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Sample records for profound prooxidant due

  1. Profound hyperlipidaemia due to concomitant diabetes and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Samaan, M Constantine; Murphy, Nuala; Costigan, Colm

    2010-01-01

    A previously well 5-year-old girl presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to be profoundly hyperlipidaemic. Further investigations showed that she had associated hypothyroidism. She responded to insulin and L-thyroxine treatments and her lipid profile returned to normal 2 months after diagnosis. Despite starting anticoagulant therapy early, she developed deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. Her family screen did not demonstrate familial hy...

  2. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  3. Improvement of Pro-Oxidant Capacity of Protocatechuic Acid by Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Petrônio, Maicon S.; Coelho, Dyovani; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Silva, Dulce H. S.; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Machado, Sergio A. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Ximenes, Valdecir F.

    2014-01-01

    Pro-oxidant effects of phenolic compounds are usually correlated to the one-electron redox potential of the phenoxyl radicals. Here we demonstrated that, besides their oxidizability, hydrophobicity can also be a decisive factor. We found that esterification of protocatechuic acid (P0) provoked a profound influence in its pro-oxidant capacity. The esters bearing alkyl chains containing two (P2), four (P4) and seven (P7) carbons, but not the acid precursor (P0), were able to exacerbate the oxidation of trolox, α-tocopherol and rifampicin. This effect was also dependent on the catechol moiety, since neither gallic acid nor butyl gallate showed any pro-oxidant effects. A comparison was also made with apocynin, which is well-characterized regarding its pro-oxidant properties. P7 was more efficient than apocynin regarding co-oxidation of trolox. However, P7 was not able to co-oxidize glutathione and NADH, which are targets of the apocynin radical. A correlation was found between pro-oxidant capacity and the stability of the radicals, as suggested by the intensity of the peak current in the differential pulse voltammetry experiments. In conclusion, taking into account that hydroquinone and related moieties are frequently found in biomolecules and quinone-based chemotherapeutics, our demonstration that esters of protocatechuic acid are specific and potent co-catalysts in their oxidations may be very relevant as a pathway to exacerbate redox cycling reactions, which are usually involved in their biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action. PMID:25340774

  4. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of caffeine, theobromine and xanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Khan, Nizam Uddin; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2003-09-01

    Caffeine, along with its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine, is a key component of tea and coffee. These compounds are structurally similar to uric acid, a known antioxidant which is present in blood at relatively high concentrations, but also shows prooxidant activity. In view of the structural similarity between uric acid and caffeine and its metabolites, we studied the antioxidant and prooxidant properties of these compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the quenching effect of the compounds on oxidative DNA degradation by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Prooxidant activity was studied by measuring the ability of the compounds to oxidatively degrade DNA in the presence of copper ions. Caffeine, theobromine and xanthine have a quenching effect on the production of hydroxyl radicals, as well as on oxidative DNA breakage by hydroxyl radicals. Consistent with previous observations that many known antioxidants of plant origin are also capable of prooxidant action, the purine alkaloids also show oxidative DNA breakage in the presence of transition metal ions. The alkaloid caffeine and its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine exhibit both antioxidant and prooxidant properties. The results lead to the observation that caffeine and its metabolites may also contribute to the overall antioxidant and chemopreventive properties of caffeine-bearing beverages, such as tea.

  5. Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

  6. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P glutathione content by 39 and 38% (P ethanol and tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P ethanol and tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals.

