WorldWideScience

Sample records for profound socioeconomic impact

  1. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  2. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  3. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  4. The health impacts of women's low control in their living environment: A theory-based systematic review of observational studies in societies with profound gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Andy; Orton, Lois; Nayak, Shilpa; Ring, Adele; Petticrew, Mark; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review of observational evidence on the health impacts of women's low control/autonomy in the living environment in societies with profound gender discrimination and gender bias. Thirty observational studies of varying methodological quality were included. Overall, the evidence suggests that women's lower control or autonomy (for example lack of freedom of movement outside the home, lack of authority to access healthcare for sick children) was associated with poorer mental and physical health for women and higher morbidity and mortality for their children, after adjusting for their socioeconomic circumstances. Further studies are needed to disentangle and understand the pathways between low control and health outcomes in contexts of profound gender discrimination. This systematic review has highlighted the general low quality of the evidence base on this research question. It identifies the pressing need for high quality, longitudinal studies in the future. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  6. Socioeconomic impacts: nuclear power station siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The rural industrial development literature is used to gain insights on the socioeconomic effects of nuclear power stations. Previous studies of large industrial facilities in small towns have important implications for attempts to understand and anticipate the impacts of nuclear stations. Even a cursory review of the nuclear development literature, however, reveals that industrialization research in rural sociology, economic geography and agricultural economics has been largely ignored

  7. Environmentally profound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rushu [China Yangzte Three Gorges Project Development Corp., Yichang Hubei (China)

    1999-09-01

    The Three Gorges dam project on the Yangtze river will have a profound effect on the people, the environment and cultural heritage sites. The dam will be the world's biggest and will provide almost 85 BkWh of hydro power per annum. A noticeable benefit will be a greatly reduced incidence of flooding in the Jingjiang reaches of the river. Additional benefits will be improved local navigation, climate and enhanced water quality. The main unwelcome impacts were loss of farmland and resettlement of people but here the government have been particularly careful to provide the relocated people with a reasonable standard of new accommodation and farmland. The loss of natural vegetation will be small but there are endangered species of birds and animals living in the region. A number of negative environmental affects (dust noise, incidence of certain diseases) and how they are to be mitigated are mentioned. (UK)

  8. Impact of socioeconomic factors on paediatric cochlear implant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shalabh; Bhatia, Khyati; Singh, Satinder; Lahiri, Asish Kumar; Aggarwal, Asha

    2017-11-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the impact of certain socioeconomic factors such as family income, level of parents' education, distance between the child's home and auditory verbal therapy clinic, and age of the child at implantation on postoperative cochlear implant outcomes. Children suffering from congenital bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and a chronologic age of 4 years or younger at the time of implantation were included in the study. Children who were able to complete a prescribed period of a 1-year follow-up were included in the study. These children underwent cochlear implantation surgery, and their postoperative outcomes were measured and documented using categories of auditory perception (CAP), meaningful auditory integration (MAIS), and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) scores. Children were divided into three groups based on the level of parental education, family income, and distance of their home from the rehabilitation-- auditory verbal therapy clinic. A total of 180 children were studied. The age at implantation had a significant impact on the postoperative outcomes, with an inverse correlation. The younger the child's age at the time of implantation, the better were the postoperative outcomes. However, there were no significant differences among the CAP, MAIS, and SIR scores and each of the three subgroups. Children from families with an annual income of less than $7,500, between $7,500 and $15,000, and more than $15,000 performed equally well, except for significantly higher SIR scores in children with family incomes more than $15,000. Children with of parents who had attended high school or possessed a bachelor's or Master's master's degree had similar scores, with no significant difference. Also, distance from the auditory verbal therapy clinic failed to have any significantimpact on a child's performance. These results have been variable, similar to those of previously published studies. A few of the earlier studies

  9. Strategies for successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts requires careful planning for project inception through project completion. Although mitigation of socioeconomic impacts imposes additional responsibilities on project sponsors, benefits derived through increased productivity of the work force can offset costs involved. Cost effective impact mitigation plans can be developed which are flexible to respond to changing circumstances and which focus on prevention of adverse effects. Mitigation plans must, by necessity, begin with proper project planning. Project location and the schedule for various construction activities can have significant effect on impacts. Particular attention should be given to labor requirements, contracting procedures and hiring practices. The effects of layoffs at project completion should also be considered. Accurate forecasts of revenues available to local governments are essential to the development of fair mitigation programs. Increased revenues created as a result of proposed projects should be the basis for mitigation planning. Housing and worker transportation issues should be considered jointly. Depending upon the proximity of a proposed site to different communities, impacts can be radically different given different housing and transportation plans. Housing requirements should be considered by type and location. Per diem and other allowances can be utilized to influence the housing choices made by workers

  10. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  11. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  12. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Socioeconomic impact of ankylosing spondylitis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Jalled, Anis; Aydi, Zohra; Zrour, Saoussen; Korbaa, Wided; Ben Salah, Zohra; Letaief, Mondher; Bejia, Ismail; Touzi, Mongi; Bergaoui, Naceur

    2010-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease after rheumatoid arthritis and causes substantial functional impairment, two features that generate a heavy socioeconomic burden. Here, our objective was to assess the socioeconomic impact of AS and to identify factors associated with higher costs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 50 patients with AS seen at the Monastir Public Health Service Hospital over the 6-month period from March to September 2006. The following were evaluated: direct costs of medical care; indirect costs related to work incapacity; and impact on marital life, offspring, social activities, and activities of daily living. There were 42 men and eight women (male-to-female ratio, 5.25) with a mean age of 38.9+/-10.8 years (range, 19-60 years). The median mean direct cost of medical care for AS was 426.072 Tunisian Dinars (TND) (266.295 euro) per year, and the interquartile range (IQR) was 270.468 TND. Of the 34 patients who had paid employment, 12 (35%) were on sick leave. The mean indirect cost was 447.4+/-294.3 TND (279.625+/-183.937 euro) per patient per year. The median mean total cost was 873.472 TND (545,92 euro) per patient per year with an IQR of 292,324 TND. Factors associated with higher costs were the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and higher values of the BASDAI and BASRI. Among married patients, 44.4% reported sexual problems, which correlated with the BASMI; and 37% reported a negative reaction on the part of the healthy spouse. Adverse effects on schooling and quality of life of the children were noted in 29.6% of cases. Among single patients, 30.4% felt their disease was responsible for their unmarried status. The disease adversely affected the ability to carry out many activities of daily living (grooming in 38% of cases, housework in 76%, shopping in 92%, sporting activities in 96%, socializing in 68%, and traveling in 80%). The patients usually reported

  14. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be

  15. Socio-Economic Impact Of Onchocerciasis With Particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic impact of onchocerciasis (river blindness) on humans is reviewed with special reference to females and children. The results of many studies reveal that onchocerciasis is usuallya serious threat to public health and an impediment to socio-economic development in areas wth high intensity and high ...

  16. Socioeconomic and psychological impact of treatment for unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S E; Dimaras, H; Souka, A A; Ashry, M H; Gallie, B L

    2015-06-01

    To identify the socioeconomic and psychosocial impacts of clinical treatment decisions for advanced unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective observational case series. institutional study at Alexandria Main University Hospital. records of 66 unilateral retinoblastoma cases treated from May 2005 to May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty cases were eligible (International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification [IIRC] group C, D or E). two treatment groups were compared: enucleation vs. salvage treatment. Salvage treatment eyes were further subdivided based on IIRC group. Six socioeconomic parameters (financial burden, financial impact, psychological, social, medical and tumor impacts) were scored. Parameter scores ranged from 0 to 3, for overall score range 0 (no adverse impact) to 18 (severe adverse impact). derived Socioeconomic scores were correlated with treatment and outcomes. The enucleation group (28 eyes) had a median overall Socioeconomic score of 4/18, significantly lower than the salvage treatment group (32 eyes), median score 11/18 (PSocioeconomic score varied with IIRC group. Attempted eye salvage failed in 25 children, due to uncontrolled tumor (44%) and socioeconomic impact of cumulative therapies (56%). Treatment duration and Socioeconomic score were higher for the 5 children in the salvage treatment group who developed metastatic disease compared to those without metastasis (Psocioeconomic and psychosocial impacts of attempted ocular salvage for unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma are severe, in comparison to primary enucleation. Primary enucleation is a good treatment for unilateral retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. 7. The Socio-Economic Impact of Stroke on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    2University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Lusaka. *Corresponding ... Key words: Stroke, household, socio-economic, impact,. Livingstone ..... breakdowns resulting in delinquency, reduced. 21 family ties ...

  18. Socioeconomic Impacts of Protection Status on Residents of National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järv Henri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural population ageing and decline is a serious problem throughout Europe resulting in a deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in rural areas. This leads to land abandonment, and consequently the loss of valuable cultural landscapes. Protected areas are no exception and inhabitants also face restrictions arising from the protection status. The aim of this study is to identify the existence, extent and nature of the socioeconomic impacts derived from the protection status on the local population. Population and socioeconomic indicators were compared with the results of in-depth interviews with local stakeholders within 2 Estonian national parks and contextualised with recent social change. It was concluded that protected areas have a considerable socioeconomic impact and in order to preserve cultural landscapes, achieve conservation objectives and contribute to balanced regional development, measures must be taken.

  19. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Grotkjær, Thomas; Winther, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation time...

  20. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheelhaase, Janina D.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Health Information Technology Systems profoundly impact users: a case study in a dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather K; Stewart, Denice C L; Ash, Joan S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) on dental school users when the systems are integrated into chair-side patient care. We used qualitative research methods, including interviews, focus groups, and observations, to capture the experiences of HITS users at a single institution. Users included administrators, clinical faculty members, predoctoral students, support staff, and residents. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, and nine themes emerged: 1) HITS benefits were disproportionate among users; 2) communicating about the HITS was challenging; 3) users experienced a range of strong emotions; 4) the instructor persona diminished; 5) there were shifts in the school's power structure; 6) allocation of end-users' time shifted; 7) the training and support needs of end-users were significant; 8) perceived lack of HITS usability made documentation cumbersome for clinicians; and 9) clinicians' workflow was disrupted. HITS integration into patient care impacts the work of all system users, especially end-users. The themes highlight areas of potential concern for implementers and users in integrating a HITS into patient care.

  2. Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgis Osman-Elasha; Neil Adger; Maria Brockhaus; Carol J. Pierce Colfer; Brent Sohngen; Tallaat Dafalla; Linda A. Joyce; Nkem Johnson; Carmenza Robledo

    2009-01-01

    The projected impacts of climate change are significant, and despite the uncertainties associated with current climate and ecosystem model projections, the associated changes in the provision of forest ecosystem services are expected to be substantial in many parts of the world. These impacts will present significant social and economic challenges for affected...

  3. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  4. Socioeconomic impact assessment in a complex economic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation was to have been given in coordination with several others which shared, as a common focus, the analysis of potential socioeconomic impacts of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at the Hanford Site, Washington. In December of 1987, Congress removed the Hanford Site from consideration as a repository location and, effectively and immediately, terminated the socioeconomic study. The immediate drawback to all of this is that this paper cannot be presented in the context created by the other papers as intended. This paper presents one important aspect of the difficulties associated with long-term socioeconomic impact projections at the Hanford Site, and has a narrower focus than otherwise would have been the case

  5. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz

    2013-01-01

    The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…

  6. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow APAIR to assess the socioeconomic impact of avian ... control measure to mitigate the negative effects of avian influenza and its control on ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  7. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of socioeconomic factors on outcome of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Robert L; Ruh, Erin L; Chen, Jiajing; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J; Hamilton, William G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the impact of socioeconomic factors on results of current TKA in young patients. Predictors of TKA outcomes have focused primarily on surgical technique, implant details, and individual patient clinical factors. The relative importance of these factors compared to patient socioeconomic status is not known. We determined whether (1) socioeconomic factors, (2) demographic factors, or (3) implant factors were associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes after TKA in young patients. We surveyed 661 patients (average age, 54 years; range, 18-60 years; 61% female) 1 to 4 years after undergoing modern primary TKA for noninflammatory arthritis at five orthopaedic centers. Data were collected by an independent third party with expertise in collecting healthcare data for state and federal agencies. We examined specific questions regarding satisfaction, pain, and function after TKA and socioeconomic (household income, education, employment) and demographic (sex, minority status) factors. Multivariable analysis was conducted to examine the relative importance of these factors for each outcome of interest. Patients reporting incomes of less than USD 25,000 were less likely to be satisfied with TKA outcomes and more likely to have functional limitations after TKA than patients with higher incomes; no other socioeconomic factors were associated with satisfaction. Women were less likely to be satisfied and more likely to have functional limitations than men, and minority patients were more likely to have functional limitations than nonminority patients. Implants were not associated with outcomes after surgery. Socioeconomic factors, in particular low income, are more strongly associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes in young patients after TKA than demographic or implant factors. Future studies should be directed to determining the causes of this association, and studies of clinical results after TKA should consider stratifying patients

  9. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; Klaassen, M.G.; Nierop, T.; Van der Wusten, H.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  10. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, M.L.; Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  12. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  13. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Economic Impact of Childhood Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaver, Lucy A; Kester, Kristen M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2016-05-01

    We compared direct medical costs borne by the health care system and out-of-pocket costs borne by families for children with food allergy by socioeconomic characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected between November 2011 and January 2012 from 1643 US caregivers with a food-allergic child. We used a 2-part regression model to estimate mean costs and identified differences by levels of household income and race or ethnicity. Children in the lowest income stratum incurred 2.5 times the amount of emergency department and hospitalization costs as a result of their food allergy than higher-income children ($1021, SE ±$209, vs $416, SE ±$94; P impact of food allergy based on socioeconomic status. Affordable access to specialty care, medications, and allergen-free foods are critical to keep all food-allergic children safe, regardless of income and race. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Socio-economic impact of nuclear reactor decommissioning at Vandellos I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliana Yetta Pandi

    2013-01-01

    Currently nuclear reactors in Indonesia has been outstanding for more than 30 years, the possibility of nuclear reactors will be decommissioned. Closure of the operation or decommissioning of nuclear reactors will have socio-economic impacts. The socioeconomic impacts occur to workers, local communities and wider society. In this paper we report on socio-economic impacts of nuclear reactors decommissioning and lesson learned that can be drawn from the socio-economic impacts decommissioning Vandellos I nuclear power plant in Spain. Socio-economic impact due to decommissioning of nuclear reactor occurs at installation worker, local community and wider community. (author)

  16. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant status and related socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.C.; Adcock, L.D.; Hohmann, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations

  18. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  19. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  20. Power station impacts: socio-economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, John; Elson, Martin; Barrett, Brendan; Wee, D. Van der

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the local social and economic impacts of a proposed nuclear power station development at Hinkley Point in Somerset. The proposed development, Hinkley Point C, would be an addition to the existing Hinkley Point A Magnox station, commissioned in 1965, and the Hinkley Point B Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) station, commissioned in 1976. It is hoped that the study will be of assistance to the CEGB, the Somerset County and District Councils and other agencies in their studies of the proposed development. In addition, the study seeks to apply and further develop the methodology and results from previous studies by the Power Station Impacts (PSI) team for predicting the social and economic effects of proposed power station developments on their localities. (author)

  1. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  2. Climate Change and Bangladesh: Geographical and Socio-economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Jahan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, the effects of greenhouse effect and global warming, is out to alter the global map with its devouring prospects of sending a number of countries under the waves. Unfortunately yet unavoidably, Bangladesh stands at the forefront of climate forays. Its land, water and weather are being severely affected by undesirable climatic changes. Alarmingly, the dangers are to be intensified unless the trend is reversed. However, local initiative will hardly be enough to offset the grave concerns of unintended climatic changes in Bangladesh. The changes will also impact the socio-economic conditions of the country, putting the future of the nation on the line. Some ominous signs are already there for the concerned to respond with required amount of fervour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10439 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 113-132

  3. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of landslides in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Robert L.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of improvements in recognition, prediction, mitigative measures, and warning systems, economic losses and casualties due to landslides in the Western Hemisphere appear to be growing as a result of increasing development of landslide-prone areas due to population pressures. This paper notes outstanding examples of socioeconomic losses in the Americas. Landslides impact the following elements of the natural environment: (1) the topography/morphology of both the subaerial and submarine surfaces of the Earth, (2) rivers, streams, forests, and grasslands, and (3) habitats of native fauna, both on the Earth?s surface and in its streams and oceans. Environmental disturbances are results of general tendency toward degradation of the Earth?s surface by gravitational mass wasting and erosion.

  4. Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

  5. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  6. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  7. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income, physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites, human (e.g., education, and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism

  8. [Multiple sclerosis: socioeconomic effects and impact on quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Guillermo Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects young adults. Survival is long, more than 35 years, and consequently the disease has a huge socioeconomic impact. The present article discusses the enormous difficulties of carrying out economic assessments in this field but also describes the advances made in research on this topic and the advantages of performing socioeconomic evaluations with increasingly sophisticated tools. We also discuss the need to quantify indirect and intangible costs to translate them into quality of life and subsequently into economic cost, expressed in euros in the case of Spain. The available data indicate that the enormous cost of the disease (1200 million euros per year) is due more to disability-related expenditure than to treatment, which-although expensive-does not represent more than 16-18% of the total expenditure (approximately 200 million euros per year). The increase represented by the cost of MS is not based on higher treatment expenditure but on an increase in the incidence and-especially-the prevalence of the disease. Above all, in the last few years, there has been a considerable rise in the percentage of patients with an indication for treatment. Reflection is therefore needed on the use of drug therapy in MS, since a saving in the most effective products seems to increase the overall cost of MS, while expenditure on these drugs represents a saving in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  10. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchulik, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B.G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-10-01

    Schuchuli, a small remote village on the Papago Indian Reservation in southwest Arizona, is 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the nearest available utility power. In some respects, Schuchuli resembles many of the rural villages in other parts of the world. For example, it's relatively small in size (about 60 residents), composed of a number of extended family groupings, and remotely situated relative to major population centers (190 km, or 120 miles, from Tucson). Its lack of conventional power is due to the prohibitive cost of supplying a small electrical load with a long-distance distribution line. Furthermore, alternate energy sources are expensive and place a burden on the resources of the villagers. On December 16, 1978, as part of a federally funded project, a solar cell power system was put into operation at Schuchuli. The system powers the village water pump, lighting for homes ad other village buildings, family refrigerators and a communal washing machine and sewing machine. The project, managed for the US Department of Energy by the NASA Lewis Research Center, provided for a one-year socio-economic study to assess the impact of a relatively small amount of electricity on the basic living environment of the villagers. The results of that study are presented, including village history, group life, energy use in general and the use of the photovoltaic-powered appliances. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  11. Relationship Between Climate Change Impact, Migration and Socioeconomic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann Oo, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data are available in raster and vector formats and some of them are available in open data form. The technique and tools to handle those data are also available in open source. Though it is free of charge, the knowledge to utilize those data is limited to non-educated in the specific field. The data and technology should be promoted to those levels to utilize in required fields with priceless in developing countries. Before utilize open data, which are required to verify with local knowledge to become usable information for the local people as priceless data resources. Developing country, which economic is based in agriculture, required more information about precise weather data and weather variation by the climate change impact for their socioeconomic development. This study found that rural to urban migration occurs in the developing countries such agriculture based country likes Myanmar when the agriculture economic are affected by unpredictable impact by the climate change. The knowledge sharing using open data resources to non-educated local people is one of the curable solutions for the agriculture economy development in the country. Moreover, the study will find ways to reduce the rural to urban migration.

  12. Epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of seasonal affective disorder in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjrek, E; Baldinger-Melich, P; Spies, M; Papageorgiou, K; Kasper, S; Winkler, D

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder that is characterized by regular onset and remission of affective episodes at the same time of the year. The aim of the present study was to provide epidemiological data and data on the socioeconomic impact of SAD in the general population of Austria. We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview in 910 randomly selected subjects (577 females and 333 males) using the Seasonal Health Questionnaire (SHQ), the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Telephone numbers were randomly drawn from all Austrian telephone books and transformed using the random last digits method. The last birthday method was employed to choose the target person for the interviews. Out of our subjects, 2.5% fulfilled criteria for the seasonal pattern specifier according to DSM-5 and 2.4% (95% CI=1.4-3.5%) were diagnosed with SAD. When applying the ICD-10 criteria 1.9% (95% CI=0.9-2.8%) fulfilled SAD diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of fall-winter depression according to the Kasper-Rosenthal criteria was determined to be 3.5%. The criteria was fulfilled by 15.1% for subsyndromal SAD (s-SAD). We did not find any statistically significant gender differences in prevalence rates. When using the DSM-5 as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SAD, diagnosis derived from the SPAQ yielded a sensitivity of 31.8% and a specificity of 97.2%. Subjects with SAD had significantly higher scores on the SDS and higher rates of sick leave and days with reduced productivity than healthy subjects. Prevalence estimates for SAD with the SHQ are lower than with the SPAQ. Our data are indicative of the substantial burden of disease and the socioeconomic impact of SAD. This epidemiological data shows a lack of gender differences in SAD prevalence. The higher rates of females in clinical SAD samples might, at least in part, be explained by lower help seeking behaviour in

  13. Socio-economic impact of African swine fever outbreak of 2011 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With our findings we can conclude that ASF is still an important transboundary animal disease (TAD) with enormous socio-economic impact that requires concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the enforcement of control and preventive measures. Key words: African swine fever, socio-economic impact, seroprevalence, Isoka ...

  14. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Elementary Student Achievement in Rural South Texas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…

  15. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  17. Impact of socioeconomic status on survival of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yufu; Hu, Hanqing; Huang, Rui; Xie, Lei; Liu, Enrui; Chen, Ying-Gang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on the survival of various cancers, but it has not been fully understood in colorectal cancer (CRC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was adopted to detect the role of SES in the survival outcomes of CRC. A total of 184,322 eligible patients were included and SES status was analyzed. The multivariable analysis showed that Non-Hispanic Black (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24), being widowed (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), any Medicaid (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.33-1.39) and the lowest education level group patients had relative poorer prognosis. Besides, sex, tumor location, age, differentiation level and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage also had significant effects on overall survival of CRC. The individuals were further divided into five groups according to the number of survival-adverse factors. All of the four groups containing adverse factors showed impaired survival outcomes compared with the group containing no adverse factor.

  18. Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup | Hermann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... Literature on the impacts of mega events on tourism is available but limited in number in terms of the impacts of mega events on local residents. This study analyses the post ... Keywords: Mega events, economic impacts, social impacts, World Cup, local community.

  19. Scope and profoundness of environmental assessments. A study in the frame of environmental impact assessments. Strategic environmental assessment and FFH (fauna-flora-habitat) impact assessment under specific consideration of the conflict wind energy - bird protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    The legal background of environmental impact assessments and the principle regulations and guidelines for this assessment are shortly summarized. The following Issues are discussed in detail: fundamentals of environmental assessments, profoundness and scope in environmental assessments; the conflict wind energy parks and birds.

  20. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial.

  1. The impact of socio-economic factors on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of socio-economic factors on the performance of community ... the work ethic and the level of participation in rural development performance ... the factors responsible for the poor performance of community development projects.

  2. Socioeconomic impacts of outer continental shelf oil and gas development; a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Malka L.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography lists reports which are concerned primarily with the socioeconomic impacts of OCS oil and gas development or which, although not primarily concerned with such impacts, include sections that contain significant discussion of them. Several of the cited reports do not address socioeconomic issues directly, but have been included because of their value in providing a broad picture of OCS oil and gas development and the associated terminology and/or techical aspects. (Sinha - OEIS)

  3. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible

  4. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-te...

  5. Impact of socioeconomic conditions on perinatal mortality in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, S; Billoo, A G; Samad, N J

    2001-10-01

    To study and compare the perinatal mortality (PNM) in hospitals located in various socio-economic areas of Karachi. A prospective review of all births was done from May 1996 to April 1997. Precoded proformas were provided to each hospital and the birth and details of each mother and baby delivered recorded. All mothers and their newborn delivered during the time period mentioned. Comparison of PNM in hospitals located in various socio-economic areas of Karachi. A total of 4957 proformas were filled, 63.5% by doctors, 32% by LHVs, 2.9% by administrator and 2.3% by paramedics. Overall 92.3% mothers were housewives, less than 45% of the mothers received primary/secondary education; 42% mothers were of the age 21 to 25 years. More than 52.3% fathers were unskilled labourers. Only 27% mothers were booked while the rest were unbooked or came to deliver on walk in basis. Majority (62%) of the mothers had a > 37 week duration of pregnancy and 51% newborns were male and 49% female. Twenty three percent of the newborns weighed 2500 grams but less than 4500 grams; 24.5% newborns died on day one of birth. The PNM per 1000 births in the high, middle and low socioeconomic hospital was 16.4 +/- 23.6, 24.9 +/- 51.20 and 80.4 +/- 177.78 respectively. A statistical significance (p mother, hence the fetus.

  6. The socioeconomic impacts of high-level nuclear waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the U.S. These projects will significantly effect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts and the characteristics of mitigation programs necessary, if these impacts are to be addressed. Both standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that--like many other large-scale developments--repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities) and special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined

  7. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  8. Two oil spills: interrelatedness of socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1978-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the ''Saint Peter'' oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the ''Urquiola'' oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelatedness of socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  9. Two oil spills: interrelation between the socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1979-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the Saint Peter oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the Urquiola oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelation between socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  10. Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Mining inBotswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that there should be an independent medical health team to carry out health impact research, comprehensive socio-economic and environmental impact assessment of the mine, to initiate regular community and institutional consultations and set up an independent air quality ...

  11. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  12. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  13. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

  14. IMPACTS OF REMITTANCE ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.

  15. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchuli, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B. G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-01-01

    The social and economic impact of photovoltaic power on a small, remote native American village is studied. Village history, group life, energy use in general, and the use of photovoltaic-powered appliances are discussed. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  16. Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Critical review on the socio-economic impact of tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Hopkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no studies that determine the total burden that tendinopathy places on patients and society. A systematic search was conducted to understand the impact of tendinopathy. It demonstrated that the current prevalence is underestimated, particularly in active populations, such as athletes and workers. Search results demonstrate that due to the high prevalence, impact on patients' daily lives and the economic impact due to work-loss, treatments are significantly higher than currently observed. A well-accepted definition by medical professionals and the public will improve documentation and increase awareness, in order to better tackle the disease burden.

  18. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on rate and cause of death in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie Langan; McLean, Gary; Park, John; Martin, Daniel J; Connolly, Moira; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-09-12

    Socioeconomic status has important associations with disease-specific mortality in the general population. Although individuals with Severe Mental Illnesses (SMI) experience significant premature mortality, the relationship between socioeconomic status and mortality in this group remains under investigated. We aimed to assess the impact of socioeconomic status on rate and cause of death in individuals with SMI (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) relative to the local (Glasgow) and wider (Scottish) populations. Cause and age of death during 2006-2010 inclusive for individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder registered on the Glasgow Psychosis Clinical Information System (PsyCIS) were obtained by linkage to the Scottish General Register Office (GRO). Rate and cause of death by socioeconomic status, measured by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), were compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations. Death rates were higher in people with SMI across all socioeconomic quintiles compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations, and persisted when suicide was excluded. Differences were largest in the most deprived quintile (794.6 per 10,000 population vs. 274.7 and 252.4 for Glasgow and Scotland respectively). Cause of death varied by socioeconomic status. For those living in the most deprived quintile, higher drug-related deaths occurred in those with SMI compared to local Glasgow and wider Scottish population rates (12.3% vs. 5.9%, p = socioeconomic quintiles compared to the Glasgow and Scottish populations but was most marked in the most deprived quintiles when suicide was excluded as a cause of death. Further work assessing the impact of socioeconomic status on specific causes of premature mortality in SMI is needed.

  19. Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; King, J.C.; O'Connell, M.S.

    1975-07-01

    Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

  20. The Impact of Functional Literacy on Socio-Economic Lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Agona District of Ghana using an Interview Guide on the Impact of Functional. Literacy Programme on ... economic growth and the quality of formal education provided to their citizens (Thompson, 1981). ..... References. Abadze, H. (1994) Adult ...

  1. Assessing the Socioeconomic Impact of Transgenic Crops on Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South ... can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. ... Investigating the Social and Economic Impact of Public Access to Information and ...

  2. Analyzing socio-economic impacts of tourism : Case of Lumbini region- Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Shambhu; Gewali, Jhabindra

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this Thesis is to identify, select, and analyze the socio- economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. The second objective is to present the impacts in context of changing business environment. And the last objective is to develop strategies for economic progress in a society. In this research work previous reports, theses, literatures and reviews were studied to get an idea about the socio-economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. In addition,...

  3. The socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park / S. Oberholzer.

    OpenAIRE

    Oberholzer, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park. Secondly, to determine the relationship between the community's level of interest in the Tsitsikamma National Park (TNP) and their perceptions concerning the environmental, economic and social impacts of the TNP. By conducting a literature study, the first objective was achieved. The following tourism impacts were identified: environmental, economic and social. These...

  4. The impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding, subjective hearing performance, and tinnitus perception in patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Marino, Roberta; Acharya, Aanand; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise, subjective perception of hearing, and tinnitus perception of adult patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss and to investigate whether duration of deafness and age at implantation would influence the outcomes. In addition, this article describes the auditory training protocol used for unilaterally deaf patients. This is a prospective study of subjects undergoing cochlear implantation for unilateral deafness with or without associated tinnitus. Speech perception in noise was tested using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise test presented at 65 dB SPL. The Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate the subjective perception of hearing with a cochlear implant and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance was measured using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire. Data were collected before cochlear implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Twenty-eight postlingual unilaterally deaf adults with or without tinnitus were implanted. There was a significant improvement in speech perception in noise across time in all spatial configurations. There was an overall significant improvement on the subjective perception of hearing and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance reduced significantly across time. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not influence the outcomes significantly. Cochlear implantation provided significant improvement in speech understanding in challenging situations, subjective perception of hearing performance, and quality of life. Cochlear implantation also resulted in reduced tinnitus disturbance. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not seem to influence the outcomes.

