinical and educational practices.

  11. Recent Technological Developments for the Visually Impaired: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, S. C.; Bourgeois, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of electronic aids for the visually impaired is aimed at meeting the various needs of visually impaired individuals in business and educational settings. The need for evaluation of equipment and instructional programs is discussed. (Author)

  12. Age-related eye diseases and visual impairment among U.S. adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Cotch, Mary Frances; Vitale, Susan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Friedman, David S; Klein, Barbara E K; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a common health-related disability in the U.S. The association between clinical measurements of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in data from a national survey has not been...

  13. An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Luis A.; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F.

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment. PMID:22969398

  14. Evaluation of quality of life of visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; de Araújo, Moziane Mendonça; Braga, Fernanda Cavalcante; Fernandes, Giselle Taveira; Costa, Samira Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the quality of life of visually impaired using WHOQOL-100. exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, performed between April and May 2013 with 20 visually impaired of the Blind Association of Ceará, through interviews. the analysis showed that males predominated (80%), 41-55 years (40%), students (50%) and personal income than the minimum wage (70%). Participants were self-rated with good quality of life (68.75%). The facets with the highest rates were personal relationships (74.06%), sexual activity (66.88%) and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs (65%). With lower rates were financial (43.44%), physical environment: pollution/noise/traffic/climate (46.88%), physical security and protection (37.19%), transport (35.63%) and medication or treatment dependency (8.25%). these results reflect the importance of the nurse to perform health education actions promoting the empowerment, autonomy and guaranteed of access in society for this clientele.

  15. Visually impaired patients' perceptions of their needs in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, H; Webb, C

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on a study of visually impaired patients' perceptions of their social and psychological needs in hospital. A qualitative approach was taken to explore and describe these perceptions, and 18 in-patients from one ophthalmic hospital took part in semi-structured interviews lasting approximately half an hour. Patients did not agree on their most important need. Many stresses and methods of coping were specific to individual patients. Patients reported on three areas in which most of them had problems: behavior of some staff, anxiety, and communication, but most felt their physical needs were met by nurses. Implications and recommendations for nursing practice are discussed. In particular, the results indicate a need for individualised care. It is also apparent that further research is needed to explore nurses' beliefs and feelings towards visual impairment.

  16. An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Guerrero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user’s trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment.

  17. Two patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 presenting with profound binocular visual loss yet minimal ophthalmoscopic findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtell, Matthew J.; Fraser, J. Alexander; Bala, Elisa; Tomsak, Robert L.; Biousse, Valérie; Leigh, R. John; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    We report two patients with genetically-confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA-7), who presented with progressive central visual loss and dyschromatopsia. Ocular funduscopic changes were subtle, with only mild retinal artery attenuation and subtle macular changes. Despite this, the electroretinogram (ERG) was abnormal in both patients. Both patients also had slowing of saccades and partially limited ductions, although neither reported diplopia. Although the older patient had cerebellar ataxia, the younger only had an unsteady tandem gait. This constellation of signs should indicate SCA-7 as a diagnostic possibility, and prompt further investigation with ERG and genetic studies. PMID:19726939

  18. OCR Application on Smartphone for Visually Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEPELEA Laviniu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explain the possibility of interaction between visually impaired people and a smartphone especially to replace the sense of sight with help of an android based OCR application. The application can accept voice commands or touch commands on the screen of smartphone and the result is communicated on speaker or headphones. OCR process occurs on a server on the internet to be faster and consume fewer hardware resources.

  19. Landmark-Based Indoor Positioning for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2014-10-01

    Position localization is essential for visually impaired individuals to live independently. Comparing with outdoor environment in which the global positioning system (GPS) can be utilized, indoor positioning is more difficult due to the absence of the GPS signal and complex or unfamiliar building structure. In this paper, a novel landmark-based assistive system is presented for indoor positioning. Our preliminary tests in several buildings indicate that this system can provide accurate indoor location information.

  20. Making LibrariesAccessible for Visually Impaired Users: Practical Advice For Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devney Hamilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an introduction to making university libraries accessible to visually impaired users. It includes a summary of how visually impaired students access information and how libraries can provide access to materials, devices and software, and staff support to ensure visually impaired students ’ equal opportunity to use the library. The practical advice for librarians are based on interviews with 18 visually impaired university students and professionals who specialize in media, library services and information retrieval.

  1. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mualla Hamurcu; Koray Kara; Mehmet Ayhan Congologlu; Ufuk Hamurcu; Mahmoud Almbaidheen; Ayse Turan; Dursun Karaman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those w...

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE BARRIERS: GROCERY STORES AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Grocery stores include many different zones and services with the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with impaired vision.  This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items.  For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and to find the relevant products.  The purpose of this paper is to present a study that sought to understand the barriers that shoppers with vision impairment (VI face in the grocery store`s built environment. The research approach was based on the application of the ethnography method, Think-aloud Protocol (TAP, Interviews, and behavioural mapping method.

  3. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Description of the neuropsychomotor and visual development of visually impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Telma de Araujo; Souza, Vivian Estevam de; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro; Kitadai, Silvia Prado Smit

    2010-01-01

    To assess the neuropsychomotor and visual development of visually impaired children. Fourty-five children of both genders were evaluated in a 6-months period. The children were distributed into two study groups: experimental and control. The neuropsychomotor development and visual efficiency were evaluated in the two groups. In the control group, 86.66% of the sample was inappropriate on the coordination behavior, however, all aspects were considered inadequate. The differences among the groups were significant, since p valuesvisual efficiency behavior as well as in the neuropsychomotor development. It was observed in the studied sample that the visually impaired were characterized by a global delay in the neuropsychomotor development, mostly in the coordination behavior.

  5. "Out of sight, out of mind": a qualitative study of visual impairment and dementia from three perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Ffytche, Dominic; Banerjee, Sube

    2009-06-01

    Dementia and visual impairment are among the most common medical conditions in later life. Almost nothing is known about the experiences and needs of older adults with both conditions. In this qualitative study using in-depth individual interviews, multiple perspectives were sought through a case-study approach. Fifty-two interviews were conducted: 17 with older adults with visual impairment and dementia, 17 with family caregivers, and 18 with care professionals. Impaired memory and a lack of visual cues created profound disorientation and distress, which could be manifested in disruptive behavior. Visual hallucinations compounded older adults' disorientation, and caregivers were uncertain about how to manage them. Visual impairments reduced the ability of older adults to perform certain activities safely, while dementia impaired their ability to assess the risks accurately. Concerns about safety prompted family members to limit their relatives' activities even in early stages of dementia. Low-vision services perceived themselves to be ill equipped to manage dementia-related needs, while visual needs were accorded a low priority by dementia services. A lack of joint working by the two services led to an overcautious approach. The research identified considerable unmet needs and opportunities to improve care. The provision of clear verbal communication and optimized visual inputs is likely to reduce disorientation, distress and agitated behavior, while one-to-one contact is needed to overcome feelings of isolation. Family caregivers require additional respite services and advice on managing hallucinations. Increased sharing of information and skills between mental health and low-vision professionals would help maximize older adults' independence.

  6. Relationship between periodontal status and degree of visual impairment in institutionalized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Luana Dias; Melo Proença, Mariana Almeida; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pinheiro; Vasconcelos Pereira, Adriana Fátima; Benatti, Bruno Braga

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a set of inflammatory infections that affect the supporting structures of the dentition. Patients with visual impairment (VI) may have more difficulty in cleaning and maintaining oral health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between periodontal status and degree of VI in institutionalized individuals. Fifty-two visually impaired individuals were included in this cross-sectional study. The periodontal parameters assessed were clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), and visible plaque index. The degree of VI was established as: Group 1 (mild or moderate VI), Group 2 (severe or profound VI), and Group 3 (completely blind); and the types of VI were considered as congenital and acquired. Fisher's exact, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman correlation coefficient test were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Only plaque index was higher on proximal surfaces of subjects with mild/moderate VI when compared to the other degrees of VI (P = 0.01). Furthermore, we observed higher values for interproximal CAL (P = 0.01), total PD (P = 0.04), and interproximal PD in subjects with acquired VI when compared to subjects with congenital VI (P = 0.01). These findings suggest that periodontal status may be more related to the type of disability than with the degree of VI. Acquired VI people presented a worse periodontal health than the group with congenital VI.

  7. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  8. A framework for communication between visually impaired, hearing impaired and speech impaired using arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, R.; Khandelwa, Prakhar; Gupta, Anusha; Anand, Nayan

    2017-11-01

    A long time ago our society accepted the notion of treating people with disabilities not as unviable and disabled but as differently-abled, recognizing their skills beyond their disabilities. The next step has to be taken by our scientific community, that is, to normalize lives of the people with disabilities and make it so as if they are no different to us. The primary step in this direction would be to normalize communication between people. People with an impaired speech or impaired vision or impaired hearing face difficulties while having a casual conversation with others. Any form of communication feels so strenuous that the impaired end up communicating just the important information and avoid a casual conversation. To normalize conversation between the impaired we need a simple and compact device which facilitates the conversation by providing the information in the desired form.

  9. Promoting Leisure-Time Physical Activity for Students with Visual Impairments Using Generalization Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.

    2015-01-01

    Important and favorable health effects of physical activity have been well documented. Unfortunately, school-aged individuals who are visually impaired tend to be less physically active than their peers without visual impairments. Although students with visual impairments learn skills to participate in physical activities during their PE classes,…

  10. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  11. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  12. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  13. Effect of Gaze Direction on Evaluation of Visually Impaired Children by Informed Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver-Lampman, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concerned adults (N=50) in continual interaction with visually impaired individuals were randomly assigned to view videotapes of visually impaired children either with or without gaze direction. Results indicated that the visually impaired children were judged more intelligent and socially competent when utilizing gaze direction toward the…

  14. The Reliability of the CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…

  15. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  16. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  17. Reduced intrinsic visual cortical connectivity is associated with impaired perceptual closure in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent van de Ven

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that schizophrenia is associated with impaired intrinsic connectivity of the visual system, and that it is a potential mechanism leading to impaired visual object perception. These findings contribute to increasing evidence for impairments of higher visual functions in schizophrenia.

  18. Alcohol Use in German Adolescents with Visual Impairments and Sighted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use was studied in 158 adolescents with visual impairments and 537 sighted adolescents in Germany. The students with visual impairments reported lower levels of alcohol use and drunkenness, and between-group differences increased across adolescence. The lower alcohol use by students with visual impairments was explained, in part, by the…

  19. Personality Testing with Visually Impaired Adults in Applied Occupational Settings: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Juliet

    2000-01-01

    This article describes controversies over the use of personality tests with adults with visual impairments in applied occupational testing. It reviews studies of personality profiles of sighted individuals and individuals with visual impairments and studies in which the content of items has been adapted for adults who are visually impaired.…

  20. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

  1. Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…

  2. Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…

  3. The Investigation of Physical Performance Status of Visually and Hearing Impaired Applying Judo Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the physical performances of visually and hearing impaired doing judo training in this study. 32 male athletes, who were doing judo training, volunteer and, visually and hearing impaired, participated in this study. The investigation was applied to visually impaired (N = 12, mean ± SD; age: 25.75 ± 3.55 years, height:…

  4. Screening for cerebral visual impairment: value of a CVI questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortibus, E; Laenen, A; Verhoeven, J; De Cock, P; Casteels, I; Schoolmeesters, B; Buyck, A; Lagae, L

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the screening utility of a questionnaire for cerebral visual impairment (CVI) by correlating the questionnaire with diagnostic tools such as the L94, the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills - Revised and the Visual Perception subtask of the Beery test of VisuoMotor Integration.The questionnaire consisted of 46 items, exploring different characteristics of CVI. We consecutively recruited 91 children. Parents filled out the questionnaire after which all children were seen for a diagnostic evaluation of CVI.There were 58 boys. Subjects' mean age was 6.10 years. A median of 12 items was ticked in the 45 children with CVI and 7 in the children without impairment. The domain 'visual attitude' scored positive most frequently. A logistic regression model using individual items, yielded Receiver Operating Curves for the questionnaire with good areas under the curve of 0.81 against the L94, 0.78 against the TVPS-R and 0.84 against the VP subtask. The sum score of the 6 domains was found to be an easy-obtainable score with a good sensitivity and specificity profile.This CVI questionnaire is a viable tool that has the potential of being implemented as part of a routine screening procedure for CVI. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Visual Impairment Secondary to Unilateral Isolated Epicapsular Star

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    Mehmet Serhat Mangan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to report a rarely observed case of unilateral epicapsular star and the visual impairment developed secondary to it. A 8-year-old girl presented with a complaint of blurred vision in the right eye; best-corrected visual acuity was 0.7 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Near visual acuity was J1 in the right eye and J1+ in the left eye. The patient had no systemic disease and no clinical findings such as ocular inflammation, trauma, or history of use of topical and systemic drug. On biomicroscopic examination, no pigment deposition was observed in the cornea of both eyes and anterior chamber was normal. The anterior capsule of the lens in the right eye demonstrated dense pigment depositions centrally which were obscuring the pupillary axis. Iris translumination defect was not seen. Gonioscopy was performed and no pigment deposition was seen in the iridocorneal angle. Fundus examination revealed no pathology in the vitreous, posterior pole, and peripheral retina. In the absence of signs of intraocular inflammation and other causes of primary or secondary pigment dispersion, it is likely that the pigmented cells were implanted on the lens surface in utero from the developing iris pigment epithelium. In such cases, visual impairment should be detected in early period, and the strict follow-up is of utmost importance. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 493-5

  6. Impaired serial visual search in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Goebel, Claudia; Goertz, Ralf; Werner, Ingeborg; Nalewajko, Magdalena; Thiel, Aylin

    2008-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of attentional deficits in dyslexia, we investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on a number of visual search tasks. When tested with conjunction tasks for orientation and form using complex, letter-like material, dyslexic children showed an increased number of errors accompanied by faster reaction times in comparison to control children matched to the dyslexics on age, gender, and intelligence. On conjunction tasks for orientation and color, dyslexic children were also less accurate, but showed slower reaction times than the age-matched control children. These differences between the two groups decreased with increasing age. In contrast to these differences, the performance of dyslexic children in feature search tasks was similar to that of control children. These results suggest that children with developmental dyslexia present selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, implying impairment in goal-directed, sustained visual attention.

  7. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Visual Impairment, Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimovic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…

  8. Impact of correcting visual impairment and low vision in deaf-mute students in Pune, India

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate visual acuity and vision function before and after providing spectacles and low vision devices (LVDs in deaf-mute students. Settings: Schools for deaf-mute in West Maharashtra. Methods: Hearing-impaired children in all special schools in Pune district underwent detailed visual acuity testing (with teachers' help, refraction, external ocular examination, and fundoscopy. Students with refractive errors and low vision were provided with spectacles and LVD. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire consisting of twenty items was administered to each subject before and after providing spectacles, LVDs. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Results: 252/929 (27.1% students had a refractive error. 794 (85.5% were profound deaf. Two-hundred and fifty students were dispensed spectacles and LVDs. Mean LogMAR visual acuity before introduction of spectacles and LVDs were 0.33 ± 0.36 which improved to 0.058 (P < 0.0001 after intervention. It was found that difference in functional vision pre- and post-intervention was statistically significant (P < 0.0001 for questions 1–19. The most commonly reported difficulties were for performing distance task like reading the bus destination (58.7%, making out the bus number (51.1%, copying from blackboard (47.7%, and seeing whether somebody is waving hand from across the road (45.5%. In response to question number 20, 57.4% of students felt that their vision was much worse than their friend's vision, which was reduced to 17.6% after dispensing spectacles and LVDs. Conclusion: Spectacle and LVD reduced visual impairment and improved vision function in deaf-mute students, augmenting their ability to negotiate in and out of school.