  7. Correction of Prooxidative-Antioxidative Imbalance after Severe Acute Intoxication (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Myshkin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the pathological significance of a lipid peroxidation (LPO process after severe intoxications caused by organophosphorous compounds, alcohol, dichloroethane, the efficiency of its correction with the antioxidants pyrimi-dine and benzimidazole derivatives.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on male rats weighing 160—230 g. Models of intoxications with ethanol, dichloroethane, carbofos, armine, or sodium nitrite in the doses causing 30—50% death were employed. LPO products were studied in the lipid extracts of the brain, myocardium, and liver by various methods. The activity of a number of enzymes (catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, Na+, K+-ATPase was evaluated in the rats. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphotase were spectrophotometrically assayed. Quantitative histochemistry was used to determine the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, NAD-diaphorase, and Na+, K+-ATPase. The number of chemical reactions was measured and estimated on a MT-9 TV analyzer microscope. Experimental findings were analyzed by different variation statistical methods using Student’s test.Results. The paper reports the results of comprehensive experimental studies of the efficiency of correction of prooxidative-antioxidative imbalance after severe acute intoxication with chemical prooxidants and some lipophilic xenobiotics. Antioxidants, anti-hypoxants, and actoprotectors, the derivatives of pyrimidine and benzimidazole, were tested.Conclusion. The findings suggest that the immediate sequels of prooxidative-antioxidative imbalance due to experimental intoxications with ethanol, dichloroethane, and organophosphorous compounds are impaired activities of LPO processes, oxidative stress, altered metabolic, bioenergetic processes in organs and tissues. The use hydroxymethyluracil, bemitil, or

  8. Structure-Function Elucidation of Antioxidative and Prooxidative Activities of the Polyphenolic Compound Curcumin

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    Parth Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been very well known for their antioxidant properties, owing to their unique ability to act as free radical scavengers which, in turn, is an outstanding attribute of their unique biochemical structure. Recent accumulating lines of evidence inculcate sustainable interest and curiosity towards the chemoprotective nature of the natural polyphenolic compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane against oxidative stress-mediated disorders. Curcumin is naturally found as a constituent of dietary spices called turmeric, extracted from the plant Curcuma longa. However, like every phenolic antioxidant, curcumin possesses a concentration and medium dependent anti- and pro-oxidant behaviour. A detailed study of the structure-function analysis and the understanding of the mode of action of curcumin as well as its chemical analogues is thus essential to understand the selective biochemical consequences of curcumin. Moreover, the presence of transition metal ions, route of administration, and localized tissue are also the vital decisive factors to determine curcumin behaviour. With this viewpoint, this paper sheds lights on the medium dependent prooxidative and antioxidative attributes of curcumin. Further, with respect to emergence of nanocarriers, a brief discussion focusing on the biochemical effect exertion of curcumin chiefly due to targeted and slow release has also been added towards the end.

  9. When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P

    2016-07-01

    The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of Vitamin C in oral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aratirika Chakraborthy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The data validates the role of Vitamin C as an antioxidant under physiologic conditions exhibiting a cross over role as a pro-oxidant in pathological conditions. Further studies are required to substantiate its pro-oxidant activity to draw concrete conclusions.

  11. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of Vitamin C in oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborthy, Aratirika; Ramani, Pratibha; Sherlin, Herald Justin; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a naturally occurring organic compound and a potent antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to lipids and other macromolecules. It can also exhibit bimodal activity as a pro-oxidant at a higher concentration. Vitamin C has a switch over role from being an antioxidant in physiologic conditions to a pro-oxidant under pathologic conditions. A systematic review of this role would help to elucidate whether it is an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant in the oral environment. To review studies reported in the literature elucidating the activity of Vitamin C and determine whether it is an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant. Articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE using appropriate key words like "Vitamin C," "antioxidant activity," "pro-oxidant activity," "oral health" "oral disease." Hand search of journals was also performed. Articles were reviewed and analyzed. Search strategy reviewed 10 relevant articles which studied the dual role of Vitamin C. 65% of authors analyzed antioxidant action of ascorbic acid compared to 35% of the pro-oxidant potential. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant by a plethora of mechanisms. Factors determining its bimodal activity were studied, and the frequencies of their occurrence in the literature were depicted in percentage. The data validates the role of Vitamin C as an antioxidant under physiologic conditions exhibiting a cross over role as a pro-oxidant in pathological conditions. Further studies are required to substantiate its pro-oxidant activity to draw concrete conclusions.