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significantly degrade the quality, or significantly reduce the quantity, of water from major sources of offsite supplies presently suitable for human consumption or crop irrigation and such impacts cannot be compensated... affected area. (3) Need for repository-related purchase or acquisition of water rights, if such rights...

  6. Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Africa | Igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the arguments for and against the climate change phenomenon and attempted to weigh in with presentation of available evidence. It finally drew from literature and reviewed possible impacts of climate change in Africa. It concluded by calling for a wakening and preparedness by African governments ...

  7. Socioeconomic impact of children's burns-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Nadia; Dheansa, Baljit

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study aimed to gain empirical data on the social and economic impacts of child burns on children and parents, in the context of the outpatient setting. A questionnaire was completed by 52 parents of paediatric patients attending the burns outpatient department at Queen Victoria Hospital (QVH), East Grinstead, for at least the third time. Children's medical notes were used to extract demographic and medical data. Quantitative data was analyzed statistically and qualitative data was analyzed manually using content analysis. The financial burden related to the injury posed the greatest impact on parents, and was mainly associated with making the journey to the hospital, with lower income households being most affected. Self-employed parents and those who had to attend more than 6 hospital appointments also ran into difficulties. On the whole, there was not a considerable social impact on the burn-injured child, which may reflect the minor nature of burns in this study (mean depth partial thickness, median TBSA 1.0%). Parents were shown to perceive a greater impact from their child's burn injury than their child. Certain groups of parents were identified as requiring additional support following the burn injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Sport events and their socio-economic impact: residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport events have become big business as countries as well as cities are competing fi ercely to host major events. The purpose of this article is to determine the economic impact of visitor spending during the annual Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Direct spending was determined based on a survey consisting of 583 ...

  9. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Rapports. Social-economic impacts of HPAI outbreaks and control measures on small-scale and backyard poultry producers in Indonesia : final technical report ... Appel à propositions pour le concours de 2018 du Programme conjoint canado-israélien de recherche en santé. Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, ...

  10. Impact of County-Level Socioeconomic Status on Oropharyngeal Cancer Survival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2017-04-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of county-level socioeconomic status on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. Study Design Retrospective cohort study via a large population-based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 18,791 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012. Results Patients residing in counties with a low socioeconomic status index had worse overall survival (56.5% vs 63.0%, P socioeconomic status index. On multivariable analysis, residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P status, year of diagnosis, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage group, presence of distant metastasis, presence of unresectable tumor, histologic grade, surgical resection of primary site, treatment with neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Conclusion Residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index is associated with worse survival. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which socioeconomic status affects survival in oropharyngeal cancer.

  11. Socioeconomic impacts and management ciguatera in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R J

    1992-01-01

    The inshore fisheries resource is important to the health and culture of many of the inhabitants of Pacific Island countries (PIC). Ciguateric fishes (mainly demersal reef fishes) cause a range of distressing and often debilitating gastrointestinal neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Consequently, ciguatera limits the utilisation of this otherwise over-exploited resource. For many victims, the symptoms suffered during the chronic phase of ciguatera (lasting weeks, months and occasionally years) are exacerbated upon consumption of certain foods, particularly non-toxic fishes. After each outbreak, victims and members of their social-network experience a transient increase in perception of the risk of eating reef fish. The impact of ciguatera is greatest in atoll island countries where fish is the primary source of protein (it also has a major impact and to facilitate the management of ciguatera in PIC, regular information is required that quantifies: (i) the true incidence of ciguatera; (ii) the extent and way in which different communities avoid ciguatera; and (iii) the adverse impact ciguatera has on health, the workforce, trade and tourism. Over the last 15 years (based on SPEHIS data to 1990), some countries recorded a decrease in the ciguatera problem (New Caledonia, Marshall Is.), other countries an increase (Kirbati, Tuvalu, French Polynesia), while still other countries recorded an increase followed by a decrease in ciguatera (Tokelau, American Samoa, Western Samoa, Fiji and Vanuatu). There may also be seasonal trends in the incidence of ciguatera in some countries e.g. Fiji. Management options presently implementable in PIC include: (i) treatment with i.v. mannitol; (ii) provision of timely advise on the location and status of ciguatera "hot spots" in each country that would allow affected communities to react objectively to the risk posed by ciguatera; and (iii) modification of human behaviour and aspirations to reduce the impact of increasing

  12. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, M.; Chevalier, V.; Abdo-Salem, S.; Velthuis, A.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Thiry, E.; Roger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to

  13. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  14. Impact of Socio-Economic Status of Parents and Family Location on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of socio-economic status of parents and family location on truant behaviour of secondary school students in the North-West Senatorial District of Benue State. The survey design was used to carry out the study using a sample of 400 respondents selected from different schools within the ...

  15. Impact of socioeconomic position and distance on mental health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packness, Aake; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Christensen, René dePont

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) and distance to provider on outpatient mental health care utilization among incident users of antidepressants. Method: A nationwide register-based cohort study of 50,374 person-years. Results: Persons in low SEP were more likely...

  16. Efficiency in Vocational Rehabilitation Program Service Delivery: The Impact of Socioeconomic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Bryan O.; Burnett, Royce D.; Flowers, Carl R.; Akaaboune, Ouadie

    2017-01-01

    Background: State-federal (VR) program efficiency is the focus of empirical research because of increases in the magnitude and types of program requests, possibly funding cuts and class for models to more appropriately measure and evaluate performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact socioeconomic diversity has on…

  17. Impact of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, R.A.; Harrison, R.W.; Andrews, L.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of food products is one of several techniques that reduce the risk of food-borne illness. Despite its advantages, the technique has been used sparingly because consumers are wary about this technology. A logit model is used to evaluate the impacts of demographic factors on attitudes toward purchasing foods that have been irradiated and toward paying more for irradiated foods. An important finding of this study is that consumers who are familiar with irradiation are significantly more likely to buy and pay more for irradiated products than those who have never heard of irradiation. This implies that educational programs aimed at informing consumers about the benefits of irradiation can work

  18. Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, V.

    1993-01-01

    Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

  19. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  20. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  1. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  2. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  3. Sustainability and Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism Development in Jakobstad - Kalajoki

    OpenAIRE

    Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of s...

  4. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  5. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  6. Socioeconomic impact of urban redevelopment in inner city of Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BACHOUR Bachir; DONG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Since market-oriented economy reform, China has experienced significant changes in urban landscapes and the internal structure of cities. Housing marketization provides an opportunity for households to choose their residences. Hwever, not all households benefit equally from residential relocation. Residential relocation in urban China has relatively strong association with the household's position within the spectrum from state redistribution to market reward than with life cycles and consequent adjustment of housing demand, which are the primary reasons for residential mobility in a mature market. In this research we focused on social aspects, mainly relating to the impact of urban redevelopment in inner city of Ningbo and the resultant potential housing problem. This research is based on a questionnaire survey that was conducted in three neighborhoods redeveloped at different time periods in the past fifteen years. The findings suggest that new strategy of redevelopment of the integrated environment of the old city while still improving the living condition for its residents can be heard due to the efforts of many people at various positions. Yet, many things need to be done to change people's ideas: information and education through newspapers,academic discussions through academic journals, conferences, and reports to decision makers.

  7. Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughal, A.R.; Sidiq, M.; Hyder, S.N.; Qureshi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)

  8. Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Abdul Razzaq; Sadiq, Masood; Hyder, Syed Najam; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; A Shah, S Salman; Khan, Mohammad Asim; Nasir, Jamal Abdul

    2011-07-01

    To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Observational study. The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from 1st March to 31st August 2010. All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 + 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposables was PKR 78378.2 ± 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 ± 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 ± 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 ± 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families.

  9. The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, J.; Wlodarczyk, T.

    1992-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

  10. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.

  11. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Boerema

    Full Text Available The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed. Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.

  12. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: summary report on the NRC post-licensing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.; Pijawka, D.; Branch, K.; Bergmann, P.; Flynn, J.; Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented concerning the conceptual framework for the assessment of socioeconomic impacts; methodology for the post-licensing case studies; socioeconomic changes due to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; public response to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; socioeconomic consequences of the accident at Three Mile Island; the significance of socioeconomic change due to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; findings of the post-licensing studies relative to the nuclear station impact literature; and implications of the findings for projective assessments and planning studies

  13. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  14. Socioeconomic impacts of large-scale developments: implications for high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will likely be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the US. These projects will significantly affect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. The impacts and means of mitigating them thus require careful analysis. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts likely to occur in rural areas as a result of repository siting and development, and it describes some of the characteristics of mitigation programs that are likely to be necessary, if the impacts are to be addressed. Both (1) standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that, like many other large-scale developments, repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities), and (2) special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined. The discussion indicates that economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social impacts (standard and special) of these repositories will be substantial and problematic in many cases. Unless the impacts are effectively addressed with carefully planned and well financed mitigation efforts that insure that high-quality planning information is provided to local residents, and that local residents are involved in impact planning and management throughout the siting and development process, repository siting is unlikely to be effectively and equitably achieved. 44 references

  15. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plants: a paired comparison of operating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.A.; Cowan, J.T.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1979-07-01

    This study compares the social, economic, and political effects of constructing and operating two nuclear power plants in the rural Southeast: Brunswick 1 and 2 in Brunswick County, North Carolina, and Hatch 1 and 2 in Appling County, Georgia. It is a comparative, post-licensing case study designed to analyze variations in the range and magnitude of impacts experienced by the areas in which the plants were constructed. The study is intended to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the preparation of socioeconomic impact sections of environmental impact statements for proposed nuclear power stations

  16. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.; Cochran, R.; Meale, R.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  17. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  18. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  19. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  20. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  1. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  2. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  3. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One Station case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  4. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  5. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  6. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Diablo Canyon case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Yaquinto, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  7. Cognitive development in children of adolescent mothers: The impact of socioeconomic risk and maternal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Scharke, Wolfgang; Dahmen, Brigitte

    2018-02-01

    Adolescent motherhood is accompanied by a constellation of risk factors that translate into developmental risk for the off-spring. Socioeconomic risk that is associated with adolescent motherhood as well as maternal interactive behaviors may contribute to the impact of adolescent motherhood on children's developmental outcome. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate differences in children's cognitive development between children of adolescent and adult mothers in their first two years of life and to examine whether socioeconomic risk (e.g. such as educational and financial problems) and/or maternal sensitivity mediate developmental differences between children of adolescent and adult mothers. Adolescent mothers (25 years; N = 34) and their infants were included in the current study. Child cognitive development and maternal sensitivity were assessed at three different time points (T1: mean child age 5.26 months; T2: mean child age 14.69 months; T3: mean child age 21.16 months). Children of adult mothers showed better cognitive performance at T3 compared to children of adolescent mothers but not at T1 and T2. A multiple mediation model including socioeconomic risk and maternal sensitivity as serial mediators demonstrated that the effect of adolescent motherhood on cognitive development was mediated in a causal effect chain with socioeconomic risk negatively affecting maternal sensitivity and maternal sensitivity affecting children's cognitive development. The present findings demonstrate that maternal interactive behaviors are not only a simple predictor of cognitive development but may also act as a mediator of the association between more distal variables such as socioeconomic risk and cognitive development in adolescent mothers. This supports the need to promote prevention and intervention programs for adolescent mothers during the early postpartum period to reduce socioeconomic problems and enhance maternal interactive behaviors. Copyright

  8. Cultural resources and tradition: the consequences of their evaluation for socioeconomic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of cultural resource data to improve the content and quality of the standard Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) socioeconomic profile and impact sections is illustrated. Emphasis is placed on an approach for identifying some kinds of potentially disruptive sociocultural changes in rural communities and ethnic groups that may be brought about by energy developments. The report is divided into three parts. Part one reviews the legislative reason for the EIS and problems with the current implementation of many socioeconomic studies. Part two explores how and why clutural resource data can be made meaningful for the EIS community studies and provides two case examples. Part three presents information for those who are not experts in cultural-resource management for quality control of usable culturalresource information.

  9. I impact socioeconomic of the COOPFEPROCA in the county de Azua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tejeda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is centered in the socioeconomic impacts of the Cooperative of Saving and Credit, and Multiple Services of Producers, Peasants, Micro- enterprise (COOPFEPROCA in the county of Azua. For this analysis it was necessary to offer the analysis of the emergence, evolution and current development of COOPFEPROCA, which constitutes a relating one for the rest of the cooperatives of the Republic of the Dominican Republic.

  10. Climate change impacts on agriculture in 2050 under a range of plausible socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Keith; Islam, Shahnila; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Biewald, Anne; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; Van Meijl, Hans; Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and input data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. This paper extends that analysis to explore a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from multiple climate and economic models are combined to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on agricultural yields, area, production, consumption, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar crops to 2050. We find that climate impacts on global average yields, area, production and consumption are similar across shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2 and 3, as we implement them based on population, income and productivity drivers), except when changes in trade policies are included. Impacts on trade and prices are higher for SSP 3 than SSP 2, and higher for SSP 2 than for SSP 1. Climate impacts for all variables are similar across low to moderate emissions pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0), but increase for a higher emissions pathway (RCP 8.5). It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Results illustrate the sensitivity of climate change impacts to differences in socioeconomic and emissions pathways. Yield impacts increase at high emissions levels and vary with changes in population, income and technology, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables. (paper)

  11. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  12. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  13. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The session on Socioeconomic Evaluations consisted of the following seven papers: (1) Socioeconomic Considerations in Nuclear Waste Management; (2) High-Level Radioactive Waste - the Social Decision; (3) Role of Impact Assessment in Program Planning - A Social Science Perspective; (4) Social and Demographic Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Resource Developments - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (5) Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Large-Scale Development Projects - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (6) Socioeconomic Analyses of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project; and (7) Existing Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Incentives for Siting Publicly Sensitive Facilities

  14. Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Yerpude, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.

  16. Business Organizations’ Positive Socio-Economic Impact on Society - a Step Beyond CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela POPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors argue the necessity of taking a step beyond CSR and tackling the issue of measuring the impact businesses have on society, in general. Even if CSR points out the idea that organizations have responsibilities regarding the well-being of the entire society, it has certain limitations listed in this article. Furthermore, the authors briefly present the socio-economic impact of business organizations including (1 some basic concepts, (2 the most relevant areas/fields for measuring the impact, and (3 the main advantages regarding the development and implementation of effective impact measurement practices. The general purpose of the empirical study refers to the identification of perceptions related to the Romanian business organizations’ socio-economic impact. In this regard, we set the following main objectives: (1 identifying the extent to which Romanian organizations undertake a process of measuring, assessing and managing their impacts on society, (2 analyzing clients, managers and owners’ perceptions regarding the positive impact of seven Romanian organizations’ activities, and (3 identifying the perceptional differences between clients and managers plus owners. The empirical results show that in the managers’ plus owners’ opinions the areas in which the organization’s activities always or almost always have a positive impact are: collecting and paying taxes, keeping a strict control over the costs, and fulfilling government regulations plus obeying laws. The highest differences in clients’ and managers’ plus owners’ perceptions refer to creating jobs and improving people’s personal security and the general well-being of society.

  17. Spatiotemporal Exploration of Impacts of Coupled Climate and Socioeconomic Changes on Grassland Ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Although the coupled impacts of climate change and human adaptation on land cover change has been a prime research topic in recent years, a majority of reported efforts are examining the coupled effects of climate and socioeconomic factors qualitatively. Even though some are applying statistical methods, they often look into the impacts of coupled climate variations and socioeconomic transformations on land cover changes in a detached or sequential manner, or they handle socioeconomic influences indirectly through land use changes. Very few of them deal with the coupled effects concurrently through times and cross regions. We assimilate a big dataset of climate change, plant community growth condition, and socioeconomic transformation in Inner Mongolia of China. The study area consists of twelve types of plant communities, reflecting an east-to-west water-temperature gradient from moist meadow-type, to typical steppe-type and then to arid desert-type communities. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI), derived from MODIS at a 250 m resolution and 16-day intervals from May 8 to September 28 during 2000-2010, is adopted as a proxy for vegetation growth. The inter-annual and intra-annual changes of seven climate factors (barometric pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunlight hours, temperature, vapor pressure and wind speed) during the same period are synchronized with the EVI observations. Ten socioeconomic variables (urban population, urban GDP, rural GDP, grain output, livestock, fixed assets investment, local government revenue, per capita net income of farmers and pastoralists, the total length of highways, and rural population) are collected over 34 counties in the study area and during the same period. The GIS-based spatial database approach is adopted to integrate all of the above data into a big spatiotemporal dataset. We develop a multi-controlled panel-data regression model to investigate spatiotemporal changes of vegetation growth and their underlying causes

  18. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, N.F.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  19. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Nabeela Fazal; Muzaffar, Rizwana; Khan, Muhammad Athar; Imdad, Seema

    2010-01-01

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children.

  20. Impact of socioeconomic status and medical conditions on health and healthcare utilization among aging Ghanaians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru Ii; Xicang, Zhao; Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas N N

    2015-03-20

    This study attempts to examine the impact of socioeconomic and medical conditions in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in Ghana. Five separate models with varying input variables were estimated for each response variable. Data (Wave 1 data) were drawn from the World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted during 2007-2008 and included a total of 4770 respondents aged 50+ and 803 aged 18-49 in Ghana. Ordered logits was estimated for self-rated health, and binary logits for functional limitation and healthcare utilization. Our results show that the study provides enough grounds for further research on the interplay between socioeconomic and medical conditions on one hand and the health of the aged on the other. Controlling for socioeconomic status substantially contributes significantly to utilization. Also, aged women experience worse health than men, as shown by functioning assessment, self-rated health, chronic conditions and functional limitations. Women have higher rates of healthcare utilization, as shown by significantly higher rates of hospitalization and outpatient encounters. Expansion of the national health insurance scheme to cover the entire older population--for those in both formal and informal employments--is likely to garner increased access and improved health states for the older population.

  1. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Tiago de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. METHODS: Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. FINDINGS: Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. CONCLUSION: The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers

  2. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago; Dias, José G; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-01-01

    The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers and consider multiple cost-effective strategies such as mass

  3. Disparities in trauma: the impact of socioeconomic factors on outcomes following traumatic hollow viscus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlitt, Melissa; Hill, J Bradford; Gunter, Oliver L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2014-09-01

    This piece aims to examine the relationships between hollow viscus injury (HVI) and socioeconomic factors in determining outcomes. HVI has well-defined injury patterns with complex postoperative convalescence and morbidity, representing an ideal focus for identifying potential disparities among a homogeneous injury population. A retrospective review included patients admitted to a level I trauma center with HVI from 2000-2009, as identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Patients with concomitant significant solid organ or vasculature injury were excluded. US Census (2000) median household income by zip code was used as socioeconomic proxy. Demographic and injury-related variables were also included. Endpoints were mortality and outcomes associated with HVI morbidity. A total of 933 patients with HVI were identified and 256 met inclusion criteria. There were 23 deaths (9.0%), and mortality was not associated with race, gender, income, or payer source. However, lower median household income was significantly associated with longer intervals to ostomy takedown (P = 0.032). Additionally, private payers had significantly lower rates of anastomotic leak (0% [0/73] versus 7.1% [13/183], P = 0.019) and fascial dehiscence (5.5% [4/73] versus 16.9% [31/183], P = 0.016), while self-payers had significantly higher rates of abscess formation, both overall (24% [24/100] versus 10.2% [16/156], P = 0.004) and among penetrating injuries (27.4% [23/84] versus 13.6% [12/88], P = 0.036). Socioeconomic status may not impact overall mortality among trauma patients with hollow viscus injuries, but private insurance appears to be protective of morbidity related to anastomotic leak, fascial dehiscence, and abscess formation. This supports that socioeconomic disparity may exist within long-term outcomes, particularly regarding payer source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  5. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  6. Socio-Economic Impacts of Space Weather and User Needs for Space Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    The 2015 National Space Weather Strategy and Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) details the activities, outcomes, and timelines to build a "Space Weather Ready Nation." NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and Abt Associates are working together on two SWAP initiatives: (1) identifying, describing, and quantifying the socio-economic impacts of moderate and severe space weather; and (2) outreach to engineers and operators to better understand user requirements for space weather products and services. Both studies cover four technological sectors (electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and GNSS users) and rely heavily on industry input. Findings from both studies are essential for decreasing vulnerabilities and enhancing preparedness.

  7. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, D. W.; Gavin, A.; Hegarty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES). We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995-2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI) and Republic of Ireland (RoI). Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84-0.97)), with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79-0.92)). For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  9. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  10. Impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on overall and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-08-15

    Our objective was to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) vs. overall quality of life (QOL). We performed a longitudinal analysis using data regarding 8250 individuals drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). We analyzed differences between HRQOL and QOL in individuals of various socioeconomic strata (high, middle, or low household income and education levels) and subjective social classes (high, middle, or low) at baseline (2009). Individuals with low household incomes and of low subjective social class had the highest probability of reporting discrepant HRQOL and QOL scores (B: 4.796; P socioeconomic status. In conclusion, both household income/subjective social class and education/subjective social class were found to have an impact on the degree of divergence between QOL and HRQOL. Therefore, in designing interventions, socioeconomic inequalities should be taken into account through the use of multi-dimensional measurement tools.

  11. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...

  12. Renewing the licenses of US nuclear plants: An assessment of the socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, M.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, increased national attention has been focused on the potential effects of renewing, or not renewing, the licenses of nuclear power plants as the oldest of them approach the end of the 40-year operating period allowed by their original licenses. As part of a larger study for the US Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC), the authors conducted an assessment of the potential socioeconomic impacts to those communities throughout the country in which nuclear power plants are located and which, therefore, are most directly affected by renewal of nuclear power plant licenses. This paper focuses on six key issues that are traditionally considered essential in the assessment of social impacts: Population; housing; tax payments; local public services; land use and development; and economic structure

  13. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. © 2014 The Authors

  14. The socioeconomic impact of a pediatric ostomy in Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzira, Arlene; Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Langer, Monica; Sekabira, John; Ozgediz, Doruk; Fitzgerald, Tamara N

    2018-04-01

    Multiple pediatric surgical conditions require ostomies in low-middle-income countries. Delayed presentations increase the numbers of ostomies. Patients may live with an ostomy for a prolonged time due to the high backlog of cases with insufficient surgical capacity. In caring for these patients in Uganda, we frequently witnessed substantial socioeconomic impact of their surgical conditions. The operative log at the only pediatric surgery referral center in Uganda was reviewed to assess the numbers of children receiving ostomies over a 3-year period. Charts for patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) were reviewed to assess delays in accessing care. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with family members of children with ostomies based on themes from discussions with the surgical and nursing teams. A pilot survey was developed based on these themes and administered to a sample of patients in the outpatient clinic. During the period of January 2012-December 2014, there was one specialty-certified pediatric surgeon in the country. There were 493 ostomies placed for ARM (n = 234), HD (N = 114), gangrenous ileocolic intussusception (n = 95) and typhoid-induced intestinal perforation (n = 50). Primary themes covered in the FGD were: stoma care, impact on caregiver income, community integration of the child, impact on family unit, and resources to assist families. Many patients with HD and ARM did not present for colostomy until after 1 year of life. None had access to formal ostomy bags. 15 caregivers completed the survey. 13 (86%) were mothers and 2 (13%) were fathers. Almost half of the caregivers (n = 7, 47%) stated that their spouse had left the family. 14 (93%) caregivers had to leave jobs to care for the stoma. 14 respondents (93%) reported that receiving advice from other caregivers was beneficial. The burden of pediatric surgical disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial with significant disparities

  15. Integrated impact assessment of climate and socio-economic change on dairy farms in a watershed in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Wim; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Ven, van de Gerrie; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate and socio-economic change will affect the land use and the economic viability of Dutch dairy farms. Explorations of future scenarios, which include different drivers and impacts, are needed to perform ex-ante policy assessment. This study uses a bio-economic farm model to assess impacts

  16. Community leaders' perspectives on socio-economic impacts of power-plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, M.; Cawley, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary focus of this research effort was to identify and measure the socioeconomic impacts of power plant development on non-metropolitan host communities. A mail survey, distributed to community leaders in 100 power plant communities east of the Mississippi River, was utilized to gather information from 713 respondents. Community leaders were questioned as to the plant's impact on (a) community groups, (b) aspects of community life, (c) overall community acceptance and (d) attitudes toward power plant development. Overall, the trends and patterns of plant impact on the host communities were found to be largely positive. Specifically, local employment opportunities were generally enhanced with the advent of the power plant. Directly related to power plant development was the overall improvement of the local economic situation. Off-shoots from such in the economic area included related general improvements in the community quality of life. While the vast majority of community leaders responded with positive comments on power plant presence, adverse impacts were also mentioned. Negative comments focused on environmental problems, deterioration of roads and traffic conditions, and the possibility of nuclear accidents. Despite these negative impacts, almost two-thirds of the community leaders would definitely support the reconstruction of the same energy facility. Power plant development, therefore, is generally perceived as both a positive and beneficial asset for the host area. (author)

  17. Socioeconomic impact of alcohol in patients with alcoholic liver disease in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivaram Prasad; Padhi, Pradeep Kumar; Narayan, Jimmy; Singh, Ayaskanta; Pati, Girish Kumar; Nath, Preetam; Parida, Prasant Kumar; Mishra, Sunil

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of alcohol use on patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and their families. The demographic and socioeconomic data were collected from hospitalized ALD patients and attendants using a self designed non validated questionnaire and analyzed. Study subjects included 100 consecutive ALD patients (all males). Sixty percent were between 30 and 50 years. Most were married (96 %), literate (63 %), either businessmen (37 %) or employed (30 %) and belonged to middle socioeconomic class. Ninety percent started alcohol use before age 30 years and half during teenage. Mean alcohol intake was 190 mL/day (mean duration 23 years); 60 % consumed alcohol daily. Concomitant tobacco abuse was noted in 79 %. Average expenditure on alcohol was Rs 3800/month. Average hospitalizations for ALD related problems was 2.6 times/year with average expenditure of INR 30,000 (~440 US$) during each hospitalization. For treatment expenses, 86 % of patients borrowed money from friends/relatives, 36 % used saving deposits, and 4 % sold personal belongings. Eleven percent lost their job, and 7 % sold immovable property. In 43 % of cases, children were deprived of education. Besides, 52 % had disturbed social and family life, 34 % abused their spouse, 20 % suffered accidents, and 37 % indulged in physical violence. Majority of ALD patients and their families had disturbed social and family life and incurred severe financial loss arising of alcohol use.

  18. Impact of Delayed Time to Advanced Imaging on Missed Appointments Across Different Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Dania; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Glover, McKinley; Guerrier, Claude Emmanuel; Harvey, H Benjamin; Flores, Efrén J

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wait days (WDs) on missed outpatient MRI appointments across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted among adult patients scheduled for outpatient MRI during a 12-month period. Scheduling data and demographic information were obtained. Imaging missed appointments were defined as missed scheduled imaging encounters. WDs were defined as the number of days from study order to appointment. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the contribution of race and socioeconomic factors to missed appointments. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between missed appointment rates and WDs stratified by race, income, and patient insurance groups with analysis of covariance statistics. A total of 42,727 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean WDs were 7.95 days. Multivariate regression showed increased odds ratio for missed appointments for patients with increased WDs (7-21 days: odds ratio [OR], 1.39; >21 days: OR, 1.77), African American patients (OR, 1.71), Hispanic patients (OR, 1.30), patients with noncommercial insurance (OR, 2.00-2.55), and those with imaging performed at the main hospital campus (OR, 1.51). Missed appointment rate linearly increased with WDs, with analysis of covariance revealing underrepresented minorities and Medicaid insurance as significant effect modifiers. Increased WDs for advanced imaging significantly increases the likelihood of missed appointments. This effect is most pronounced among underrepresented minorities and patients with lower socioeconomic status. Efforts to reduce WDs may improve equity in access to and utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging for all patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Extreme precipitation and floods in the Iberian Peninsula and its socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Pereira, S.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula can induce floods and landslides that have often major socio-economic impacts. The DISASTER database gathered the basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015. This database was built under the assumption that social consequences of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported by newspapers, that provide the data source. Three extreme historical events were analysed in detail taking into account their associated wide socio-economic impacts. The December 1876 record precipitation and flood event leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers (Tagus and Guadiana). As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. The 20-28 December 1909 event recorded the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2015, having triggered the highest floods in 200 years at the Douro river's mouth and causing 89 fatalities in both Portugal and Spain northern regions. More recently the deadliest flash-flooding event affecting Portugal since, at least, the early 19th century, took place on the 25 and 26 November 1967 causing more than 500 fatalities in the Lisbon region. We provide a detailed analysis of each of these events, including their human impacts, precipitation analyses based on historical datasets and the associated atmospheric circulation conditions from reanalysis datasets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces and application for land use planning [PTDC / ATPGEO / 1660/2014] funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/ SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). The financial support for attending

  20. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  1. Modeling technology innovation: how science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vathsala I; Lane, Joseph P

    2012-05-16

    Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact-that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and "bench to bedside" expectations for

  2. The impact of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Victor H Argentino de Morais; Matheus, Dácio R

    2018-01-01

    Social factors have not been sufficiently explored in municipal solid waste management studies. Latin America has produced even fewer studies with this approach; technical and economic investigations have prevailed. We explored the impacts of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in Greater Sao Paulo, which includes 39 municipalities. We investigated the relations between municipal solid waste generation and social factors by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Student's t-test (at p ← 0.01) proved significance, and further regression analysis was performed with significant factors. We considered 10 socioeconomic factors: population, rural population, density, life expectancy, education (secondary, high and undergraduate level), income per capita, inequality and human development. A later multicollinearity analysis resulted in the determination of inequality (r p = 0.625) and income per capita (r p = 0.607) as major drivers. The results showed the relevance of considering social aspects in municipal solid waste management and isolated inequality as an important factor in planning. Inequality must be used as a complementary factor to income, rather than being used exclusively. Inequality may explain differences of waste generation between areas with similar incomes because of consumption patterns. Therefore, unequal realities demand unequal measures to avoid exacerbation, for example, pay-as-you-throw policies instead of uniform fees. Unequal realities also highlight the importance of tiering policies beyond the waste sector, such as sustainable consumption.