  9. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  10. Five-year visual outcome among people with correctable visual impairment: the Liwan Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanhua; Zhao, Yanzhi; Han, Xiaotong; Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang

    2017-12-07

    Longitudinal data on visual outcome of correctable visual impairments (VI) are of paramount importance for decision-maker to estimate burden and demand to treat avoidable VI. To assess the 5-year visual outcome among participants with correctable VI and to identify associated risk factors. Population-based longitudinal cohort study. Participants with correctable VI at baseline attended the 5-year follow-up visit of the Liwan Eye Study. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) with habitual refractive correction was assessed using an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Then participants with PVA visual acuity. Correctable VI was defined as having a PVA of visual outcome among participants with correctable VI. Among 1405 participants at baseline examination, 188 (13.4%) had correctable VI, of whom 118 (62.8%) were re-examined at the 5-year follow-up, including 39 (33.9%) who progressed to non-correctable VI, 43 (37.4%) who had persistent correctable VI and 33 (28.7%) who were converted to normal vision. In multivariate logistic regression, compared with participants who were no longer visual impaired, significant risk factors for participants with persistent VI were older, had income <1000 RMB/month, and more myopia spherical equivalent. Over two of three participants with correctable VI remained to have VI after 5 years, among whom 50% are correctable by spectacles, highlighting the need to improve the refractive care accessibility to treat avoidable VI in China. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Visual function and ocular status of children with hearing impairment in Oman: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Fahdi, Mohammed; Al Jabri, Bushra; Al Harby, Saleh; Abdulamgeed, Talat

    2009-01-01

    Visual functions of children with hearing disability were evaluated in a school of Muscat, Oman in 2006. Two hundred and twenty-three children were tested for near vision, distant vision, contrast sensitivity, color vision, field of vision, motion perception and crowding. Profound and severe hearing loss was noted in 161 and 63 students respectively. Thirty-five (81%) students with refractive error were using spectacles. Color vision and field of vision was defective in one student each. In 286 (64.1%) eyes, contrast sensitivity was defective. Abnormal contrast sensitivity was not associated with the severity of hearing loss [RR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.29)]. Children with hearing impairment should be assessed for visual functions. Refractive error and defect in contrast sensitivity were unusually high among these children. In addition to visual aids, we recommend environmental changes to improve illumination and contrast to improve the quality of life of such children with double disability. PMID:19384020

  12. Visual Ability Score -- a new method to analyze ability in visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, O; Chedid, S G; Kronheim, J K; Henry, R K; Jones, C M; Hirose, T

    1998-02-01

    We analyzed the correlation between the Preferential Looking (PL) acuities and the Visual Ability Scores (VAS) of 600 patients (many with severe retinopathy of prematurity) to determine their ability to perform various activities within the daily environment. Visual acuity was measured by PL. Sixteen visual activities within the environment were analyzed. The VAS (range, 1-16) were calculated from the results of each activity and correlated with PL acuity. The PL acuities of the 600 patients ranged from 20/20 (1.0) to visually impaired patients is important to accurately evaluate visual abilities. We found the VAS to be an important aid for low-vision specialists, especially for those with no access to a vision evaluation system such as PL.

  13. Validation of an instrument to assess visual ability in children with visual impairment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhai; Khadka, Jyoti; Gao, Rongrong; Zhang, Sifang; Dong, Wenpeng; Bao, Fangjun; Chen, Haisi; Wang, Qinmei; Chen, Hao; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2017-04-01

    To validate a visual ability instrument for school-aged children with visual impairment in China by translating, culturally adopting and Rasch scaling the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC). The 25-item CVAQC was translated into Mandarin using a standard protocol. The translated version (CVAQC-CN) was subjected to cognitive testing to ensure a proper cultural adaptation of its content. Then, the CVAQC-CN was interviewer-administered to 114 school-aged children and young people with visual impairment. Rasch analysis was carried out to assess its psychometric properties. The correlation between the CVAQC-CN visual ability scores and clinical measure of vision (visual acuity; VA and contrast sensitivity, CS) were assessed using Spearman's r. Based on cultural adaptation exercise, cognitive testing, missing data and Rasch metrics-based iterative item removal, three items were removed from the original 25. The 22-item CVAQC-CN demonstrated excellent measurement precision (person separation index, 3.08), content validity (item separation, 10.09) and item reliability (0.99). Moreover, the CVAQC-CN was unidimensional and had no item bias. The person-item map indicated good targeting of item difficulty to person ability. The CVAQC-CN had moderate correlations between CS (-0.53, pvisual ability in children with visual impairment in China. The instrument can be used as a clinical and research outcome measure to assess the change in visual ability after low vision rehabilitation intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. [Diagnosis of visual impairment: information requirements for health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamditi, K

    2011-01-01

    For some years now, the Braille League has been thinking about ways of improving information of the public with visual impairment about the assistance and services that it can seek. The conclusion that this information was inadequate was highlighted by all those in charge of assisting people with disabilities. As one of the key moments is the announcement of the diagnosis, the association wanted to contact health professionals in order to measure the level of information in their possession and pass on their expectations. Two approaches were used. First, there was a questionnaire that ophthalmologists completed at the Ophtalmologica Belgica 2010 conference. The topics raised were very diverse: their professional context, conditions of announcement, information given to patients, information requested by patients, and their wishes for the future. Moreover, semi-structured interviews enabled various areas of the study to be examined in greater depth: definition of impairment, conditions of announcement of the diagnosis, non-medical aspects, conclusion about lack of information and avenues for improvement. This study confirmed that ophthalmologists lack information on the subject of the psychosocial components of disability and have poor awareness of the existing aids and services. After the presentation of the results, a series of recommendations was made so that the announcement of the diagnosis could be optimal, so as to enable patients to embark on a process of adaptation and acceptance of their visual impairment.

  15. Visual scanning and matching dysfunction in brain-damaged patients with drawing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleza, T; Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K

    1979-03-01

    Visual matching and visual exploration were examined in 7 normal subjects and 20 brain-damaged patients with drawing impairment measured by the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test. Right brain-damaged patients made significantly more errors of rotation and integration than left brain-damaged patients. Selecteded Bender figures were also used as stimuli for both visual matching and visual exploration tests. The ability to match Bender figures was found to be impaired in right but not left brain-damaged patients. All patients showed eye movement and fixation patterns different from those normals. Patients essentially had more fixations and shorter fixation durations. Significant intercorrelations were found between the total Bender Gestalt score and visual matching and visual exploration scores. These findings indicate that visual matching and visual exploration measures can be used to evaluate perceptual impairment in individuals who do not have adequate motor responses or where impaired motor responses may confound interpretations about visual cognitive impairment.

  16. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami-Nejad, Masoud; Sarabandi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad-Reza; Askarizadeh, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to identify and describe factors relating to quality of life (QOL) in subjects with low vision and blindness in Iran's Sistan and Baluchestan Province. This cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected subjects with vision disability who were covered by the Zahedan Welfare Organization in Zahedan, Iran. The following factors related to visual impairment were evaluated: visual field (VF), visual acuity (VA), and stereopsis. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Influence of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire. One-hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled for participation in the study. T-test analyses indicated that the mean QOL score for women was significantly lower than that for men (P social (P = 0.003) and leisure (P = 0.009) QOL scores were significantly lower in participants without stereopsis. In addition, participants with tunnel vision scored lower on the mobility and self-care categories (P social programs for the blind and individuals with low vision people, especially women, are necessary.

  17. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED PUPILS IN SLOVENIA

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    Franc CANKAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years, the demand to include children with special needs in the mainstream kindergartens and schools in Slovenia has grown. This brought with it the need for changing the role of the special schools and institutes for children with special needs and for their transformation into resource centres. Methodology: We pilot tested a resource centre for support of blind and visually impaired children. We included 15 educational institutes and one blind or visually impaired pupil from each institute. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year 2010/11, and at the end of the school year 2011/12. In both cases the same instruments were used, which made comparison of the collected data possible. Results: The results have shown progress in the development of competences, attitudes, and rehabilitation competences in the participants of the study. Discussion: The results confirmed the efficiency of the initially designed model. By investing into its staff capacity building, we expect that the centre will gain recognition and increase its quality. In this way, it will be able to realise its developmentally-supportive role for the children with visual disability in Slovenia.

  18. The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  20. How to measure spatial abilities in visually impaired people?

    OpenAIRE

    Steyvers, Frank

    2012-01-01

    For the measurement of spatial abilities in sighted persons various tests exist. However, since these rely on vision, they are useless for visually impaired persons (VIPs). This study aimed at founding two self-constructed vision-free tests for spatial ability measurement of VIPs on existing conventional spatial ability tests. To do so, a group of sighted participants was selected to match a group of VIPs for which test data were already available on the two vision-free tests. They were also ...

  1. IDENTIFYING AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

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    Ana VELJANOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.

  2. Effect of Visual Impairment on Physical and Cognitive Function in Old Age: Findings of a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Eisele, Marion; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Koppara, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-11-01

    To examine how visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. A longitudinal population-based prospective cohort study. General practitioner offices at six study centers in Germany. They were observed every 1.5 years over four waves. Individuals aged 77-101 at follow-up Wave 2 (N = 2,394). Physical and cognitive function were assessed using an adapted scale that had been previously developed, and visual impairment was rated on a Likert scale (none, mild, severe or profound). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity, linear fixed-effects regression showed that the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with a decline in physical function score in the total sample (β = -0.15, P = .01) and in women (β = -.15, P = .03). Moreover, the onset of severe visual impairment was associated with decline in cognitive function score in the total sample (β = -0.38, P Visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. Interventional strategies to postpone visual impairment may contribute to maintaining physical and cognitive function. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. A Novel Method of Notification to Profile Childhood Visual Impairment in Scotland to Meet the Needs of Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, John; Blaikie, Andrew; Macewen, Caroline; O'Hare, Anne; Creswell, Lyn; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to…

  4. The issue of people with acquired visual impairment in adult and elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Hazuková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    In my thesis I deal with problems resulting visual impairment in adult and elderly. The work is divided into seven chapters. Introductory current section devoted to terminological definition acquired visual impairment, adulthood and old age. In the second chapter outlines the historical development of the relationship of the visually impaired. The third chapter focuses on the classification of persons with visual disabilities. The fourth chapter describes the most common causes of defects and...

  5. The mental health of UK ex-servicemen with a combat-related or a non-combat-related visual impairment: does the cause of visual impairment matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Gill, Pashyca C; Fear, Nicola T

    2015-08-01

    Since the start of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the numbers of young service personnel who have sustained a combat-related visual impairment have increased. This cross-sectional study examined the mental well-being of ex-servicemen (aged 22-55 years) with a visual impairment and determined if the mental health of those with a combat-related visual impairment differed from those whose visual impairment is not combat-related. Male ex-service personnel with a visual impairment completed a telephone interview assessing the presence of depressive symptomatology, probable anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and alcohol misuse. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 77 participants were included in the study, reflecting a response rate of 76.2%. Of those with complete data (n=74), 20 ex-servicemen had a combat-related visual impairment. Among ex-service personnel with a combat-related visual impairment, 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) screened positive for a probable depression, 25.0% (95% CI 6.0 to 44.0) for probable anxiety and 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable depression and probable PTSD differed among those with a non-combat-related visual impairment, namely 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) and 16.7% (95% CI 6.8 to 26.7), respectively. Probable anxiety was 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) among non-combat-related visually impaired ex-service personnel. 45.0% (95% CI 23.2 to 66.8) of combat-related visually impaired personnel reported hazardous drinking, compared with 20.4% (95% CI 9.7 to 31.2) of those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Mental health problems were prevalent among visually impaired younger ex-servicemen. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems among ex-servicemen with a combat-related visual impairment compared with those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  6. Hallucinations in visually impaired individuals: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Kingdon, David

    2009-02-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is by complex visual hallucinations and ocular pathology causing vision loss. It has been considered that CBS occurs frequently in elderly visually handicapped patients and the hallucinations are limited to the visual modality. Three hypotheses we examined were: (1) whether visual impairments are associated with visual hallucinations (2) whether visual impairments are associated with auditory hallucinations (3) whether the development of visual and auditory hallucinations in patients with visual impairments is associated with age. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) in the United States were used to examine whether associations between visual impairments and visual hallucinations can be found in the general population, and whether such influences of visual impairments are limited to the visual modality and to specific age groups. Prevalence of visual and auditory hallucinations in respondents with visual impairments were 12.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=3.4-22.2%) and 7.1% (95%CI=2.6-11.6%) respectively. Although the point estimates were substantive, the odds ratios between visual impairments and existence of visual hallucinations or auditory hallucinations were not statistically significant (odds ratio (OR)=2.43, 95%CI=0.92-6.44, P=0.07 and OR=2.16, 95%CI=0.87-5.33, P=0.10, respectively) in the whole sample. Association between visual impairments and visual hallucination was significant (OR=3.09, 95%CI=1.06-8.99, Phallucinations in a younger age group (age group 18-39, OR=13.25, 95%CI=2.99-58.75, Phallucinations. In patients with visual impairments, the presence of visual hallucinations was associated with an age over 60, while the existence of auditory hallucinations was associated with an age under 39.

  7. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.

  8. Assistive technology applied to education of students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cássia Cristiane de Freitas; Monteiro, Gelse Beatriz Martins; Rabello, Suzana; Gasparetto, Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire; de Carvalho, Keila Monteiro

    2009-08-01

    Verify the application of assistive technology, especially information technology in the education of blind and low-vision students from the perceptions of their teachers. Descriptive survey study in public schools in three municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprised 134 teachers. According to the teachers' opinions, there are differences in the specificities and applicability of assistive technology for blind and low-vision students, for whom specific computer programs are important. Information technology enhances reading and writing skills, as well as communication with the world on an equal basis, thereby improving quality of life and facilitating the learning process. The main reason for not using information technology is the lack of planning courses. The main requirements for the use of information technology in schools are enough computers for all students, advisers to help teachers, and pedagogical support. Assistive technology is applied to education of students with visual impairment; however, teachers indicate the need for infrastructure and pedagogical support. Information technology is an important tool in the inclusion process and can promote independence and autonomy of students with visual impairment.

  9. A Multifunctional Reading Assistant for the Visually Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Mancas-Thillou

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the growing market of camera phones, new applications for the visually impaired are nowadays being developed thanks to the increasing capabilities of these equipments. The need to access to text is of primary importance for those people in a society driven by information. To meet this need, our project objective was to develop a multifunctional reading assistant for blind community. The main functionality is the recognition of text in mobile situations but the system can also deal with several specific recognition requests such as banknotes or objects through labels. In this paper, the major challenge is to fully meet user requirements taking into account their disability and some limitations of hardware such as poor resolution, blur, and uneven lighting. For these applications, it is necessary to take a satisfactory picture, which may be challenging for some users. Hence, this point has also been considered by proposing a training tutorial based on image processing methods as well. Developed in a user-centered design, text reading applications are described along with detailed results performed on databases mostly acquired by visually impaired users.