  13. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Limiting factors in the pro-oxidants production with the use of fatty acids mixture separated from soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Korchagin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of prooxidants - carboxylates of variable valence metals (iron, copper and cobalt was carried with the use of a mixture of fatty acids with an acid number of 100-120 mg KOH / g, separated from the soapstock, which is a liquid waste of oil- and fatproduction. Carboxylates of variable valency metals were synthesized in a high-energy ultrasound field using a generator USG13-0.1 / 22. Mixed thermal and ultrasound effects contribute to an increase in the yield of metal carboxylates. The maximum yield of prooxidates was over 84% (by weight.When carrying out the synthesis of carboxylates of metals of variable valence, ion activity was revealed in the exchange reactions with sodium salts on the basis of a mixture of fatty acids in the following order: Co2+ >Cu2+ >Fe2+. The synthesis of carboxylates of variable valence metals is a multifactor system and depends on temperature regimes, metal activity, viscosity and structural characteristics of a fatty acids mixture. The formation of metal carboxylates was carried out in a water-alcohol medium at a high rate for the heterogeneous systems, which are the exchange reactions between strong alkali salts and carbon acids. It should be noted that an increase in the synthesis temperature above 60 ° C with simultaneous ultrasound exposure reduced the yield of products and influenced the quality composition of the carboxylates of metals of variable valency.We should also take into account that ultrasound impact allows to obtain a prooxidant of the required dispersity and it is extremely important in the production of multifunctional and targeted additives. The use of ultrasound fields of high intensity in the synthesis of carboxylates of metals of variable valence is preferable in a less viscous medium due to the better ultrasound spread

  15. The Effect of Heating Temperature on the Prooxidant and Hydroperoxide Decomposition Activity of Myoglobin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BERISHA, Adrian; ENDO, Yasushi; FUJIMOTO, Kenshiro

    2000-01-01

    Solutions of myoglobin from the heart of a horse were heated at various temperatures to assess the effect of heating temperature on the prooxidant and hydroperoxide decomposition activity of myoglobin...

  16. The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of vitamin C and trolox in vitro: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Raspor, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and the water-soluble analogue of alpha-tocopherol (trolox) were compared. Trolox has advantages over alpha-tocopherol, the latter being only lipid-soluble due to the presence of a carboxyl group in lieu of a phytol chain which imparts trolox with water solubility. Trolox is used as a standard antioxidant in biochemical studies against which the antioxidant capacity of compounds is compared. Although ascorbic acid and tocopherols possess strong antioxidant properties, they might also exhibit pro-oxidant properties in the presence of free transition metals. Thus, reactions detailed in this study were performed in the presence of Cr(VI) in an effort to investigate the potential of ascorbic acid and trolox to generate hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction. Results obtained were derived from reactions containing the same concentration of ascorbic acid and trolox under identical experimental conditions. Hydroxyl radical formation was observed in the reaction of Cr(VI) with ascorbic acid resulting from ascorbic acid auto-oxidation and H2O2 formation. Hydroxyl radical formation was only detected in the reaction mixture containing Cr(VI) and trolox following the addition of H2O2.

  17. Prooxidative and antioxidative properties of β-carotene in chlorophyll and riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of β-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of β-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 μM, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that β-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 μM β-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although β-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, β-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in β-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the β-carotene concentration, which indicates that β-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  19. Changes of Prooxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

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    Viktoria Cherkasova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in acute destructive pancreatitis, despite the development and introduction of new methods of treatment, remains stable high and in severe forms reaches 25-85%. Activation of neutrophils and macrophages in acute pancreatitis leads to an "oxygen burst", which is closely linked with the activation of lipid peroxidation. Goals. The purpose is to establish dynamic changes in the indexes of prooxidant-antioxidant systems in acute L-arginine-induced pancreatitis. Materials and methods. The study was performed on 62 white male rats of Wistar line weighing 180-220g, with modeled acute pancreatitis. Blood for analysis have been taken: the blood serum on 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of experiment to determine the activity level of thiobarbituric acid products, diene conjugates, catalase and lactate for assessment of the intensity of oxidative stress and antioxidant systems. Results. The obtained results of the study showed that acute L-arginine-induced pancreatitis is accompanied by an intensification of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO. Revealed that the most pronounced increase in all blood parameters is observed 24 hours after the beginning of the study. A significant increase in the active products of tiobarbituric acid (TBA-AP and diene conjugates (DC was detected - 1.98 and 2.7 times, respectively, and 2.2 times the growth of catalase (CT. At the next stage of the experiment there is a slowdown in the rate of LPO, as evidenced by the following values. Thus, for 48 years in the 3rd group: TBA-AP - they increased by 5.1% (p> 0.05, DC - by 3.3% (p> 0.05, and the level of CT - by 43.4% (P 0.05, which may indicate an exhaustion of antioxidant systems. Indicators of LPO on 72 hours compared with 48 hours in group III: TBA-AP - increased by 1.7% (p> 0.05, DC - by 5.7% (p> 0.05. Conclusions. Acute L-arginine-induced pancreatitis is accompanied by an intensification of lipid peroxidation-oxidation processes that can potentiate the development of