  3. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  4. The Impact of Socio-Economic Indicators on Sustainable Consumption of Domestic Electricity in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Vojtovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania is one of the EU Member States, where the rate of energy consumption is comparatively low but consumption of electricity has been gradually increasing over the last few years. Despite this trend, households in only three EU Member States consume less electricity than Lithuanian households. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of socio-economic factors on the domestic electricity consumption in Lithuania, i.e., to establish whether electricity consumption is determined by socio-economic conditions or population’s awareness to save energy. Cointegration analysis, causality test and error-correction model were used for the analysis. The results reveal that there is a long run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity consumption per capita and GDP at current prices as well as the ratio of the registered unemployed to the working-age population. In consequence, the results of the research propose that improvement of living standards for Lithuanian community calls for the necessity to pay particular attention to the promotion of sustainable electricity consumption by providing consumers with appropriate information and feedback in order to seek new energy-related consumption practices.

  5. Impact of employment instability on socio-economic position of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.

  6. Clinical and socioeconomic impact of moderate-to-severe versus mild influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T; Silvennoinen, H; Heinonen, S; Vuorinen, T

    2016-07-01

    Some studies have assessed the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children separately for moderate-to-severe and any influenza, but the definition used for identifying children with moderate-to-severe illness has not been validated. We analyzed clinical and socioeconomic data from two prospective cohort studies of respiratory infections among children aged ≤13 years (four influenza seasons, 3,416 child-seasons of follow-up). We categorized children with laboratory-confirmed influenza into two mutually exclusive groups of moderate-to-severe and mild influenza using the previously proposed criteria. We obtained the data for the analyses from structured medical records filled out by the study physicians and from daily symptom cards filled out by the parents. Of 434 cases of influenza, 217 (50 %) were classified as moderate-to-severe and 217 (50 %) as mild. The mean duration of fever was 4.0 days in children with moderate-to-severe influenza and 3.1 days in those with milder illness (P socioeconomic impact of influenza is highest. Illness severity should be considered when assessing influenza vaccine effectiveness in children.

  7. Socioeconomic rehabilitation of successful renal transplant patients and impact of funding source: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kapoor, Rohit; Arora, Sohrab; Sureka, Sanjoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic rehabilitation is an important outcome parameter in successful renal transplant recipients, particularly in developing countries with low income patients who often depend on extraneous sources to fund their surgery costs. We studied the socioeconomic rehabilitation and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) of successful renal allograft recipients among Indian patients and its correlation with their source of funding for the surgery. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted on 183 patients between January 2010 to January 2013. Patients with follow up of at least 1 year after successful renal transplant were included. During interview, two questionnaires were administered, one related to the SES including source of funding before transplantation and another one relating to the same at time of interview. Changes in SES were categorized as improvement, stable and deterioration if post-transplant SES score increased >5%, increased or decreased by 5% of pre-transplant value, respectively. In this cohort, 97 (52.7%), 67 (36.4%) and 19 (10.3%) patients were non-funded (self-funded), one-time funded and continuous funded, respectively. Fifty-six (30.4%) recipients had improvement in SES, whereas 89 (48.4%) and 38 (20.7%) recipients had deterioration and stable SES. Improvement in SES was seen in 68% patients with continuous funding support whereas, in only 36% and 12% patients with non-funded and onetime funding support (P = 0.001) respectively. Significant correlation was found (R = 0.715) between baseline socioeconomic strata and changes in SES after transplant. 70% of the patients with upper and upper middle class status had improving SES. Patients with middle class, lower middle and lower class had deterioration of SES after transplant in 47.4%, 79.6% and 66.7% patients, respectively. Most of the recipients from middle and lower social strata, which included more than 65% of our patient's population, had deteriorating SES even after a

  8. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

  9. The Impact of Fiscal Policies on the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Isabel; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable recent debate around the alleged impact of discretionary fiscal policies - especially austerity policies - on health and health inequalities. Assuming that most of the impact will have to run via the effect of fiscal policies on socioeconomic determinants of health (SDH), it is of interest to gain a further understanding of the relationship between fiscal policies and SDH. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the recent evidence on the impact of discretionary fiscal policies on key SDH, i.e. income, poverty, education, and employment, in high income OECD countries. We find that there are no simple answers as to how fiscal policy affects those determinants of health. The effects of contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies on the analyzed SDH vary considerably across countries and will largely depend on the pre-crisis situation. Contractionary fiscal policies seem to have increased poverty, while their impact on income inequality will be influenced by the composition of the implemented measures. More empirical research trying to directly link fiscal policies to health outcomes, while taking into account of some of the mechanisms encountered here, would be worthwhile.

  10. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images; An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.

  11. Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, Laura; Koellner, Thomas; Binder, Claudia R.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications

  12. The Impact of Recruit Socioeconomic Background and Computer Literacy on U.S. Navy Initial Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, Christine

    1999-01-01

    .... This study examines household income data, computer, telephone, and on-line penetration rate data by socioeconomic level, student computer use data, and data from the DoD's Survey of Recruit Socioeconomic Background...

  13. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified...

  14. Long-term Health and Socioeconomic Impacts of Landscape Fire Emissions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; Marlier, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Among natural disasters, wildfires are perhaps the most complex case of a coupled human-natural system, with both direct and indirect costs to society. A major contributor to these indirect costs is the impact upon health in the short- and long-term. Air pollution from fires is associated with more deaths from cardio-pulmonary diseases, yet little or no research has looked beyond the short-term mortality and morbidity associated with wildfire pollution, particularly in developing countries where impacts may be greatest but monitoring presents a constant challenge. We address this by using an interdisciplinary approach combining modeled air pollution with econometric methods to identify the long-term effects of air pollution on health and cognitive ability. These impacts will persist in society, and can lead to decreased education, loss of earnings, and a suppression of economic activity. We take the case of Indonesia, which is prone to large, catastrophic fires during El Niño conditions. Satellite data partially compensate for the lack of monitoring data for air pollution, but there are still significant gaps in data availability and difficulty in retrieving surface concentrations. In this study, surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at 2x2.5° resolution are obtained from GISS-E2-Puccini (the new version of the NASA GISS ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM)), run with monthly fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). 24-hour ambient PM2.5 concentrations across Indonesia are matched to geographically and socioeconomic surveys. We find that exposure to high levels of PM2.5 at birth (and in utero) has negative impacts upon physical development of infants. This is associated with health problems later in life, as well as lower educational and labor market outcomes. A one standard deviation increase in ambient air pollution exposure leads to effects comparable to those from indoor air pollution. We also find a

  15. Assessing the Downstream Impact of the Integrated Use of Socioeconomic and Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.; Schumacher, J.

    2014-12-01

    The interdisciplinary use of data from multiple disciplines to address both research and applied problems has received increasing attention in the sciences, but understanding remains limited on the specific modalities of data use and their impact not only in enabling new research insights but also in facilitating the application of research to societal problems. In our previous work, we used citation analysis to investigate the use of data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and identify the extent of interdisciplinary use, based on the subject classifications of citing journals. We also proposed and tested a taxonomy of data integration and use on a selection of peer-reviewed scientific articles that cited both remote sensing data and socioeconomic data from SEDAC. We extend both of these analyses here. We analyze the interdisciplinary use of SEDAC data over a seven-year period including the types and topical areas of application observed. We also explore the degree to which different types of data integration and use are leading to further "downstream" research and applications, and if objective measures can be developed using bibliometric methods to quantify downstream use and impact in meaningful ways. These methods include both traditional citation analysis and searches of the informal literature and online resources. Better understanding of how disparate data and information has been utilized to address new interdisciplinary problems will help the data user and provider communities improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their efforts. It should also provide justification for further investments in linking different data resources and networks across scientific fields, in methods of interdisciplinary data integration, and in application of integrated data to societal problems.

  16. The impact of menu energy labelling across socioeconomic groups: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarink, Danja; Peeters, Anna; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Beauchamp, Alison; Woods, Julie; Ball, Kylie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Menu energy labelling at point of purchase is gaining traction worldwide, yet the potential impact for different socioeconomic groups is unclear. We aimed to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of menu energy labelling by socioeconomic position (SEP). A systematic search for papers published to September 2015 was conducted using terms for labelling, food outlets, and SEP. Quality of studies was assessed. Results were summarised across stages of an intervention logic pathway. Eighteen papers were identified. Of twelve studies reporting the effect of menu energy labelling in low SEP populations, six reported on purchase outcomes. All but one of these reported no positive effect of the policy for this population. Two of the five studies that compared purchase outcomes of menu labelling across SEP groups reported that the policy was effective overall. These two studies reported either a significant decline in fast food calories purchased from consumers in high (but not low) SEP neighbourhoods or a significantly greater decline in calories purchased among consumers visiting stores in higher SEP neighbourhoods post policy implementation. None of the included papers reached the highest quality score. The current evidence describing the impact of menu energy labelling within or across SEP is limited in quantity and quality. Of the two studies that reported a positive benefit of menu energy labelling overall, both identified a greater effect on fast food purchases among consumers visiting stores in high compared to low SEP neighbourhoods. It is difficult to know whether the absence of effectiveness reported in low SEP populations represents a true lack of effectiveness or is a result of a more general lack of policy effectiveness or the limited quality of the reviewed studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  18. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, John M; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-11-25

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  19. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Polimeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  20. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  1. Microplastics have a more profound impact than elevated temperatures on the predatory performance, digestion and energy metabolism of an Amazonian cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Jin, Shi-Rong; Chen, Zai-Zhong; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Han-Peng; Xu, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge on the impacts of microplastics (MPs) pollution on freshwater environments and biota remains limited. Meanwhile, freshwater ecosystems have been threatened by elevated temperatures caused by climate change. To date, no information exists on how MPs-especially under elevated temperature conditions-affect predatory performance, digestive processes and metabolic pathways in freshwater organisms. Here, we examined MPs, elevated temperature and their combined effects on juveniles (0+ group) of an Amazonian cichlid, the discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus). For 30 days, fish were exposed to ambient or elevated temperatures (i.e., 28 or 31 °C) in the absence or presence of MPs (i.e., 0 or 200 μg/L). The following metrics were quantified: MPs accumulation; predatory performance; and biomarkers involved in neurotransmission, digestion and energy production. The results showed that survival rate and body length were not affected by MPs, elevated temperatures or their combination. Elevated temperatures resulted in an increase in MP concentrations in fish bodies. Exposure to MPs decreased the post-exposure predatory performance (PEPP) at ambient temperatures but not at elevated temperatures. Elevated temperatures, however, had no effect on the PEPP but antagonistically interacted with MPs, leading to similar predatory performances under present and future conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was only affected by MPs and decreased in the presence of MPs, indicating adverse effects in nervous and neuromuscular function and, thus, potentially in predatory performance. Trypsin activity was only influenced by MPs and decreased during exposure to MPs. Elevated temperatures or MPs alone increased the amylase activity but interacted antagonistically. Lipase activity was not influenced by either of the two stressors. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was affected by MPs or elevated temperatures alone and decreased with both stressors

  2. Impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2010-11-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been increasingly assessed; however, few studies appraised the influence of socioeconomic status on COHRQoL in developing countries. This study assessed the relationship of COHRQoL with socioeconomic backgrounds and clinical factors. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of Santa Maria, a southern city in Brazil. Participants completed the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ(11-14)), their parents or guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status, and a dental examination provided information on the prevalence of caries, dental trauma and occlusion. The assessment of association used hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models. Higher impacts on COHRQoL were observed for children presenting with untreated dental caries (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.35) and maxillary overjet (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.40). Socioeconomic factors also associated with COHRQoL; poorer scores were reported by children whose mothers have not completed primary education (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.17-1.44) and those with lower household income (RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.26). Poor socioeconomic standings and poor dental status have a negative impact on COHRQoL; reducing health inequalities may demand dental programmes and policies targeting deprived population.

  3. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  4. Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Vàzquez-Salat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study. The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  5. Subtask 7.3 - The Socioeconomic Impact of Climate Shifts in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav Solc; Tera Buckley; Troy Simonsen

    2007-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated the water demand response/vulnerability to climate change factors of regional economic sectors in the northern Great Plains. Regardless of the cause of climatic trends currently observed, the research focused on practical evaluation of climate change impact, using water availability as a primary factor controlling long-term regional economic sustainability. Project results suggest that the Upper Missouri, Red River, and Upper Mississippi Watersheds exhibit analogous response to climate change, i.e., extended drought influences water availability in the entire region. The modified trend suggests that the next period for which the Red River Basin can expect a high probability of below normal precipitation will occur before 2050. Agriculture is the most sensitive economic sector in the region; however, analyses confirmed relative adaptability to changing conditions. The price of agricultural commodities is not a good indicator of the economic impact of climate change because production and price do not correlate and are subject to frequent and irregular government intervention. Project results confirm that high water demand in the primary economic sectors makes the regional economy extremely vulnerable to climatic extremes, with a similar response over the entire region. Without conservation-based water management policies, long-term periods of drought will limit socioeconomic development in the region and may threaten even the sustainability of current conditions.

  6. Individual and Community Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Mental Health in Individuals with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivon A. Mingo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Outcomes Study SF-12v2 mental health component, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life Healthy Days Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression [CES-D] scale. When entered singly, lower education and income, nonmanagerial occupation, non-homeownership, and medium and high community poverty were all significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Income, however, was more strongly associated with the outcomes in comparison to the other SES variables. In a model including all SES measures simultaneously, income was significantly associated with each outcome variable. Lower levels of individual and community SES showed most consistent statistical significance in association with CES-D scores. Results suggest that both individual and community level SES are associated with mental health status in people with arthritis. It is imperative to consider how interventions focused on multilevel SES factors may influence existing disparities.

  7. Impact of Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity on Melanoma Presentation and Recurrence in Caucasian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaggio, Christine; Han, Sung Won; Martires, Kathryn; Robinson, Eric; Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka; Polsky, David; Stein, Jennifer; Berman, Russell; Shapiro, Richard; Zhong, Judy; Osman, Iman

    2016-01-01

    The impact of ethnicity and the socioeconomic status (SES) among Caucasians is not well studied. Here, we examine the impact of income on melanoma presentation and prognosis within a Caucasian cohort, accounting for ethnicity, as some reports suggest increased melanoma incidence in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) BRCA mutation carriers. We studied prospectively enrolled primary melanoma patients at New York University. SES data were estimated using United States' Census Bureau data and patient zip codes. We evaluated associations between ethnicity, SES, and baseline characteristics using the χ² test and multivariate logistic regression. We compared survival distributions using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazard ratios. Of the 1,339 enrolled patients, AJ represented 32% (n = 423). Apart from AJ being older at presentation (p < 0.001), no significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics between ethnic groups. Patients with a median household income (MHI) lower than the median of the cohort were significantly more likely to present with advanced stages (p < 0.001) compared to patients with a higher MHI. Shorter overall (p = 0.016) and post-recurrence survival (p = 0.042) was also observed in patients from lower-income households. Data suggest that disparities in melanoma presentation in Caucasians stratify according to income independent of ethnic background. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  9. Prioritising action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: a socioeconomic and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, J W; Hutchings, S; Gorman Ng, M; Mistry, R; Corden, C; Lamb, J; Sánchez Jiménez, A; Shafrir, A; Sobey, M; van Tongeren, M; Rushton, L

    2017-07-11

    Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment. The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits. It was estimated that if no action is taken there will be >700 000 attributable cancer deaths over the next 60 years for the substances assessed. However, there are only seven substances where the data suggest a clear benefit in terms of avoided cancer cases from introducing a binding limit at the levels considered. Overall, the costs of the proposed interventions were very high (up to [euro ]34 000 million) and the associated monetised health benefits were mostly less than the compliance costs. The strongest cases for the introduction of a limit value are for: respirable crystalline silica, hexavalent chromium, and hardwood dust.

  10. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  11. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  12. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Environmental, socioeconomic, regulatory impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee. (DLC)

  13. Impact of socioeconomic status on the course of rheumatoid arthritis and on related use of health care services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, Catharina E.; Mol, Geert D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Rupp, Ines; Dinant, Huibert J.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis on 1) health outcomes and related health care utilization in relation to disease duration and 2) changes in health outcomes and related health care utilization over a 2-year period. Methods. A

  14. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  15. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed...

  16. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Design Systematic review. Data sources We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Results Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a

  17. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Gerry; Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-05-20

    To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Systematic review. We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a narrative synthesis, but the overall

  18. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  19. Coupled socioeconomic-crop modelling for the participatory local analysis of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Wang, L. Y.; Rojas, M.; Carrera, J.; Gálvez, J.; Tuy, H. A.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.

    2015-12-01

    The modelling of the impacts of climate change on agriculture requires the inclusion of socio-economic factors. However, while cropping models and economic models of agricultural systems are common, dynamically coupled socio-economic-biophysical models have not received as much success. A promising methodology for modelling the socioeconomic aspects of coupled natural-human systems is participatory system dynamics modelling, in which stakeholders develop mental maps of the socio-economic system that are then turned into quantified simulation models. This methodology has been successful in the water resources management field. However, while the stocks and flows of water resources have also been represented within the system dynamics modelling framework and thus coupled to the socioeconomic portion of the model, cropping models are ill-suited for such reformulation. In addition, most of these system dynamics models were developed without stakeholder input, limiting the scope for the adoption and implementation of their results. We therefore propose a new methodology for the analysis of climate change variability on agroecosystems which uses dynamically coupled system dynamics (socio-economic) and biophysical (cropping) models to represent both physical and socioeconomic aspects of the agricultural system, using two case studies (intensive market-based agricultural development versus subsistence crop-based development) from rural Guatemala. The system dynamics model component is developed with relevant governmental and NGO stakeholders from rural and agricultural development in the case study regions and includes such processes as education, poverty and food security. Common variables with the cropping models (yield and agricultural management choices) are then used to dynamically couple the two models together, allowing for the analysis of the agroeconomic system's response to and resilience against various climatic and socioeconomic shocks.

  20. Modelling the impact of future socio-economic and climate change scenarios on river microbial water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M Majedul; Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid; Leemans, Rik; Hofstra, Nynke

    2018-03-01

    Microbial surface water quality is important, as it is related to health risk when the population is exposed through drinking, recreation or consumption of irrigated vegetables. The microbial surface water quality is expected to change with socio-economic development and climate change. This study explores the combined impacts of future socio-economic and climate change scenarios on microbial water quality using a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model (MIKE21FM-ECOLab). The model was applied to simulate the baseline (2014-2015) and future (2040s and 2090s) faecal indicator bacteria (FIB: E. coli and enterococci) concentrations in the Betna river in Bangladesh. The scenarios comprise changes in socio-economic variables (e.g. population, urbanization, land use, sanitation and sewage treatment) and climate variables (temperature, precipitation and sea-level rise). Scenarios have been developed building on the most recent Shared Socio-economic Pathways: SSP1 and SSP3 and Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in a matrix. An uncontrolled future results in a deterioration of the microbial water quality (+75% by the 2090s) due to socio-economic changes, such as higher population growth, and changes in rainfall patterns. However, microbial water quality improves under a sustainable scenario with improved sewage treatment (-98% by the 2090s). Contaminant loads were more influenced by changes in socio-economic factors than by climatic change. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines climate change and socio-economic development scenarios to simulate the future microbial water quality of a river. This approach can also be used to assess future consequences for health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The environmental, socioeconomic, and health impacts of woodfuel value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sola, Phosiso; Cerutti, Paolo Omar; Zhou, Wen; Gautier, Denis; Iiyama, Miyuki; Schure, Jolien; Chenevoy, Audrey; Yila, Jummai; Dufe, Vanessa; Nasi, Robert; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Shepherd, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the production and use of woodfuel remains an important socio-economic activity with more than 70% of the population relying on woodfuel as their primary household energy source. Despite their socio-economic significance, woodfuel value chains are often

  3. Impact of reproductive health on socio-economic development: a case study of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, J I B; Adinma, E D

    2011-03-01

    The link between reproductive health, sexual and reproductive right, and development was highlighted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Egypt. Developmental disparities are related to socio-economic differences which have led to the identification of distinct socio-economic classifications of nations. Human development represents the socioeconomic standing of any nation, in addition to literacy status and life expectancy. Africa accounts for 25% of the world's landmass but remains the world's poorest continent. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result. Reproductive health is a panacea towards reversing the stalled socio-economic growth of Nigeria as evident from the linkage between reproductive health and development, highlighted in Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, 5 and 6. Fast tracking Nigeria's development requires implementation of reproductive health policies and programmes targeted on women and children.

  4. Impact of the gap between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms: unique insights from a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether gaps between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class affect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. We collected data from the Korean Health Panel Survey, years 2009 and 2011, and performed a longitudinal analysis of 12,357 individuals at baseline (2009), estimating the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with disparate socioeconomic stratum (High, Middle, or Low household income and education level, respectively) and subjective social class (High, Middle, or Low). The odds ratio for depressive symptoms among individuals with High household income and High social class, or Low household income and Low social class, was 0.537 and 1.877, respectively (psocioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms deteriorated, as a whole, across the socioeconomic spectrum. The gap between socioeconomic stratum and perceived position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. It is important to consider the impact of discrepancies between different measures of socioeconomic well-being on depressive symptoms rather than looking at the subjective social class alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Socioeconomic Impacts of Casino Tourism in Slovenia’s Obalno-Kraška Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balažič Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Casino gambling in the Obalno-kraška region has had a long tradition, its origins dating back to the beginning of the 20th century. Ever since its rebirth during Yugoslav times in the 1960s, casino tourism has contributed significantly to the development of the area. Until recently, casino tourism has been one of the most important forms of tourism in addition to 3S and congress tourism. The purpose of this paper is to determine the contribution of casino tourism to the regional development of the Slovene Istria. To this end, selected socioeconomic indicators were examined and compared with the average indicator rates of regional development at the national level. The results show that casino tourism is an important factor of regional development. However, casino tourism’s future role in regional development remains an open question due to the impacts of the financial crisis and the consequent decline in the number of guests, as well as reduced levels of investment in the region.

  6. The Impact of the Housing Quality on the Socio-Economic Standard of the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Špirková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the qualitative characteristics of the housing in the EU countries. On the one hand there is a problem with housing itself and on the other hand there is a problem with the housing quality with its significant impact on the quality of life. The housing quality is defined by the attributes mentioned in the EQLS survey. The examined characters are the dwelling stock, the space problem, the rot problem, the damp problem, the toilet problem, the bath problem, the garden problem, the rent problem, the utility problem and the heating problem. The housing quality is affected by the public expenses on the housing and the community amenities per capita. The relations between the qualitative characteristics mutually and the qualitative characteristics and the public expenditures on the housing and the community amenities are examined by the correlation and regression analysis. The aim of the article is to point out to the dependence between the expenses and the housing quality in the EU countries. The mentioned relation strongly implicates the socio-economic standard of these countries.

  7. Water within the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: Constraints and the Impact on Future Global Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. T.; Hejazi, M. I.; Davies, E. G.; Calvin, K. V.; Kim, S. H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) represent the next generation of future global change scenarios and their inclusion in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) scenarios reinforces the importance of a complete understanding of the SSPs. This study uses the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to investigate the effects of limited water supplies on future withdrawals at regional and water basin scales across all SSPs in combination with various climate mitigation scenarios. Water supply is calculated using a global hydrologic model and water data from five ISI-MIP models across the four RCP scenarios. When water constraints are incorporated, our results show that water withdrawals are reduced by as much as 40% across all SSP scenarios without climate policies. As climate policies are imposed and become more stringent, water withdrawals increase in regions already affected by water stress in order to allow for greater biomass production. The results of this research show the importance of including water resource constraints within the SSP scenarios for establishing water withdrawal scenarios under a wide range of scenarios including different climate policies. The results will also provide data products - such as gridded land use and water demand estimates - of potential interest to the impact, adaptation, and vulnerability community following the SSP scenarios.

  8. Socioeconomic impact of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Kyungjoo; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lee, Jin Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is defined as having both features of asthma and COPD, which are airway hyper-responsiveness and incompletely reversible airway obstruction. However, socioeconomic impact of ACOS have not been well appreciated. Adults with available wheezing history and acceptable spirometry were selected from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) in 2007-2009. Their data were merged with the Korean National Health Insurance claim data. 'Asthma group' was defined as having self-reported wheezing history and FEV 1 /FVC ≥0.7, 'COPD group' was defined as having FEV 1 /FVC COPD, 8.4%; asthma, 5.8% and NAD, 83.6%. Total length of healthcare utilization and medical costs of ACOS group was the top among four groups (PCOPD group (P=0.025). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that ACOS group (β=12.63, P<0.001) and asthma group (β=6.14, P<0.001) were significantly associated with longer duration of healthcare utilization and ACOS group (β=350,475.88, P=0.008) and asthma group (β=386,876.81, P<0.001) were associated with higher medical costs. This study demonstrated that ACOS independently influences healthcare utilization after adjusting several factors. In order to utilize limited medical resources efficiently, it may be necessary to find and manage ACOS patients.

  9. Socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, K.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    A greenhouse warming would have major effects on water supplies and demands. A framework for examining the socioeconomic impacts associated with changes in the long-term availability of water is developed and applied to the hydrologic implications of the Canadian and British Hadley2 general circulation models (GCMs) for the 18 water resource regions in the conterminous United States. The climate projections of these two GCMs have very different implications for future water supplies and costs. The Canadian model suggests most of the nation would be much drier in the year 2030. Under the least-cost management scenario the drier climate could add nearly $105 billion to the estimated costs of balancing supplies and demands relative to the costs without climate change. Measures to protect instream flows and irrigation could result in significantly higher costs. In contrast, projections based on the Hadley model suggest water supplies would increase throughout much of the nation, reducing the costs of balancing water supplies with demands relative to the no-climate-change case.

  10. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  11. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  12. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Perceived racial, socioeconomic and gender discrimination and its impact on contraceptive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Secura, Gina M; Roehl, Kimberly A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. We analyzed the first 2,500 women aged 14-45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to obtaining long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination, and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 52%, pgender-, race- or SES-based discrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43, respectively]. After enrollment, 66% of women with a history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 35% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Discrimination negatively impacts a woman's use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the effects of seasonality and socioeconomic impact on the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Beier, John C.; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV) among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate that, in Northeastern Africa, human activities, including those associated with the Eid al Adha feast, along with a combination of climatic factors such as rainfall level and hydrological variations, contribute to the transmission and dispersal of the disease pathogen. Moreover, sporadic outbreaks may occur when the two events occur together: 1) abundant livestock are recruited into areas at risk from RVF due to the demand for the religious festival and 2) abundant numbers of mosquitoes emerge. These two factors have been shown to have impacts on the severity of RVF outbreaks. Our numerical results present the transmission dynamics of the disease pathogen over both short and long periods of time, particularly during the festival time. Further, we investigate the impact on patterns of disease outbreaks in each patch brought by festival- and seasonal-driven factors, such as the number of livestock imported daily, the animal transportation speed from patch to patch, and the death rate induced by ceremonial sacrifices. In addition, our simulations show that when the time for festival preparation starts earlier than usual, the risk of massive disease outbreaks rises, particularly in patch 3 (the place where the religious ceremony will be held).