  10. A Multifunctional Reading Assistant for the Visually Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the growing market of camera phones, new applications for the visually impaired are nowadays being developed thanks to the increasing capabilities of these equipments. The need to access to text is of primary importance for those people in a society driven by information. To meet this need, our project objective was to develop a multifunctional reading assistant for blind community. The main functionality is the recognition of text in mobile situations but the system can also deal with several specific recognition requests such as banknotes or objects through labels. In this paper, the major challenge is to fully meet user requirements taking into account their disability and some limitations of hardware such as poor resolution, blur, and uneven lighting. For these applications, it is necessary to take a satisfactory picture, which may be challenging for some users. Hence, this point has also been considered by proposing a training tutorial based on image processing methods as well. Developed in a user-centered design, text reading applications are described along with detailed results performed on databases mostly acquired by visually impaired users.

  11. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  12. Tutoring math platform accessible for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland

    2017-06-03

    There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early ERP signature of hearing impairment in visual rhyme judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eClasson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postlingually acquired hearing impairment is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired hearing impairment (HI and normal hearing (NH. Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the interstimulus-interval (ISI was manipulated to be either long (800 ms or short (50 ms. Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioural performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioural performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of hearing impairment in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion.

  14. 20 CFR 416.985 - How we evaluate other visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate other visual impairments. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.985 How we evaluate other visual impairments. If you are not blind as defined in the law, we will evaluate a visual...

  15. Tools for Teaching Mathematical Functions and Geometric Figures to Tactile Visualization through a Braille Printer for Visual Impairment People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena León

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we showed the features and facilities offered by two new computer programs developed for the treatment and generation of geometric figures and math functions, through a Braille printer designed for visually impaired people. The programs have complete accessible features, in which users with full visual impairments can communicate with the systems via short-keys, and the speech synthesizer. The system sends sound messages that will accompanying the user during all the process to generate geometrical figures or to do a mathematical treatment. Finally, a tactile visualization displays as the results to the person with visual impairment, thus they will can complete their geometry and mathematical studies.

  16. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring everyday visual discrimination in visually impaired children with the Sonksen Picture Guide to visual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Ormel, E.A.; Schiphorst, S.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Sonksen Picture Guide to Visual Function (SPGVF) assesses a person's ability to discriminate pictures of everyday objects. Sonksen added the SPGVF to tests of visual acuity, because real objects, miniatures, and pictures are the main learning medium for young children. In earlier studies

  18. Impaired visual processing preceding image recognition in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; de Jong, Bauke M; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L; Cornelissen, Frans W; van Laar, Teus

    2009-11-01

    Impaired visual processing may play a role in the pathophysiology of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. In order to study involved neuronal circuitry, we assessed cerebral activation patterns both before and during recognition of gradually revealed images in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations (PDwithVHs), Parkinson's disease patients without visual hallucinations (PDnonVHs) and healthy controls. We hypothesized that, before image recognition, PDwithVHs would show reduced bottom-up visual activation in occipital-temporal areas and increased (pre)frontal activation, reflecting increased top-down demand. Overshoot of the latter has been proposed to play a role in generating visual hallucinations. Nine non-demented PDwithVHs, 14 PDnonVHs and 13 healthy controls were scanned on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Static images of animals and objects gradually appearing out of random visual noise were used in an event-related design paradigm. Analyses were time-locked on the moment of image recognition, indicated by the subjects' button-press. Subjects were asked to press an additional button on a colour-changing fixation dot, to keep attention and motor action constant and to assess reaction times. Data pre-processing and statistical analysis were performed with statistical parametric mapping-5 software. Bilateral activation of the fusiform and lingual gyri was seen during image recognition in all groups (P top-down frontal activation was not obtained. The finding of activation reductions in ventral/lateral visual association cortices in PDwithVHs before image recognition further helps to explain functional mechanisms underlying visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Impaired Integration of Emotional Faces and Affective Body Context in a Rare Case of Developmental Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Hassin, Ran. R.; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    In the current study we examined the recognition of facial expressions embedded in emotionally expressive bodies in case LG, an individual with a rare form of developmental visual agnosia who suffers from severe prosopagnosia. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that LG‘s agnosia is characterized by profoundly impaired visual integration. Unlike individuals with typical developmental prosopagnosia who display specific difficulties with face identity (but typically not expression) recognition, LG was also impaired at recognizing isolated facial expressions. By contrast, he successfully recognized the expressions portrayed by faceless emotional bodies handling affective paraphernalia. When presented with contextualized faces in emotional bodies his ability to detect the emotion expressed by a face did not improve even if it was embedded in an emotionally-congruent body context. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, LG displayed an abnormal pattern of contextual influence from emotionally-incongruent bodies. The results are interpreted in the context of a general integration deficit in developmental visual agnosia, suggesting that impaired integration may extend from the level of the face to the level of the full person. PMID:21482423

  20. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  1. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  2. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = –2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = –1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  3. The effect of relative distance enlargement on visual acuity in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Eperjesi, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Prescribing magnification is typically based on distance or near visual acuity. This presumes a constant minimum angle of visual resolution with working distance and therefore enlargement of an object moved to a shorter working distance (relative distance enlargement). This study examines this premise in a visually impaired population. Distance letter visual acuity was measured prospectively for 380 low vision patients (distance visual acuity between 0.3 and 2.1 logMAR) over the age of 57 years, along with near word visual acuity at an appropriate distance for near lens additions from +4 D to +20 D. Demographic information, the disease causing low vision, contrast sensitivity, visual field and psychological status were also recorded. Distance letter acuity was significantly related to (r = 0.84) but on average 0.1 +/- 0.2 logMAR better (1 +/- 2 lines on a logMAR chart) than near word acuity at 25 cm with a +4 D lens addition. In 39.8 per cent of patients, near word acuity was more than 0.1 logMAR worse than distance letter acuity. In 11.0 per cent of subjects, near visual acuity was more than 0.1 logMAR better than distance letter acuity. The group with near word acuity worse than distance letter acuity also had lower contrast sensitivity. The group with near word acuity better than distance letter acuity was less likely to have age-related macular degeneration. Smaller print size could be read by reducing working distance (achieved by using higher near lens additions) in 86.1 per cent, although not by as much as predicted by geometric progression in 14.5 per cent. Although distance letter and near word acuity are highly related, they are on average 1 logMAR line different and this varies significantly between individuals. Near word acuity did not increase linearly with relative distance enlargement in approximately one in seven visually impaired, suggesting that the measurement of visual resolution over a range of working distances will assist appropriate

  4. Social care and support needs of community-dwelling people with dementia and concurrent visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, S.R.; Innes, Anthea; Heward, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about the needs of people who have both dementia and visual impairment. This study explored the social care and support needs of people with dementia and concurrent visual impairment, and the barriers and facilitators for meeting these needs. Method: Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted: 21 joint interviews with the person with dementia and visual impairment and their family member / paid carer; and 5 individual interviews with either the person wit...

  5. Physical activity and quality of life of people with visual impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Češarek, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has a big impact on the quality of life of people with visual impairment. Physical activity contributes to mobility of an individual, managing everyday living skills and general ability to function normally in everyday situations. Because people with visual impairment are a heterogeneous group, the teacher for the visually impaired has to know how to measure and encourage physical activity and take into account their interests and abilities. Once the person accepts the physi...

  6. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Langelaan, M.; de Boer, M.R.; Nispen, R.M.A. van; Wouters, B.; Moll, A C; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for differences in outcome between certain groups of patients. The questionnaire was administered to 129 visually impaired adults (mean age 42.1 years)....

  7. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Samigulina Galina A.; Shayakhmetova Assem S.

    2016-01-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and qualit...

  8. Prevalence of visual impairment in the adult Japanese population by cause and severity and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Roberts, Chris B; Pezzullo, M Lynne; Yates, Katie; Takano, Shigeru; Miyake, Kensaku; Taylor, Hugh R

    2010-01-01

    To present a comprehensive estimate of the total number of people with visual impairment in the adult Japanese population by age, gender, severity and cause, and to estimate future prevalence based on population projections and expected demographic changes. Definitions of visual impairment used in this study were based on the United States criteria. Total visual impairment was calculated as the sum of low vision and blindness. The prevalence estimates were based on input from a number of Japanese epidemiological surveys, census material and official population projections. There were an estimated 1.64 million people with visual impairment in 2007 in Japan. Of these, 187,800 were estimated to be blind. The prevalence of visual impairment in Japan increased with age and half of the people with visual impairment were aged 70 years or older. The leading causes of visual impairment in Japan were glaucoma (24.3%), diabetic retinopathy (20.6%), degenerative myopia (12.2%), age-related macular degeneration (10.9%), and cataract (7.2%). These five major causes comprised three-quarters of all visual impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment was projected to increase from 1.3% of the population in 2007 to 2.0% by 2050. This comprehensive study presents the prevalence of total visual impairment in the adult Japanese population. The projected increases in the prevalence of visual impairment over time reflect the demographic changes of a declining and aging Japanese population. These projections highlight that the burden of disease due to visual impairment and imposed on society is likely to increase.

  9. Does Differential Visual Exploration Contribute to Visual Memory Impairments in 22Q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, M.; Glaser, B.; Zaharia, A.; Eliez, S.; Schneider, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may…

  10. Intention of adequacy of the visually impaired pupils' choice of vocacion

    OpenAIRE

    Gureckienė, Lina

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays visually impaired students attend both mainstream schools and the Lithuanian Education and Training Centre for the Blind and Visually Impaired. These students meet certain learning difficulties caused by impaired vision or other problems related to the impairment. This study aimed to investigate and answer a question: „Do the pupils’ choice a vacation that correspond with their abilities and possibilities. The written questionnaire has been used as a method of the st...

  11. Physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Otávio Luis; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Lieberman, Lauren Joy; Gutierrez, Gustavo Luis

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review on physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairment (VI). Five databases were searched to identify studies involving the population of interest and physical activity practices. After evaluating 2,495 records, the authors found 18 original full-text studies published in English they considered eligible. They identified 8 structured exercise-training studies that yielded overall positive effect on physical-fitness and motor-skill outcomes. Five leisure-time-physical-activity and 5 instructional-strategy interventions were also found with promising proposals to engage and instruct children and youth with VI to lead an active lifestyle. However, the current research on physical activity interventions for children and youth with VI is still limited by an absence of high-quality research designs, low sample sizes, use of nonvalidated outcome measures, and lack of generalizability, which need to be addressed in future studies.

  12. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.

    2016-11-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.

  13. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their attitudes toward inclusion of children with visual impairments and the relation of those attitudes with gender and education. The results contribute to better understanding of the position of visually impaired children in the inclusive education system.

  14. Counseling the Blind or Visually Impaired Child: An Examination of Behavioral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Cynthia M.; Martin, Don; Martin, Paige

    1998-01-01

    Presents information concerning stereotypical mannerisms and relationship development of legally blind and visually impaired children. Discusses counseling methods that are useful with this population. (MKA)

  15. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, PSAD parameters...

  16. Borderline personality disorder: impaired visual perception and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andreas; Burkhardt, Michaela; Hautzinger, Martin; Schwarz, Jürgen; Unckel, Christine

    2004-03-15

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is still elusive. There are a few studies on neuropsychological performance in BPD, which report a broad spectrum of abnormalities. The present study evaluates perception and working memory as instances of basic cognitive functions. Female subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (n=22) were compared with age- and education-matched controls (n=25). Perception speed was assessed by a backward masking paradigm. Working memory was tested by a series of delayed matching-to-sample paradigms involving varying subsidiary functions like mental rotation, retrieval from memory, ignoring distracters, and cross-modal performance. In backward masking, BPD subjects required significantly longer stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) than controls to identify the visual target, and there was an additional slowing of the motor response. Working memory accuracy was impaired in BPD subjects, but did not worsen when the cognitive load was increased. With increasing task difficulty, they traded off speed for accuracy similarly as the controls. Impulsivity and dissociation ratings were not correlated with performance. It is concluded that perceptional speed and working memory are impaired in BPD, but that the deficits are not augmented by increasing cognitive load.

  17. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  18. Computational Modeling of Cephalad Fluid Shift for Application to Microgravity-Induced Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2013-01-01

    An improved understanding of spaceflight-induced ocular pathology, including the loss of visual acuity, globe flattening, optic disk edema and distension of the optic nerve and optic nerve sheath, is of keen interest to space medicine. Cephalad fluid shift causes a profoundly altered distribution of fluid within the compartments of the head and body, and may indirectly generate phenomena that are biomechanically relevant to visual function, such as choroidal engorgement, compromised drainage of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and altered translaminar pressure gradient posterior to the eye. The experimental body of evidence with respect to the consequences of fluid shift has not yet been able to provide a definitive picture of the sequence of events. On earth, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), which can produce ocular pathologies that look similar to those seen in some astronauts returning from long-duration flight. However, the clinically observable features of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome in space and IIH on earth are not entirely consistent. Moreover, there are at present no experimental measurements of ICP in microgravity. By its very nature, physiological measurements in spaceflight are sparse, and the space environment does not lend itself to well-controlled experiments. In the absence of such data, numerical modeling can play a role in the investigation of biomechanical causal pathways that are suspected of involvement in VIIP. In this work, we describe the conceptual framework for modeling the altered compartmental fluid distribution that represents an equilibrium fluid distribution resulting from the loss of hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  19. Danish Rural Eye Study: Epidemiology of Adult Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA 50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.