  20. The Correlation between Chemical Structures and Antioxidant, Prooxidant, and Antitrypanosomatid Properties of Flavonoids

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    João Luiz Baldim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have demonstrated in vivo and in vitro leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antioxidant, and prooxidant properties. The chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis lacks efficacy, presents high toxicity, and is related to the development of drug resistance. Thus, a series of 40 flavonoids were investigated with the purpose of correlating these properties via structure and activity analyses based on integrated networks and QSAR models. The classical groups for the antioxidant activity of flavonoids were combined in order to explain the influence of antioxidant and prooxidant activities on the antiparasitic properties. These analyses become useful for the development of efficient treatments for leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Finally, the dual activity of flavonoids presenting both anti- and prooxidant activities revealed that the existence of a balance between these two features could be important to the development of adequate therapeutic strategies.

  1. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  2. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B Norgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia

  3. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.

  4. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  5. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    OpenAIRE

    Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian

    2010-01-01

    Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...

  6. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  7. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  8. Resveratrol induces membrane and DNA disruption via pro-oxidant activity against Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonjong; Lee, Dong Gun

    2017-07-22

    Resveratrol is a flavonoid found in various plants including grapes, which has been reported to be active against various pathogenic bacteria. However, antibacterial effects and mechanisms via pro-oxidant property of resveratrol remain unknown and speculative. This research investigated antibacterial mechanism of resveratrol against a food-borne human pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, and confirmed the cell death associated oxidative damage. Resveratrol increased outer membrane permeability and membrane depolarization. It also was observed DNA injury responses such as DNA fragmentation, increasing DNA contents and cell division inhibition. Intracellular ROS accumulation, GSH depletion and significant increased malondialdehyde levels were confirmed, which indicated pro-oxidant activity of resveratrol and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the observed lethal damages were reduced by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine treatment supported the view that resveratrol-induced oxidative stress stimulated S. typhimurium cell death. In conclusion, this study expands understanding on role of pro-oxidant property and insight into previously unrecognized oxygen-dependent anti-Salmonella mechanism on resveratrol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of pH on antioxidant and prooxidant properties of common medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayliak Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied in vitro and vivo antioxidant and prooxidant abilities of aqueous extracts from Rosa canina L., Rhodiola rosea L., Hypericum perforatum L., and Gentiana lutea L. Methodology: Total antioxidant capacity was measured by four assays (phosphomolybdate method, Fe3+-reducing activity, ABTS•+ scavenging, H2O2 scavenging. Prooxidant activity was estimated by H2O2 production. Yeast viability in the presence of H2O2 and/or plant extracts was determined by plating or by counting live cells’ number. Results: Plant extracts differed in the total phenolic content (R. canina > R. rosea > H. perforatum > G. lutea which clearly correlated with their ABTS•+ scavenging activity (R2 = 0.963. H2O2 scavenging activity was not clearly associated with plant phenol levels and was significantly higher in acidic, than in alkaline medium. In line with this, plant extracts effectively protected yeast S. cereviasiae against H2O2 and stimulated reproductive ability of yeast cells at acidic but not at alkaline pH. At alkaline pH, plant extracts produced certain amounts of H2O2 which were related to their phenolic content. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of plant extracts is decreased at alkaline pH with an increase in the prooxidant activity. It reduces protective capacity of plant extracts against oxidative and other stresses in vivo.