  15. Assessment of the Impact of the Narcotics Market on the Regional Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Nikolaevich Klevakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the market of narcotics as a part of the formal and informal economy. By narcotics, the author means psychoactive substances and plants containing them, which are banned, subject to control or non-prohibited, but have a psychophysical effect on human body. Drug-related psychoactive substances are classified according to the prohibition criterion and restrictions on a turnover with reference to the illegal (criminal or shadow economy. The author considers the illegal drug market as a latent self-organizing system of socio-economic relations of criminal and shadow nature. Such market is oriented towards the turnover of potentially illegal or dangerous psychoactive substances, which are prohibited or restricted for use in non-medical purposes. The analysis of the state and development of the drug situation on the territory of the entities of the Ural Federal District confirms the relevance of the problem of drug abuse. In recent years, the primary incidence of drug addiction and harmful drug use among the adolescents aged 15–17 have grown. Synthetic narcotics and psychotropic substances of high narcogenicity dominate in the current drug market. Over the past 5 years, the average cost of a single dose of drug remains virtually unchanged. This reflects the conditional balance of purchasing power and competition in the drug market. The disparity in the volume of seized cannabis drugs and the number of cannabinoid users observed by medical institutions suggests a high level of latency in this category of drug users. To assess the degree of negative impact of the drug market, the author proposes to use a method of calculating the socioeconomic costs of the consequences of drug addiction. The methodology is supplemented with tools for determining the number of psychoactive substances consumers on the basis of the mass of these substances withdrawn from illicit trafficking, using the concentration and recalculation coefficients

  16. Geographic and socioeconomic factors in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in New South Wales and their impact upon clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Anthony; Soeberg, Matthew; Broome, Richard; Kao, Steven; van Zandwijk, Nico

    2017-07-01

    Whilst the impact of clinicopathological factors on the prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is well understood, socioeconomic and geographic factors have received less attention. We analysed the relationship between geographic and socioeconomic factors upon survival and treatment provision in a large series of patients with MPM. We assessed MPM patients awarded compensation between 2002 and 2009 with additional MPM incidence data from the New South Wales (NSW) Cancer Registry. The impact of geographic remoteness, distance from oncological multidisciplinary team (MDT) and Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) upon survival, clinical features and treatment received was analysed. We identified 910 patients (67% residing in major cities; 92% 70 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39), male gender (HR =1.36), non-epithelioid histological subtype (HR = 2.18) and IRSAD status by decreasing quintile (HR = 1.06) were independent prognostic factors. There was no significant advantage for patients residing in major cities (10.6 months vs 8.8 months; P = 0.162) or within 50 km of MDT (10.3 months vs 7.8 months; P = 0.539). Patient's geographic location and distance to MDT did not impact chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy or extrapleural pneumonectomy provision. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were significantly less likely to receive chemotherapy (37.4% vs 54.8%; P = 0.001). This study provides evidence for differences in the treatment and survival according to socioeconomic status for compensated MPM patients in NSW. Further research is warranted to seek additional explanations for the differences noted by comparing the treatments and outcomes of compensated and non-compensated MPM patients in NSW. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. The Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Among Socioeconomic Groups in Nine European Countries, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Platt, Stephen; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Lahelma, Eero; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Santana, Paula; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-11-07

    It is uncertain whether tobacco control policies have contributed to a narrowing or widening of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in European countries during the past two decades. This paper aims to investigate the impact of price and non-price related population-wide tobacco control policies on smoking by socioeconomic group in nine European countries between 1990 and 2007. Individual-level education, occupation and smoking status were obtained from nationally representative surveys. Country-level price-related tobacco control policies were measured by the relative price of cheapest cigarettes and of cigarettes in the most popular price category. Country-level non-price policies were measured by a summary score covering four policy domains: smoking bans or restrictions in public places and workplaces, bans on advertising and promotion, health warning labels, and cessation services. The associations between policies and smoking were explored using logistic regressions, stratified by education and occupation, and adjusted for age, Gross Domestic Product, period and country fixed effects. The price of popular cigarettes and non-price policies were negatively associated with smoking among men. The price of the cheapest cigarettes was negatively associated with smoking among women. While these favorable effects were generally in the same direction for all socioeconomic groups, they were larger and statistically significant in lower socioeconomic groups only. Tobacco control policies as implemented in nine European countries, have probably helped to reduce the prevalence of smoking in the total population, particularly in lower socioeconomic groups. Widening inequalities in smoking may be explained by other factors. Policies with larger effects on lower socioeconomic groups are needed to reverse this trend. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking widened between the 1990s and the 2000s in Europe. During the same period, there were intensified tobacco control policies

  18. Simulating climate change and socio-economic change impacts on flows and water quality in the Mahanadi River system, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Rodda, Harvey; Macadam, Ian; Sarkar, Sananda

    2018-05-12

    Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system. Future flows affected by large population growth, effluent discharge increases and changes in irrigation water demand from changing land uses are assessed under shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Model results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates at 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2079-2098) which greatly enhances flood potential. The water availability under low flow conditions will be worsened because of increased water demand from population growth and increased irrigation in the future. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are expected due to increased flow hence dilution. Socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality but less impact on the river flow. For example, higher population growth, increased sewage treatment discharges, land use change and enhanced atmospheric deposition would result in the deterioration of water quality, while the upgrade of the sewage treatment works lead to improved water quality. In summary, socio-economic scenarios would change future water quality of the Mahanadi River and alter nutrient fluxes transported into the delta region. This study has serious implications for people's livelihoods in the deltaic area and could impact coastal and Bay of Bengal water ecology. Copyright © 2018

  19. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  20. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: St. lucie case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, M.L.; Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study are during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  1. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  2. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  3. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations - Diablo Canyon case study. Technical report for 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Yaquinto, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlemeent patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  5. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  7. Investigating the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of sea level rise in the Galveston Bay, Texas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedee, M.; Dotson, M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic effects throughout the twenty-first century, particularly greenhouse gas emissions, have contributed to global climatic and environmental changes. Sea level rise (SLR) is one of these changes which is occurring along the Texas Coast and is amplified by land subsidence. SLR along the northern Texas coast is impacting sensitive coastal environments as well as human populations, and industries and infrastructure supporting those populations. Sea level data from the NOAA gauge at Galveston Pier 21 has shown an increase of 2.08 feet in relative sea level in 100 years. Given an expected increase in the rate of sea level rise in the next decades, the purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth assessment on the effects of relative sea level rise on the habitat distribution of highly valuable coastal wetlands in the Galveston Bay region. This study also focuses on projecting the potential socioeconomic losses due to coastal flooding that is amplified by SLR in the region. In this study, three SLR scenarios are modeled: a scenario based on a linear extrapolation of satellite altimetry data (0.21 m by 2100); the IPCC's RCP8.5 mean scenario (0.74 m by 2100); and a high-end scenario (1.8 m by 2100) as proposed by Jevrejeva et al. (2014). A land subsidence rate calculated by developing a subsidence grid using GPS-measured subsidence monitoring and releveling data is added to all these scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) is used to predict wetland conversion due to long-term SLR incorporating the processes of inundation, erosion, accretion, overwash, and saturation. Similarly, HAZUS-MH is used to evaluate the property damage to building stocks and the direct business interruption losses due to flooding caused by 100-year flood event scenario with three SLR scenarios. This coordinated research effort to assess the physical, environmental and policy impacts due to SLR is intended to enable policy-makers, managers, and the general public to

  8. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of a role of process of extraction and processing of the natural resources, mastered in territory of region on socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region. Features of dynamics of density of kinds of natural resources on indicators and spheres of influence are revealed. Also in this paper prospect of development and an opportunity of increase of a role of environmental management in socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region are considered.

  9. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....

  10. The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2018-04-01

    Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  11. Socio-economic impact of improper hospital waste management on waste disposal employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Raza, Z. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improper disposal of hospital waste results in spread of disease to the community and its handlers. Objectives: To study the socio-economic impact of inappropriate disposal of hospital waste on the health of the waste disposal staff. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted from 50 hospital waste collectors of Lahore and using a pre-structured questionnaire, the information was filled. The data were statistically analyzed for frequencies, and cross tabulation. Results: The improper disposal of hospital waste lead to disease in 45 hospital waste collectors. Eighteen waste collectors were infected with respiratory diseases,14 with skin infection, 7 with tuberculosis and 6 with hepatitis. Only 8 workers were provided with special clothes by the hospital management. The chances of getting infection was high in those who were not provided with special clothes like, gowns, gloves and shoes as compared to those who were provided with these.The total cost of recovery for these diseases also varied with an amount of Rs. 68,340 for the treatment of hepatitis, Rs. 3,150 for tuberculosis, Rs. 1,500 for respiratory diseases and Rs. 1,000 for skin infection. Only 12 workers were given a small remuneration ranging from Rs.100-400 per month as compensation from the hospital administration. Conclusions: Use of protective clothing by the hospital waste disposal collectors can significantly reduce their exposure to the diseases. Policy message: Provision of clothing and gloves to the waste disposal collectors, would help significantly in reducing diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis, respiratory diseases and skin infection. (author)

  12. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  13. Socio-economic impacts of major floods in Italy from 1951 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastoria, B.; Simonetti, M. R.; Casaioli, M.; Mariani, S.; Monacelli, G.

    2006-03-01

    Meteorological and hydrological monitoring and modeling, with particular regard for extreme hydrological events, represent important activities carried out by the Hydrological and Inland Waters Service of the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT). Recently, a study on the socio-economic effects of floods was published in the Italian Environmental Data Yearbook by APAT. It is based on processed data related to the major floods (i.e., events with at least a casualty or that have generated economic damages higher than 0.001% of the Gross Domestic Product) striking Italy between 1951 and 2003. Information was gathered from technical reports and/or databases belonging to APAT, Italian Regional Environmental Agencies (ARPAs), central and local authorities, research institutions and newspaper reports. These data are collected in tables reporting the number of flood events and of casualties and the amount of financial resources required for environmental restoration and/or for risk mitigation purposes. For year 2003, when APAT has begun a systematic monitoring of flood events in Italy, data concerning rainfall, number of persons involved, evacuation and urgent measures introduced to face the event (laws and acts) are also included. In this way, it was possible to realize a new database, in which flood events that caused the declaration of the state of emergency have been collected. Because of the difficulties in finding sufficiently reliable data for the period before the II World War, the collection of historical data started from 1951. During this period, about 50% of the flood events examined have caused at least 5 victims each, and about 10% more than 100; these data highlight the considerable social impact of flood events and suggest the importance of creating an integrated database to collect information about flood events involving all Europe. These two databases (the historical and updating archives) could be useful for taking

  14. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  15. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health.

  16. Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Impact of dietary mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Scenario analysis of the impacts of socioeconomic development on phosphorous export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Weiping; Liao, Yuehua; Luo, Yueping

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic development in lake watersheds is closely related with lake nutrient pollution. As the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake has been experiencing an increase in nutrient loading and a growing risk of eutrophication. This study aimed to reveal the likely impacts of the socioeconomic development of the Dongting Lake watershed on the phosphorous pollution in the lake. We estimated the contributions from different sources and sub-watersheds to the total phosphorous (TP) export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed under two most likely socioeconomic development scenarios. Moreover, we predicted the likely permissible and actual TP loadings to the Dongting Lake. Under both two scenarios, three secondary sub-watersheds-the upper and lower reaches of the Xiang River watershed and the Dongting Lake Area-are expected to dominate the contribution to the TP export from the Dongting Lake watershed in 2020. Three primary sub-watersheds-the Dongting Lake Area, the Xiang River, and the Yuan River watersheds-are predicted to be the major contributors to the TP loading from the entire watershed. The two scenarios are expected to have a slight difference in TP export and lake TP loading. Livestock husbandry is expected to be the predominant anthropogenic TP source in each of the sub-watersheds under both scenarios. Compared to 2010, permissible TP loading is not expected to increase but actual TP loading is predicted to grow significantly in 2020. Our study provides methodologies to identify the key sources and regions of lake nutrient loading from watersheds with complex socioeconomic context, and to reveal the potential influences of socioeconomic development on nutrient pollution in lake watersheds.

  18. The impact of socioeconomic position on severe maternal morbidity outcomes among women in Australia: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, A; Noor, N; Sullivan, E; Knight, M

    2015-11-01

    Studies in other developed countries have suggested that socioeconomic position may be a risk factor for poorer pregnancy outcomes. This analysis aimed to explore the independent impact of socioeconomic position on selected severe maternal morbidities among women in Australia. A case-control study using data on severe maternal morbidities associated with direct maternal death collected through the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Australia. 623 cases, 820 controls. Logistic regression analysis to investigate differences in outcomes among different socioeconomic groups, classified by Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Severe maternal morbidity (amniotic fluid embolism, placenta accreta, peripartum hysterectomy, eclampsia or pulmonary embolism). SEIFA quintile was statistically significantly associated with maternal morbidity, with cases being twice as likely as controls to reside in the most disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.29-3.10). Maternal age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.20 for women aged 35 or over compared with women aged 25-29, 95%CI 1.64-3.15] and previous pregnancy complications (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.21-1.87) were significantly associated with morbidity. A parity of 1 or 2 was protective (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.79), whereas previous caesarean delivery was associated with maternal morbidity (aOR 2.20 for women with one caesarean delivery, 95%CI 1.44-2.85, compared with women with no caesareans). The risk of severe maternal morbidity among women in Australia is significantly increased by social disadvantage. This study suggests that future efforts in improving maternity care provision and maternal outcomes in Australia should include socioeconomic position as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic impact of stroke households in Livingstone district, Zambia. A total of 50 households were randomly selected from the registers of Livingstone General Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 (IBM Corporation) and content analysis. Chi-square test was used to make associations between variables. The social impacts on the victim were depression, difficult to get along with, resentfulness, apathy, needy, separation, divorce, general marital problems, neglect on the part of the victim and fear. The economic impacts were loss of employment, reduced business activity and loss of business on the part of the victim. Economic activities such as food provision, payment of school fees, accommodation were affected as a result of stroke and this led to financial insecurities in households with lost incomes in form of salaries and businesses. The activities forgone by stroke households were food provision, housing and education. The study also revealed an association between period of stroke and relationship changes (P < 0.001). Gender and family relationship changes were highly associated (P < 0.00), as more females than males experienced relationship changes. The results of the present study show that stroke has considerable socio-economic impact on households in Livingstone district, which can deter the victims' development as

  20. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  1. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  2. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  3. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  4. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  5. Modelling the impact of mining on socio-economic infrastructure development: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluleke, George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.

  6. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

  7. The socio-economic impact of stroke on households in Livingstone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines stroke as 'the neurological deficit of cerebral vascular cause that persists beyond twenty four hours or is interrupted by death within 24 hours'. In Livingstone, Zambia, more than 30% of stroke victims indicate socio-economic problems. The study aimed at assessing the ...

  8. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background. In general, poor health and lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in deprived areas. An explanation for the latter may simply be the on average lower SES of residents of these areas. It is possible, however, that living in a deprived

  9. Are All Colleges Equally Equalizing? How Institutional Selectivity Impacts Socioeconomic Disparities in Graduates' Labor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Matt S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the magnitude of disparities in the labor market outcomes of college graduates stemming from socioeconomic background varies according to institutional selectivity. The data used for the study are drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics' Education Longitudinal Study of…

  10. The Impact of Race and Socioeconomic Status on the Reading Comprehension Growth Trajectories of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Tyra W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine features of adolescent reading comprehension trajectories and make within-person and between-person analyses of growth that occurs during the high school grades. Racial and socioeconomic group differences of the adolescent reading trajectories were also investigated and compared. This examination…

  11. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the Utilization of Spinal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Adeeb; Miller, Jacob; Lubelski, Daniel; Nowacki, Amy S; Wells, Brian J; Milinovich, Alex; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the general correlation between socioeconomic status and imaging. This study is the first to analyze this relationship in the spine patient population. To assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the frequency with which imaging studies of the lumbar spine are ordered and completed. Patients that were diagnosed with lumbar radiculopathy and/or myelopathy and had at least 1 subsequent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or X-ray ordered were retrospectively identified. Demographic information and the number of ordered and completed imaging studies were among the data collected. Patient insurance status and income level (estimated based on zip code) served as representations of socioeconomic status. A total of 24,105 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Regression analyses demonstrated that uninsured patients were significantly less likely to have an MRI, CT, or X-ray study ordered (P socioeconomic characteristics such as insurance status and income level highlight a critical gap in access to health care. Physicians should work to mitigate the influence of such factors when deciding whether to order imaging studies, especially in light of the ongoing shift in health policy in the United States.

  12. The Longitudinal Impact of Adolescent Drug Use on Socioeconomic Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how drug use in adolescence contributes to socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Several studies have investigated whether drug problems alter the life course in ways that are detrimental to young adult achievement, but findings are inconsistent. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to…

  13. The impact of bleeding disorders on the socioeconomic status of adult patients. Results of a comparative single centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Katharina; von Mackensen, Sylvia; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langer, Florian

    2017-07-10

    The impact of inherited bleeding disorders on the socioeconomic status (SES) of affected individuals is not clear. The SES of adult patients with congenital bleeding disorders (PWBD) from a centre in Germany (age 42.3 ± 15.0 years) was compared to that of a gender- and age-matched control group of patients with thrombophilia or a thrombotic event (PWT). Patients completed a questionnaire including aspects of SES, impact of the disease on their lives, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Forty-five patients were enrolled in each group; 71 % of PBWD had a severe form of the bleeding disorder (FVIII/IX activity impact of the disease on their lives than PWT (33.3 %, p impact of the disease on their lives compared to PWT, but not a significantly different SES in general.

  14. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  15. The impact of governmental antismoking policy on socioeconomic disparities in cigarette smoking in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Cho, Hong-Jun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2009-03-01

    With enactment of the 1995 Health Promotion Act, the Korean government has developed numerous antismoking policies, including smoke-free buildings and zones, a public media campaign, and tobacco taxation. The present study examined whether governmental antismoking policy during the past decade was associated with reduced socioeconomic differentials in cigarette smoking in South Korea. Data from 99,980 men and 105,193 women aged 25-64 years were analyzed from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of Korea between 1995 and 2006. Socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators were education, occupational class, employment status, and household income. Age-adjusted prevalence of smoking was calculated. Prevalence ratios and the relative index of inequality (RII) were estimated using log-binomial regression analysis. Absolute socioeconomic differentials in age-adjusted prevalence of smoking increased between 1995 and 2006. Increases were found in both men and women. Prevalence ratios and RIIs also showed widening relative inequalities in smoking in all four SEP indicators in men. For women, increases in RIIs for education and income were statistically significant. The magnitude of change in prevalence ratios and RIIs by SEP indicators between 1999 and 2003 was statistically significant, whereas the difference between 2003 and 2006 was not. Despite reducing overall cigarette smoking rates in males, the governmental antismoking policies of South Korea did not reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in both genders. However, the recent tobacco taxation policy is likely to dampen the ever-increasing trends in smoking inequalities. More progressive antismoking policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking are warranted in South Korea.

  16. Socioeconomic status and impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Italy: results from the INHES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Bonanni, Americo; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-11-08

    There is lack of evidence about the likely impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Western societies. We aimed to assess dietary modifications that possibly occurred during the recession and to investigate major socioeconomic factors associated with such modifications. Cross-sectional analysis on 1829 subjects from the general population recruited in the larger INHES study (n = 9319) a telephone-based survey on nutrition and health conducted in Italy from 2010 to 2013. Association of socioeconomic (education, household income, occupation) with self-reported impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits was tested by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Low-educated subjects (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39-3.80), those with poor income (OR = 5.71; 95% CI: 3.68-8.85), and unemployed (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.62-9.56) had higher odds of reporting undesirable dietary changes due to recession. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was lower in subjects reporting a negative impact of the crisis on diet as compared to those declaring no effect, whereas the quality of grocery items was higher in the latter. Undesirable dietary changes due to the economic crisis were mainly reported by lower socioeconomic groups. Subjects perceiving a negative impact of the recession on their diet also showed a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet and reduced quality of grocery products. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Combined Impacts of Medium Term Socio-Economic Changes and Climate Change on Water Resources in a Managed Mediterranean Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassi Stefanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections agree on a dryer and warmer future for the Mediterranean. Consequently, the region is likely to face serious problems regarding water availability and quality in the future. We investigated potential climate change impacts, alone (for three scenario periods and in combination with four socio-economic scenarios (for the near future on water resources in a Mediterranean catchment, whose economy relies on irrigated agriculture and tourism. For that, the Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM was applied to the drainage area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, using a set of 15 climate scenarios and different land use maps and management settings. We assessed the long-term average seasonal and annual changes in generated runoff, groundwater recharge and actual evapotranspiration in the catchment, as well as on water inflow and nutrients input to the lagoon. The projected average annual changes in precipitation are small for the first scenario period, and so are the simulated impacts on all investigated components, on average. The negative trend of potential climate change impacts on water resources (i.e., decrease in all analyzed components becomes pronounced in the second and third scenario periods. The applied socio-economic scenarios intensify, reduce or even reverse the climate-induced impacts, depending on the assumed land use and management changes.

  18. Documenting the Impact of Socioeconomic Dynamics on Heritage Sites. The Case of Vista Alegre District in Santiago de Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, L. B.; Castillo, M. M.; Van Balen, K.

    2017-08-01

    Recent policies adopted in Cuba are producing a significant turn into the country's socioeconomic dynamics. Past shifting circumstances have demonstrated the positive and negative implications on heritage sites. In this regard, this paper presents a first stage of a research project aimed at monitoring the impact of socioeconomic dynamics on local heritage sites. The research partial results focus on the documentation of the evolution of a case study: Vista Alegre District in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Scholars have noted that the District's urban design and historic building stock represent its most significant heritage values. Such qualities are under permanent threat due to transformations and deterioration. In order to analyse current site condition, and to understand transformations as a result of socioeconomic dynamics, a Geographic Information System (GIS) was implemented as a monitoring and documenting tool. The GIS allowed integrating data related to the evolution of the urban layout, and the heritage buildings. Data was sourced from heritage management and urban planning offices, as well as from previous studies on the site. In addition, the analysis of remote sensing imagery, and a field survey helped to update the existing records, and to include new information with the purpose of assessing the integrity of heritage values. At this stage, maps that describe the site evolution, the significant changes over time, and the alterations to character defining elements served to identify sectors of different scenic qualities. Results are essential to contribute to draft management strategies as part of decision making.

  19. The impact of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and use of specific substances on quality of life of addicted persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tais Cristina Nascimento; Sarracini, Karin Luciana Migliato; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; de Castro Meneghim, Marcelo; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2015-03-20

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and use of specific substances on quality of life of alcohol and drug addicted persons, receiving care at outpatient treatment facilities in Brazil. A random sample of 262 participants, mean age 37 years, from Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS AD) located in three cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were clinically examined for caries experience (DMFT index) by a calibrated examiner. They were asked to complete a series of questionnaires, including the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), socioeconomic characteristics, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL), which were considered the outcome variables of the study. Associations between oral health status, socioeconomic characteristics, substance involvement with WHOQOL were investigated by means of the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis with a level of significance α 14 (OR = 2.25; CI 95% = 1.30-3.89); low-income (OR = 2.41; CI 95% = 1.22-4.77) and users of cocaine/crack (OR = 2.02; CI 95% = 1.15-3.59) were more likely to have poor general quality of life. This study demonstrated that the general quality of life of addicted persons was associated with caries experience, low income and cocaine/crack use.

  20. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  1. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streel, Sylvie; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Hoge, Axelle; Majerus, Sven; Kolh, Philippe; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20-69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010-2012). A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves "financially in need." Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  2. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Recalled Exposure to and Self-Reported Impact of Tobacco Marketing and Promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Heley, Kathryn; Pierce, John P; Niaura, Ray; Strong, David; Abrams, David

    2017-12-13

    The role of tobacco marketing in tobacco use, particularly among the vulnerable ethnic and socioeconomic sub-populations is a regulatory priority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There currently exist both ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the use of tobacco products. Monitoring such inequalities in exposure to tobacco marketing is essential to inform tobacco regulatory policy that may reduce known tobacco-related health disparities. We use data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Wave 1 youth survey to examine (1) recalled exposure to and liking of tobacco marketing for cigarettes, non-large cigars, and e-cigarettes, (2) self-reported exposure to specific tobacco marketing tactics, namely coupons, sweepstakes, and free samples, and (3) self-reported impact of tobacco marketing and promotions on product use. Findings indicate that African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely to recall having seen cigarette and non-large cigar ads. Reported exposure to coupons, sweepstakes and free samples also varied ethnically and socioeconomically. African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely than other respondents to report that marketing and promotions as played a role in their tobacco product use. Better understanding of communication inequalities and their influence on product use is needed to inform tobacco regulatory action that may reduce tobacco company efforts to target vulnerable groups. Tobacco education communication campaigns focusing on disproportionately affected groups could help counter the effects of targeted industry marketing.

  3. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...... incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional...... trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated...

  5. The impact of socio-economic status on incidence of AIDS cases in Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Godoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted attention to the issue of the importance of social indicators in disease reduction. The objective of this paper is to analyze the statistical association between the reported AIDS cases and some socioeconomic variables. We analyzed a sample of 1,994 Brazilian municipalities with AIDS cases reported in 1991 and 2000. The variables analyzed are: AIDS incidence rate per capita, illiteracy rate, Gini Index, per capita income, access to electricity and television, life expectancy at birth. The approach used in this study was econometric panel data model. The results of this analysis show that socioeconomic variables are important for understanding the incidence of AIDS cases in Brazil, and are important for the design of public policies to combat the increasing incidence of HIV / AIDS, also show a distinct pattern to found in the literature for African countries.

  6. Socio-Economic Factors’ Impact on the Offline Networking: A Quantitative Analysis of Albanian Business

    OpenAIRE

    Besa Shahini

    2016-01-01

    It exists so many studies and research on networks, especially on business networks, but still there is a little research which explores the factors that influence a manager's’ willingness to participate in business networks. Some of the socio-economic factors that moderate this participation are explored through this paper and the focus is based on offline face-to-face networking activities between companies, especially in an Albanian context. The research findings shows how the ...

  7. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  8. AN IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES OF THE REGION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa B. Kalmykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to assessment of a stability of socio-economic development of the region with use of elasticity coefficients is given in the article. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis the author constructs the dependence equations between the indicators of the region’s development and environment’s conditions. That makes it possible to evaluate the influence of social and economic processes on the ecosystem of the region.

  9. Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Jeyaraj, Anita; Palani, Gopal; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs) of Chennai city. Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P impact (P impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%). Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program.

  10. What is the impact of socio-economic inequalities on the use of mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Jones, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Amartya Sen, who received the Nobel Prize for Economics, has demonstrated that the incidence of deprivation, in terms of capability, can be surprisingly high even in the most developed countries of the world. The study of socio-economic inequalities, in relation to the utilisation of health services, is a priority for epidemiological research. Socio-economic status (SES) has no universal definition. Within the international research literature, SES has been related to social class, social position, occupational status, educational attainment, income, wealth and standard of living. Existing research studies have shown that people from a more deprived social background, with a lower SES, are more likely to have a higher psychiatric morbidity. Many studies show that SES influences psychiatric services utilization, however the real factors linking SES and mental health services utilisation remain unclear. In this editorial we discuss what is currently known about the relationship between SES and the use of mental health services. We also make an argument for why we believe there is still much to uncover in this field, to understand fully how individuals are influenced by their personal socio-economic status, or the neighbourhood in which they live, in terms of their use of mental health services. Further research in this area will help clarify what interventions are required to provide greater equality in access to mental health services.

  11. Delay to Reconstruction of the Adolescent Anterior Cruciate Ligament: The Socioeconomic Impact on Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Justin T; Carry, Patrick M; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Spruiell, Murray; Heare, Austin; Mayo, Meredith; Vidal, Armando F

    2014-08-01

    A delay in pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is associated with an increase in the number of concomitant meniscal and chondral injuries. Factors that contribute to this delay have not been well described. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are related to ACL surgery timing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All subjects who underwent primary ACL reconstruction at a single tertiary pediatric hospital between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Variables included concomitant knee injuries (cartilage or meniscus injuries requiring additional operative treatment) and chronologic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analyses were used to identify factors related to ACL surgery timing. The mean age of the 272 subjects was 15.2 ± 2.12 years. Time to surgery was significantly different among subjects who required multiple additional surgical procedures at time of ACL reconstruction (median, 3.3 months) compared with subjects with 1 (median, 2.0 months) or no additional injuries (median, 1.6 months). Subjects underwent ACL reconstruction significantly sooner if they were older at the time of injury (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2 per 1 year; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P socioeconomic and demographic factors and ACL surgery timing to optimize outcomes.

  12. Impact of living and socioeconomic characteristics on cardiovascular risk in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Abboud, Halim; Labreuche, Julien; Arauz, Antonio; Bryer, Alan; Lavados, Pablo M; Massaro, Ayrton; Munoz Collazos, Mario; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Yamout, Bassem I; Vicaut, Eric

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to stratify the risk of vascular event recurrence in patients with cerebral infarction according to living and socioeconomic characteristics and geographic region. The Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular Disease (OPTIC) study is an international prospective study of patients aged 45 years or older who required secondary prevention of stroke [following either an acute transient ischemic attack, minor ischemic strokes, or recent (less than six-months previous), stable, first-ever, nondisabling ischemic stroke]. A total 3635 patients from 245 centers in 17 countries in four regions (Latin America, Middle East, North Africa, South Africa) were enrolled between 2007 and 2008. The outcome measure was the two-year rate of a composite of major vascular events (vascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke). During the two-year follow-up period, 516 patients experienced at least one major cardiovascular event, resulting in an event rate of 15·6% (95% confidence interval 14·4-16·9%). Event rates varied across geographical region (P socioeconomic conditions (from 13·4% to 47·9%, adjusted P value for trend socioeconomic variables. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Design Population based cohort study. Setting England. Population More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Main outcome measures Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. Results One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Conclusions Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. PMID:29540358

  14. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakou, Aimilia; Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-03-14

    To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Population based cohort study. England. More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The Impact of Downsizing on the Socio-Economics Condition on Affected Employees. The Case of Pakistan International Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Saif; Khalid Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Muh Saqib Khan; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Bakhtiar Khan

    2013-01-01

    This research study examines the process of downsizing and is impact on the socio-economic condition of affected employee. It was conducted in September 2008 in different areas of NWFP namely district Bannu, Tank, Lakki Marwat and D.I. Khan. A sample of 40 people was taken for this purpose. The average score of the respondent on the instruction of downsizing in the organization show s that mostly affected employees did not like the downsizing process. In particular they responded that downsiz...

  16. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.

  17. Report on the socio-economic impact of Natural Rubber cultivation under the block planting scheme in Tripura

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Joby; George K., Tharian; S.K, Dey

    2010-01-01

    The study is a pioneering attempt to assess the socio-economic impact of the Block Planting Scheme (BPS) from the angle of the beneficiaries,implementing agencies and the policymakers.The report is based on the primary information gathered from 480 households drawn from Block Planting Units with mature (Mature BPUs)and immature (Immature BPUs) area under Natural Rubber (NR) as well as households attached to Group Processing Scheme (GPUs) with mature area under NR during the year 2008.The trip...