  20. Blindness and Visual Impairment in an Urban West African Population: The Tema Eye Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Donald L.; Bandi, Jagadeesh R.; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, etiologies, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons age 40 years and older residing in an urban West African location. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Five thousand six hundred and three participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Methods Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants age 40 and over living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured at 4 and 1 meters using a reduced Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best corrected visual acuity visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment was 17.1% and blindness was 1.2%. After refraction and spectacle correction, the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness decreased to 6.7% and 0.75% respectively, suggesting that refractive error is the major correctable etiology of visual impairment and blindness in this population. Of 65 subjects having visual acuity visual impairment, and one to normal. The remaining 43 (66%) had underlying pathology (19 cataract, 9 glaucoma, 3 non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy, 3 corneal opacities, 3 retinal disease, 5 undetermined) that prevented refractive correction. Increased age was a significant risk factor for blindness and visual impairment. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among those aged ≥40 years in Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. PMID:22677425

  1. Discrimination of tenants with a visual impairment on the housing market: Empirical evidence from correspondence tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Van der Bracht, Koen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2016-04-01

    According to the social model of disability, physical 'impairments' become disabilities through exclusion in social relations. An obvious form of social exclusion might be discrimination, for instance on the rental housing market. Although discrimination has detrimental health effects, very few studies have examined discrimination of people with a visual impairment. We aim to study (1) the extent of discrimination of individuals with a visual impairment on the rental housing market and (2) differences in rates of discrimination between landowners and real estate agents. We conducted correspondence tests among 268 properties on the Belgian rental housing market. Using matched tests, we compared reactions by realtors and landowners to tenants with and tenants without a visual impairment. The results show that individuals with a visual impairment are substantially discriminated against in the rental housing market: at least one in three lessors discriminate against individuals with a visual impairment. We further discern differences in the propensity toward discrimination according to the type of lessor. Private landlords are at least twice as likely to discriminate against tenants with a visual impairment than real estate agents. At the same time, realtors still discriminate against one in five tenants with a visual impairment. This study shows the substantial discrimination against visually people with an impairment. Given the important consequences discrimination might have for physical and mental health, further research into this topic is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Mine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation. The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001. Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001 after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  3. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Soraya; Hashemi, Hassan; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Mirzajani, Ali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-11-22

    To report the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children in Iran and its relationship with socio-economic conditions. In a cross-sectional population-based study, first-grade students in the primary schools of eight cities in the country were randomly selected from different geographic locations using multistage cluster sampling. The examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction. Using the definitions of the World Health Organization (presenting visual acuity less than or equal to 6/18 in the better eye) to estimate the prevalence of vision impairment, the present study reported presenting visual impairment in seven-year-old children. Of 4,614 selected students, 4,106 students participated in the study (response rate 89 per cent), of whom 2,127 (51.8 per cent) were male. The prevalence of visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 was 0.341 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 0.187-0.571); 1.34 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 1.011-1.74) of children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 in at least one eye. Sixty-six (1.6 per cent) and 23 (0.24 per cent) children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/12 in the worse and better eye, respectively. The most common causes of visual impairment were refractive errors (81.8 per cent) and amblyopia (14.5 per cent). Among different types of refractive errors, astigmatism was the main refractive error leading to visual impairment. According to the concentration index, the distribution of visual impairment in children from low-income families was higher. This study revealed a high prevalence of visual impairment in a representative sample of seven-year-old Iranian children. Astigmatism and amblyopia were the most common causes of visual impairment. The distribution of visual impairment was higher in children from low-income families. Cost

  4. Visual Search Performance in Patients with Vision Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Cassia; Margarido, Maria Rita Rodrigues Alves; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Messias, André; Paula, Jayter Silva

    2017-11-01

    Patients with visual impairment are constantly facing challenges to achieve an independent and productive life, which depends upon both a good visual discrimination and search capacities. Given that visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and could be used as an index of the overall visual function, we investigated the relationship between vision impairment and visual search performance. A comprehensive search was undertaken using electronic PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases from January 1980 to December 2016, applying the following terms: "visual search", "visual search performance", "visual impairment", "visual exploration", "visual field", "hemianopia", "search time", "vision lost", "visual loss", and "low vision". Two hundred seventy six studies from 12,059 electronic database files were selected, and 40 of them were included in this review. Studies included participants of all ages, both sexes, and the sample sizes ranged from 5 to 199 participants. Visual impairment was associated with worse visual search performance in several ophthalmologic conditions, which were either artificially induced, or related to specific eye and neurological diseases. This systematic review details all the described circumstances interfering with visual search tasks, highlights the need for developing technical standards, and outlines patterns for diagnosis and therapy using visual search capabilities.

  5. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit

    2004-06-01

    To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a

  6. Vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: A review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna F. Akano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blindness and visual impairment have become public health problems with prevalence increasing year after year. Nigeria, the most populated country in Africa, is also very diverse in terms of geographical location, ethnicity and culture. This study looks at and considers the vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria using socio-demographic factors such as gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar databases from May 2014 to May 2015. The search included articles from 2001 to May 2015 as well as a review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.Results: The male dominance culture and lower literacy levels among women in Nigeria have led to a higher prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among women compared to men. In Nigeria, eye diseases that lead to blindness and visual impairment occur more in certain geopolitical zones and ecological regions than others. More Nigerians live in remote rural areas, with little or no access to health care, rather than in urban areas where there are more eye care practitioners and better facilities for care.Conclusion: Differences in gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy are responsible for existing vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria.

  7. [Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team. A CVFQ quality of life questionnaire was used. This instrument has a version for less than three years old children and another one for children older than three years (three to seven years) divided in six subscales: General health, General vision health, Competence, Personality, Family impact and Treatment. The correlation between the subscales on two moments was significant. There was a statistically significant difference in general vision health (p=0,029) and other important differences obtained in general health, family impact and quality of life general score. The questionnaire showed to be effective in order to measure the quality of life related to vision on families followed on this ambulatory. The multidisciplinary interventions provided visual function and familiar quality of life improvement. The quality of life related to vision in children followed in Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp showed a significant improvement on general vision health.

  8. Visual impairment corrected via cataract surgery and 5-year survival in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Calvin Sze-Un; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; de Loryn, Tania; Tan, Ava Grace; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    To compare mortality risk between cataract surgical patients with corrected and persistent visual impairment. Cohort study. A total of 1864 consecutive patients, aged ≥64 years, undergoing phacoemulsification surgery at Westmead Hospital were followed annually for 5 years postoperatively. Visual impairment status in the surgical eye was categorized as none (presenting visual acuity [VA], ≥20/40), mild (VA visual impairment before surgery, 60.4% (n = 544), 15.5% (n = 140), and 24.1% (n = 217) had no, mild, or moderate-severe visual impairment in the surgical eye, respectively, 1 month postoperatively. Age-standardized 5-year mortality rates were nonsignificantly lower in patients with either mild (24.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5%-32.9%) or no visual impairment (24.1%, 95% CI 19.9%-28.4%) post surgery compared to that in patients whose moderate-severe visual impairment persisted (30.6%, 95% CI 23.3%-37.9%). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and individual comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and kidney disease, patients with no visual impairment 1 month postoperatively had a lower mortality risk (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-1.01) compared to those with persistent moderate-severe visual impairment after surgery. This finding was significant (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99) after additional adjustment for number of medications taken (continuous variable) and number (≥3 vs visual impairment in older patients with phacoemulsification surgery was associated with a lower mortality risk, compared to surgical patients whose visual impairment persisted postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: a review of social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  10. The Digital Social Interactions of Students with Visual Impairments: Findings from Two National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the use of computers and telephones by preadolescent and adolescent students with visual impairments and those with other disabilities using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. It found that both groups of students with visual impairments used computers…

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment and the Meaning of Social Support for Visually Impaired Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kef, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the psychosocial adjustment and the meaning of social support for 316 Dutch individuals (ages 14-24) with visual impairments. Findings indicate social support, especially the support of peers, was important. The differences between adolescents with and without visual impairments proved to be small but significant. (Contains…

  12. Self-assessed and actual Internet skills of people with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; van der Meij, Hans; van Puffelen, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Internet can make available to people with a visual impairment information and services that are otherwise inaccessible. But do visually impaired users actually use common Internet applications and do they have the necessary skills? This article reports a two-part study addressing these

  13. Connecting through Summer Camp: Youth with Visual Impairments Find a Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Johnston, Keith; Leo, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The social meaning of a one-week residential summer sports camp to young people with visual impairments is described. The experiences of 13 youths (7 females and 6 males) with visual impairments (3 B1, 1 B2, and 9 B3) between 9 and 15 years of age were gathered using the phenomenological methods of focus groups, conversational interviews, and…

  14. Evidence-based guidelines on the referral of visually impaired persons to low vision services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, MR; Langelaan, M; Jansonius, NM; van Rens, GHMB

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE. One to two percent of the population in the Western world is visually impaired or blind. For most of these people there is no curative therapy, Therefore, the Dutch Ophthalmic Society has taken the initiative to develop an evidence-based guideline for the referral of visually impaired

  15. Evidence-based guidelines on the referral of visually impaired persons to low vision services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.R.; Langendam, M.W.; Jansonius, N.M.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: One to two percent of the population in the Western world is visually impaired or blind. For most of these people there is no curative therapy. Therefore, the Dutch Ophthalmic Society has taken the initiative to develop an evidence-based guideline for the referral of visually impaired

  16. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  17. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-03-01

    Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Anxiety (χ(2) = 185.66, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems.

  18. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent, living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  19. Using Modality Replacement to Facilitate Communication between Visually and Hearing-Impaired People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustakas, K.; Tzovaras, D.; Dybkjaer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Using sign language, speech, and haptics as communication modalities, a virtual treasure-hunting game serves as an entertainment and educational tool for visually-and hearing-impaired users.......Using sign language, speech, and haptics as communication modalities, a virtual treasure-hunting game serves as an entertainment and educational tool for visually-and hearing-impaired users....

  20. Individuals with Visual Impairments Teaching in Nepal's Mainstream Schools: A Model for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and strengths of teachers with a visual impairments teaching in Nepal's mainstream schools, using qualitative interviews of teachers and principals, as well as a student survey data set. Results showed that teachers with visual impairments tend not to teach subjects such as science and mathematics that require…

  1. Executive Function and Behavioral Problems in Students with Visual Impairments at Mainstream and Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Vera; Hintermair, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, executive function of school-aged children with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is examined in the context of behavioral problems and communicative competence. Methods: Teachers assessed the executive function of a sample of 226 visually impaired students from mainstream schools and…

  2. Loneliness and self-management abilities in the visually impaired elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Feitsma, W. Nathalie; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van Tilburg, Theo G.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.

    Objectives: To describe the degree of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with a matched reference group of the normally sighted elderly. In addition, we examined self-management abilities (SMAs) as determinants of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly.

  3. Improving Physics Teaching Materials on Sound for Visually Impaired Students in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenders, Frank G. C.; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Sanders, Wendy T. M.; den Brok, Perry

    2017-01-01

    When visually impaired students attend regular high school, additional materials are necessary to help them understand physics concepts. The time for teachers to develop teaching materials for such students is scarce. Visually impaired students in regular high school physics classes often use a braille version of the physics textbook. Previously,…

  4. Examining the Impact of Chess Instruction for the Visual Impairment on Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mensure

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of chess instruction for visually impaired children on math achievement. The study group consists of a total of 26 visually impaired students from inclusion classes in inclusive secondary schools of MoNE (Ministry of National Education), 9 male and 5 female students in the experiment group and 8…

  5. A Literacy Based Intervention to Increase the Pretend Play of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley-Bennett, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a literacy-based intervention on the conventional pretend play skills of preschool children who are visually impaired. The intervention involved experience books, real objects, story-reading, and role-play, which are common strategies used to teach children with visual impairments. A…

  6. Visually Impaired People with Learning Difficulties: Their Education from 1900 to 1970--Policy, Practice and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sally

    2008-01-01

    By means of documentary evidence and six in-depth interviews, this paper traces policy and practice relating to the education of visually impaired children with learning difficulties from 1900 to 1970. It reveals that if visually impaired children with learning difficulties were given an education at all, their needs were not usually met and they…

  7. Early Childhood Special Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, A. Dolunay

    2009-01-01

    Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…

  8. English Language Learners: Experiences of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments Who Work with This Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Irene; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study that gathered data from 66 teachers of students with visual impairments about their preparation to work with children who are visually impaired and are learning English, and their knowledge of instructional strategies and methods of instruction. Methods: An online five-part survey was available to…

  9. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.; Boer, M.R. de; Nispen, R.M.A. van; Wouters, B.; Moll, A.C.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults,

  10. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.; de Boer, M.R.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Wouters, B.; Moll, A.C.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults,

  11. Use of the HOME Inventory with Families of Young Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, S. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the Infant-Toddler and the Early Childhood forms of the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of Environment) Inventory as applied to children who are visually impaired. Results indicated that families of children (n=31) with visual impairments scored about the same as did families in the norm groups.…

  12. A Formative Evaluation of an Instructional Program Designed to Teach Visually Impaired Students to Use Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, LaRhea

    1984-01-01

    Ten visually impaired students (12-18 years old) were instructed via a two-module instructional kit to use microcomputers and to learn the programing language, BASIC. Results indicated that the visually impaired students learned the major components of the microcomputer and were able to use the cassette braille access device. (CL)

  13. Social Skills Training for Depressed, Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Treatment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a social skills training package for the treatment of depressed, visually impaired older adults. The treatment focuses on increasing the frequency and level of assertiveness with which visually impaired older adults interact with one another. Employs standardized assessment measures to evaluate therapeutic progress. (JPS)

  14. Stress Associated with Transportation: A Survey of Persons with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; Cmar, Jennifer L.; McDonnall, Michele C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated transportation-related stress and factors predicting stress among persons with visual impairments. Methods: Participants with visual impairments completed electronic surveys rating their stress levels experienced when completing various walking and public transportation tasks. They also indicated activities they…

  15. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  16. Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity for Their Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and…

  18. Sex Education Instruction for Students Who Are Visually Impaired: Recommendations to Guide Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) do not have the same opportunities to develop their knowledge of sexual health and participate in sex education as their sighted peers (Krupa & Esmail, 2010), although young adults with visual impairments participate in sexual activities at similar rates as their…

  19. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  20. Supporting the Transition of Visually Impaired Adults to Employment: European Union Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Archie W. N.; Storrow, Kate; Spinks, Robin

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses ways in which programs have facilitated better understanding among European Union (EU) countries and specialist organizations that work with people with visual impairments. It then describes several EU projects that are designed to support adults with visual impairments to obtain employment and social integration. (Contains…

  1. Working with Visual Impairment in Nigeria: A Qualitative Look at Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study presents the perceptions of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and professional experiences among a sample of 172 adults with visual impairments living and working in…

  2. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  3. "Program for Partners": Support Groups for Partners of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena; Sussman-Skalka, Carol; Goodman, Caryn

    2004-01-01

    This study of time-limited support groups attended by partners of individuals with visual impairments found that participation increased the attendees' knowledge of their visually impaired partners' situations, improved the quality of communication between the partners, and reduced the sighted partners' negative appraisal of their role.

  4. Consumers' Perspectives on Effective Orientation and Mobility Services for Diabetic Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Matlock, Dwayne; Page, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors interviewed and videotaped diabetic adults with visual impairments about their perceptions of orientation and mobility (O&M) services that they had received. The visual impairments of these middle-aged adults ranged from totally blind to low vision. The interview questions focused on demographic information about the interviewees, the…

  5. Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Lived Experiences and a Walking Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Clare; Miyahara, Motohide

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated past and present physical activities of 6 older individuals with diverse types of visual impairment who participated in a walking group. The authors identified the participants' lived experiences of visual impairment and physical activity through interviews and assessed their current activity levels by using pedometers.…

  6. The Meaning of Physical Education and Sport among Elite Athletes with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning that elite athletes with visual impairments ascribed to their school-based physical education (PE) and sport experiences. A convenience sample of four elite male goalball athletes with visual impairment voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected through…

  7. Somebody's Jumping on the Floor: Incorporating Music into Orientation and Mobility for Preschoolers with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Young children with visual impairments face many challenges as they learn to orient to and move through their environment, the beginnings of orientation and mobility (O&M). Children who are visually impaired must learn many concepts (such as body parts and positional words) and skills (like body movement and interpreting sensory information) to…

  8. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context. PMID:22944744

  9. The Impact of Residual Vision in Spatial Skills of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2011-01-01

    Loss of vision is believed to have a great impact on the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The aims of the present study are to examine the performance of individuals with visual impairments on spatial tasks and the impact of residual vision on processing these tasks. In all, 28 individuals with visual impairments--blindness or low…

  10. Psychological and Social Adjustment of Visually Impaired Youth: 1936-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lee A.