  18. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  19. Methods for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments: implications for nuclear repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the major methods presently available for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments and includes discussion of the implications and applications of such methods for nuclear-waste-repository siting are provided. The report: (1) summarizes conceptual approaches underlying, and methodological alternatives for, the conduct of impact assessments in each substantive area, and then enumerates advantages and disadvantages of each alternative; (2) describes factors related to the impact-assessment process, impact events, and the characteristics of rural areas that affect the magnitude and distribution of impacts and the assessment of impacts in each area; (3) provides a detailed review of those methodologies actually used in impact assessment for each area, describes advantages and problems encountered in the use of each method, and identifies the frequency of use and the general level of acceptance of each technique; and (4) summarizes the implications of each area of projection for the repository-siting process, the applicability of the methods for each area to the special and standard features of repositories, and makes general recommendations concerning specific methods and procedures that should be incorporated in assessments for siting areas

  20. Ecosystem service provision in a changing Europe: adapting to the impacts of combined climate and socio-economic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Robert W; Smith, Alison C; Harrison, Paula A; Hanganu, Diana

    Future patterns of European ecosystem services provision are likely to vary significantly as a result of climatic and socio-economic change and the implementation of adaptation strategies. However, there is little research in mapping future ecosystem services and no integrated assessment approach to map the combined impacts of these drivers. Map changing patterns in ecosystem services for different European futures and (a) identify the role of driving forces; (b) explore the potential influence of different adaptation options. The CLIMSAVE integrated assessment platform is used to map spatial patterns in services (food, water and timber provision, atmospheric regulation, biodiversity existence/bequest, landscape experience and land use diversity) for a number of combined climatic and socio-economic scenarios. Eight adaptation strategies are explored within each scenario. Future service provision (particularly water provision) will be significantly impacted by climate change. Socio-economic changes shift patterns of service provision: more dystopian societies focus on food provision at the expense of other services. Adaptation options offer significant opportunities, but may necessitate trade-offs between services, particularly between agriculture- and forestry-related services. Unavoidable trade-offs between regions (particularly South-North) are also identified in some scenarios. Coordinating adaptation across regions and sectors will be essential to ensure that all needs are met: a factor that will become increasingly pressing under dystopian futures where inter-regional cooperation breaks down. Integrated assessment enables exploration of interactions and trade-offs between ecosystem services, highlighting the importance of taking account of complex cross-sectoral interactions under different future scenarios of planning adaptation responses.

  1. The impact of age at diagnosis on socioeconomic inequalities in adult cancer survival in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Ula; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the age at which persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival become apparent may help motivate and support targeting of cancer site-specific interventions, and tailoring guidelines to patients at higher risk. We analysed data on more than 40,000 patients diagnosed in England with one of three common cancers in men and women, breast, colon and lung, 2001-2005 with follow-up to the end of 2011. We estimated net survival for each of the five deprivation categories (affluent, 2, 3, 4, deprived), cancer site, sex and age group (15-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 and 75-99 years). The magnitude and pattern of the age specific socioeconomic inequalities in survival was different for breast, colon and lung. For breast cancer the deprivation gap in 1-year survival widened with increasing age at diagnosis, whereas the opposite was true for lung cancer, with colon cancer having an intermediate pattern. The 'deprivation gap' in 1-year breast cancer survival widened steadily from -0.8% for women diagnosed at 15-44 years to -4.8% for women diagnosed at 75-99 years, and was the widest for women diagnosed at 65-74 years for 5- and 10-year survival. For colon cancer in men, the gap was widest in patients diagnosed aged 55-64 for 1-, 5- and 10-year survival. For lung cancer, the 'deprivation gap' in survival in patients diagnoses aged 15-44 years was more than 10% for 1-year survival in men and for 1- and 5-year survival in women. Our findings suggest that reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in survival will require updating of current guidelines to ensure the availability of optimal treatment and appropriate management of lung cancer patients in all age groups and older patients in deprived groups with breast or colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  3. The socio-economic impacts on regional areas as a result of new nuclear construction and nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Large social and economic impacts are caused by new nuclear construction and eventual shutdown of operations and decommissioning. When new construction begins, the impact on the local area is enormous. The influx of construction workers and businesses to provide services and goods usually overwhelms the area which previously may have had a minimal amount of infrastructure and little population. Also, given that many of the current nuclear facilities worldwide are located in somewhat remote regions, they have become the primary source of jobs for those regions. When these facilities shut down and go into decommissioning, there can be several adverse effects upon the region or area. This paper will address some of the primary socio-economic influences of both new nuclear construction and subsequent decommissioning. (author)

  4. Socio-Economic Factors’ Impact on the Offline Networking: A Quantitative Analysis of Albanian Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Shahini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It exists so many studies and research on networks, especially on business networks, but still there is a little research which explores the factors that influence a manager's’ willingness to participate in business networks. Some of the socio-economic factors that moderate this participation are explored through this paper and the focus is based on offline face-to-face networking activities between companies, especially in an Albanian context. The research findings shows how the socio-economic factors such as gender, age, position and education level, influence the participation of such a business network moderated by the personal networking behavior of an individual. The study is based on a quantitative analysis of Albanian business member of the business networks. The results suggest that these socio –economic effects are important, but they do not come first in the perception of the process. What is important, the analysis, furthermore, finds that personal behavior and attitude are to be considered as key issues when it comes to participation in offline business networks.

  5. THE IMPACT OF IFRS NORMS ON INTERNAL GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS WITH REGARD TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya HERGLI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS adoption on internal governance mechanisms with regard to socio-economic context. Empirical investigation was conducted to assess whether a company and an individual specifications can be presented as part of a general pattern. The results confirm that IFRS framework has introduced a new design of the accounting formalism facing a more complex activity leading to enlargement the discretionary space. Socio-economic factors explain perfectly the corporate governance behaviors and confirmed that the less powerful members of our firms sample expect and accept that power is distributed unequally, the leaders prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups, the management positions are generally held by men than by women, these members are threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and finally, managers stand for the fostering in a society of pragmatic virtues oriented to future rewards, in particular perseverance, thrift and adapting to changing circumstances.

  6. Socio-economic impacts of low-carbon power generation portfolios: Strategies with and without CCS for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelbl, Barbara S.; Broek, Machteld A. van den; Wilting, Harry C.; Sanders, Mark W.J.L.; Bulavskaya, Tatyana; Wood, Richard; Faaij, André P.C.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare GHG mitigation policy including or excluding CCS on socio-economic impacts for the Netherlands. • We simulate these policy options in a global multiregional Input-Output Model with detailed bottom-up technology data. • Economy-wide differentials between these mitigation policies are small for Employment, GDP and Imports. • Notable impacts are found for the energy sector and some upstream sectors (natural gas, construction). • This pattern shows to base a choice on macroeconomic impacts is hard and it will affect strong and vested interests. - Abstract: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) could be an interesting option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands. This study compares a mitigation strategy for the Dutch power sector that includes CCS to one without on several socio-economic indicators. In particular, we calculate incremental gross value added (GVA), employment and import dependency impacts of two such low-carbon power production portfolios for the Netherlands. We combine technology specific techno-economic bottom-up data with a macro-economic multi-regional Input-Output-Table containing high sectoral detail. For the total economy, we find the differences between these scenarios to be small. Still, gross value added, and employment are lower under the CCS-inclusive strategy, while import dependency is higher. For the power sector, the differences between the scenarios are, however, considerable. Furthermore, our analysis shows that also for other sectors the differences between the scenarios could be large. For instance, a CCS-exclusive strategy leads to considerably higher GVA and employment in domestic construction services, while the CCS-inclusive strategy comes with considerably higher GVA and employment for natural gas mining and related upstream sectors.

  7. Glastonbury Festival 2007: The Socio-Economic Impacts on the Host Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Event tourism, particularly festival tourism, is increasingly becoming a focus for tourism research. There are numerous impacts of festival tourism to the tourism industry and they often have numerous effects upon the host community. This research investigates the economic and social impacts of Glastonbury Festival 2007 on the host community. The research estimates a total economic impact on the immediate and the wider geographical area and gains an insight into the social impacts of the F...

  8. Preliminary matrix model for quantifying and balancing the socio-economic impact of alternative cooling system technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, D.P.; Salomon, S.N.; Pollnow, L.A.; Spangler, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of environmental, including socio-economic, impacts of alternative technologies or courses of action is made difficult by the inability to adequately quantify the impacts. Matrix methods offer a set of techniques which allows the analyst to compare the relative impacts of alternative technologies or actions. Work is underway to develop and adapt these techniques to be used in assessing the environmental impacts of alternative cooling systems, and other alternative technological and siting options

  9. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  10. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  11. Impact of socioeconomic status on survival for patients with anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daniel; Gold, Heather T; Schreiber, David; Leichman, Lawrence P; Sherman, Scott E; Becker, Daniel J

    2018-04-15

    Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included. Socioeconomic status was defined by census-tract MHI level and divided into quintiles. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression were used to study predictors of survival and radiotherapy receipt. A total of 9550 cases of SCCA were included. The median age of the patients was 58 years, 63% were female, 85% were white, and 38% were married. In multivariable analyses, patients living in areas with lower MHI were found to have worse overall survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS) compared with those in the highest income areas. Mortality hazard ratios for lowest to highest income were 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.18-1.49), 1.31 (95% CI, 1.16-1.48), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.34), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.03-1.30). The hazard ratios for CSS similarly ranged from 1.34 to 1.22 for lowest to highest income. Older age, black race, male sex, unmarried marital status, an earlier year of diagnosis, higher tumor grade, and later American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease also were associated with worse CSS. Income was not found to be associated with the odds of initiating radiotherapy in multivariable analysis (odds ratio of 0.87 for lowest to highest income level; 95% CI, 0.63-1.20). MHI appears to independently predict CSS and overall survival in patients with SCCA. Black race was found to remain a predictor of SCCA survival despite controlling for income. Further study is needed to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic inequalities affect cancer care and

  12. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geographical distance on the extent of socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic is assessed by combining two different research approaches. First, we survey how people living in municipalities in the vicinity of the power plant perceive impacts on their personal quality of life. Second, we explore the effects of the power plant on regional development by analysing long-term statistical data about the unemployment rate, the share of workers in the energy sector and overall job opportunities in the respective municipalities. The results indicate that the power plant has had significant positive impacts on surrounding communities both as perceived by residents and as evidenced by the statistical data. The level of impacts is, however, significantly influenced by the spatial and social distances of communities and individuals from the power plant. The perception of positive impacts correlates with geographical proximity to the power plant, while the hypothetical distance where positive effects on the quality of life are no longer perceived was estimated at about 15 km. Positive effects are also more likely to be reported by highly educated, young and middle-aged and economically active persons, whose work is connected to the power plant.

  13. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Denner, M.; Vouilloux, F.; Foucher, L.; Serviere, M.; Vila d'Abadal Serra, M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  14. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...

  15. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic status on disease phenotype, genomic landscape and outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaglio, Francesca; Bedair, Khaled; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Groves, Michael J; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Hothersall, Eleanor J; Campbell, Peter J; Bowen, David T; Tauro, Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the biological and clinical characteristics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but a role for socioeconomic environment remains unclear. Here, socioeconomic status (SES) for 283 MDS patients was estimated using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation tool. Indices were assigned to quintile categorical indicators ranked from SES1 (lowest) to SES5 (highest). Clinicopathological features and outcomes between SES quintiles containing 15%, 20%, 19%, 30% and 16% of patients were compared. Prognostic scores identified lower-risk MDS in 82% of patients, with higher-risk disease in 18%. SES quintiles did not associate with age, gender, cytogenetics, International Prognostic scores or, in sub-analysis (n = 95), driver mutations. The odds ratio of a diagnosis of refractory anaemia was greater than other MDS sub-types in SES5 (OR 1·9, P = 0·024). Most patients (91%) exclusively received supportive care. SES did not associate with leukaemic transformation or cause of death. Cox regression models confirmed male gender (P < 0·05), disease-risk (P < 0·0001) and age (P < 0·01) as independent predictors of leukaemia-free survival, with leukaemic transformation an additional determinant of overall survival (P = 0·07). Thus, if access to healthcare is equitable, SES does not determine disease biology or survival in MDS patients receiving supportive treatment; additional studies are required to determine whether outcomes following disease-modifying therapies are influenced by SES. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Ananthakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs of Chennai city. Results: Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P < 0.001. More patients with extra-pulmonary disease (44.4% and patients belonging to joint families (40.7% perceived economic impact (P < 0.05. Conclusion: After 8 years of DOTS implementation, the present study has shown that with the availability of DOTS, percentage of patients who mortgaged assets or took loans has reduced. Social impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%. Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program.

  19. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. Methods We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. Results All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Conclusion Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects

  20. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Hoffmann, Rasmus; van Hedel, Karen; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-04-20

    The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching) can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects on population-level health inequalities. Increased use of the

  1. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plant siting: a case study of two New England communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    An examination is presented of the social, economic and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. The work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy-generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing

  2. Modeling future flows of the Volta River system: Impacts of climate change and socio-economic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Appeaning Addo, Kwasi; Amisigo, Barnabas; Macadam, Ian; Janes, Tamara; Crossman, Jill; Nicholls, Robert J; McCartney, Matthew; Rodda, Harvey J E

    2018-05-14

    As the scientific consensus concerning global climate change has increased in recent decades, research on potential impacts of climate change on water resources has been given high importance. However in Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have fully evaluated the potential implications of climate change to their water resource systems. The Volta River is one of the major rivers in Africa covering six riparian countries (mainly Ghana and Burkina Faso). It is a principal water source for approximately 24 million people in the region. The catchment is primarily agricultural providing food supplies to rural areas, demonstrating the classic water, food, energy nexus. In this study an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) was applied to the whole Volta River system to simulate flow in the rivers and at the outlet of the artificial Lake Volta. High-resolution climate scenarios downscaled from three different Global Climate Models (CNRM-CM5, HadGEM2-ES and CanESM2), have been used to drive the INCA model and to assess changes in flow by 2050s and 2090s under the high climate forcing scenario RCP8.5. Results show that peak flows during the monsoon months could increase into the future. The duration of high flow could become longer compared to the recent condition. In addition, we considered three different socio-economic scenarios. As an example, under the combined impact from climate change from downscaling CNRM-CM5 and medium+ (high economic growth) socio-economic changes, the extreme high flows (Q5) of the Black Volta River are projected to increase 11% and 36% at 2050s and 2090s, respectively. Lake Volta outflow would increase +1% and +5% at 2050s and 2090s, respectively, under the same scenario. The effects of changing socio-economic conditions on flow are minor compared to the climate change impact. These results will provide valuable information assisting future water resource development and adaptive strategies in the Volta Basin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. The impact of smoke-free legislation on reducing exposure to secondhand smoke: differences across gender and socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-Wei; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2015-01-01

    On 11 January 2009, Taiwan expanded its smoke-free legislation to all indoor public places and workplaces. This study examined the impact of this policy on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in adult non-smokers, across gender and socioeconomic status groups (SES). An annual sample of about 13,000-14,000 non-smokers was drawn from cross-sectional nationwide data of Taiwan Adult Tobacco Behavior Surveys during 2005-2011. Logistic regressions were used to analyse the aggregate data to estimate the association between the 2009 smoke-free legislation and SHS exposures in homes and workplaces. Interaction terms were used to examine the impact of the 2009 smoke-free policy on reducing differences in SHS exposure across gender, education and income groups. The 2009 policy reduced the odds of SHS exposure in homes in 2009 (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.84) and in workplaces (year 2009: OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.62; year 2010: OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). The model with interaction terms showed that men were more likely than women to be exposed to workplace SHS (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.27) but were less likely to be exposed to home SHS (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86). SHS exposure in homes was significantly related to lower socioeconomic status, but the 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the difference in SHS exposure across education levels. The 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the SHS exposure for non-smokers. However, this impact on home SHS did not persist after 2009, and the effect of protection was unequal across gender and SES groups. Thus, further enforcement of smoking restrictions would be needed to reduce the risk of SHS exposure and improve protection against SHS risk among parts of the population with lower socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Impact of socioeconomic inequalities on geographic disparities in cancer incidence: comparison of methods for spatial disease mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goungounga, Juste Aristide; Gaudart, Jean; Colonna, Marc; Giorgi, Roch

    2016-10-12

    The reliability of spatial statistics is often put into question because real spatial variations may not be found, especially in heterogeneous areas. Our objective was to compare empirically different cluster detection methods. We assessed their ability to find spatial clusters of cancer cases and evaluated the impact of the socioeconomic status (e.g., the Townsend index) on cancer incidence. Moran's I, the empirical Bayes index (EBI), and Potthoff-Whittinghill test were used to investigate the general clustering. The local cluster detection methods were: i) the spatial oblique decision tree (SpODT); ii) the spatial scan statistic of Kulldorff (SaTScan); and, iii) the hierarchical Bayesian spatial modeling (HBSM) in a univariate and multivariate setting. These methods were used with and without introducing the Townsend index of socioeconomic deprivation known to be related to the distribution of cancer incidence. Incidence data stemmed from the Cancer Registry of Isère and were limited to prostate, lung, colon-rectum, and bladder cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2007 in men only. The study found a spatial heterogeneity (p 1.2). The multivariate HBSM found a spatial correlation between lung and bladder cancers (r = 0.6). In spatial analysis of cancer incidence, SpODT and HBSM may be used not only for cluster detection but also for searching for confounding or etiological factors in small areas. Moreover, the multivariate HBSM offers a flexible and meaningful modeling of spatial variations; it shows plausible previously unknown associations between various cancers.

  5. Mitigation of socio-economic impacts due to the construction of energy projects in rural communities: an evaluation of the Hartsville nuclear power plant transportation-mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of a commuter ride-sharing program in mitigating the harmful socio-economic impacts of a short-term, labor-intensive nuclear-power-plant construction project. The major hypothesis is that transportation-mitigation programs are more cost-effective in reducing the undesirable socio-economic impacts of large-scale construction projects than programs designed to mitigate impacts through the provision of public services for migrating workers. The dissertation begins by delineating the socio-economic effects of large-scale construction projects in rural areas. It proceeds to show how some of the deleterious impacts were mitigated using a commuter ride-sharing program. After the range of potential socio-economic impacts was established, a framework was developed to evaluate the effects of the transportation-mitigation program in mediating the harmful impacts. The framework involved the integration of the cost-benefit technique with social-impact assessment. The evaluation was grounded in a comparative framework whereby the Hartsville project community was compared with a similar community undergoing the construction of a nuclear power plant but without a commuter ride-sharing program, and a community not experiencing a major construction project. The research findings indicated that the transportation-mitigation program substantially reduced the in-migration of construction workers into the Hartsville-Trousdale County area. Further, the program was cost effective, with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.5 and net benefits totalling 28 million dollars

  6. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of health insurance on physical functioning among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Richardson, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance have been viewed as significant contributors to health disparities in the United States. However, few studies have examined their impact on physical functioning over time, especially in later life. The current study investigated the impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance on individuals' growth trajectories in physical functioning, as measured by activities of daily living. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (1994-2006) were used for this study, 6519 black and white adults who provided in-depth information about health, socioeconomic, financial and health insurance information were analysed. Latent growth curve modelling was used to estimate the initial level of physical functioning and its rate of change over time. Results showed that higher level of income and assets and having private health insurance significantly predicted better physical functioning. In particular, decline in physical functioning was slower among those who had private health insurance. Interestingly, changes in economic status, such as decreases in income and assets, had a greater impact on women's physical functioning than on men's. Black adults did not suffer more rapid declines in physical functioning than white adults after controlling for socioeconomic status. The current longitudinal study suggested that anti-poverty and health insurance policies should be enhanced to reduce the negative impact of socioeconomic inequalities on physical functioning throughout an individual's life course. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Achieving profound anesthesia using the intraosseous technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, K A

    1997-10-01

    The intraosseous technique has been described as a useful adjunct to primary anesthetic administration. It has several advantages (Table 3) over other supplemental techniques in that it is relatively simple to implement into routine practice, it affords fast, predictable results, and it is relatively painless. The technique has been shown to be very successful in achieving profound pulpal anesthesia when administered as a supplement to the inferior alveolar nerve block and is effective in achieving profound anesthesia in irreversibly inflamed teeth, especially mandibular molars.

  8. Measuring the socio-economic impacts of agroforestry projects in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Mercer; Belita Vega; Hermie Francisco; Robin Maille

    1994-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that agroforestry projects can provide both ecological and economic benefits. Most agroforestry project evaluations, however, have failed to adequately assess the soci0-economic impacts. For example, a review of 108 agroforestry project impact evaluations by Sara Scherr of IFPRJ reported that only 8% assessed economic costs or benefits, 5%...

  9. Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

  10. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Weronika Wuenstel, Justyna; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence. The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059

  12. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gvs

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day 'plague' and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  13. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy GVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is aptly called the modern day ′plague′ and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  14. Exploring the impact of network tariffs on household electricity expenditures using load profiles and socio-economic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarova, Valeriya; Engel, Dominik; Ferner, Cornelia; Kollmann, Andrea; Reichl, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Growing self-generation and storage are expected to cause significant changes in residential electricity utilization patterns. Commonly applied volumetric network tariffs may induce imbalance between different groups of households and their respective contribution to recovering the operating costs of the grid. Understanding consumer behaviour and appliance usage together with socio-economic factors can help regulatory authorities to adapt network tariffs to new circumstances in a fair way. Here, we assess the effects of 11 network tariff scenarios on household budgets using real load profiles from 765 households. Thus we explore the possibly disruptive impact of applying peak-load-based tariffs on the budgets of households when they have been mainly charged for consumed volumes before. Our analysis estimates the change in household network expenditure for different combinations of energy, peak and fixed charges, and can help to design tariffs that recover the costs needed for the sustainable operation of the grid.

  15. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  16. The Oil Industry in Macaé: characteristics and socioeconomic impacts under the perspective of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz de Mello Loureiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and discuss the main socioeconomic aspects of the evolutionary process of local development, after the arrival of the oil industry in Macaé. The methodology consisted of an exploratory and documentary research to base the study on the concepts of sustainability and local development. Results show the existing social externalities, the exploratory and centralized model of the undertaking, its impacts on local enterprises and society, and the absence of a better planning and management shared among the social, business and political actors involved. These findings are supported by experiences reported worldwide, and are associated with distributive environmental conflicts. Therefore, one can consider as indicative, the need for a more useful discussion about the spatial, cultural, political and social problems of the regions as a tool able to provide planned actions towards sustainability.

  17. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  18. Socioeconomic impact assessment and nuclear power plant licensing, Greene County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the setting, participants and status of the joint federal-state hearings, findings of the FES, problems of conducting social impact assessment (SIA) for the GCNPP, and the nature and effect of public participation in the formal, legalistic hearings process. The GCNPP is evaluated in terms of trends in Atomic Energy Commission-Nuclear Regulatory Commission social impact assessments from 1972 to 1979. Progress in the adequacy and relevance of social impact assessment is defined according to steps in a lengthy, evolutionary legitimation process

  19. Socioeconomic impact assessment and nuclear power plant licensing, Greene County, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the setting, participants and status of the joint federal-state hearings, findings of the FES, problems of conducting social impact assessment (SIA) for the GCNPP, and the nature and effect of public participation in the formal, legalistic hearings process. The GCNPP is evaluated in terms of trends in Atomic Energy Commission-Nuclear Regulatory Commission social impact assessments from 1972 to 1979. Progress in the adequacy and relevance of social impact assessment is defined according to steps in a lengthy, evolutionary legitimation process.

  20. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

  1. Evaluation of methamphetamine-associated socioeconomic status and addictive behaviors, and their impact on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Haertel-Petri, Roland; Kesting, Marco R

    2015-11-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. In cooperation with two centers for addiction medicine, we assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine users and 100 matched-pair controls between March 2012 and November 2013. We investigated their socioeconomic status, details of methamphetamine consumption behavior, collateral consumption of sugar beverages, nicotine alcohol, and other addictive substances including cannabis, opioids, other stimulants, and hallucinogens, and dental care. We found considerably greater unstable social circumstances, a high collateral consumption of substances with pathogenic potential for the stomatognathic system, and significantly poorer dental care in the methamphetamine-user group. Various factors have to be considered with regard to methamphetamine use and its influence on oral health. These factors can trigger potential damage by the drug methamphetamine possibly leading to the symptoms of "Meth Mouth", and should be considered in prevention and therapy strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Backup_of_23. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF STROKE ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    problems. The study aimed at assessing the socio- economic impact of stroke in households in Livingstone district. A total ... economic challenges after stroke with a few of them were ..... 20 Trainer T, The transition; Getting to a sustainable and.

  3. A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management ... of households earning incomes below the poverty line dropped from 61% in ...... involve traditional leadership which is playing an active role in.

  4. The socio-economic impact of the Lake Chad resettlement scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    will change the lives of current and future residents of a ... community's fiscal balance sheet or local natural ... resettlement scheme deserves environmental impact assessment ..... work and others (especially the returnees) could not even.

  5. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  6. Scoring environmental and socioeconomic impacts of alien plants invasive in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumlerová, Zuzana; Vila, M.; Pergl, Jan; Nentwig, W.; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2016), s. 3697-3711 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasion impacts * scoring * Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  7. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani; Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest v...

  8. The socio-economic impacts of Singaporean cross-border tourism in Malaysia and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border tourism is often proposed by governments as an incentive for economic growth, but critics have suggested that its impacts are, in fact, overplayed. This paper\\ud presents research in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle. It presents a study of Singaporean cross-border tourism to its neighbours and discusses its\\ud economic impacts in two locations: Kukup, a traditional fishing village in Malaysia; and Bintan island in Indonesia. The project examined the broad economic...

  9. Socio-economic Impact Analysis for Near Real-Time Flood Detection in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, P.; Ahamed, A.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood events pose a severe threat to communities in the Lower Mekong River Basin. The combination of population growth, urbanization, and economic development exacerbate the impacts of these flood events. Flood damage assessments are frequently used to quantify the economic losses in the wake of storms. These assessments are critical for understanding the effects of flooding on the local population, and for informing decision-makers about future risks. Remote sensing systems provide a valuable tool for monitoring flood conditions and assessing their severity more rapidly than traditional post-event evaluations. The frequency and severity of extreme flood events are projected to increase, further illustrating the need for improved flood monitoring and impact analysis. In this study we implement a socio-economic damage model into a decision support tool with near real-time flood detection capabilities (NASA's Project Mekong). Surface water extent for current and historical floods is found using multispectral Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter imagery and the spectral Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) signatures of permanent water bodies (MOD44W). Direct and indirect damages to populations, infrastructure, and agriculture are assessed using the 2011 Southeast Asian flood as a case study. Improved land cover and flood depth assessments result in a more refined understanding of losses throughout the Mekong River Basin. Results suggest that rapid initial estimates of flood impacts can provide valuable information to governments, international agencies, and disaster responders in the wake of extreme flood events.

  10. Socioeconomic disparities in access to ART treatment and the differential impact of a policy that increased consumer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, G M; Hoang, V P; Illingworth, P J

    2013-11-01

    What was the impact on access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment by different socioeconomic status (SES) groups after the introduction of a policy that increased patient out-of-pocket costs? After the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs in Australia, all SES groups experienced a similar percentage reduction in fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age. Higher SES groups experienced a progressively greater reduction in absolute numbers of fresh ART cycles due to existing higher levels of utilization. Australia has supportive public funding arrangements for ARTs. Policies that substantially increase out-of-pocket costs for ART treatment create financial barriers to access and an overall reduction in utilization. Data from the USA suggests that disparities exist in access to ART treatment based on ethnicity, education level and income. Time series analysis of utilization of ART, intrauterine insemination (IUI) and clomiphene citrate by women from varying SES groups before and after the introduction of a change in the level of public funding for ART. Women undertaking fertility treatment in Australia between 2007 and 2010. Women from higher SES quintiles use more ART treatment than those in lower SES quintiles, which likely reflects a greater ability to pay for treatment and a greater need for ART treatment as indicated by the trend to later childbearing. In 2009, 10.13 and 5.17 fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age were performed in women in the highest and lowest SES quintiles respectively. In the 12 months after the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs from ∼$1500 Australian dollars (€1000) to ∼$2500 (€1670) for a fresh IVF cycle, there was a 21-25% reduction in fresh ART cycles across all SES quintiles. The absolute reduction in fresh ART cycles in the highest SES quintile was double that in the lowest SES quintile. In this study, SES was based on the average relative

  11. Comparing projected impacts of cigarette floor price and excise tax policies on socioeconomic disparities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Farrelly, Matthew C; Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-10-01

    About half of all US states have cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs) that require a per cent mark-up on prices, but research suggests they may not be very effective in raising prices. An alternative type of MPL sets a floor price below which packs cannot be sold, and may be more promising. This new type of MPL policy has only been implemented in 1 city, therefore its benefits relative to excise taxes is difficult to assess. We constructed a set of possible state floor price MPL options, and matched them to possible state excise tax hikes designed to produce similar average price increases. Using self-reported price and cigarette consumption data from 23 521 participants in the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, we projected changes in pack prices and cigarette consumption following implementation of each paired MPL and tax option, for lower and higher income groups. We project that state MPLs set at the average reported pack price would raise prices by $0.33 and reduce cigarette consumption by about 4%; a tax with a similar average price effect would reduce consumption by 2.3%. MPLs and taxes that raise average prices by more than $2.00 would reduce consumption by 15.9% and 13.5%, respectively. In all models, we project that MPLs will reduce income-based smoking disparities more than their comparable excise taxes. Floor price cigarette MPLs set at or above what consumers currently report paying could reduce both tobacco use and socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Transport intermodal interchanges: Socio-economic impacts at Lille European metropolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the “City-HUB” FP7 European research project 27 interchanges were studied in nine European countries. It investigated how transport interchanges work from the point of view of governance and the organization of facilities. On this basis a typology of interchanges has been defined for classifying the interchanges and selecting the key elements for improving the interchanges location, construction, and organization of an interchange. The paper focus on the implementation of the City-HUB interchange typology to the case study of Lille European Metropolis (MEL) where two contingent railways stations Lille Flandres and Lille Europe were analysed as a potential unique interchange. Indeed, the article is related to the creation of a joint interchanges able to attract more public transport users than private users such as it is now the case. These two main railways interchanges have different territorial and transport functions (i.e. one is oriented to regional traffic and the other one to national and international traffic). Urban planners and transport authorities would like to connect both stations creating a unique interchange. A key point of the Lille’s City-HUB analysis is related to the involvement of the stakeholders. Their involvement is at the origin of the interactions between City-HUB and its socio-economic and urban context. We demonstrate that combining transport and land use planning policies could boost commercial development, new business offices or housing. The urban City-Hub overcomes its role of transport infrastructure for being a “place”. (Author)

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canadian children, 2004 to 2013: Impact of socioeconomic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K

    2017-06-01

    We recently reported an encouraging decline in the prevalence of overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) in Canadian children from 31% to 27% with stabilization in OB rates at ~13% using national survey data between 2004 and 2013. Although rates were lower for toddlers, girls and those of European (White) race-ethnicity, secular trends persisted after adjustment. In this follow-up study, we explored the ability of socioeconomic status to explain or modify these relationships using the same data set. We analyzed a decade of anthropometric data from 14,014 children aged 3 to 19 years. We explored the influence of income adequacy, education, immigration status, family type (e.g., single-parent) and geographic region by multivariable logistic regression. Data sets included Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and Canadian Health Measures Surveys cycles 2 and 3. Children from higher-income families fared better than their lower-income counterparts in each survey era and demonstrated a significant decline in OW/OB from 29.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3 to 30.8) in 2004 to 2005 to 22.2% (95% CI: 19.8 to 24.6) in 2012 to 2013, Psocioeconomic status variables, such as income and education. Regional variations persisted, with lower rates of OB and OW/OB in British Columbia and higher rates in Atlantic Canada. These results confirm that progress is possible against this important public health challenge, underline the need to better understand sociodemographic risk factors and identify groups at higher risk for possible interventions.

  14. Frequent hospital admissions in Singapore: clinical risk factors and impact of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lian Leng; Tay, Wei Yi; Ng, Matthew Joo Ming; Tan, Shu Yun; Liu, Nan; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2018-01-01

    Frequent admitters to hospitals are high-cost patients who strain finite healthcare resources. However, the exact risk factors for frequent admissions, which can be used to guide risk stratification and design effective interventions locally, remain unknown. Our study aimed to identify the clinical and sociodemographic risk factors associated with frequent hospital admissions in Singapore. An observational study was conducted using retrospective 2014 data from the administrative database at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Variables were identified a priori and included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior healthcare utilisation, and clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for frequent admissions. A total of 16,306 unique patients were analysed and 1,640 (10.1%) patients were classified as frequent admitters. On multivariate logistic regression, 16 variables were independently associated with frequent hospital admissions, including age, cerebrovascular disease, history of malignancy, haemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum albumin, and number of specialist outpatient clinic visits, emergency department visits, admissions preceding index admission and medications dispensed at discharge. Patients staying in public rental housing had a 30% higher risk of being a frequent admitter after adjusting for demographics and clinical conditions. Our study, the first in our knowledge to examine the clinical risk factors for frequent admissions in Singapore, validated the use of public rental housing as a sensitive indicator of area-level socioeconomic status in Singapore. These risk factors can be used to identify high-risk patients in the hospital so that they can receive interventions that reduce readmission risk. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  15. Are interventions to promote healthy eating equally effective for all? Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Orton, Lois; Bromley, Helen; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Taylor-Robinson, David; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Gillespie, Duncan; Moreira, Patricia; Allen, Kirk; Hyseni, Lirije; Calder, Nicola; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret; Capewell, Simon

    2015-05-02

    Interventions to promote healthy eating make a potentially powerful contribution to the primary prevention of non communicable diseases. It is not known whether healthy eating interventions are equally effective among all sections of the population, nor whether they narrow or widen the health gap between rich and poor. We undertook a systematic review of interventions to promote healthy eating to identify whether impacts differ by socioeconomic position (SEP). We searched five bibliographic databases using a pre-piloted search strategy. Retrieved articles were screened independently by two reviewers. Healthier diets were defined as the reduced intake of salt, sugar, trans-fats, saturated fat, total fat, or total calories, or increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and wholegrain. Studies were only included if quantitative results were presented by a measure of SEP. Extracted data were categorised with a modified version of the "4Ps" marketing mix, expanded to 6 "Ps": "Price, Place, Product, Prescriptive, Promotion, and Person". Our search identified 31,887 articles. Following screening, 36 studies were included: 18 "Price" interventions, 6 "Place" interventions, 1 "Product" intervention, zero "Prescriptive" interventions, 4 "Promotion" interventions, and 18 "Person" interventions. "Price" interventions were most effective in groups with lower SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. All interventions that combined taxes and subsidies consistently decreased inequalities. Conversely, interventions categorised as "Person" had a greater impact with increasing SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. All four dietary counselling interventions appear likely to widen inequalities. We did not find any "Prescriptive" interventions and only one "Product" intervention that presented differential results and had no impact by SEP. More "Place" interventions were identified and none of these interventions were judged as likely to widen

  16. Climate challenge 2012: growth and climate change - Socio-economical impacts of climate change. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange-Louboutin, Mylene; Robinet, Olivier; Delalande, Daniel; Reysset, Bertrand; De Perthuis, Christian; Le Treut, Herve; Cottenceau, Jean-Baptiste; Ayong, Alain; Daubaire, Aurelien; Gaudin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The contributions of this conference session proposed comments and discussion on the relationship between climate change and 'green' growth, on the status of scientific knowledge on climate change (from global to local), on the way to perform carbon print assessment and to decide which actions to implement, on the costs and opportunity of impacts of climate change, on the economy of adaptation, on the benefits and costs of the adaptation policy, and on impacts of climate change on employment in quantitative terms and in terms of profession types

  17. The socioeconomic impact of the phasing out of plantations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These groups are (1) forest-dependent communities, (2) stakeholders among the forestry value chain and (3) indirect stakeholders. This study indicates that there are significant differences between the potential impacts of the phasing-out process within the Southern and Western Cape regions. Communities and secondary ...

  18. Nuclear Waste Policy Act and socioeconomic impact mitigation provisions and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Although enormous effort was devoted to the drafting, negotiation, and passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the final product is not without deficiencies. Amont the observations presented in this paper a few are of sufficient import to justify reiteration here. First among those observations is the caveat that the availability of extensive impact mitigation mechanisms should not diminish any effort to prevent or minimize impacts in the first place. A second key point is that although the federal government is responsible for implementing the high-level waste management program, the generators and owners are obligated to pay all costs of implementing the program. And third, the structural flaw in the Act that merits the greatest attention is the probable time lag between occurrence of repository impacts and initiation of impact assistance grants. Though none of the concerns identified in this paper are likely to prove fatal to the high-level waste management effort, some of them could cause anxious moments and difficult situations. Early attention to and resolution of these problems should substantially enhance the overall quality of the high-level waste management program

  19. Socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Ghermandi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification appears as another environmental pressure associated with anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. This paper aims to assess the likely magnitude of this phenomenon in the Mediterranean region. This involves translating expected changes in ocean chemistry into impacts, first on

  20. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Schure, J.M.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  1. A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in order to improve ...

  2. Socio-Economic Impacts of Oil Development in the Niger- Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although crude oil production has boosted Nigeria's economy, the trickle down effects are hardly felt by ordinary members of the host communities. Instead of sharing in the benefit of the oil sector, the local communities are mainly suffering the negative impacts from this development. We suggest that the government and oil ...

  3. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  4. Socioeconomic assessment and impact of social security on outcome in patients admitted with suspected coronary chest pain in the city of salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León de la Fuente, Ricardo A; Naesgaard, Patrycja A; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Woie, Leik; Aarsland, Torbjoern; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with increased mortality from coronary heart disease. We assessed total mortality, cardiac death, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in relation to socioeconomic class and social security in 982 patients consecutively admitted with suspected coronary chest pain, living in the city of Salta, northern Argentina. Patients were divided into three socioeconomic classes based on monthly income, residential area, and insurance coverage. Five-year follow-up data were analyzed accordingly, applying univariate and multivariate analyses. At follow-up, 173 patients (17.6%) had died. In 92 patients (9.4%) death was defined as cardiac, of whom 59 patients (6.0%) were characterized as SCD. In the multivariate analysis, the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiac mortality in the highest as compared to the lowest socioeconomic class were 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.80), P = 0.008, and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.15-0.99), P = 0.047, respectively. Comparing patients in the upper socioeconomic class to patients without healthcare coverage, HRs were 0.46 (95% CI, 0.23-0.94), P = 0.032, and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.14-1.01), P = 0.054, respectively. In conclusion, survival was mainly tied to socioeconomic inequalities in this population, and the impact of a social security program needs further attention.

  5. The impact of socioeconomic status and multimorbidity on mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Jensen, Nikoline; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mercer, Stewart W; Glümer, Charlotte; Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Multimorbidity (MM) is more prevalent among people of lower socioeconomic status (SES), and both MM and SES are associated with higher mortality rates. However, little is known about the relationship between SES, MM, and mortality. This study investigates the association between educational level and mortality, and to what extent MM modifies this association. We followed 239,547 individuals invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (mean follow-up time: 3.8 years). MM was assessed by using information on drug prescriptions and diagnoses for 39 long-term conditions. Data on educational level were provided by Statistics Denmark. Date of death was obtained from the Civil Registration System. Information on lifestyle factors and quality of life was collected from the survey. The main outcomes were overall and premature mortality (death before the age of 75). Of a total of 12,480 deaths, 6,607 (9.5%) were of people with low educational level (LEL) and 1,272 (2.3%) were of people with high educational level (HEL). The mortality rate was higher among people with LEL compared with HEL in groups of people with 0-1 disease (hazard ratio: 2.26, 95% confidence interval: 2.00-2.55) and ≥4 diseases (hazard ratio: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.24), respectively (adjusted model). The absolute number of deaths was six times higher among people with LEL than those with HEL in those with ≥4 diseases. The 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for overall death in those with ≥4 diseases was 5.59% for people with HEL versus 7.27% for people with LEL, and 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for premature death was 2.93% for people with HEL versus 4.04% for people with LEL. Adjusting for potential mediating factors such as lifestyle and quality of life eliminated the statistical association between educational level and mortality in people with MM. Our study suggests that LEL is associated with higher overall and premature mortality and that the

  6. Understanding the impact of socioeconomic differences in breast cancer survival in England and Wales: avoidable deaths and potential gain in expectation of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M J; Andersson, T M-L; Møller, H; Lambert, P C

    2015-02-01

    Socioeconomic differences in cancer patient survival are known to exist for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Standard metrics tend not to place great emphasis on evaluating the actual impact of these differences. We used two alternative, but related, methods of reporting the impact of socioeconomic differences for breast cancer patients in England and Wales. We calculated the average gain in life years for each patient should socioeconomic differences in relative survival be removed and show how this is related to the number of all-cause deaths that could be postponed by removing socioeconomic differences in cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that deprivation differences for women with breast cancer exist and result in women from more deprived areas losing a larger proportion of their life due to a diagnosis of cancer. We also estimate that on average 1.1 years could be gained for a 60 year old breast cancer patient in the most deprived group by improving their relative survival to match the least deprived group. However, our results also show that deprivation differences in general survival have a large impact on life expectancy; showing that over two-thirds of the gap in differential life expectancy is explained by differences in other-cause survival. Socioeconomic differences in relative survival have an impact on life expectancy for patients and result in higher early mortality for more deprived patients. However, differences in general survival across socioeconomic groups explain a larger proportion of the deprivation gap in life expectancy for breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  8. Inferior outcomes for black children with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the impact of socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Alexandra; Chewning, Joseph; Li, Xuelin; Dai, Chen; Whelan, Kimberly; Madan-Swain, Avi; Waterbor, John; Baskin, Monica L; Goldman, Frederick D

    2017-02-01

    While significant improvements have been made for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the United States over the past 20 years, black patients continue to have inferior outcomes. The full impact of socioeconomic variables on outcomes in this minority population is not entirely understood. Disease characteristics, demographic, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables were collected on black (n = 44) and white (n = 178) patients diagnosed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the influence of SES and insurance status on survival. As a cohort, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87% (82-91%), with a median follow-up of 99 months. In univariable analysis, black race was not significantly associated with a higher risk of death or relapse and death. White and black patients with standard-risk leukemia had excellent outcomes, with 97% (91-99%) and 96% (75-99%) 5-year OS, respectively. In contrast, for high-risk disease, white patients had a statistically significant improved 5-year OS rates compared with black patients (79% [68-87%] vs. 52% [28-72%]). Black children were more likely to have public insurance, and, in multivariable analysis, this was associated with a trend toward an improved outcome. Black patients also had poorer census tract-level SES parameters, but these variables were not associated with survival. Our study demonstrates significantly inferior outcomes for black children with high-risk leukemia. These outcome disparities were not related to SES variables, including poverty or private insurance coverage, suggesting the involvement of other factors and highlighting the need for a prospective investigative analysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

  10. Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Fernandes, M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  11. The development of small area socioeconomic data to be utilized for impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Williams, C.; Swanson, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the process by which economic and demographic estimates and projections are prepared to determine the potential economic and demographic impacts that may result from the development of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The process utilized to develop these data consists of various methodologies that are commonly utilized in local and regional studies. This procedure is discussed and the data base used is presented

  12. The Socio-Economic Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hassan Elbeely

    2014-05-01

    Regarding the political impact of GFC, the study finds that the limited means of mass mobilization, and looming uncertainty surrounding Sudan's security and political future should popular protests topple the regime, has disrupted the upsurge of mass protests amongst the grieving citizens, and thus preventing the country to follow the footsteps of its neighboring countries of Egypt and Libya, which were the first Arab countries in the region to witness what has been called the "Arab Spring".

  13. Inconsistency in Reporting Abstention and Heavy Drinking Frequency: Associations with Sex and Socioeconomic Status, and Potential Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, Robyn M.; Connor, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To describe inconsistencies in reporting past-year drinking status and heavy drinking occasions (HDOs) on single questions from two different instruments, and to identify associated characteristics and impacts. Methods: We compared computer-presented Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) with categorical response options, and mental health interview (MHI) with open-ended consumption questions, completed on the same day. Participants were 464 men and 459 women aged 38 (91.7% of surviving birth cohort members). Differences in dichotomous single-item measures of abstention and HDO frequency, associations of inconsistent reporting with sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and survey order, and impacts of instrument choice on associations of alcohol with sex and SES were examined. Results: The AUDIT-C drinking frequency question estimated higher past-year abstention prevalence (AUDIT = 7.6%, MHI = 5.4%), with one-third of AUDIT-C abstainers being MHI drinkers. Only AUDIT-C produced significant sex differences in abstainer prevalence. Inconsistencies in HDO classifications were bidirectional, but with fewer HDOs reported on the MHI than AUDIT-C question. Lower SES was associated with inconsistency in abstention and weekly+ HDOs. Abstention and higher HDO frequency were associated with lower SES overall, but sex-specific associations differed by instrument. Conclusions: In this context, data collection method affected findings, with inconsistencies in abstention reports having most impact. Future studies should: (a) confirm self-reported abstention; (b) consider piloting data collection methods in target populations; (c) expect impacts of sex and SES on measurements and analyses. PMID:25648932

  14. Sustainability, Health and Environmental Metrics: Impact on Ranking and Associations with Socioeconomic Measures for 50 U.S. Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste and materials management, land use planning, transportation and infrastructure including water and energy can have indirect or direct beneficial impacts on the environment and public health. The potential for impact, however, is rarely viewed in an integrated fashion. To facilitate such an integrated view in support of community-based policy decision making, we catalogued and evaluated associations between common, publically available, Environmental (e, Health (h, and Sustainability (s metrics and sociodemographic measurements (n = 10 for 50 populous U.S. cities. E, H, S indices combined from two sources were derived from component (e (h (s metrics for each city. A composite EHS Index was derived to reflect the integration across the E, H, and S indices. Rank order of high performing cities was highly dependent on the E, H and S indices considered. When viewed together with sociodemographic measurements, our analyses further the understanding of the interplay between these broad categories and reveal significant sociodemographic disparities (e.g., race, education, income associated with low performing cities. Our analyses demonstrate how publically available environmental, health, sustainability and socioeconomic data sets can be used to better understand interconnections between these diverse domains for more holistic community assessments.

  15. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  16. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  17. Impact of body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position in early life on the epigenome: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Jane; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-07-05

    Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords. Additional studies will be identified through manual searching of reference lists. Two independent researchers will assess the eligibility and quality of each study, with disagreements being resolved through discussion or a third reviewer. Studies will be included if they have epigenetic markers measured either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and, have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), are in the English language and are from a sample of community-dwelling participants. This protocol will be used to collate the evidence for the effect of early life factors on the epigenome. Findings will form a component of a wider research study examining epigenetic responses to exposures in early life and over the life course and its impact on healthy ageing using data from population-based cohort studies. PROSPERO CRD42016050193.

  18. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  19. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Achievement of High School Students Participating in a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…

  20. Impact of Dietary, Socioeconomic, and Physical Factors on Obese and Overweight Schoolchildren Living in Sidi-Bel-Abbes (West of Algeria and Ain Defla (Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didaoui Hayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of environmental factors; food, socio-economic, and physical activity, on a group of obese children living in Ain-Defla (Center Algeria and Sidi-Bel-Abbes (West Algeria.

  1. Signal processing for the profoundly deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothyroyd, A

    1990-01-01

    Profound deafness, defined here as a hearing loss in excess of 90 dB, is characterized by high thresholds, reduced hearing range in the intensity and frequency domains, and poor resolution in the frequency and time domains. The high thresholds call for hearing aids with unusually high gains or remote microphones that can be placed close to the signal source. The former option creates acoustic feedback problems for which digital signal processing may yet offer solutions. The latter option calls for carrier wave technology that is already available. The reduced frequency and intensity ranges would appear to call for frequency and/or amplitude compression. It might also be argued, however, that any attempts to compress the acoustic signal into the limited hearing range of the profoundly deaf will be counterproductive because of poor frequency and time resolution, especially when the signal is present in noise. In experiments with a 2-channel compression system, only 1 of 9 subjects showed an improvement of perception with the introduction of fast-release (20 ms) compression. The other 8 experienced no benefit or a slight deterioration of performance. These results support the concept of providing the profoundly deaf with simpler, rather than more complex, patterns, perhaps through the use of feature extraction hearing aids. Data from users of cochlear implants already employing feature extraction techniques also support this concept.

  2. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Impact of an informal learning science camp on urban, low socioeconomic status middle school students and participating teacher-leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votaw, Nikki L.

    Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact

  4. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  5. The assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors in accepting cancer using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Bilińska, Magdalena; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the level of acceptance of the illness in cancer patients using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The study involved cancer patients treated at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry the Interior in Warsaw in 2014. The questionnaire comprised basic demographic questions (socio-economic factors) and the AIS test estimating the level of illness acceptance in patients. For the group of patients in the research group, the arithmetic mean amounted to 27.56 points. The period of time that elapsed between the first cancer diagnosis and the start of the study did not influence the score of accepting illness. The acceptance of illness in patients diagnosed with metastases differed from the acceptance of illness by patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Females obtained the average of 29.59 in the AIS test, whereas the average in male patients was 26.17. The patients' age did not impact the AIS test. There were no differences in the AIS test results between a group of people with secondary education and a group of people with higher education. There were no differences in the AIS test results between employed individuals versus pensioners. The inhabitants of cities were characterized by the highest degree of acceptance of their health condition. The lowest degree of acceptance of illness was observed in the group with the lowest average incomes. In the group of married individuals the average degree of acceptance of illness amounted to 27.37 points. The average degree of acceptance of illness in patients that declared themselves as single amounted to 25.75. The average degree of acceptance of illness in the study group was 27.56 points, which is a relatively high level of acceptance of cancer. The main socio-economic factor, which influenced the AIS test results was whether metastases were diagnosed or not. There were no differences between patients in groups where the time that elapsed from the first diagnosis of

  6. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Mathew P; Rosen, Sydney; Bii, Margret; Sigei, Carolyne; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; McCoy, Kelly; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathan L

    2009-07-15

    As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya--days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general female workforce over sustained periods of

  7. The assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors in accepting cancer using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra I. Czerw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : The paper presents the results of examining the level of acceptance of the illness in cancer patients using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. Materials and methods: The study involved cancer patients treated at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry the Interior in Warsaw in 2014. The questionnaire comprised basic demographic questions (socio-economic factors and the AIS test estimating the level of illness acceptance in patients. Results : For the group of patients in the research group, the arithmetic mean amounted to 27.56 points. The period of time that elapsed between the first cancer diagnosis and the start of the study did not influence the score of accepting illness. The acceptance of illness in patients diagnosed with metastases differed from the acceptance of illness by patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Females obtained the average of 29.59 in the AIS test, whereas the average in male patients was 26.17. The patients’ age did not impact the AIS test. There were no differences in the AIS test results between a group of people with secondary education and a group of people with higher education. There were no differences in the AIS test results between employed individuals versus pensioners. The inhabitants of cities were characterized by the highest degree of acceptance of their health condition. The lowest degree of acceptance of illness was observed in the group with the lowest average incomes. In the group of married individuals the average degree of acceptance of illness amounted to 27.37 points. The average degree of acceptance of illness in patients that declared themselves as single amounted to 25.75. Conclusions : The average degree of acceptance of illness in the study group was 27.56 points, which is a relatively high level of acceptance of cancer. The main socio-economic factor, which influenced the AIS test results was whether metastases were diagnosed or not. There were no

  8. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigei Carolyne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya – days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less

  9. Adolescence and the consumption of psychoactive substances: the impact of the socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratta, Elisângela Maria Machado; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed that it is necessary to define the impact of specific dimensions of the social-economic context that can work as risk factors regarding drug addiction. This study aimed to verify potential relationships between the drug addiction during adolescence and the social-economic level. A total of 568 adolescents participated in this study answering an anonymous self-filled questionnaire. The analyses involved the description of the variable distribution in the sample and statistical analyzes to determine the differences found. Contrary to the common sense, adolescents from the higher social classes presented a significant higher perceptual of alcohol, tobacco, weed and solvent consumption when compared to their counterparts from lower social classes. These data suggest the importance of studies that seek to clarify the possible influences of the social-economic status on the consumption of drugs among adolescents.

  10. The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.L.; Highland, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  11. The impact of local black residents' socioeconomic status on white residents' racial views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marylee C; Reyes, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the study of contextual influences on racial attitudes by asking how the SES of the local black community shapes the racial attitudes of local whites. Using responses to the 1998-2002 General Social Surveys merged with year 2000 census data, we compare the influences of black educational and economic composition on white residents' attitudes. Finally, the independence of these effects from the impact of white contextual SES is assessed. Across three dimensions of racial attitudes, white residents' views are more positive in localities where the black population contains more college graduates. However, such localities tend also to have highly educated white populations, as well as higher incomes among blacks and whites, and the multiple influences are inseparable. In contrast, many racial attitude measures show an independent effect of black economic composition, white residents reporting more negative views where the local African American community is poorer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-economic and Environmental impacts, planning and administration of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Haroun Osman

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the population in Sudan still lives in the rural areas where they still suffer from problems of poverty, unemployment, high rates of illiteracy, poor health services, shortage of water, and migration to urban areas. Development plans within decentralization efforts taking place in the country should give great importance to rural development by activating rural productive sector comprising agriculture and small scale industries. Rural electrification (RE) can play an important role as akey infrastructure for rural development, and could change the rural communities socially and economically to the better. RE also have desirable environmental impacts when substituting polluting and scare fuels such as petroleum fuel and fuel wood by electricity. Compared with urban electrification, RE is characterized by scattered consumers, low demands, and low load factors. This results in high connection costs of electricity per consumer, and high unit (Kwh) cost. In Sudan, rural electricity demands range from small industries of 50 or industries and individual farms. To bring electricity supply to these different categories of rural consumers at a reasonable investment cost requires proper planning. It needs regular data collection and updating, selection of appropriate technology, project formulation, financing implementation, management, and follow-up. The Sudan National Electricity Corporation (NEC), gives priority to the generation and transmission of electricity to the big urban and industrial areas. NEC treats RE as low priority to which resources are only devoted after the more urgent needs of the urban and industrial consumers not impossible, for a utility like the NEC to construct, operate, and maintain a large number of small scale projects in rural areas. To enable RE to play an effective institution with RE as its primary objectives is very crucial. This paper aims to highlight the importance of RE and its impacts on the rural inhabitants socially

  13. Seeing the impact: The socio-economic benefits of peaceful nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Rosenthal, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread use of 'atoms for peace' brings tens of billions of dollars of benefits annually to people across the globe. They contribute to better medical care, food production, electricity generation, and manufacturing, for example. In many countries today, nuclear and radiation technologies are established, dynamic components of national economies. But dollars and cents tell only part of the story, and figures are not equally sustainable for all countries that apply nuclear technologies. Better assessments are needed of when, where, and why the atom's peaceful benefits can be realized, and as importantly, how they can be sustained. The information is important for decision-makers and the public alike. Even the most novel or sophisticated nuclear techniques do not stand alone, and nuclear technology decisions must be framed in a larger picture. Nuclear applications have to be judged against their potential contributions and compared to conventional competitors. They must be measured, too, in terms of cost, reliability, safety, simplicity, sustainability and other factors central to plans of governments, private companies, research institutes and consumers. For all these constituencies, more reliable information is needed to assist in making choices. In the nuclear area, the information is often rightly or wrongly shaped by perceptions and misperceptions about risk. In addition, new challenges - such as privatization in electricity production and health care-need to be taken into account to evaluate fairly the economic competitiveness and future of nuclear applications. Through informed assessments, we can reach a better understanding of the impact of peaceful nuclear applications, which will help countries make better decisions on future uses. This article takes stock of the peaceful atom's social and economic impact and compares different approaches to assessing benefits. Such assessments can provide important insights about how nuclear applications can best

  14. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer in the German Population: Impact of Socioeconomic and Geographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, J; Kis, A; Sorbe, C; Schäfer, I; Augustin, M

    2018-04-06

    Skin cancer being the most common cancer in Germany has shown increasing incidence in the past decade. Since mostly caused by excessive UV exposure, skin cancer is largely related to behaviour. So far, the impact of regional and sociodemographic factors on the development of skin cancer in Germany is unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the association of potential predictive factors with the prevalence of skin cancers in Germany. Nationwide ambulatory care claims data from persons insured in statutory health insurances (SHI) with malignant melanoma (MM, ICD-10 C43) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, ICD-10 C44) in the years 2009-2015 were analysed. In addition, sociodemographic population data and satellite based UV and solar radiation data were associated. Descriptive as well as multivariate (spatial) statistical analyses (for example Bayes' Smoothing) were conducted on county level. Data from 70.1 million insured persons were analysed. Age standardized prevalences per 100,000 SHI insured persons for MM and NMSC were 284.7 and 1126.9 in 2009 and 378.5 and 1708.2 in 2015. Marked regional variations were observed with prevalences between 32.9% and 51.6%. Multivariate analysis show statistically significant positive correlations between higher income and education, and MM/NMSC prevalence. Prevalence of MM and NMSC in Germany shows spatio-temporal dynamics. Our results show that regional UV radiation, sunshine hours and sociodemographic factors have significant impact on skin cancer prevalence in Germany. Individual behaviour obviously is a major determinant which should be subject to preventive interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  16. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French - the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys' performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls' performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children's mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  17. Sex differences in language across early childhood: Family socioeconomic status does not impact boys and girls equally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eBarbu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262, from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  18. Regional variations in cancer survival: Impact of tumour stage, socioeconomic status, comorbidity and type of treatment in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Bray, Freddie; Eriksen, Morten Tandberg; Nilssen, Yngvar; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    Cancer survival varies by place of residence, but it remains uncertain whether this reflects differences in tumour, patient and treatment characteristics (including tumour stage, indicators of socioeconomic status (SES), comorbidity and information on received surgery and radiotherapy) or possibly regional differences in the quality of delivered health care. National population-based data from the Cancer Registry of Norway were used to identify cancer patients diagnosed in 2002-2011 (n = 258,675). We investigated survival from any type of cancer (all cancer sites combined), as well as for the six most common cancers. The effect of adjusting for prognostic factors on regional variations in cancer survival was examined by calculating the mean deviation, defined by the mean absolute deviation of the relative excess risks across health services regions. For prostate cancer, the mean deviation across regions was 1.78 when adjusting for age and sex only, but decreased to 1.27 after further adjustment for tumour stage. For breast cancer, the corresponding mean deviations were 1.34 and 1.27. Additional adjustment for other prognostic factors did not materially change the regional variation in any of the other sites. Adjustment for tumour stage explained most of the regional variations in prostate cancer survival, but had little impact for other sites. Unexplained regional variations after adjusting for tumour stage, SES indicators, comorbidity and type of treatment in Norway may be related to regional inequalities in the quality of cancer care. © 2015 UICC.

  19. Profound bradycardia associated with NIV removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, C; Bourke, S C; Gibson, G J

    2012-01-01

    A patient with lower-limb onset ALS presented with a one-month history of vasovagal episodes and a one-week history of cough productive of green sputum and lethargy. She was drowsy and in acute on chronic type-two respiratory failure. She responded to non-invasive ventilation, however she suffered recurrent episodes of profound bradycardia on removal of the mask, which gradually resolved over ten days. We have reviewed the literature and offer a potential explanation for these events.