    The empirical research on psychological and social adjustment of children and adolescents with visual impairments is reviewed. The dichotomy between deficit and nondeficit functioning of these youths is explored. Personality research suggests that some youth with visual impairments display minor deficits in self-concept and self-esteem. It is…

  11. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further

  12. Trends in visual acuity impairment in US adults: the 1986-1995 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane; Jané, Dulce M

    2004-04-01

    To assess 10-year trends in reported visual impairment. The National Health Interview Survey is a continuous multistage area probability survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population living at addressed dwellings. Adults within randomly selected households were administered a chronic conditions list that included questions about visual impairment. Proxy information on these conditions was obtained when household members were unavailable for interview. Complete data were available on 132 860 adults 18 years or older in survey years 1986 to 1995. Prevalence rates were adjusted for age and sample survey design. Annual age-adjusted rates of some visual impairment ranged from 3.6% to 4.6%. Rates of severe bilateral visual impairment ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. There was some evidence for increasing rates of visual impairment among younger adults 18 to 39 years of age (annual increase, 0.03%; P =.03). However, there were no significant changes in reported visual impairment rates in older adults stratified into 10-year age groups. Data from the National Health Interview Survey provide no evidence that reported visual impairment rates are declining in the US noninstitutionalized population from 1986 to 1995. Additional treatment advances, greater use of existing treatments, including correcting refractive errors, and further reductions in risk factors for disabling eye diseases may be necessary before population-level reductions in visual impairment rates can be achieved.

  13. Alternative Format Preferences among Secondary School Visually Impaired Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2012-01-01

    Persons with visual impairment have consistently shown a preference for one alternative reading format over another, often because of factors outside their control. This study adopted survey research design to investigate alternative format preferences among secondary school visually impaired students, focusing on Southwestern Nigeria. Using total…

  14. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among 9980 Scandinavian adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesgaard, Helena; Vinding, Troels; La Cour, Morten

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the age-specific prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an epidemiologic study of an adult Scandinavian population.......To investigate the age-specific prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an epidemiologic study of an adult Scandinavian population....

  15. Information Technology and Transcription of Reading Materials for the Visually Impaired Persons in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkiko, Christopher; Atinmo, Morayo I.; Michael-Onuoha, Happiness Chijioke; Ilogho, Julie E.; Fagbohun, Michael O.; Ifeakachuku, Osinulu; Adetomiwa, Basiru; Usman, Kazeem Omeiza

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown inadequate reading materials for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Information technology has greatly advanced the provision of information to the visually impaired in other industrialized climes. This study investigated the extent of application of information technology to the transcription of reading materials for the…

  16. Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

  17. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  18. Comparison of Reading Performance between Visually Impaired and Normally Sighted Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Zainora; Omar, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted school children. Participants (n = 299) were divided into three groups: normal vision (NV, n = 193), visually impaired print reader (PR, n = 52), and Braille reader (BR, n = 54). Reading performance was determined by measuring reading rate and…

  19. The Research Priorities of People with Visual Impairments in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölvinck, Anne-Floor M.; Pittens, Carina A. C. M.; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the relatively high prevalence and challenges of visual impairments, limited funding is available for ophthalmologic research in the Netherlands. The research needs of people with visual impairments could aid the ophthalmological research community to optimally distribute research resources. The objective of the study…

  20. Factors Related to Impaired Visual Orienting Behavior in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, F. H.; Pel, J .J. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van der Steen, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased risk of impaired visual information processing due to brain damage or brain development disorder. So far little evidence has been presented to support this assumption. Abnormal visual orienting behavior is a sensitive tool to evaluate impaired visual…

  1. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  2. A stratigraphy fieldtrip for people with visual impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Gonzalez-Acebron, Laura; Muñoz-Garcia, Belen; Garcia-Frank, Alejandra; Fesharaki, Omid

    2017-04-01

    This communication presents how a stratigraphy fieldtrip adapted to people with visual impairment was prepared and carried out. This fieldtrip aimed to promote scientific knowledge on Earth sciences to people with visual impairment and to inspire Earth scientists to take into account the needs of people with disabilities when designing public engagement activities. To do this, the theme chosen for the fieldtrip was the importance of sedimentary rocks shaping the Earth and what information can one extract from observing sedimentary structures. The Triassic outcrops of Riba de Santiuste (Guadalajara, Spain) were observed during this fieldtrip. The expected learning outcomes were: a) understanding what are sedimentary rocks, how they are formed and how they fold and crop out, b) knowing what is a sedimentary structure and recognising some of them and c) be able to make inferences of the sedimentary environment from certain sedimentary structures. The fieldtrip was prepared, through the NGO "Science without Barriers" together with the Madrid delegation of the National Association for Spanish Blind People (ONCE-Madrid). ONCE-Madrid was responsible of advertising this activity as a part of their yearly cultural program to its affiliate. A preparatory fieldtrip was carried out to test the teaching methodology and to make an appropriate risk assessment. This was made together with the responsible of the Culture Area of ONCE-Madrid and two blind people. The involvement of end-users in the preparation of activities is in the core of the European Disability Forum motto: "Nothing about us without us". A crucial aspect of the site was accessibility. In terms of perambulatory accessibility of outcrops the site is excellent and suitable to some extent for end-users regardless of their physical fitness. The fieldtrip itself took place on October 15th 2016 and 30 people with and without visual disability attended. In addition to overall observations and explanations of strata and

  3. Impaired visual perception in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomhause, Lucie; Dujardin, Kathy; Boucart, Muriel; Herlin, Virginie; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe; Monaca Charley, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) often develop synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease [PD], in particular). Cognitive disorders affecting different domains have been reported in patients with iRBD. Dysexecutive disorders seem to predominate, but there is no consensus on the nature of visuospatial disorders in iRBD. The objective is to identify and characterize visuospatial disorders in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD - either idiopathic or associated with PD). Fifteen patients with iRBD, 30 patients with PD (15 of whom had RBD), and 20 healthy control subjects underwent an extensive assessment of visuospatial functions. Two computerized tasks were used: a Biederman task (to assess the 3 levels of visuoperceptive processing) and a Posner paradigm (to assess visual attention). The visual priming effects classically described for the Biederman task in healthy controls were not found in iRBD patients. Patients with iRBD were no quicker in naming objects with the same general structure as previously presented objects but did have a normal priming effect for strictly identical objects. Parkinson's disease patients with RBD had poorer visuoperceptive performance levels than PD patients without RBD. There were no significant differences between the 4 groups in the Posner attentional task. First, this study confirms the presence of visuoperceptive dysfunction in iRBD patients and revealed a selective defect in intermediate visuoperceptive processing (i.e., general object representation). Second, RBD in PD appeared to be associated with poorer visuoperceptive abilities. Third, this visuoperceptive dysfunction in RBD patients was not associated with impaired attention.

  4. Near visual impairment and spectacle coverage in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunuku, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2017-08-01

    The study highlights the burden of near visual impairment (NVI) in India. NVI is a common condition that can be addressed through provision of spectacles. The study aims to assess the prevalence of NVI and spectacle coverage among those aged ≥40 years in south Indian state of Telangana. Population-based cross-sectional study using a rapid assessment methodology. Five thousand one hundred forty participants enumerated from 123 clusters in two districts and have presenting distance visual acuity of ≥6/18 in the better eye. Presenting near vision was assessed binocularly at a fixed distance of 40 cm using a log MAR chart with tumbling E optotypes in ambient lighting conditions. If the presenting near vision was worse than 6/12 (log MAR 0.3), then it was re-assessed with addition lens appropriate to the age. NVI was defined as binocular presenting near vision worse than 6/12. Prevalence of NVI and spectacle coverage. The mean age of the participants was 51.1 years (standard deviation: 9.3 years), and 46.5% (n = 2392) were women. About 80% (n = 4142) of them had no education, and 21.9% (n = 1126) were using spectacles for near vision. Nearly half of the participants were from Adilabad district (n = 2665). The prevalence of NVI was 58.3% (95% confidence interval: 56.9-59.6). NVI was associated with older age groups, male gender and no education. The spectacle coverage was 26.5%. NVI is common in rural Telangana with low spectacle coverage. Service delivery programs should use a multi-pronged approach to address the burden of NVI. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Change in psychological problems of adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2014-07-01

    The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.

  6. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. This cross-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pseasonal change than both full sight and no light perception respondents. The study showed a highly significant association between visual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters, supporting the hypothesis that decreased retinal light input plays a role in the pathogenesis of SAD. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. [Loneliness and self-management abilities in the visually impaired elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, M A; Van der Mei, S F; Feitsma, W N; Groothoff, J W; Van Tilburg, T G; Suurmeijer, T P B M

    2013-06-01

    To describe the degree of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with a matched reference group of the normally sighted elderly. In addition, we examined self-management abilities (SMAs) as determinants of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly. In a cross-sectional study, 173 visually impaired elderly persons completed telephone interviews. Loneliness and SMAs were assessed with the Loneliness Scale of De Jong Gierveld and the SMAS-30, respectively. The prevalence of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly was higher compared to the reference group (50% vs 29%; p visual impairment had no effect on loneliness. The relationship between SMAs (i.e., self-efficacy) and loneliness is promising, since SMAs can be learned through training. Consequently, self-management training may reduce feelings of loneliness. An adapted version of this paper was published in Journal of Aging and Health, doi: 10.1177/0898264311399758.

  8. Loneliness and self-management abilities in the visually impaired elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Manna A; Van der Mei, Sijrike F; Feitsma, W Nathalie; Groothoff, Johan W; Van Tilburg, Theo G; Suurmeijer, Theo P B M

    2011-08-01

    To describe the degree of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with a matched reference group of the normally sighted elderly. In addition, we examined self-management abilities (SMAs) as determinants of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly. In a cross-sectional study, 173 visually impaired elderly persons completed telephone interviews. Loneliness and SMAs were assessed with the Loneliness Scale of De Jong Gierveld and the SMAS-30, respectively. The prevalence of loneliness among the visually impaired elderly was higher compared with the reference group (50% vs. 29%; p visual impairment had no effect on loneliness. The relationship between SMAs (i.e., self-efficacy) and loneliness is promising, as SMAs can be learned through training. Consequently, self-management training may reduce feelings of loneliness.

  9. Methods of development of fine and gross motor skills of visually impaired children.

    OpenAIRE

    Brožová, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor's paper is ``Methods of development of fine and gross motor skills of visually impaired children{\\crqq}. The theoretical part is aimed at clarification of the terms ``vision{\\crqq}, ``development of visual perception{\\crqq}, and also ``visually impaired child{\\crqq}. I have further introduced there the terms ``gross and fine motor skills{\\crqq}, which I defined in relation to children with visual impairment in pre-school age. The practical part of the paper is dedica...

  10. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  11. Quality of life in patients with visual impairment in Ibadan: a clinical study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigun, Kehinde; Oluleye, Tunji S; Ladipo, Modupe Ma; Olowookere, Samuel Anu

    2014-01-01

    Visual function is important for optimal orientation in functional and social life, and has an effect on physical and emotional well-being. Visual impairment, therefore, leads to restrictions in all aspects of daily living and is related to quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide information on the causes of visual impairment in patients presenting to their family physician, the spectrum of impairment, and its impact on quality of life for these patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of 375 adult patients with ocular symptoms was performed in the general outpatient department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, from July to September, 2009. After checking their presenting visual acuity, the patients were interviewed using the Vision-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to determine the impact of visual impairment on their quality of life. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to determine the causes of visual impairment. The results were analyzed using proportions and percentages. The main causes of visual impairment were cataracts (58.7%), refractive error (19.4%), and glaucoma (2.9%). Visual impairment was found to be associated with advancing age, low education, and unemployment (Pvisual function (64.2%) and social interaction (50.9%). Quality of life was found to be related to the degree of visual impairment, ie, blind patients reported poor quality of life (41.4%) when compared with those having low vision (8.6%) or near normal vision (2.4%, Pvisual impairment. Family physicians need to identify these visually impaired patients early and make timely referrals.

  12. [Comparison of visual impairment caused by trachoma in China between 1978 and 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ailian; Cai, Xiaogu; Qiao, Liya; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Baochen; Wang, Ningli

    2015-10-01

    To understand the distribution of visual impairment caused by trachoma in China and provide evidences for evaluation of eliminating blinding trachoma in China in the mission of Vision 2020. Sampling study. The results from the first year 1987 and second (year 2006) national sampling surveys of disabled persons were analyzed. Chi-square test was performed using SAS 9.30 to analyze the rates of visual impairment caused by trachoma in different groups. Unifactor and multifactor analyses were applied to analyze the relevance between visual impairment caused by trachoma and risk factors, including gender and age. The rate of visual impairment caused by trachoma was 102.01 persons/100 000 in 1987 and 17.62 persons/100 000 in 2006. The percentage of trachoma in all kinds of visual impairment was 14.25% in 1987 and 1.87% in 2006, and the difference was significant (F = 1 382.6, P visual impairment caused by trachoma. H-aggregation areas included Hubei, Sichuan, Anhui, Shannxi, Guizhou, Hunan provinces and Chongqing Municipality. Survival time without trachoma between 1987 and 2006 was significantly different (F = 2 745.9, P visual impairment caused by trachoma increased with age. Except the group of > 85 years, the rate of visual impairment caused by trachoma in all age groups in 1987 was significantly higher than that in 2006. The risk of visual impairment caused by trachoma in 1987 was 5.8 times that in 2006. If the other risk factors were not involved, the risk in 1987 was 8.75 times that in 2006. The risk in females was twice that in males. Both, the rate and risk of visual impairment caused by trachoma were significantly reduced in China. Impressive progresses were achieved in trachoma prevention and control.

  13. A wearable multipoint ultrasonic travel aids for visually impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Ilaria; Marchionni, Paolo; Scalise, Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization estimates that there were about 285 million people in the world with disabling eyesight loss (246 millions are visually impaired (VI) and 39 millions are totally blind). For such users, hits during mobility tasks are the reason of major concerns and can reduce the quality of their life. The white cane is the primary device used by the majority of blind or VI users to explore and possibly avoid obstacles; it can monitor only the ground (< 1m) and it does not provide protection for the legs, the trunk and the head. In this paper, authors propose a novel stand-alone Electronic Travel Aid (ETA) device for obstacle detection based on multi- sensing (by 4 ultrasonic transducers) and a microcontroller. Portability, simplicity, reduced dimensions and cost are among the major pros of the reported system, which can detect and localize (angular position and distance from the user) obstacles eventually present in the volume in front of him and on the ground in front of him.

  14. Frequency, course, and impact of correctable visual impairment (uncorrected refractive error).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julie; Leeder, Stephen R; Gopinath, Bamini; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Uncorrected refractive error has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the priorities for Vision 2020 and a frequent cause of visual impairment. In the past, only the terms presenting visual impairment (PVI) and visual impairment after best refractive correction (BCVI) were used, so that PVI also included BCVI cases. In the more recent literature, visual impairment has been subdivided into two mutually exclusive entities: that which is correctable by refraction (which we now term correctable visual impairment, CVI) and that which cannot be corrected by refraction due to ocular or neurological disease (which we now term non-correctable visual impairment, NCVI, and which is identical to BCVI). PVI remains a useful concept as it includes both types of impairment. Although CVI is reported to be the major form of visual impairment worldwide, its impacts are not yet well understood. CVI has a higher prevalence among vulnerable groups such as older people, less well educated people and those living alone or in rural areas. Systematic data on barriers to refractive correction remain scant, but these may be present at the individual level, within the health service context, or at a social level. Our review indicates that research on CVI is at a relatively early stage and that more detailed research, particularly determining whether it has impacts on independent living and quality of life, is needed before CVI can be justifiably prioritized in health policy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment among the elderly in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is associated with disability and poor quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of visual impairment among the suburban elderly in Eastern Taiwan. The cross-sectional research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012. The ocular condition examination took place in suburban areas of Hualien County. Medical records from local infirmaries and questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic data and systemic disease status. Logistic regression models were used for the simultaneous analysis of the association between the prevalence of visual impairment and risk factors. Six hundred and eighty-one residents participated in this project. The mean age of the participants was 71.4±7.3 years. The prevalence of vision impairment (better eye 75 years was 10.0 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with diabetic retinopathy had a 3.7 times higher risk of developing visual impairment (p=0.002, while the odds ratio of refractive error was 0.36 (p<0.001. The prevalence of visual impairment was relatively high compared with previous studies. Diabetic retinopathy was an important risk factor of visual impairment; by contrast, refractive error was beneficial to resist visual impairment. Therefore, regular screening of ocular condition and early intervention might aid in the prevention of avoidable vision loss.

  16. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-09-08

    Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84-17.50) per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%), disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%), and disorders of cornea (6.49%) contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment.

  17. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84–17.50 per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%, disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%, and disorders of cornea (6.49% contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment.

  18. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Visual impairment has become a global challenge, especially for developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, causes and social factors of visual impairment among Chinese adults. Data were from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study. The study population were 1,909,199 non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years and older in mainland China. In the survey, low vision and blindness were checked by ophthalmologists according to the WHO best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) criteria. Population weighted numbers and prevalence of low vision and blindness with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the social factors of visual impairment. The weighted prevalence of visual impairment was 17.17 (95% CI, 16.84–17.50) per 1000 Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Cataract (57.35%), disorders of choroid and retina (9.80%), and disorders of cornea (6.49%) contributed more than 70 percent to the visual impairment in Chinese adults. Older age groups, young or middle-aged male adults, female elders, illiterate, rural dwellers, non-eastern residents, singles, unemployment, and from family with lower income were associated with visual impairment. More efforts are warranted to enhance treatment and rehabilitation among people with eye disorders to prevent visual impairment. PMID:28885571

  19. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in schools for visually handicapped children in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdehghan, S A; Dehghan, M H; Mohammadpour, M; Heidari, K; Khosravi, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This survey was conducted on children in schools for the blind in Tehran (from 2002 to 2003) to determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness and to identify preventable and treatable conditions. Methods: The study was performed on 362 students at different grades in three schools for the blind. Patient sex, age, family history of blindness or low vision, visual acuity, causes of blindness, and treatable and preventable conditions were studied. Results: Of the 362 cases, 210 (58%) were boys and 152 (42%) were girls. Mean age was 13.5 (SD 4) years. Severe visual loss was seen in 80.9%. Retinal diseases were the most common cause for low vision (51%); cataract, optic nerve atrophy, corneal and anterior segment diseases, glaucoma, anophthalmia, and globe malformations were other major causes of blindness. Treatable aetiologies and positive family history of blindness were seen in 25.7% and 36% of the patients, respectively. The incidence of preventable diseases, excluding familial disorders, was low. Conclusion: In addition to the prevention and treatment of some conditions, premarital genetic counselling and family planning control in families with inherited diseases could decrease the number of blind children in the future in Iran. PMID:15834095

  20. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Singh Senjam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI due to uncorrected refractive error (URE and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Results: Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96% individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation. VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1. URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4% of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0. The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P < 0.001 and OR = 1.5; P < 0.02. Lack of felt need was the most common reported barrier (31.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  1. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  2. A Case Study of Visual Agnosia without Perceptual Processing or Structural Descriptions Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fery, Patrick; Morais, Jose

    2003-10-01

    We report a new case of visual associative agnosia. Our patient (DJ) was impaired in several tasks assessing visual processing of real objects, colour pictures, and line drawings. The deficit was present both with naming and gesturing responses. Object processing in other modalities (verbal, auditory nonverbal, and tactile) was intact. Semantic processing was impaired in the visual but not in the verbal modality. Picture-word matching was better than single picture identification. DJ's visual perceptual processing, was intact in several tasks such as visual attributes discrimination, shape discrimination, illusory contours perception, segmentation, embedded figures processing and matching objects under different viewpoints. Most importantly, we show that there was no impairment of stored structural descriptions and that the patient was able to build new visual representations. These results are considered in the context of Farah's (1990, 1991) proposals about visual associative agnosia.

  3. Age-related eye diseases and visual impairment among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Cotch, Mary Frances; Vitale, Susan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Friedman, David S; Klein, Barbara E K; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2013-07-01

    Visual impairment is a common health-related disability in the U.S. The association between clinical measurements of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in data from a national survey has not been reported. To examine common eye conditions and other correlates associated with visual impairment in the U.S. Data from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 5222 Americans aged ≥40 years were analyzed in 2012 for visual impairment (presenting distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye), and visual impairment not due to refractive error (distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 after refraction). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were assessed from retinal fundus images; glaucoma was assessed from two successive frequency-doubling tests and a cup-to-disc ratio measurement. Prevalence of visual impairment and of visual impairment not due to refractive error was 7.5% (95% CI=6.9%, 8.1%) and 2.0% (1.7%, 2.3%), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment not due to refractive error was significantly higher among people with AMD (2.2%) compared to those without AMD (0.8%), or with DR (3.5%) compared to those without DR (1.2%). Independent predictive factors of visual impairment not due to refractive error were AMD (OR=4.52, 95% CI=2.50, 8.17); increasing age (OR=1.09 per year, 95% CI=1.06, 1.13); and less than a high school education (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.18, 7.55). Visual impairment is a public health problem in the U.S. Visual impairment in two thirds of adults could be eliminated with refractive correction. Screening of the older population may identify adults at increased risk of visual impairment due to eye diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment Among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Cotch, Mary Frances; Vitale, Susan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Friedman, David S.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Visual impairment is a common health-related disability in the U.S. The association between clinical measurements of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in data from a national survey has not been reported. Purpose To examine common eye conditions and other correlates associated with visual impairment in the U.S. Methods Data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 5222 Americans aged ≥40 years were analyzed in 2012 for visual impairment (presenting distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye), and visual impairment not due to refractive error (distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 after refraction). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were assessed from retinal fundus images; glaucoma was assessed from two successive frequency-doubling tests and a cup-to-disc ratio measurement. Results Prevalence of visual impairment and of visual impairment not due to refractive error was 7.5% (95% CI=6.9%, 8.1%) and 2.0% (1.7%, 2.3%), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment not due to refractive error was significantly higher among people with AMD (2.2%) compared to those without AMD (0.8%), or with DR (3.5%) compared to those without DR (1.2%). Independent predictive factors of visual impairment not due to refractive error were AMD (OR=4.52, 95% CI=2.50, 8.17); increasing age (OR=1.09 per year, 95% CI=1.06, 1.13); and less than a high school education (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.18, 7.55). Conclusions Visual impairment is a public health problem in the U.S. Visual impairment in two thirds of adults could be eliminated with refractive correction. Screening of the older population may identify adults at increased risk of visual impairment due to eye diseases. PMID:23790986

  5. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children.

  6. Correctable visual impairment and its impact on quality of life in a marginalized Canadian neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Hussein; Brox, Anya C; Chang, Angela; Adilman, Steve; Chakraborti, Bubli; Kliever, Gordon; Maberley, David A L

    2009-02-01

    To study the impact of visual impairment due to either underlying ocular pathology or easily correctable refractive error on vision-related functioning and quality of life (QOL) in Vancouver's downtown eastside (VDES). Cross-sectional study. Two hundred consecutive patients seeking general medical care at the Vancouver Native Health Society (VNHS) medical clinic were included. An ocular examination was performed and a standardized history and QOL information were obtained for each participant. Effective visual impairment was classified based on patients' current refractive means. Pathological visual impairment was classified based on patients' best-corrected visual acuity (VA). Vision-related functioning was quantified using the Daily Tasks Dependent on Vision (DTDV) questionnaire. Health-related QOL was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Two hundred patients participated; they suffered, on average, 6.2 comorbid conditions. Sixty-two patients (31%) were effectively visually impaired and, of these, 14 patients (7%) were effectively blind. Ten patients (5%) had pathological eye disease to explain their visual impairment. The remaining 52 visually impaired patients (26%) had VA that normalized with correction. Difficulty with the tasks described in the DTDV questions was significantly correlated with effective visual impairment. Patients with effective visual impairment had lower Physical Composite Scores on the SF-12 in multivariate analyses. We have demonstrated a very high rate of visual impairment in a low socioeconomic population that is associated with decreased vision-dependent functioning and decreased overall physical health status. Public health efforts need to be directed toward improving easily correctable refractive error.

  7. Distance- and near-visual impairment in rural Chinese adults in Kailu, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Shan, Li; Song, Wulian; Fan, Pan; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of distance-visual impairment and near-vision impairment in a rural Chinese population in Inner Mongolia. A population-based, cross-sectional study design was used to identify visual impairment in the Chinese aged 40 years and older living in Kailu County, Inner Mongolia. Low vision, blindness and near-visual impairment (NVI) were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The overall prevalence of blindness and visual impairment based on the presenting visual acuity (VA) was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.8-2.6) and 9.8% (95% CI: 8.9-10.6), respectively, and was adjusted to 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2) and 4.7% (95% CI: 4.1-5.3) using best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively. Taking the presenting VA into consideration, the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (40.3%, 40.9%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (26.6%, 28.2%). According to the BCVA, the main cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (48.3%, 41.3%) followed by glaucoma (19.0%, 23.9%). Among the examined subjects, 80.3% had NVI, and 51.7% had presbyopia. Major barriers reported by NVI persons without near correction were lack of money to purchase prescription glasses and poor quality of the available ones (43.2%). Visual impairment is a serious public health problem, and the main causes leading to visual impairment are treatable and preventable in the rural Chinese population in Inner Mongolia. Presbyopia, together with the low rate of spectacles and lack of appropriate refractive and presbyopia spectacles, is highly prevalent in rural China. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Visual impairment and depression among socially vulnerable older adults in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloyan, Aida; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment in older adults is a major public health problem. Untreated visual impairment might negatively impact physical and psychological health. This study assessed the association between visual impairment and depression among socially vulnerable older adults (those aged 50 and above) in Armenia. The survey and eye screenings were carried out among 339 participants who were the residents of retirement homes and single older adults in the households. The study team used Golovin-Sivtsev chart and cycloplegic skiascopy to measure visual impairment and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale to measure depression. The prevalence of visual impairment in the sample was 13.3%. Almost 24.0% of participants reported depression symptoms. Participants living in the retirement homes had substantially higher rates of visual impairment (21.5%) and depression (28.0%) than those living in households (9.3% and 15.0%, respectively). The odds of having depression were higher among those with visual impairment compared to those without after adjusting for confounders (OR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.29-5.87). Having at least one non-communicable disease was associated with depression (OR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.28-4.75). Living in the retirement home was marginally significantly associated with having depression. Other confounders included age, gender, education, physical activity, and smoking. Visual impairment was significantly associated with depression in socially vulnerable older adults in Armenia. Timely eye screenings in similar population groups could lead to early detection of visual impairment and prevention of visual loss and associated mental health problems.

  9. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved rural areas: a crucial issue for future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H; Yekta, A; Jafarzadehpur, E; Doostdar, A; Ostadimoghaddam, H; Khabazkhoob, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved Iranian villages and to identify the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness.Patients and methodsMultistage cluster sampling was used to select the participants who were then invited to undergo complete examinations. Optometric examinations including visual acuity, and refraction were performed for all individuals. Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Visual impairment was determined according to the definitions of the WHO and presenting vision.ResultsOf 3851 selected individuals, 3314 (86.5%) participated in the study. After using the exclusion criteria, the present report was prepared based on the data of 3095 participants. The mean age of the participants was 37.6±20.7 years (3-93 years). The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 6.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71-9.14) and 1.18% (95% CI: 0.56-1.79), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment varied from 0.75% in participants aged less than 5 years to 38.36% in individuals above the age of 70 years. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract were the first and second leading causes of visual impairment; moreover, cataract and refractive errors were responsible for 35.90 and 20.51% of the cases of blindness, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of visual impairment was markedly high in this study. Lack of access to health services was the main reason for the high prevalence of visual impairment in this study. Cataract and refractive errors are responsible for 80% of visual impairments which can be due to poverty in underserved villages.

  10. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  11. Communicating Science Concepts to Individuals with Visual Impairments Using Short Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…

  12. Sleep Disturbances among Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: Survey of Dog Guide Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Massoud K.; Moseley, Merrick J.; Jones, Helen S.; Tobin, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey completed by 1237 adults with severe visual impairments found that 20% described the quality of their sleep as poor or very poor. Exercise was associated with better sleep and depression with poorer sleep. However, visual acuity did not predict sleep quality, casting doubt on the idea that restricted visual input (light) causes sleep…

  13. Underlying structure of auditory-visual consonant perception by hearing-impaired children and the influences of syllabic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, P A; Tong, Y C; Clark, G M

    1988-06-01

    The identification of consonants in (a)-C-(a) nonsense syllables, using a fourteen-alternative forced-choice procedure, was examined in 4 profoundly hearing-impaired children under five conditions: audition alone using hearing aids in free-field (A), vision alone (V), auditory-visual using hearing aids in free-field (AV1), auditory-visual with linear amplification (AV2), and auditory-visual with syllabic compression (AV3). In the AV2 and AV3 conditions, acoustic signals were binaurally presented by magnetic or acoustic coupling to the subjects' hearing aids. The syllabic compressor had a compression ratio of 10:1, and attack and release times were 1.2 ms and 60 ms. The confusion matrices were subjected to two analysis methods: hierarchical clustering and information transmission analysis using articulatory features. The same general conclusions were drawn on the basis of results obtained from either analysis method. The results indicated better performance in the V condition than in the A condition. In the three AV conditions, the subjects predominantly combined the acoustic parameter of voicing with the visual signal. No consistent differences were recorded across the three AV conditions. Syllabic compression did not, therefore, appear to have a significant influence on AV perception for these children. A high degree of subject variability was recorded for the A and three AV conditions, but not for the V condition.

  14. National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire or Indian Vision Function Questionnaire for visually impaired: a conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Reddy, Shailaja P; Sumalini, Rebecca; Bharani, Seelam; Bagga, Deepak K

    2012-07-18

    Both the long form visual functioning scale (LFVFS(39)) and visual functioning scale (VFS) are measures of visual functioning (VF) that represent the Rasch-scaled versions of the NEI-VFQ(39) and the Indian vision function questionnaire (IND-VFQ), respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate if the 15-item LFVFS(39) and 13-item VFS of the IND-VFQ meet the assumptions of the Rasch model and measure the same construct, VF, in an Indian visually impaired (VI) population. Data from 120 VI adults administered both instruments concurrently, were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to demonstrate that each instrument satisfies the assumptions of the model (including unidimensionality by principal components analysis); and both instruments can be cocalibrated onto a single underlying continuum of VF. Both instruments required category reorganization for optimal rating scale functioning and possessed similar measurement precision (person separation = 2.76). Separate analysis of each instrument (eigenvalues, 2.3 and 1.9 for LFVFS(39) and VFS of IND-VFQ, respectively) and the pooled 28-item analyses (eigenvalue, 2.8) satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model, including unidimensionality. Furthermore, all items fit in the separate and pooled analyses. Separate item and person measures for each instrument correlated strongly with estimates from the pooled data (r > 0.9 for all, P measure the same construct, VF, and with equal measurement precision in an Indian VI population. Both instruments can be calibrated onto a single metric, thereby, enabling a comparison of their measurement range of VF.