  20. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  1. ONWI socioeconomic activities in support of SRPO socioeconomic program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The introduction describes the purpose of ONWI's Socioeconomic Program for SRPO nuclear waste repository program and the organization within ONWI dedicated to socioeconomic activities. Chapter 2 of this report, Statutory Requirements and Mission Plan Strategy, documents the specific directives and guidelines contained in the NWPA and in the Mission Plan that define DOE's socioeconomic responsibilities. Chapter 3, ONWI Socioeconomic Objectives and Activities to Assist SRPO, describes ONWI's socioeconomic objectives and provides a detailed discussion of the major activities planned to assist SRPO in the impact assessment, mitigation, and monitoring phases of the program. Chapter 4 lists references cited in the report. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  2. A Randomized Trial of Collaborative Care for Perinatal Depression in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women: The Impact of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K; Katon, Wayne J; Russo, Joan E; Lohr, Mary Jane; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Carson, Kathy

    2016-11-01

    The comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with antenatal depression poses increased risks for postpartum depression and may delay or diminish response to evidence-based depression care. In a secondary analysis of an 18-month study of collaborative care for perinatal depression, the authors hypothesized that pregnant, depressed, socioeconomically disadvantaged women with comorbid PTSD would show more improvement in the MOMCare intervention providing Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, compared to intensive public health Maternity Support Services (MSS-Plus). A multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment was conducted in the Seattle-King County Public Health System, July 2009-January 2014. Pregnant women were recruited who met criteria for a probable diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and/or dysthymia on the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (5.0.0). The primary outcome was depression severity at 3-, 6-, 12-and 18-month follow-ups; secondary outcomes included functional improvement, PTSD severity, depression response and remission, and quality of depression care. Sixty-five percent of the sample of 164 met criteria for probable comorbid PTSD. The treatment effect was significantly associated with PTSD status in a group-by-PTSD severity interaction, controlling for baseline depression severity (Wald χ²₁ = 4.52, P = .03). Over the 18-month follow-up, those with comorbid PTSD in MOMCare (n = 48), versus MSS-Plus (n = 58), showed greater improvement in depression severity (Wald χ²₁ = 8.51, P depression response (Wald χ²₁ = 4.13, P depression care had a greater impact on perinatal depressive outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women with comorbid PTSD than for those without PTSD. Findings suggest that a stepped care treatment model for high-risk pregnant women with both MDD and PTSD could be integrated into public health systems in

  3. Impact of socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave on cervical cancer incidence among Hispanics and Asians in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, Marie-Anne; Gomez, Scarlett L; Roux, Audrey; DeRouen, Mindy C; Kidd, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cervical cancer by nativity [United States (US) versus non-US], neighborhood socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave among Hispanics and Asians in California. Using data from the California Cancer Registry, information on all primary invasive cervical cancer (Cca) patients diagnosed in California from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2004 was obtained. We analyzed the influence of enclave, socioeconomic status and nativity on Cca incidence. Among the 22,189 Cca cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2004, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 39% Hispanic and 11% Asian women, and 63% US-born. Seventy percent of the Cca cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 19% adenocarcinoma and 11% other histologies. Higher incidence of Cca was observed in high enclave (76%) and low socioeconomic status (70%) neighborhoods. By ethnic group, US-born women showed lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma compared to foreign-born women. Hispanics living in low socioeconomic and high enclave had 12.7 times higher rate of Cca than those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. For Asian women incidence rates were 6 times higher in the low socioeconomic, high enclave neighborhoods compared to those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. More targeted outreach to increase Pap smear screening and human papilloma virus vaccination for women living in high enclave neighborhoods can help decrease the incidence of Cca in these groups of women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  5. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.; Cochran, R.; Meale, R.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  6. The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: illustration of a method based on population attributable fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rasmus; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Kulhánová, Ivana; Dahl, Espen; Deboosere, Patrick; Dzúrová, Dagmar; van Oyen, Herman; Rychtaríková, Jitka; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health are a major challenge for public health. However, realistic estimates to what extent they are modifiable are scarce. This problem can be met through the systematic application of the population attributable fraction (PAF) to socioeconomic health inequalities. The authors used cause-specific mortality data by educational level from Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic and data on the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, lack of physical activity and high body mass index from national health surveys. Information on the impact of these risk factors on mortality comes from the epidemiological literature. The authors calculated PAFs to quantify the impact on socioeconomic health inequalities of a social redistribution of risk factors. The authors developed an Excel tool covering a wide range of possible scenarios and the authors compare the results of the PAF approach with a conventional regression. In a scenario where the whole population gets the risk factor prevalence currently seen among the highly educated inequalities in mortality can be reduced substantially. According to the illustrative results, the reduction of inequality for all risk factors combined varies between 26% among Czech men and 94% among Norwegian men. Smoking has the highest impact for both genders, and physical activity has more impact among women. After discussing the underlying assumptions of the PAF, the authors concluded that the approach is promising for estimating the extent to which health inequalities can be potentially reduced by interventions on specific risk factors. This reduction is likely to differ substantially between countries, risk factors and genders.

  7. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One station case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  8. Evaluating the Intersections of Socioeconomic Status and Health Impacts from Exposure to Air Pollution in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, C. B.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Galvis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Colombia has strict economic divisions, which may be represented by six strata assigned by the National Planning Department. These are assigned by housing conditions and are arranged such that the divisions with subpar living conditions (strata levels one through three) may receive support from those with better than acceptable living conditions (strata levels five and six). Notably, division three no longer receives aid, and division four neither contributes to this system nor receives support. About ten percent of the population is in the upper three strata, while the remaining populace experiences subpar living conditions. Bogotá, DC has poor air quality that sometimes puts sensitive populations at risk due to particulate matter (PM). The local environmental agency has developed seven strategies to reduce air pollution, predominantly by regulating fixed and mobile sources, for the promotion of public health. Preliminary mapping of results indicates there may be higher concentrations of pollutants in areas whose residents are of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Because it's more difficult for impoverished people to miss work or afford healthcare, higher exposure could have more significance for the city's overall health burden. The aim of this project is to determine the effective impactful regulatory strategy for the benefit of public health as a result of emission reductions. This will be done by using CMAQ results and BenMAP with information for long-term relative risk estimates for PM to find premature mortality rates per source type and location, segregated by strata division. A statistical regression will define the correspondence between health impact and SES. The benefit per reduction will be given in premature mortalities avoided per ton of PM emissions reduced per source type. For each of seven proposed regulatory strategies, this project provides results in mortalities avoided per ton of emissions of PM reduced per source type. It also compares

  9. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy on benign indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly...... socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight...

  11. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  12. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  13. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchanovska Domnika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child’s overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. Methods. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik, interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Results. 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female. The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families. They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (p<0.01. Also, children whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (p<0.01. Conclusion. Speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  14. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Patients Supported with a Left Ventricular Assist Device: An Analysis of the UNOS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J.; Garan, A. Reshad; Wayda, Brian; Givens, Raymond C.; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Nakagawa, Shunichi; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna M.; Colombo, Paolo C.; Topkara, Veli K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for heart failure, mortality among those with heart failure, and poor post heart transplant (HT) outcomes. This study sought to determine if SES is associated with decreased waitlist survival while on LVAD support and after HT. Methods and Results 3,361 adult patients bridged to primary HT with an LVAD between May 2004 and April 2014 were identified in the UNOS database. SES was measured using the AHRQ SES index using data from the 2014 American Community Survey. In the study cohort, SES did not have an association with the combined endpoint of death or delisting on LVAD support (p=0.30). In a cause-specific unadjusted model, those in the top (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14–2.11, p=0.005) and second greatest SES quartile (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10–2.04, p=0.01) had an increased risk of death on device support compared to the lowest SES quartile. Adjusting for clinical risk factors mitigated the increased risk. There was no association between SES and complications. Post-HT survival, both crude and adjusted, was decreased for patients in the lowest quartile of SES index compared to all other SES quartiles. Conclusions Freedom from waitlist death or delisting was not impacted by SES. Patients with a higher SES had an increased unadjusted risk of waitlist mortality during LVAD support, which was mitigated by adjusting for increased comorbid conditions. Low SES was associated with worse post-HT outcomes. Further study is needed to confirm and understand a differential effect of SES on post-transplant outcomes that was not seen during LVAD support prior to HT. PMID:27758810

  16. Impact of socioeconomic position and distance on mental health care utilization: a nationwide Danish follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packness, Aake; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Christensen, René dePont; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Simonsen, Erik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Halling, Anders

    2017-11-01

    To determine the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) and distance to provider on outpatient mental health care utilization among incident users of antidepressants. A nationwide register-based cohort study of 50,374 person-years. Persons in low SEP were more likely to have outpatient psychiatrist contacts [odds ratio (OR) 1.25; confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.34], but less likely to consult a co-payed psychologist (OR 0.49; CI 0.46-0.53) and to get mental health service from a GP (MHS-GP) (OR 0.81; CI 0.77-0.86) compared to persons in high SEP after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidity and car ownership. Furthermore, persons in low SEP who had contact to any of these therapists tended to have lower rates of visits compared to those in high SEP. When distance to services increased by 5 km, the rate of visits to outpatient psychiatrist tended to decrease by 5% in the lowest income group (IRR 0.95; CI 0.94-0.95) and 1% in the highest (IRR 0.99; CI 0.99-1.00). Likewise, contact to psychologists decreased by 11% in the lowest income group (IRR 0.89; CI 0.85-0.94), whereas rate of visits did not interact. Patients in low SEP have relatively lower utilization of mental health services even when services are free at delivery; co-payment and distance to provider aggravate the disparities in utilization between patients in high SEP and patients in low SEP.

  17. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I; Marino, Bradley S

    2013-06-18

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children's health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family's position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Validation Study. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index (occupational prestige), and highest parent educational attainment level. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators. Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. The correlations among the SES measures were moderately high, with the correlation between the Hollingshead Index and parental education being r = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.56-0.65). There were equally high correlations between family income and the Hollingshead (r = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.57-0.65) and a slightly lower correlation between family income and parental education (r = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.52-0.59). Family income had the highest explanatory value compared to the Hollingshead Index or parental educational attainment, while controlling for sex, race, current cardiac status, and original diagnosis, accounting for 4-5% of the variation in patient and parent Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Total score, respectively, compared to the other SES measures. Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the

  18. The impact of work-related physical assaults on mental health among Japanese employees with different socioeconomic status: The Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study (JSTRESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational s...

  19. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  20. IMPACT OF COMORBIDITY AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC DISEASES WHO ATTEND PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Aycan, Sefer; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of chronic disease on the quality of life (QoL) and how QoL changes with comorbidity and socioeconomic status in persons who attend primary health care centres. The group of participants comprised 2,560 people who contacted six primary health care centres in Ankara. The level of QoL was determined by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF). Mental disorders and diabetes-hypertension comorbidity had the most negative effect on the QoL. In the physical domain of the WHOQOL-BREF, the effect of diabetes-hypertension comorbidity is greater than the additive effect of hypertension and diabetes individually. The co-occurrence of any disease with cardiovascular disease does not change QoL within any domain, except for the co-occurrence of any disease with musculoskeletal diseases which deteriorated QoL in the physical domain. The higher income and socioeconomic status corresponded to higher QoL. The effect of comorbidity on QoL can be different from the additive effects of the co-occurring diseases. Socioeconomic factors undoubtedly affect the relationship between chronic diseases and QoL, and this relationship points to health inequities among socioeconomic groups.

  1. Impact of socio-economic class on colorectal cancer patient outcomes in Kuala Lumpur and Kuching, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chee-Kwan; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee-Wei; Law, Suk-Chin Diana; Arumugam, Kulenthran

    2010-01-01

    Research over the past several decades has indicated that low socioeconomic class has a direct effect on health outcomes. In Malaysia, class distribution may differ with the region. The objective of this study was to compare the presentation and survival of colorectal cancer patients in two dissimilar cities, Kuala Lumpur and Kuching, Sarawak. All patients diagnosed with a malignancy of the colon or rectum in Sarawak General Hospital and University of Malaya Medical Center from 1st Jan 2000-31st Dec 2006 were recruited. Data on presentation, socio-economic class and survival were obtained. The survival duration was categorized into more than three years or three years and less. Testing for significance was performed using the chi-square test, with p values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. A total of 565 patients in UMMC and 642 patients in SGH had a new diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Patients in Kuching had a longer duration of symptoms and more advanced stage at presentation, but this was not statistically significant. Lower socio-economic class was a significant factor for late and more advanced stage at diagnosis, as well as poorer three and five year survival rates. However, survival was lower for patients in Kuching compared to Kuala Lumpur, even after matching for socio-economic class. There is near-zero awareness of colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia. These findings support reaching out to communities of lower socioeconomic backgrounds to improve the colorectal cancer survival rates.

  2. Rotavirus vaccine impact and socioeconomic deprivation: an interrupted time-series analysis of gastrointestinal disease outcomes across primary and secondary care in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Iturriza-Gόmara, Miren; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2018-01-29

    Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two doses delivered at 8 and 12 weeks of age. We evaluated vaccine impact across a health system in relation to socioeconomic deprivation. We used interrupted time-series analyses to assess changes in monthly health-care attendances in Merseyside, UK, for all ages, from July 2013 to June 2016, compared to predicted counterfactual attendances without vaccination spanning 3-11 years pre-vaccine. Outcome measures included laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalisations, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) attendances for gastrointestinal conditions and consultations for infectious gastroenteritis at community walk-in centres (WIC) and general practices (GP). All analyses were stratified by age. Hospitalisations were additionally stratified by vaccine uptake and small-area-level socioeconomic deprivation. The uptake of the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccine was 91.4% (29,108/31,836) and 86.7% (27,594/31,836), respectively. Among children aged impact was greatest during the rotavirus season and for vaccine-eligible age groups. In adults aged 65+ years, AGE hospitalisations fell by 25% (95% CI 19-30%; p socioeconomically deprived communities (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.51-1.64; p impact was greatest among the most deprived populations, despite lower vaccine uptake. Prioritising vaccine uptake in socioeconomically deprived communities should give the greatest health benefit in terms of population disease burden.

  3. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  4. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment

  5. Impact of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Risk-Adjusted Hospital Readmission Rates Following Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Barrett, Marguerite L; Weiss, Audrey J; Kandrack, Ryan; Washington, Raynard; Steiner, Claudia A; Mehrotra, Ateev; SooHoo, Nelson F; Coffey, Rosanna

    2016-08-17

    Readmission rates following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are increasingly used to measure hospital performance. Readmission rates that are not adjusted for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, patient risk factors beyond a hospital's control, may not accurately reflect a hospital's performance. In this study, we examined the extent to which risk-adjusting for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status affected hospital performance in terms of readmission rates following THA and TKA. We calculated 2 sets of risk-adjusted readmission rates by (1) using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services standard risk-adjustment algorithm that incorporates patient age, sex, comorbidities, and hospital effects and (2) adding race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the model. Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2011 State Inpatient Databases, we compared the relative performances of 1,194 hospitals across the 2 methods. Addition of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the risk-adjustment algorithm resulted in (1) little or no change in the risk-adjusted readmission rates at nearly all hospitals; (2) no change in the designation of the readmission rate as better, worse, or not different from the population mean at >99% of the hospitals; and (3) no change in the excess readmission ratio at >97% of the hospitals. Inclusion of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the risk-adjustment algorithm led to a relative-performance change in readmission rates following THA and TKA at socioeconomic status in risk-adjusted THA and TKA readmission rates used for hospital accountability, payment, and public reporting. Prognostic Level III. See instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  6. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang Hua; Ren Yin; Du Ke; Xu Weihua; Zheng Hua; Jiang Bo

    2012-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  7. How socioeconomic inequalities impact pathways of care for coronary artery disease among elderly patients: study protocol for a qualitative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid; Schumann, Nadine; Moor, Irene; Plehn, Alexander; Richter, Matthias

    2015-11-09

    Several studies have identified that socioeconomic inequalities in coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality lead to a disadvantage in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES). International studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access, utilisation and quality of cardiac care. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide information on the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on the pathway of care for CAD, and to establish which factors lead to socioeconomic inequality of care to form and expand existing scientific theories. A longitudinal qualitative study with 48 patients with CAD, aged 60-80 years, is being conducted. Patients have been recruited consecutively at the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, and will be followed for a period of 6 months. Patients are interviewed two times face-to-face using semistructured interviews. Data are transcribed and analysed based on grounded theory. Only participants who have been informed and who have signed a declaration of consent have been included in the study. The study complies rigorously with data protection legislation. Approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany was obtained. The results of the study will be presented at several congresses, and will be published in high-quality peer-reviewed international journals. This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007839. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Julia F; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-08-01

    Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters. We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units. We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels. We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival

  9. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...... Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days...

  10. Dynamic modeling of the Ganga river system: impacts of future climate and socio-economic change on flows and nitrogen fluxes in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Sarkar, S; Jin, L; Futter, M N; Caesar, J; Barbour, E; Butterfield, D; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Hutton, C; Leckie, H D

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of future climate and socio-economic change on the flow and nitrogen fluxes of the Ganga river system. This is the first basin scale water quality study for the Ganga considering climate change at 25 km resolution together with socio-economic scenarios. The revised dynamic, process-based INCA model was used to simulate hydrology and water quality within the complex multi-branched river basins. All climate realizations utilized in the study predict increases in temperature and rainfall by the 2050s with significant increase by the 2090s. These changes generate associated increases in monsoon flows and increased availability of water for groundwater recharge and irrigation, but also more frequent flooding. Decreased concentrations of nitrate and ammonia are expected due to increased dilution. Different future socio-economic scenarios were found to have a significant impact on water quality at the downstream end of the Ganga. A less sustainable future resulted in a deterioration of water quality due to the pressures from higher population growth, land use change, increased sewage treatment discharges, enhanced atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and water abstraction. However, water quality was found to improve under a more sustainable strategy as envisaged in the Ganga clean-up plan.

  11. The impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position on cardiovascular disease events in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A

    2015-05-27

    Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  13. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, Robert; McJeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO 2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO 2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO 2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive. - Highlights: • The impact of low carbon energy technology on abatement cost is considered. • Nuclear has the largest impact among technologies considered. • Cost has higher impact than efficiency for biomass technologies. • Biomass technologies generally have larger impacts than carbon capture. • Biomass technologies are more valuable in low GDP, high population scenarios

  14. Quantifying the impact of socioeconomic development and climate change on Escherichia coli concentrations in the Pakistani Kabul River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Clean water is indispensable for the sustenance of life and maintenance of health. However, water quality is threatened by changes in socio-economic developments (population growth, urbanisation, livestock increase and sanitation) and climate (surface air temperature and precipitation patterns).

  15. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E.; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys

  17. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  18. The Impacts of Gender Discrimination, Socio-Economic Capital & University Enrollment Plans: A Case Study in Ankara Distinct

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, M. Demet

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 726 non-clinical adolescents (aged 17-18 years) from high schools in Ankara/ Turkey, this study investigated the interacting relationships between Turkish adolescents’ university plans and personal capital variables such as gender, school achievement, self-esteem, anxiety/depression, goal setting, course attendance and family atmosphere such as parental supporting, parental monitoring, parental separation and socio-economic c...

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate. For boys, tobacco price was negatively associated with weekly smoking rates. This association did not significantly differ between low and high FAS. Levels of tobacco-dependence treatment were significantly associated with weekly smoking. This association varied between low and high FAS, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.

  20. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  1. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.D.; Burness, H.S.; Norton, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  2. Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M

    2006-12-12

    Persons of lower socioeconomic status have greater cardiovascular risk than those of higher socioeconomic status. However, the mechanism through which socioeconomic status affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. Virtually no data are available that examine the prospective association between novel inflammatory and hemostatic CVD risk indicators, socioeconomic status, and incident CVD events. We assessed the relationship between 2 indicators of socioeconomic status (education and income), traditional and novel CVD risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine), and incident CVD events among 22,688 apparently healthy female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study. These women were followed up for 10 years for the development of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. More educated women were less likely to be smokers; had a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity; and were more likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than less educated women. At baseline, median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels for women in 5 categories of education (master's degree, and a doctoral degree) and 6 categories of income [ or = 100,000 dollars) decreased progressively with increasing education or income levels (all Prisk of incident CVD events decreased with increasing education (1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, and 0.5; P for trend risk factors on the relationship between education/income and CVD events, the relative hazard of incident CVD associated with a 1-category-higher level of education changed from 0.79 in age- and race-adjusted analysis to 0.89 in fully adjusted analysis. The 11% lower risk per 1 category of education remained significant (P for trend=0.006), suggesting that controlling

  3. Teacher Burnout: Stylish Fad or Profound Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teacher burnout has significant impact on the quality of education and on teacher job satisfaction. Its causes include job stress and organizational structures or professional relationships. Reduction of burnout may come from such strategies as increased teacher role differentiation, greater teacher support, and improved…

  4. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  5. Patient satisfaction with the healthcare system: Assessing the impact of socio-economic and healthcare provision factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xesfingi, Sofia; Vozikis, Athanassios

    2016-03-15

    Patient satisfaction is an important measure of healthcare quality as it offers information on the provider's success at meeting clients' expectations and is a key determinant of patients' perspective behavioral intention. The aim of this paper is first to assess the degree of patient satisfaction, and second, to study the relationship between patient satisfaction of healthcare system and a set of socio-economic and healthcare provision indicators. This empirical analysis covers 31 countries for the years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2012. The dependent variable, the satisfaction index, is defined as the patient satisfaction of their country's health system. We first construct an index of patient satisfaction and then, at a second stage, this index is related to socio-economic and healthcare provision variables. Our findings support that there is a strong positive association between patient satisfaction level and healthcare provision indicators, such as nurses and physicians per 100,000 habitants, with the latter being the most important contributor, and a negative association between patient satisfaction level and number of hospital beds. Among the socio-economic variables, public health expenditures greatly shape and positive relate to patient satisfaction, while private spending on health relates negatively. Finally, the elder a patient is, the more satisfied with a country's healthcare system appears to be. We conclude that there is a strong positive association between patient satisfaction and public health expenditures, number of physicians and nurses, and the age of the patient, while there is a negative evidence for private health spending and number of hospital beds.

  6. The impact of depressive and bipolar symptoms on socioeconomic status, core symptoms, function and severity of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Carmen E; Kaouk, Sahar; Wilke, William S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depressive and bipolar symptoms in a cohort of consecutive fibromyalgia (FM) patients seen in a tertiary care center and to determine the relationship between depressive and manic symptoms with FM symptoms, socioeconomic status, severity and function. Three hundred and five FM patients were enrolled; demographic, clinical and questionnaire data were collected. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), manic symptoms by the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ). The FM cohort had the following characteristics: age 43.53 (11.7) years; 86.5% white; 82.7% female; PHQ-9 ≥ 10, 59.7%, mean 11.9 (7.3); no depression 11.4%, mild 29.1%, moderate 27.5%, moderate severe 17.7%, severe 14%; anxiety 41.6%; 21.3% had either an MDQ score ≥ 7 and/or reported a past diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Increasing levels of depression severity, as well as a positive screen for BD were significantly associated with increasing prevalence and severity of FM symptoms, longer duration of morning stiffness, and increased severity of FM. Increasing levels of depression were significantly associated with increase in prevalence of reported past sexual abuse, and a decline in socioeconomic status, including higher disability and unemployment rates. Patients with severe FM disease activity, high load of symptoms, prolonged morning stiffness, increased disability, lower socioeconomic status and those who take a lot of medications for FM should be evaluated for depressive and manic symptoms. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive.

  8. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  9. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko [Department of Management Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-Yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km{sup 2} road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%. (author)

  10. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km 2 road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%

  11. Impact of insurance carrier, prior authorization, and socioeconomic status on appropriate use of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in private community-based office practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukky, Rami; Hayes, Kathleen; Frogge, Nathan; Nazir, Noreen T; Collado, Fareed M; Williams, Kim A

    2015-05-01

    The impact of health insurance carrier and socioeconomic status (SES) on the adherence to appropriate use criteria (AUC) for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is unknown. Health insurance carrier's prior authorization and patient's SES impact adherence to AUC for MPI in a fee-for-service setting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1511 consecutive patients who underwent outpatient MPI in a multi-site, office-based, fee-for-service setting. The patients were stratified according to the 2009 AUC into appropriate/uncertain appropriateness and inappropriate use groups. Insurance status was categorized as Medicare (does not require prior authorization) vs commercial (requires prior authorization). Socioeconomic status was determined by the median household income in the ZIP code of residence. The proportion of patients with Medicare was 33% vs 67% with commercial insurance. The rate of inappropriate use was higher among patients with commercial insurance vs Medicare (55% vs 24%; P impact AUC determination (odds ratio: 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.82, P = 0.82). The mean annual household income in the residential areas of patients with inappropriate use as compared to those with appropriate/uncertain use was $72 000 ± 21 000 vs $68 000 ± 20 000, respectively (P impact AUC determination, SES (top vs bottom quartile income area) was not independently predictive of inappropriate MPI use (odds ratio: 0.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.52, P = 0.69). Insurance carriers prior authorization and SES do not seem to play a significant role in determining physicians adherence to AUC for MPI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The impact of a social network based intervention on self-management behaviours among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nijpels, Giel; Uitewaal, Paul; Middelkoop, Barend; Stronks, Karien

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to explore the effect of the social network based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes on diabetes self-management among socioeconomically deprived patients. This 10-month group intervention targeting patients and significant others aimed to improve self-management by stimulating social support and diminishing social influences that hinder self-management. This intervention was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study using a mixed methods approach. Of 131 socioeconomically deprived patients with suboptimal glycaemic control, 69 were assigned to the intervention group and 62 to the control group (standard diabetes education). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with the participants and 24 with their group leaders were held to study the subjective impact of the intervention. Further, self-management behaviours (medication adherence, diet and physical activity) were assessed at baseline, 10 and 16 months. Data were analysed using framework analyses and a linear mixture model. Qualitative data showed that the intervention group had a better understanding of the way self-management influences diabetes. The intervention group showed more complex self-management behaviours, such as planning ahead, seeking adequate food and physical activity alternatives, and consistently taking their diabetes into consideration when making choices. In participants with complete follow-up data, we found a significant increase in physical activity in the intervention group (3.78 vs. 4.83 days) and no changes in medication adherence and diet. This study indicates that an intensive support group and simultaneously involving significant others might improve diabetes self-management behaviours among socioeconomically deprived patients. More studies are needed to justify further implementation of the intervention. This study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register NTR1886. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1886.

  13. The impact of the environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Skiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of the study was to assess the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec, based on the questionnaire data. Materials and methods: The crosssectional epidemiological questionnaire study was performed in the years 2005–2006. Parents of 709 primary school children aged 7–12 years took part in the study. Questionnaire was completed by parents to collect information on children health status, particularly respiratory symptoms, chronic diseases of respiratory system, allergic diseases, use of medical services, children dietary habits and family socio-economic status. Results: In the study group the statistical significance was found for the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children and housing conditions, i.e.: the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Results of the study showed, that incidence of whizzing differed statistically significantly in the groups of different professional status of the parents. It is difficult to estimate if this is only the influence of socio-economic conditions or any other environmental factors as well. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrated statistical significance between the status of respiratory system in children and housing occupancy rate (the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Relation between respiratory symptoms in children, parents education and professional status was analyzed, but findings of the conducted studies do not give explicit evidence of such a relation.

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in prepregnancy BMI and impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes and postpartum weight retention: the EFHL longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Cameron, Cate M; Hills, Andrew P; McClure, Roderick J; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-09-08

    Long-term obesity after pregnancy is associated with obesity prior to pregnancy and retention of weight postpartum. This study aims to identify socioeconomic differences in prepregnancy body mass index, quantify the impact of prepregnancy obesity on birth outcomes, and identify determinants of postpartum weight retention. A total of 2231 pregnant women, recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland in Australia during antenatal clinic visits, completed a questionnaire to elicit information on demographics, socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics. Perinatal information was extracted from hospital records. A follow-up questionnaire was completed by each participant at 12 months after the birth to obtain the mother's postpartum weight, breastfeeding pattern, dietary and physical activity characteristics, and the child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to model the association between prepregnancy obesity and outcomes. Being overweight or obese prepregnancy was strongly associated with socioeconomic status and adverse behavioural factors. Obese women (18% of the cohort) were more likely to experience gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and their children were more likely to experience intensive- or special-care nursery admission, fetal distress, resuscitation, and macrosomia. Women were more likely to retain weight postpartum if they consumed three or fewer serves of fruit/vegetables per day, did not engage in recreational activity with their baby, spent less than once a week on walking for 30 minutes or more or spent time with friends less than once per week. Mothers who breastfed for more than 3 months had reduced likelihood of high postpartum weight retention. Findings provide additional specificity to the increasing evidence of the predisposition of obesity prepregnancy on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. They may be used to target effective behavioural change

  15. The role of communication inequality in mediating the impacts of socioecological and socioeconomic disparities on HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-02-10

    Although the link between social factors and health-related outcomes has long been widely acknowledged, the mechanisms characterizing this link are relatively less known and remain a subject of continued investigation across disciplines. In this study, drawing on the structural influence model of health communication, the hypothesis that differences in concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS-related media use, and perceived salience of HIV/AIDS-related information, characterized as communication inequality, can at least partially mediate the impacts of socioecological (urban vs. rural) and socioeconomic (education) disparities on inequalities in HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception was tested. Data were collected from a random sample of 986 urban and rural respondents in northwest Ethiopia. Structural equation modeling, using the maximum likelihood method, was used to test the mediation models. The models showed an adequate fit of the data and hence supported the hypothesis that communication inequality can at least partially explain the causal mechanism linking socioeconomic and socioecological factors with HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception. Both urbanity versus rurality and education were found to have significant mediated effects on HIV/AIDS knowledge (urbanity vs. rurality: β = 0.28, p = .001; education: β = 0.08, p = .001) and HIV/AIDS risk perception (urbanity vs. rurality: β = 0.30, p = .001; education: β = 0.09, p = .001). It was concluded that communication inequality might form part of the socioecologically and socioeconomically embedded processes that affect HIV/AIDS-related outcomes. The findings suggest that the media and message effects that are related to HIV/AIDS behavior change communication can be viewed from a structural perspective that moves beyond the more reductionist behavioral approaches upon which most present-day HIV/AIDS communication campaigns seem to be based.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on screening for cardiovascular disease risk in a primary prevention population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah-Jane; Abel, Gary A; Mant, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky

    2016-03-21

    Investigate the association between socioeconomic deprivation and completeness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor recording in primary care, uptake of screening in people with incomplete risk factor recording and with actual CVD risk within the screened subgroup. Cross-sectional study. Nine UK general practices. 7987 people aged 50-74 years with no CVD diagnosis. CVD risk was estimated using the Framingham equation from data extracted from primary care electronic health records. Where there was insufficient information to calculate risk, patients were invited to attend a screening assessment. Proportion of patients for whom clinical data were sufficiently complete to enable CVD risk to be calculated; proportion of patients invited to screening who attended; proportion of patients who attended screening whose 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event was high (>20%). For each outcome, a set of logistic regression models were run. Crude and adjusted ORs were estimated for person-level deprivation, age, gender and smoking status. We included practice-level deprivation as a continuous variable and practice as a random effect to account for clustering. People who had lower Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) scores (less deprived) had significantly worse routine CVD risk factor recording (adjusted OR 0.97 (0.95 to 1.00) per IMD decile; p=0.042). Screening attendance was poorer in those with more deprivation (adjusted OR 0.89 (0.86 to 0.91) per IMD decile; p20% (OR 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15) per IMD decile; p=0.004). Our data suggest that those who had the most to gain from screening were least likely to attend, potentially exacerbating existing health inequalities. Future research should focus on tailoring the delivery of CVD screening to ensure engagement of socioeconomically deprived groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinly, D III [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Public Information, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-09-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above.