  15. The changing visual profile of children attending a regional specialist school for the visually impaired in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Julie; Saunders, Kathryn J; Hill, Nan; Magee, Anne; Shannon, Myrtle; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the changing profile of children attending a special school for visually impaired children over a 30-year period. Between 1975 and 2004, 266 children were identified as having been students in the introductory years to secondary education at Jordanstown School. School records and records from the Regional Paediatric Low Vision Clinic at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast were examined to obtain data regarding age, primary ophthalmic diagnosis, visual acuity and any additional impairment. There was no statistically significant change in mean visual acuity of the children entering the secondary school over this period (p > 0.1). Albinism was the most common single condition (20.3%). Notable also was the reduction in incidence of visual impairment following congenital glaucoma and cataract and the corresponding increase in cortical visual impairment (CVI) during this period. During the last 30 years medical/surgical treatment has reduced the impact of treatable conditions (e.g. cataract) on visual impairment to the extent that their prevalence within this school has decreased. Consequently, children with non-treatable conditions (e.g. albinism) constitute a larger proportion of the school population. An increase in the proportion of children with CVI and learning disability in the school was noted.

  16. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Two Brothers with Congenital Visual Impairment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Altun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by severe qualitative impairments in socialization, communication, and restricted repetitive behavior, interests and activities. It is a behaviorally defined disorder of unknown etiology that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Congenital visual impairment children are generally reported to be at risk for serious behavioral and psychological problems, such as withdrawal, isolation, and autism. Several studies have described the coexistence of autism or autistic behaviors in visually impaired individuals. To our knowledge, there is no case report about congenital visual impairment and comorbid autistic spectrum disorder in two brothers. In this case report, we aim to emphasise the comorbidity of congenital visual impairment and genetic predisposition which are risk factors for autism separately.

  17. Effects of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme on participation of the visually impaired elderly : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). Method: A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (>= 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings)

  18. Visual impairment and health-related quality of life among elderly adults with age-related eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Crews, John E; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Fan, Amy Z; Zhang, Xinzhi; Elliott, Amanda F; Balluz, Lina

    2011-08-01

    To examine the association between age-related eye disease (ARED), visual impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We used data from the 2006 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine self-reported visual impairment and two HRQOL domains-physical impairment (including poor general health, physical unhealthy days, activity-limitation days, and disability) and mental distress (including mental unhealthy days, life dissatisfaction, major depression, lifetime depression, and anxiety) for people aged 65 years or older, by ARED status. People with any ARED were more likely than those without to report visual impairment as well as physical impairment and mental distress. The prevalence of visual impairment (P trend impairment (P trend visual impairment and poorer HRQOL. Increasing numbers of AREDs were associated with increased levels of visual impairment and physical impairment, but were not associated with levels of mental distress.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN DISTRITO FEDERAL’S SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carvalho Mota de Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is a limitation that occurs in the sensory part of the vision, and can be classified as blindness, low vision or subnormal vision. The people with visually impaired have guaranteed rights to study in regular schools or special education schools. Therefore, a differentiated teaching is necessary for the learning of visually impaired students to happen effectively and ensure educational inclusion within the school. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze the teaching of Biological Sciences for the visually impaired in schools of the Distrito Federal, noting the institution, teachers and visually impaired students. The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews analyzed epistemologically. The results showed that: the institutions do not have adequate physical infrastructure; Biology teachers have no qualifications required; teachers of resource rooms are able to meet visually impaired students, even if resources are not sufficient, and the students do not understand all the benefits they could have. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the teaching and learning materials to allow for a better education for visually impaired students and thus ensure appropriate learning for all students within the same educational institution.

  20. Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire: evaluation in visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Sumalini, Rebecca; Irfan, Shaik Mohammad; Giridhar, Avula; Bharani, Seelam

    2013-08-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) in children with visual impairment (VI) using Rasch analysis. One hundred fifty Indian children with VI between 8 and 16 years (mean age, 11.6 years; 69% male; mean acuity in the better eye of 0.80 logMAR [Snellen, 20/126]) were administered the revised OBVQ. The 40-item revised OBVQ was developed to assess victimization (i.e., being bullied) and bullying (bullying others) in normally sighted schoolchildren. Only 16 items are used for Rasch analysis and are divided into two parts: I (victimization, eight items) and II (bullying others, eight items). Separate Rasch analysis was conducted for both parts, and the psychometric properties investigated included behavior of rating scale, extent to which the items measured a single construct (unidimensionality by fit statistics and principal component analysis [PCA] of residuals); ability to discriminate among participants' victimization and bullying behaviors (measurement precision as assessed by person separation reliability [PSR] minimum recommended value, 0.80); and targeting of items to participants' victimization and bullying. Response categories were misused for both parts I and II, which required repair before further analysis. Measurement precision was inadequate for both parts (PSR, 0.64 for part I and 0.19 for part II), indicating poor discriminatory ability. All items fit the Rasch model well in part I, indicating unidimensionality that was further confirmed using PCA of residuals. However, an item misfit in part II that required deletion following which the remaining items fit and PCA of residuals also supported unidimensionality. Targeting was -0.58 logits for part I, indicating that the items were matched well with the participants' victimization. By comparison, targeting was suboptimal for part II (-1.97 logits). In its current state, the revised OBVQ is not a valid psychometric instrument to assess victimization

  1. [Vision problems causing and not causing visual impairment in a working population of Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Laura; Tresserras, Ricard; Rius, Anna; López-Dóriga, Adriana; Purtí, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of visual problems which cause and do not cause visual impairment in a working population, and their relation to social class. This was a cross-sectional study of 86,831 employed workers (59,397 men, and 27,421 women) in Catalonia ages 16 to 65 years who, in 2009, underwent health surveillance exams at the Asepeyo Health Prevention. The prevalence of visual problems that cause and do not cause visual impairment was calculated by age, sex and occupational social class, and associations were analyzed using logistic regression. 2.2% (95% CI 2.1-2.3) of the active working population studied had vision problems that cause visual impairment, even while wearing corrective lenses. After adjusting for age, workers in Class V show a 2.4-fold greater risk of visual impairment than those in Class I. Women, older workers and disadvantaged social groups showed the highest prevalence and risk of visual impairment. Conversely, problems resolved by vision correction that do not cause visual impairment are concentrated in non-manual workers.

  2. Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Errors in Children of South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamah, Gamal Abdel Naser; Talaat Abdel Alim, Ahmed Ahmed; Mostafa, Yehia Salah El Din; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed Abdel Salam; Mohammed, Asmaa Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Asmaa Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in children of South Sinai, and to evaluate outcomes of rehabilitation programs. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of 2070 healthy school children screened for visual impairment from 2009 through 2010 in cities of South Sinai and their surrounding Bedouin settlements. Visual acuity (VA) was tested using Snellen charts followed by cycloplegic autorefractometry for cases with presenting VA ≤ 6/9. Appropriate eyeglasses were prescribed and VA re-evaluated. This study included 1047 boys and 1023 girls, mean age 10.7 ± 3.1 years. Visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/9) was detected in 29.4% of children, while 2.0% had moderate-severe visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/24). There were statistically significant differences in prevalence of visual impairment between the studied cities (p Sinai children had some form of visual impairment, 90.32% of which comprised refractive errors (mainly astigmatism) which were significantly corrected with eyeglasses. VA screening and correction of refractive errors are of the utmost importance for ensuring better visual outcomes and improved school performance.

  3. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280

  4. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Weeda, Wouter D; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Poll-Thé, Bwee Tien; Beelen, Anita; van der Wees, Marleen; Kemps, Rachèl J J K; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury) to children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 44). Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35). An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1) visual identification; (2) visual localization; or (3) both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT) or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution) using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form. The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40). Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50) and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48) were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002). Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  5. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Königs

    Full Text Available Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning.We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury to children with traumatic control (TC injury (n = 44. Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22, mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46 or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35. An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1 visual identification; (2 visual localization; or (3 both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form.The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40. Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50 and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .02, ds ≤ -0.56. Diffusion model analyses tracked impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .001, ds ≤ -0.73. Importantly, intelligence impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48 were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002.Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  6. [Visual impairment and blindness in children in a Malawian school for the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Schwering, M; Nyrenda, M; Spitzer, M S; Kalua, K

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic sites of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi, and to compare the results with those of previous Malawian blind school studies. Children attending an integrated school for the blind in Malawi were examined in September 2011 using the standard WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision. Visual acuity [VA] of the better eye was classified using the standardised WHO reporting form. Fifty-five pupils aged 6 to 19 years were examined, 39 (71 %) males, and 16 (29 %) females. Thirty eight (69%) were blind [BL], 8 (15 %) were severely visually impaired [SVI], 8 (15 %) visually impaired [VI], and 1 (1.8 %) was not visually impaired [NVI]. The major anatomic sites of visual loss were optic nerve (16 %) and retina (16 %), followed by lens/cataract (15 %), cornea (11 %) and lesions of the whole globe (11 %), uveal pathologies (6 %) and cortical blindness (2 %). The exact aetiology of VI or BL could not be determined in most children. Albinism accounted for 13 % (7/55) of the visual impairments. 24 % of the cases were considered to be potentially avoidable: refractive amblyopia among pseudophakic patients and corneal scaring. Optic atrophy, retinal diseases (mostly albinism) and cataracts were the major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi. Corneal scarring was now the fourth cause of visual impairment, compared to being the commonest cause 35 years ago. Congenital cataract and its postoperative outcome were the commonest remedial causes of visual impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Robot-assisted shopping for the visually impaired: proof-of-concept design and feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyukin, Vladimir; Gharpure, Chaitanya; Coster, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article presents RoboCart, a proof-of-concept prototype of a robotic shopping cart for the visually impaired in supermarkets. RoboCart autonomously leads shoppers to required locations and cues them through synthetic speech and a portable barcode reader to the salient features of the environment sufficient for product retrieval. In a longitudinal pilot feasibility study, visually impaired shoppers (n = 10) used the device to retrieve products in Lee's MarketPlace, a supermarket in Logan, Utah. The main finding is that RoboCart enables visually impaired shoppers to reliably and independently navigate to and retrieve products in a real supermarket.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  9. Literacy is an independent risk factor for vision impairment and poor visual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Anuar, Ainur Rahman; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2011-09-29

    People with limited literacy are at increased risks of chronic systemic conditions. The authors therefore investigated the independent contribution of limited literacy on visual impairment and visual function in a large eye survey in Singapore. The authors undertook a population-based, cross-sectional study of Asian Malays (≥ 40 years old). Visual impairment was defined as logMAR (logarithm of minimal angle of resolution) visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. Information regarding reading and writing literacy levels and other independent variables, including sociodemographic measures (e.g., education, income), were obtained from a standardized interview. Visual functioning was assessed using a modified and validated version of the Vision-Specific Functioning Scale using Rasch analysis. Of the 3280 participants, 553 (16.9%) had inadequate reading literacy and 688 (21.0%) had inadequate writing literacy. In multivariate analysis, persons with inadequate reading literacy were more likely to have presenting visual impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.91 to 3.72; P writing literacy. Inadequate literacy is independently associated with visual impairment and poorer visual functioning. Interventions that address literacy may help to reduce socioeconomic disparities in visual impairment.

  10. Quality of life in patients with visual impairment in Ibadan: a clinical study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigun K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kehinde Adigun,1 Tunji S Oluleye,2 Modupe MA Ladipo,1 Samuel Anu Olowookere31Department of Family Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan; 3Department of Community Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaBackground: Visual function is important for optimal orientation in functional and social life, and has an effect on physical and emotional well-being. Visual impairment, therefore, leads to restrictions in all aspects of daily living and is related to quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide information on the causes of visual impairment in patients presenting to their family physician, the spectrum of impairment, and its impact on quality of life for these patients.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 375 adult patients with ocular symptoms was performed in the general outpatient department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, from July to September, 2009. After checking their presenting visual acuity, the patients were interviewed using the Vision-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to determine the impact of visual impairment on their quality of life. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to determine the causes of visual impairment. The results were analyzed using proportions and percentages.Results: The main causes of visual impairment were cataracts (58.7%, refractive error (19.4%, and glaucoma (2.9%. Visual impairment was found to be associated with advancing age, low education, and unemployment (P<0.001. Most patients (85.1% were found to have good quality of life overall. Quality of life was found to be poor in the domains of visual function (64.2% and social interaction (50.9%. Quality of life was found to be related to the degree of visual impairment, ie, blind patients reported poor quality of life (41.4% when compared with those having low vision (8.6% or near normal vision (2.4%, P<0.001.Conclusion: This study

  11. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  12. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  13. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Overvelde, A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean

  14. Psychological Handicap or the Difficulty of the Social Integration of the Highly Visually-impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Berenreiter, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to describe an area of the social integration of visual impaired and blind people in the intact society. It investigates some of areas of life of people with visual disability, acceptance of them in intact society and creation of the positions to people with visual handicap. The first part brings the characterization of the personality of people with visual handicap, their adult age, parenhood and and problems of their employment. The second part deals with anat...

  15. Social Determinants and Their Impact on Visual Impairment in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jimenez-Corona, Maria E; Ponce-de-Leon, Samuel; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mariela; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment in disadvantaged populations in Mexico has been scarcely reported. We compared the prevalence of visual impairment and its associated risk factors in populations in rural compared to urban areas of the Mexican southern state of Chiapas. In a population-based study, the prevalence of visual impairment in rural and urban areas of Comitan, Chiapas, was estimated. All eligible individuals aged ≥20 years living in rural areas were invited to participate; persons from urban areas were chosen randomly. Individuals were considered of indigenous (IND) origin either by self-report or if they spoke an IND language. Visual acuity (VA) and pinhole VA were measured using a tumbling E chart. VA was defined as normal (better than or equal to 20/60), moderate impairment (worse than 20/60 but better than or equal to 20/200), severe impairment (worse than 20/200 but better than or equal to 20/400), or blindness (worse than 20/400). Data on VA were obtained from 969 persons (610 rural, 359 urban) whose mean age was 43.3 years (standard deviation 15.6 years). Prevalence of moderate visual impairment was higher in rural (10.2%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 7.2-14.2%) than urban (3.9%, 95% CI 1.9-7.9%) areas (p visual impairment were older and less educated (both p visual impairment compared with urban persons. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions were associated with higher prevalence of moderate visual impairment in rural compared with urban populations in Mexico.

  16. Reduced health-related quality of life among Japanese college students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Iguchi

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown detrimental effects of visual impairment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), they were primarily conducted on elderly individuals with visual impairment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if HRQOL is impaired in young college students with visual impairment and to explore the relationships between HRQOL and other factors. It was hypothesized that visual impairment is not influential enough to lower the HRQOL of young people due to their better physical fitness and more flexible mentality. A total of 21 college students (mean age = 25 years old) with varying degrees of visual impairment completed the short form (SF)-36 health survey and questionnaires on daily physical activities. Subjects were grouped depending on the type of visual impairment: blind (n = 11) or severely impaired (n = 10). In addition, grip strength and single-leg standing balance were assessed. No between-group differences were found in the SF-36 scores. However, compared to the general Japanese standards (50.0 ± 10.0), the Vitality scores of the blind group were lower (41.9 ± 7.2, p = 0.004) and the Physical Function scores of the severely impaired group were higher (55.3 ± 2.4, p = 0.001). In addition, a negative correlation was found between standing balance (variability of foot center of pressure) and the Physical Component Summary score of the SF-36 (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that even among young people severe visual impairment leads to reductions in some components of HRQOL.

  17. Assessment of visual evoked potentials in stable COPD patients with no visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess whether patients having stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with no clinical evidence of visual impairment or peripheral neuropathy have visual evoked potentials (VEP abnormalities on electrophysiologic evaluation. Methods : In the present study, 80 male subjects with no clinical neuropathy or visual impairment were included; 40 COPD patients and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. The characteristics of subjects including age, quantum of smoking, duration of illness (in COPD patients only, and spirometric indices {forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 , FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (FVC %, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR} were assessed. The mental status was assessed using a questionnaire Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE Questionnaire. Electrophysiologic studies for the evaluation of VEP were carried out on computerized equipment. Latency and amplitude of P100 wave were analyzed from the VEP wave patterns obtained through a standardized protocol in both the groups to detect abnormalities in the COPD group. For the COPD group, correlations of P100 parameters with patient characteristics, spirometric indices, and MMSE scores were assessed. Significant abnormality was defined as a variation beyond healthy volunteer mean ΁ 3 standard deviation. Results : We observed significantly prolonged latency and decreased amplitude of P100 in both eyes of the patients in COPD group compared with healthy volunteers. Twenty-two of the 40 COPD patients (55% had significant abnormalities in P100 latency, and three COPD patients (7.5% had abnormalities in P100 amplitude. The latency of P100 on the right side had statistically significant inverse correlation with FEV 1 /FVC% and MMSE score. Conclusions : Twenty-three of the 40 stable COPD patients (compared with healthy volunteers were observed to have significant VEP abnormality detected on electrophysiologic evaluation: 21/40 having prolonged P100 latency and

  18. Social interaction of children with visual impairment: Risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction affects emotional, cognitive and other aspects of child development. Visual analyzer plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the effects of visual impairment and other risk and protective factors on social interaction and related aspects of psychological life in visually impaired and low vision children. Most of the analyzed studies point out visual impairment as a factor which has a negative influence on social development. Together with other negative environmental factors, visual impairment often has a negative influence on social interaction, which is an important factor of development and functioning in other areas. Thus, motor abilities, physical fitness, self-concept, and emotional development are closely related to a child's activity and participation in play activities, which may be hindered by visual impairment and the quality of communication with peers and important adults. Children with visual impairment less frequently initiate and have difficulties in maintaining social interaction. They have fewer friends, which often leads to emotional and behavioral problems. They are not accepted by peers in inclusive classrooms. Sociometric assessments indicate that they are more often in unpopular groups and have fewer opportunities to socialize with visually impaired peers. Therefore, it is important to timely recognize these children's needs and provide professional support and help for them and important people from their environment. This means providing conditions and activities which enable visually impaired children to fulfill their aims and needs in social interaction, and recognize the needs of others, i.e. develop social skills and at the same time allow their peers to get to know them and accept them better.

  19. Use of eye care services and need for assistance in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Arja; Koskinen, Seppo; Rudanko, Sirkka-Liisa; Martelin, Tuija; Laatikainen, Leila; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-05-01

    To assess the use of eye care services and unmet need for assistance in visually impaired people. Cross-sectional population-based survey on a sample representing the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Of the 7979 eligible people, 6645 (83.3%) were both interviewed and had their distance visual acuity (VA) assessed. One hundred forty-seven people were classified as visually impaired (VA visually impaired people had had a recent vision examination and 79% had received some vision rehabilitation services, mainly in form of spectacles (70%). Only one third (31%) had received formal low vision rehabilitation. People with moderate visual impairment (VA 0.1 to 0.25) were less likely to have received low vision rehabilitation, magnifying glasses, or other low vision aids compared with people with severe low vision (VA visually impaired people living in the community, 71% reported need for assistance and 24% of them had unmet need for assistance in everyday activities. Although need for assistance was more common in people with severe low vision (83% vs. 67%, p = 0.09), unmet need for assistance seemed to be more common in people with moderate low vision (20% vs. 9%, p = 0.23). Many visually impaired people, older persons in particular, have not had a recent vision examination and lack adequate low vision rehabilitation. This highlights the need for regular evaluation of vision function in elderly people and for actively supplying information about rehabilitation services.

  20. Visual impairment and multimorbidity in a representative sample of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Lara, Elvira; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-08

    In the context of population aging, visual impairment has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, there is a need for further research into the relationship between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between visual impairment and three main types of co-morbidity: chronic physical conditions (both at an independent and additive level), mental health and cognitive functioning. Data were collected from the COURAGE in Europe project, a cross-sectional study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included. Diagnosis of chronic medical conditions included self-reported medical diagnosis and symptomatic algorithms. Depression and anxiety were assessed using CIDI algorithms. Visual assessment included objective distance/near visual acuity and subjective visual performance. Descriptive analyses included the whole sample (n = 4,583). Statistical analyses included participants aged over 50 years (n = 3,625; mean age = 66.45 years) since they have a significant prevalence of chronic conditions and visual impairment. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify independent associations between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions, physical multimorbidity and mental conditions. Covariates included age, gender, marital status, education level, employment status and urbanicity. The number of chronic physical conditions was found to be associated with poorer results in both distance and near visual acuity [OR 1.75 (CI 1.38-2.23); OR 1.69 (CI 1.27-2.24)]. At an independent level, arthritis, stroke and diabetes were associated with poorer distance visual acuity results after adjusting for covariates [OR 1.79 (CI 1.46-2.21); OR 1.59 (CI 1.05-2.42); OR 1.27 (1.01-1.60)]. Only stroke was associated with near visual impairment [OR 3.01 (CI 1.86-4.87)]. With regard to mental health, poor subjective visual acuity was associated with depression

  1. The spectrum of cerebral visual impairment as a sequel to premature birth: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gordon N

    2013-08-01

    In children born prematurely, impairment of vision due to damage to the brain is more common than due to retinopathy of prematurity. Yet, the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment may be missed. The subject of cerebral visual impairment in children is reviewed in order to explain and draw attention to the types of visual deficits and behaviours that may result as a sequel to premature birth. A wide range of sources of data has been employed to assemble this overview. The principal reference source is PubMed. The material presented highlights the origin and range of visual deficits that result from damage to the brain, related to premature birth. Deficits of primary visual functions, perceptual dysfunction, simultanagnostic visual disorders and impaired visual guidance of movement (optic ataxia), as well as disorders of visual attention and memory, can occur in a variety of combinations and degrees. The resulting behavioural outcomes are described. Identification and characterisation of impaired vision, due to prematurity associated damage to the brain, are essential. This is required so as to ensure that affected children are not inappropriately disadvantaged on account of the diagnosis being missed or inadequately acted upon, but instead, they are managed optimally, both at home and at school, so that their development is enhanced to the greatest advantage.

  2. Strategies dealing with difficult situations by people with the severe visual handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is focused on coping strategies of stressful situations in the lives of people with profound visual impairment. The theoretical part of this work describes visual impairment and deals with psychical development of a visually disabled child, functions of compensatory mechanisms and socialisation of a visually impaired person. Furthermore it focuses on how visual impairment is experienced by a child and his family and by an adult person. The empirical part describes the p...

  3. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: a review of social determinants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    .... The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness...

  4. Language therapy space teaching English as a foreign language to the visually impaired

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszynska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The author describes the psycho-linguistic therapy «touching the World» for the visually impaired and explores language as a therapeutic tool with great possibilities for a teaching-learning process.

  5. Visual impairment registry of patients from North Kolkata, Eastern India: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Bandyopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Commonest cause of visual impairment was optic atrophy followed by microphthalmos. Under-registration is a prevalent problem as the registration system is voluntary rather than mandatory, and female patients are more likely to be unregistered in this area.

  6. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mualla Hamurcu; Koray Kara; Mehmet Ayhan Congologlu; Ufuk Hamurcu; Mahmoud Almbaidheen; Ayse Turan; Dursun Karaman

    Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health...

  7. Methods and Techniques for the Access of Persons With Visual Impairments to Handbooks and Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian PADURE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of learning materials in an accessible format for blind students allows them to access texts and graphics. This access was not possible before considering the past technologies. The Daisy format represents an accessibility standard that permits the visually impaired person to listen an audio book as a person without disability. In this way, the visually impaired person can listen the audio book according to its content and/or pages. The usage of this format enables to develop new approaches in the process of teaching and learning, not only for visually impaired students but also for visually impaired teachers. The Daisy format proved to be efficient in the educational area also for children with learning difficulties. Studies concerned with efficiency of Daisy book.

  8. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. I. Razumovsky; O. E. Kolyuka; A. M. Razumovskaya

    2014-01-01

    ... (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1») were performed. Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired...

  9. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  10. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations...

  11. Blind's Eye: Employing Google Directions API for Outdoor Navigation of Visually Impaired Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABA FEROZMEMON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.

  12. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

  13. Personality Assessment of Early Visually Impaired Persons Using the CPI and the MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Robert J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Variant California Pyschological Inventory and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale scores may not necessarily reflect psychopathology, but rather may be indicative of the unique adaptive processes of persons who experienced early visual impairment. (Author)

  14. Assisting the visually impaired: obstacle detection and warning system by acoustic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alberto; Yebes, J Javier; Alcantarilla, Pablo F; Bergasa, Luis M; Almazán, Javier; Cela, Andrés

    2012-12-17

    The aim of this article is focused on the design of an obstacle detection system for assisting visually impaired people. A dense disparity map is computed from the images of a stereo camera carried by the user. By using the dense disparity map, potential obstacles can be detected in 3D in indoor and outdoor scenarios. A ground plane estimation algorithm based on RANSAC plus filtering techniques allows the robust detection of the ground in every frame. A polar grid representation is proposed to account for the potential obstacles in the scene. The design is completed with acoustic feedback to assist visually impaired users while approaching obstacles. Beep sounds with different frequencies and repetitions inform the user about the presence of obstacles. Audio bone conducting technology is employed to play these sounds without interrupting the visually impaired user from hearing other important sounds from its local environment. A user study participated by four visually impaired volunteers supports the proposed system.

  15. Assisting the Visually Impaired: Obstacle Detection and Warning System by Acoustic Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is focused on the design of an obstacle detection system for assisting visually impaired people. A dense disparity map is computed from the images of a stereo camera carried by the user. By using the dense disparity map, potential obstacles can be detected in 3D in indoor and outdoor scenarios. A ground plane estimation algorithm based on RANSAC plus filtering techniques allows the robust detection of the ground in every frame. A polar grid representation is proposed to account for the potential obstacles in the scene. The design is completed with acoustic feedback to assist visually impaired users while approaching obstacles. Beep sounds with different frequencies and repetitions inform the user about the presence of obstacles. Audio bone conducting technology is employed to play these sounds without interrupting the visually impaired user from hearing other important sounds from its local environment. A user study participated by four visually impaired volunteers supports the proposed system.

  16. Risk behaviors and sexual abuse among men and woman with visual or hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Susana Robles Montijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.

  17. Visual Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Gozke

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Visual ERP can be used to support MCI diagnosis. Although it is not a diagnostic test for cognitive impairment per se, it is an important, feasible, and noninvasive technique for evaluating the cognitive state.

  18. Screening methods for post-stroke visual impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kerry Louise; Hepworth, Lauren Rachel; Rowe, Fiona

    2017-12-01

    To provide a systematic overview of the various tools available to screen for post-stroke visual impairment. A review of the literature was conducted including randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, systematic reviews and retrospective medical note reviews. All languages were included and translation was obtained. Participants included adults ≥18 years old diagnosed with a visual impairment as a direct cause of a stroke. We searched a broad range of scholarly online resources and hand-searched articles registers of published, unpublished and on-going trials. Search terms included a variety of MESH terms and alternatives in relation to stroke and visual conditions. Study selection was performed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the STROBE, GRACE and PRISMA statements. A total of 25 articles (n = 2924) were included in this review. Articles appraised reported on tools screening solely for visual impairments or for general post-stroke disabilities inclusive of vision. The majority of identified tools screen for visual perception including visual neglect (VN), with few screening for visual acuity (VA), visual field (VF) loss or ocular motility (OM) defects. Six articles reported on nine screening tools which combined visual screening assessment alongside screening for general stroke disabilities. Of these, three included screening for VA; three screened for VF loss; three screened for OM defects and all screened for VN. Two tools screened for all visual impairments. A further 19 articles were found which reported on individual vision screening tests in stroke populations; two for VF loss; 11 for VN and six for other visual perceptual defects. Most tools cannot accurately account for those with aphasia or communicative deficits, which are common problems following a stroke. There is currently no standardised visual screening tool which can accurately

  19. Visual impairment and blindness in spanish adults: geographic inequalities are not explained by age or education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Artazcoz, Lucía; Guisasola, Laura; Benach, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine for the first time the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among adults in Spain, to explore regional differences, and to assess whether they may vary as a function of sex or be explained by age and individual or regional socioeconomic position. Data were obtained from the 2008 Spanish Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations, a cross-sectional survey based on a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Spain. The sample was composed of 213 626 participants aged ≥15 years (103 093 men and 110 533 women); 360 were blind (160 men and 200 women), 4048 had near visual impairment (1397 men and 2651 women), and 4034 had distance visual impairment (1445 men and 2589 women). The prevalence of near and distance visual impairment was calculated for each region. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were stratified by sex. Visual impairment was based on 3 questions aimed at identifying blindness and near and distance visual impairment. The prevalence (percentage) of blindness was 0.17 (men, 0.16; women, 0.18): 1.89 for near visual impairment (men, 1.36; women, 2.40), 1.89 for distance visual impairment (men, 1.40; women, 2.34), and 2.43 for any visual impairment (men, 1.81; women, 3.02). Regional inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment were observed, correlated with regional income, and the prevalence was consistently higher among women than men. The magnitude of the inequalities remained after adjusting for age and educational level, and a north-to-south pattern of increasing prevalence was observed. Regional and sex inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness were observed in Spain, with a north-to-south gradient of increasing prevalence that was not explained by age or individual educational level but was correlated with regional level of economic

  20. A strategy for equalising the educational opportunities for people with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. The aim of this study is to investigate and determine the effect of a strategy like the computer in the equalisation of the educational opportunities for people with visual impairment. Furthermore, the study seeks to establish the effect of computer usage in subjects considered inaccessible to people with visual impairment. The attitude and perception of the educator toward) both the learner and the role the assistive device plays in the education situation will be examined. The perc...