  18. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinly, D. III

    2005-09-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  19. Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model: an evidence-based framework for generating technological innovations with socio-economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, Jennifer L; Lane, Joseph P; Lockett, Michelle M

    2013-02-15

    Traditional government policies suggest that upstream investment in scientific research is necessary and sufficient to generate technological innovations. The expected downstream beneficial socio-economic impacts are presumed to occur through non-government market mechanisms. However, there is little quantitative evidence for such a direct and formulaic relationship between public investment at the input end and marketplace benefits at the impact end. Instead, the literature demonstrates that the technological innovation process involves a complex interaction between multiple sectors, methods, and stakeholders. The authors theorize that accomplishing the full process of technological innovation in a deliberate and systematic manner requires an operational-level model encompassing three underlying methods, each designed to generate knowledge outputs in different states: scientific research generates conceptual discoveries; engineering development generates prototype inventions; and industrial production generates commercial innovations. Given the critical roles of engineering and business, the entire innovation process should continuously consider the practical requirements and constraints of the commercial marketplace.The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model encompasses the activities required to successfully generate innovations, along with associated strategies for effectively communicating knowledge outputs in all three states to the various stakeholders involved. It is intentionally grounded in evidence drawn from academic analysis to facilitate objective and quantitative scrutiny, and industry best practices to enable practical application. The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model offers a practical, market-oriented approach that avoids the gaps, constraints and inefficiencies inherent in undirected activities and disconnected sectors. The NtK Model is a means to realizing increased returns on public investments in those science and technology programs expressly intended to

  20. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  1. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Impact of water supply and sanitation on diarrheal morbidity among young children in the socioeconomic and cultural context of Rwanda (Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasana, Janvier; Morin, Jules; Ndikuyeze, Andre; Kamoso, Pie

    2002-01-01

    This project studied the frequency and intensity of water contamination at the source, during transportation, and at home to determine the causes of contamination and its impact on the health of children aged 0 to 5 years. The methods used were construction of the infrastructure for three sources of potable water, administration of a questionnaire about socioeconomic status and sanitation behavior, anthropometric measurement of children, and analysis of water and feces. The contamination, first thought to be only a function of rainfall, turned out to be a very complex phenomenon. Water in homes was contaminated (43.4-) with more than 1100 total coliforms/100 ml due to the use of unclean utensils to transport and store water. This socioeconomic and cultural problem should be addressed with health education about sanitation. The latrines (found in 43.8- of families) presented a double-edged problem. the extremely high population density reduced the surface area of land per family, which resulted in a severe nutritional deficit (15- of the children) affecting mainly young children, rendering them more susceptible to diarrhea three episodes/child/year)

  3. Sustainability, Health and Environmental Metrics: Impact on Ranking and Associations with Socioeconomic Measures for 50 U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Waste and materials manage¬ment, land use planning, transportation and infrastructure, including water and energy can have indirect or direct beneficial impact on the environment and public health. The potential for impact however, is rarely viewed in an integrated fas...

  4. Session II-E. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Major tasks of the socioeconomic program are designed to address and resolve issues raised by federal, state, and local agencies and the public, and to meet legal and regulatory requirements. The tasks are intended to: (1) characterize socioeconomic and other nontechnical issues, and recommend possible resolution, (2) develop socioeconomic impact methodologies and provide impact assessments, (3) design and implement a community development approach to impact mitigation, and (4)conduct institutional and organizational analyses. The following papers relate to these socioeconomic tasks: (1) an integrated approach to socioeconomic considerations in nuclear waste management; (2)ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste isolation and mitigation; (3) institutional issues in transportation of nuclear wastes; (4) framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting; (5)special issues in impact mitigation; (6) effective programs for public participation in siting large public facilities; (7) a program for community development assistance; and (8) examination of factors affecting socioeconomic mitigation costs

  5. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gitto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression, might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females, aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status and socio-economic

  6. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-04-16

    Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people's quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors (such as education

  7. Does job strain mediate the effect of socioeconomic group on smoking behaviour? The impact of different health policies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Rasmussen, Niels Kr; Ostergren, P O

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aim was to compare the impact of socioeconomic groups (SEG) on the risk of being a daily smoker or quitter, and to investigate whether the potentially mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was similar in the Danish and the Swedish populations. METHODS: The study populations....... The association between SEG, current smoking, quitting, and influence at work, job demand and jobstrain, respectively, was tested by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: The contextual determinants defined by country had a different effect on smoking prevalence among men and women and among age groups. Low...... and more socially skewed among the Swedes, but did not mediate the effect of SEG on smoking behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence was lower and the quit-rates higher among Swedes than Danes. Both countries had social differences in smoking that in absolute terms were rather similar...

  8. Proximal processes of children with profound multiple disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...

  9. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 2: Tools for assessing climate change-driven coastal hazards and socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; O'Neill, Andrea; Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Finzi Hart, Juliette; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick; Hayden, Maya; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Lovering, Jessica; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describes the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) approach for quantifying physical hazards and socio-economic hazard exposure in coastal zones affected by sea-level rise and changing coastal storms. The modelling approach, presented in Part 1, downscales atmospheric global-scale projections to local scale coastal flood impacts by deterministically computing the combined hazards of sea-level rise, waves, storm surges, astronomic tides, fluvial discharges, and changes in shoreline positions. The method is demonstrated through an application to Southern California, United States, where the shoreline is a mix of bluffs, beaches, highly managed coastal communities, and infrastructure of high economic value. Results show that inclusion of 100-year projected coastal storms will increase flooding by 9–350% (an additional average 53.0 ± 16.0 km2) in addition to a 25–500 cm sea-level rise. The greater flooding extents translate to a 55–110% increase in residential impact and a 40–90% increase in building replacement costs. To communicate hazards and ranges in socio-economic exposures to these hazards, a set of tools were collaboratively designed and tested with stakeholders and policy makers; these tools consist of two web-based mapping and analytic applications as well as virtual reality visualizations. To reach a larger audience and enhance usability of the data, outreach and engagement included workshop-style trainings for targeted end-users and innovative applications of the virtual reality visualizations.

  10. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Juana, James S.; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Kirsten, Johann F.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the climate change models for South Africa predict a reduction in freshwater availability by 2050, which implies that water availability for sectoral production activities is expected to decline. This decline has an impact on sectoral output, value added and households’ welfare. Using a computable general equilibrium approach, this study investigates the possible impact of global change on households’ welfare. The simulation results show that water scarcity due to global change can po...

  11. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Malý, Jiří; Ouředníček, M.; Nemeškal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 2-13 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : nuclear power plant impacts * spatial analysis * risk perceptions Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mgr.2016.24.issue-1/mgr-2016-0001/mgr-2016-0001.xml?format=INT

  12. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  13. Analysis Of The Socioeconomic And Environmental Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture In The Irrigated Perimeter Of Pau Dos Ferros (Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobson Garcia de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Government implemented irrigated perimeters to ameliorate problems of drought and poverty in the Northeast. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze the social, economic and environmental impacts generated by the practice of irrigated agriculture in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros-RN, resulting from the impacts caused by the activity. Obtained references on the topic, on-site visits and interviews with producers of the perimeter. It was observed the presence of negative impacts in the area, such as waste, contamination and water salinisation, compaction and soil erosion, deforestation caused by the removal of the native vegetation, high consumption of energy and public health problems.

  14. Update of identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images: An annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.; Wernette, D.

    1991-08-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews selected literature published through August 1991 on the identification of perceived risks and methods for estimating the economic impacts of risk perception. It updates the literature review found in Argonne National Laboratory report ANL/EAIS/TM-24 (February 1990). Included in this update are (1) a literature review of the risk perception process, of the relationship between risk perception and economic impacts, of economic methods and empirical applications, and interregional market interactions and adjustments; (2) a working bibliography (that includes the documents abstracted in the 1990 report); (3) a topical index to the abstracts found in both reports; and (4) abstracts of selected articles found in this update

  15. Update of identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images: An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.; Wernette, D.

    1991-08-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews selected literature published through August 1991 on the identification of perceived risks and methods for estimating the economic impacts of risk perception. It updates the literature review found in Argonne National Laboratory report ANL/EAIS/TM-24 (February 1990). Included in this update are (1) a literature review of the risk perception process, of the relationship between risk perception and economic impacts, of economic methods and empirical applications, and interregional market interactions and adjustments; (2) a working bibliography (that includes the documents abstracted in the 1990 report); (3) a topical index to the abstracts found in both reports; and (4) abstracts of selected articles found in this update.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic status on Brazilian elderly health Impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Ramos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos

  17. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  18. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  19. Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'cho, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data

  20. Socioeconomic impacts of natural gas curtailments: a study of the textile industry in the southeastern United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the effects of fuel curtailments in the textile industry in North and South Carolina. Regional economic and social structures were affected with natural gas curtailments in 1976 and 1977. This document presents results of the effects of production shutdown resulting from the curtailments. Chapter II presents background information on the pipelines that service the region. Chapters III and IV describe the affected communities and the observed increase in government expenditures to counteract the impacts. Chapter V contains a complete list of textile plants in the study area that had to either work under abbreviated schedules or close entirely during the winter of 1976-1977. Attention was given to economic impacts at the industrial level that may have been attributable to the curtailment. Chapter VI covers these topics. In some instances, textile mills have relocated their plant facilities because they could not be guaranteed continuous fuel service at their original site. These data are the main concern of Chapter VII. Chapter VIII concentrates on social impacts; many facilities which provide services essential to human needs were subjected to gas curtailments so that the critical energy supplies could be diverted to industry. Chapter VIII also discusses an interesting geographic separation between social and economic impacts.

  1. Integrating Land Use and Socioeconomic Factors into Scenario-Based Travel Demand and Carbon Emission Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban sprawl continues since the last century, leading to a rapid increase in automobile ownership and vehicle travel demand, while resulting in more traffic congestion and automobile emissions. Land use, serving as a source of travel demand, can significantly impact travel behav...

  2. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B Kim; Erwan Monier; Brent Sohngen; G Stephen Pitts; Ray Drapek; James McFarland; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a...

  3. The impact of patient heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on abatacept retention in rheumatoid arthritis across nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finckh, A; Neto, D; Iannone, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are substantial differences in accessibility to biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) across countries. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of patient demographics, disease characteristics and gross domestic product (GDP) on abatacept (ABA...

  4. The impact of ethnic concentration on prejudice: The role of cultural and socioeconomic differences between ethnic neighbourhood residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Esther; Coenders, Marcel; Dekker, Karien; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined the impact of the size of the neighborhood minority population on prejudicial attitudes of majority residents. However, few studies have investigated how residents of different ethnic origins evaluate different ethnic outgroups based on the shares of these particular

  5. Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources: Modeling the Impacts of Climate and Socioeconomic Changes Using the US Midwest as a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2016-08-01

    A global integrated assessment model including a water-demand model driven by socio-economics, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology – routing – water resources management model. The integrated modeling framework is applied to the U.S. Upper Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio) to advance understanding of the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on integrated water resources. Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Changes in water demand are driven by socio-economic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices. The framework identifies the multiple spatial scales of interactions between the drivers of changes (natural flow and water demand) and the managed water resources (regulated flow, supply and supply deficit). The contribution of the different drivers of change are quantified regionally, and also evaluated locally, using covariances. The integrated framework shows that water supply deficit is more predictable over the Missouri than the other regions in the Midwest. The predictability of the supply deficit mostly comes from long term changes in water demand although changes in runoff has a greater contribution, comparable to the contribution of changes in demand, over shorter time periods. The integrated framework also shows that spatially, water demand drives local supply deficit. Using elasticity, the sensitivity of supply deficit to drivers of change is established. The supply deficit is found to be more sensitive to changes in runoff than to changes in demand regionally. It contrasts with the covariance analysis that shows that water demand is the dominant driver of supply deficit over the analysed periods. The elasticity indicates the level of mitigation needed to control the demand in order to reduce the

  6. Impact of mammographic screening on ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival in New Zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Campbell, Ian; Scott, Nina; Shirley, Rachel; Lawrenson, Ross

    2015-01-31

    Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of differences in rates of screen detected breast cancer on inequities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival between Māori and NZ European women. All primary breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) during 1999-2012 in the Waikato area (n = 1846) were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the National Screening Database. Stage at diagnosis and survival were compared for screen detected (n = 1106) and non-screen detected (n = 740) breast cancer by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Indigenous Māori women were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with more advanced cancer compared with NZ European women (OR = 1.51), and approximately a half of this difference was explained by lower rate of screen detected cancer for Māori women. For non-screen detected cancer, Māori had significantly lower 10-year breast cancer survival compared with NZ European (46.5% vs. 73.2%) as did most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic quintiles (64.8% vs. 81.1%). No significant survival differences were observed for screen detected cancer by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation. The lower rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a key contributor towards the higher rate of advanced cancer at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival for Māori compared with NZ European women. Among women with screen-detected breast cancer, Māori women do just as well as NZ European women, demonstrating the success of breast screening for Māori women who are able to access screening. Increasing breast cancer screening rates has the potential to improve survival for Māori women and reduce breast cancer survival inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

  7. Impact of socio-economic position on health and quality of care in adults with Type 2 diabetes in France: the Entred 2007 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Fagot-Campagna, A; Detournay, B; Bihan, H; Eschwege, E; Gautier, A; Druet, C

    2015-11-01

    To describe the association between socio-economic position, health status and quality of diabetes care in people with Type 2 diabetes in France, where people may receive full healthcare coverage for chronic disease. Data from a national cross-sectional survey performed in people pharmacologically treated for diabetes were used. They combined data from medical claims, hospital discharge, questionnaires for patients (n = 3894 with Type 2 diabetes) and their physicians (n = 2485). Socio-economic position was assessed using educational level (low, intermediate, high) and ability to make ends meet (financial difficulties vs. financially comfortable). People with diabetes reporting financial difficulties were more likely to be smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and obese (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and to have poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c > 64 mmol/mol (8%); adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8), than those who were financially comfortable. They were more likely to have their diabetes diagnosed because of complications (adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0). They were also more likely to have coronary and podiatric complications (adjusted odds ratios 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.2, respectively). They benefited more often from full coverage (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), visited general practitioners more often (ratio of estimated marginal means 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.2) but specialists less often (adjusted odds ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8 for a visit to private ophthalmologist). They also felt less well informed about their condition. Despite frequent access to full healthcare coverage, socio-economic position has an impact on the diagnosis of diabetes, health status and quality of diabetes care in France. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. The impact of geographic unit of analysis on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant summary stage - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Morrell, Stephen; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Niyonsenga, Theo; Walton, Richard; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David

    2016-12-13

    When using area-level disadvantage measures, size of geographic unit can have major effects on recorded socioeconomic cancer disparities. This study examined the extent of changes in recorded socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant stage when the measure of socioeconomic disadvantage was based on smaller Census Collection Districts (CDs) instead of Statistical Local Areas (SLAs). Population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry data were used to identify cases diagnosed with primary invasive cancer in 2000-2008 (n=264,236). Logistic regression and competing risk regression modelling were performed to examine socioeconomic differences in odds of distant stage and hazard of cancer death for all sites combined and separately for breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. For all sites collectively, associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and cancer survival and distant stage were stronger when the CD-based socioeconomic disadvantage measure was used compared with the SLA-based measure. The CD-based measure showed a more consistent socioeconomic gradient with a linear upward trend of risk of cancer death/distant stage with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. Site-specific analyses provided similar findings for the risk of death but less consistent results for the likelihood of distant stage. The use of socioeconomic disadvantage measure based on the smallest available spatial unit should be encouraged in the future. Implications for Public Health: Disadvantage measures based on small spatial units can more accurately identify socioeconomic cancer disparities to inform priority settings in service planning. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. The impact of water quality changes on the socio-economic system of the Guadiana Estuary: an assessment of management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Helena E. Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism related to bathing has a growing economic importance in the Guadiana Estuary in southern Spain and Portugal. Polls of local public opinion showed an awareness of potential and current threats to the aquatic environment posed by regulation of river flow and untreated/poorly-treated urban sewage discharge. Because of this strong concern for water quality, it was selected as the policy issue for our application of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF. We developed an integrated simulation model of the Guadiana estuarine system in which the ecological system and socioeconomic components are linked by means of beach eco-label (Blue Flag Award through its dependence on fecal bacterial thresholds. We quantified the socioeconomic impacts of water quality through an Economic Base Model that is used to portray the effect of increasing employment on resident population as a result of change in coastal water quality. A Cost-Benefit Analysis provides monetary indicators for scenario evaluation. It includes a monetary valuation of changes in water quality on human welfare using a Contingent Valuation Method. Because the population has a strong seasonal influence on the wastewater discharge into the estuary, we were able to simulate the feedback loop between the human activities that control water quality and those that benefit from it. We organized a critical evaluation of our efforts with the stakeholders, which allowed us to better understand their perceptions of the strengths, limitations, and opportunities for future SAF applications. Here we describe several aspects of our efforts that demonstrate the potential value of the SAF to environmental managers and stakeholders in clarifying some of the causal mechanisms, management options, and costs for resolution of the conflictual problem between water quality and tourism in the Guadiana estuary.

  10. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-03-21

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.

  11. Impact of service redesign on the socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction: a natural experiment and electronic record-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lloyd W; van Woerden, Hugo; Davies, Gareth R; Fone, David

    2016-10-24

    To investigate the impact of service redesign in the provision of revascularisation procedures on the historical socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Natural experiment and retrospective cohort study using linked data sets in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. An increase in the capacity of revascularisation procedures and service redesign in the provision of revascularisation in late 2011 to early 2012. South Wales cardiac network, Census 2011 population 1 359 051 aged 35 years and over. 9128 participants admitted to an NHS hospital with a first AMI between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013, with 6-months follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the time to revascularisation for deprivation quintiles, age, gender, comorbidities, rural-urban classification and revascularisation facilities of admitting hospital. In the preintervention period, there was a statistically significant decreased adjusted risk of revascularisation for participants in the most deprived quintile compared to the least deprived quintile (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.92, p=0.002). In the postintervention period, the increase in revascularisation rates was statistically significant in all quintiles, and there was no longer any statistically significant difference in the adjusted revascularisation risk between the most and the least deprived quintile (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.20, pSocioeconomic inequity of access to revascularisation was no longer apparent following redesign of revascularisation services in the south Wales cardiac network, although inequity persisted for women and those aged 75+ years. Increasing the capacity of revascularisation did not differentially benefit participants from the least deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 3: environmental impact assessment: socio-economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-02-01

    Anticipated social and economic effects from the construction and operation of the proposed Cold Lake Expansion Project in Alberta were described. The regions and communities that would be directly affected by the project were identified and project impacts with respect to the following areas were analyzed: population and demographics, local economy and labour force, education, health, social and recreational services, protective and emergency services, physical community infrastructure, real estate, and current community planning and land use initiatives. The main sources of information used for the analysis were public statistical data compiled by Statistics Canada, provincial government statistics and municipal planning documents. The overall social impact of the project was expected to range from low to medium. 50 refs., 44 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Economic Instruments and the Pollution Impact of the 2006-2010 Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn; Hong, Vu Xuan Nguyet; Man Hai, Nguyen; Thanh, Le Ha

    2008-01-01

    The current study derives optimal growth paths for pollution emission charges, in order to control future water pollution emissions in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector. The study builds on a prior study, which estimated the manufacturing sector pollution impact of the 2006- 2010 SEDP development plan for Vietnam (Jensen et al.; 2008). The current study demonstratesthat effective implementation and moderate expansion of optimal emission charges, under certain conditions, could have been use...

  14. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE LIVELIHOOD IN SOUTH ASIA : Case Rangamati, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rhaman, M Rezaur

    2016-01-01

    South Asia offers the world’s best places for vacations and chilling out. From beautiful beaches to incredible hill stations, fabulous backwaters, intricately carved temples and gorgeous heritage and culture but the situation of practicing tourism is not fully satisfied. The aim of this thesis was to identify the social and economic impacts of tourism on the livelihood and describe the ways to the development of tourism in Bangladesh and south Asian countries. This thesis also evaluated the p...

  15. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cantrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. METHODS/FINDINGS: Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371 into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001; perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001; credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62, and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53. No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco

  16. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact; Veillissement des centrales Impacts socio-economiques, sanitaires et environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch. [Depute du nord (France); Denner, M. [EDF pour la Region Bourgogne (France); Vouilloux, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Foucher, L. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Serviere, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Vila d' Abadal Serra, M

    2005-07-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  17. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  18. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . . .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  19. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  20. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  1. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; Pitts, G. Stephen; Drapek, Ray; McFarland, James; Ohrel, Sara; Cole, Jefferson

    2017-04-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomes of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.

  2. Economic Instruments and the Pollution Impact of the 2006-2010 Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn; Xuan, Hong Vu

    plan for Vietnam (Jensen et al.; 2008). The current study demonstratesthat effective implementation and moderate expansion of optimal emission charges, under certain conditions, could have been used, as part of the 2006-2010 SEDP development plan, to control pollution emissions at 2005 levels. Moreover...... plans, in order to control pollution emissions as development progresses in Vietnam.......The current study derives optimal growth paths for pollution emission charges, in order to control future water pollution emissions in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector. The study builds on a prior study, which estimated the manufacturing sector pollution impact of the 2006- 2010 SEDP development...

  3. Socio-economic and environmental impact of mining on women in Kasigau mining zone in Taita Taveta County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarifa Ali Mwakumanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kasigau ward is home to many gemstones with their mining contributing to the county's economic development. The mining sector is dominated by artisanal and small scale mining with 3–5% of women employed. A Participatory Action Research (PAR approach was used to involve women with the aim of establishing home-grown interventions. Seven villages and forty nine households participated in household interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and female feedback reflection meetings to generate and analyze data. Women worked as zururas (workers or employees, in deplorable environmental conditions, and were heavily impacted by mining activities. Women developed actionable strategies on productive engagement in the artisanal mining sector.

  4. Evaluation of mangrove reforestation and the impact to socioeconomic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, MA; Wati, R.; Slmaet, B.; Thoha, AS; Nuryawan, A.; Putri, LAP; Yusriani, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and are rapidly threatened due to anthropogenic activities such as conversion for aquaculture, oil palm plantation, filling and use of mangrove for urban development. The present study describes the current and first-year evaluation on mangrove restoration and its impact to socio economic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The rehabilitation was carried on December 2015 using direct planting of 6,000 Rhizophora apiculata propagules and May 2016 using 5,000 R. apiculata seedlings. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaf thickness and number, and seedling growth rate. Ninety-two of 1,124 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-economic-cultural impact of reforestation. Results show that the growth rate for current and first-year evaluation was 93 and 86 %, respectively. By contrast, the height, diameter, and some leaves seedlings planting were shown better than the performance of propagules planting. No change in the green foliage plant thickness between both farming methods. The reforestation affected 71.74, 55.43 and 39.13% of economic, social, and cultural of Lubuk Kertang community, respectively. The data is likely to provide valuable information for mangrove reforestation in North Sumatra.

  5. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  6. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  7. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  8. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  9. Factors which Motivate Job Acceptance and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, Donald S.; May, Deborah C.

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 360 Pennsylvania teachers was designed to identify factors which motivate job acceptance among teachers of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. The responses of 235 teachers indicated that challenge and practicum experiences were the two most prevalent motivational factors underlying job acceptance. (Author)

  10. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  11. A Grounded Theory of Effective Reading by Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Julia; Wang, Ye

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to uncover and describe psycholinguistic and sociocognitive factors facilitating effective reading by signing adults who are profoundly deaf and do not use hearing technology. The sample comprised four groups, each consisting of 15 adults, for a total of 60 participants. The four groups were "deaf…

  12. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge: An Overview for International Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas J.

    W. Edwards Deming called for the transformation to a new style of organizational management based on greater cooperation between managers and employees. This transformation could be achieved by introducing "profound knowledge" into the system. This paper is a presentation outline that was used to introduce the basics of Deming's theory…

  13. An Approach to Understanding Complex Socio-Economic Impacts and Responses to Climate Disruption in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; APl GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the regional issues that are tied to global climate disruption. Under the auspices of the GAIA project (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu), we have investigated simulating the complex interplay between climate, politics, society, industry, and the environment in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and associated geographic areas of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. This Chesapeake Bay simulation draws on interrelated geophysical and climate models to support decision-making analysis about the Bay. In addition to physical models, however, human activity is also incorporated via input and output calculations. For example, policy implications are modeled in relation to business activities surrounding fishing, farming, industry and manufacturing, land development, and tourism. This approach fosters collaboration among subject matter experts to advance a more complete understanding of the regional impacts of climate change. Simulated interactive competition, in which teams of experts are assigned conflicting objectives in a controlled environment, allow for subject exploration which avoids trivial solutions that neglect the possible responses of affected parties. Results include improved planning, the anticipation of areas of conflict or high risk, and the increased likelihood of developing mutually acceptable solutions.

  14. The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: Illustration of a method based on population attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoffmann (Rasmus); T.A. Eikemo (Terje); I. Kulhánová (Ivana); E. Dahl; P. Deboosere (Patrick); D. Dźurov́ (Dagmar); H. van Oyen (Herman); J. Rychtanŕikov́ (Jitka); B.H. Strand; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Socioeconomic differences in health are a major challenge for public health. However, realistic estimates to what extent they are modifiable are scarce. This problem can be met through the systematic application of the population attributable fraction (PAF) to socioeconomic

  15. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic and meteorological factors on reservoirs' air quality: a case in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC), China over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Zhou, Fengwu; Cui, Jian; Du, Ke; Leng, Qiangmei; Yang, Fumo; Chan, Andy; Zhao, Hongting

    2017-07-01

    The Three Gorges Dam's construction and industrial transfer have resulted in a new air pollution pattern with the potential to threaten the reservoir eco-environment. To assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on the pattern of air quality vairation and economical risks, concentrations of SO 2 , NO 2 , and PM 10 , industry genres, and meteorological conditions were selected in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC) during 2006-2015. Results showed that air quality had improved to some extent, but atmospheric NO 2 showed an increased trend during 2011-2015. Spatially, higher atmospheric NO 2 extended to the surrounding area. The primary industry, especially for agriculture, had shown to be responsible for the remarkable increase of atmospheric NO 2 (p air pollutant reductions, but construction industries had inhibited the improvement of regional air quality. In the tertiary industry, the cargo industry at ports had significantly decreased atmospheric NO 2 as a result of eliminating the obsoleted small ships. Contrarily, the highway transportation had brought more air pollutants. The relative humidity was shown to be the main meteorological factor, which had an extremely remarkable relation with atmospheric SO 2 (p air quality improvement difficult, and atmospheric SO 2 , NO 2 , and PM 10 deposition would aggravate regional soil and water acidification and reactivate heavy metal in soil and sediment, further to pose a high level of ecological risk in the TGRC and other countries with reservoirs in the world.

  17. Impact of Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Infant Mortality Rate in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC: Evidence from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: infant mortality rate is one of the main health indicators for assessing the health system’s performance over the world. We aim to examine the socioeconomic and health system factors affect infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013. Methods: was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure and female labor force participation rate on infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013.  These data were obtained from World Bank and World Health Organization data bank. Results: our results showed the total fertility rate had a positive and significant impact on infant mortality in the studied period. Also, there are negative significant associations between GDP per capita and public health expenditure with infant mortality. We did not observe any relationship between infant mortality and female labour force participation rate in the studied countries from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion: total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure were identified as the main factors affecting on infant mortality in OPEC over the ten years (2004-2013. This study enables health policy-makers to better understand the factors affecting on infant mortality and thereby take necessary steps in managing and decreasing the infant mortality rate in the studied countries.

  18. Multi-Sourced Satellite Observations of Land Cover and Land Use Change in South and Southeast Asia with Challenging Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Small, C.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Balk, D.; Sorichetta, A.; Masetti, M.; Gaughan, A. E.; Stevens, F. R.; Mathews, A.; Frazier, A. E.; Das, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative paradigm to observe the rural-urban transformation over the landscape using multi-sourced satellite data is formulated as a time and space continuum, extensively in space across South and Southeast Asia and in time over a decadal scale. Rather than a disparate array of individual cities and their vicinities in separated areas and in a discontinuous collection of points in time, the time-space continuum paradigm enables significant advances in addressing rural-urban change as a continuous gradient across the landscape from the wilderness to rural to urban areas to study challenging environmental and socioeconomic issues. We use satellite data including QuikSCAT scatterometer, SRTM and Sentinel-1 SAR, Landsat, WorldView, MODIS, and SMAP together with environmental and demographic data and modeling products to investigate land cover and land use change in South and Southeast Asia and associated impacts. Utilizing the new observational advances and effectively capitalizing current capabilities, we will present interdisciplinary results on urbanization in three dimensions, flood and drought, wildfire, air and water pollution, urban change, policy effects, population dynamics and vector-borne disease, agricultural assessment, and land degradation and desertification.