  10. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Permethrin pesticide induces NURR1 up-regulation in dopaminergic cell line: Is the pro-oxidant effect involved in toxicant-neuronal damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Laura; Fedeli, Donatella; Nasuti, Cinzia; Capitani, Melania; Fiorini, Dennis; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms associated to the development of neurodegeneration due to pesticide exposure are not clear yet. In this study we evaluated how permethrin pesticide (PERM) can influence the Nurr1 gene and protein expression, and if a pro-oxidant activity of the pesticide contributes to up-regulation of Nurr1 in a dopaminergic cell line. Incubation of PC12 cells with 1μM PERM for 72h, leads to over expression of Nurr1 gene. This effect occurs with both corn oil and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) used to solubilize the toxicant. In order to investigate if the Nurr1 up-regulation induced by PERM, was associated to the pro-oxidant activity of the pesticide, anti-oxidants as glutathione (GSH), tocotrienols (TOC) and Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) were tested. RT-PCR of Nurr1 showed that its up-regulation was significantly reduced in the presence of antioxidants, especially by addition of ERW. Western-blot analysis reveals that ERW was able to counterbalance the up-regulation of Nurr1 protein induced by permethrin exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  13. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  14. Effects of Supplementation of Turmeric Extract on Balance Antioxidant-Prooxidant Spleen and Heart Tissues in Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Saberi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of today's environmental crisis that industrial technology it produces. Lead is one of the most important environmental contaminants that prolonged contact with the production of free radicals. Study results show that air pollution is increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of consumption turmeric extracts on prooxidant- antioxidant balance of rats' spleen and heart tissues exposed to lead acetate. Thirty-six male rats randomly were classified into four groups as: 1 Basic, 2 Sham (turmeric solvent, 3 Lead, 4 turmeric extract+lead, (each group includes 9 rats. turmeric supplements were injected three times per week and total of 8 weeks to 30 mg/kg body weight. Injection protocol lead and turmeric extract or solvent (ethyl first three sessions a week and will run for 8 weeks, all injections were in peritoneally.Results: After separation of spleen and heart tissues and homogenization, showed; injection of lead increases the index of lipid peroxidation in spleen and heart tissues. Also turmeric supplementation inhibits oxidative effects on the spleen and heart.Conclusion: Based on this research findings using a healthy style, and herbal supplements is effective in reducing the harmful effects anti-oxidation pollutants.

  15. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  16. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Targeting the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null phenotype in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with pro-oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathanggelou, Angelo; Weston, Victoria J.; Perry, Tracey; Davies, Nicholas J.; Skowronska, Anna; Payne, Daniel T.; Fossey, John S.; Oldreive, Ceri E.; Wei, Wenbin; Pratt, Guy; Parry, Helen; Oscier, David; Coles, Steve J.; Hole, Paul S.; Darley, Richard L.; McMahon, Michael; Hayes, John D.; Moss, Paul; Stewart, Grant S.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia results in resistance to p53-dependent apoptosis and inferior responses to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Hence, p53-independent strategies are required to target Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-deficient chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated has been implicated in redox homeostasis, we investigated the effect of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia genotype on cellular responses to oxidative stress with a view to therapeutic targeting. We found that in comparison to Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-wild type chronic lymphocytic leukemia, pro-oxidant treatment of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null cells led to reduced binding of NF-E2 p45-related factor-2 to antioxidant response elements and thus decreased expression of target genes. Furthermore, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells contained lower levels of antioxidants and elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Consequently, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but not tumors with 11q deletion or TP53 mutations, exhibited differentially increased sensitivity to pro-oxidants both in vitro and in vivo. We found that cell death was mediated by a p53- and caspase-independent mechanism associated with apoptosis inducing factor activity. Together, these data suggest that defective redox-homeostasis represents an attractive therapeutic target for Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:25840602

  18. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants with Meconium Stained of Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Arjmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Using a novel assay termed prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB assay to determine prooxidant-antioxidant balance in umbilical cord blood of infants with meconium stained of amniotic fluid (MSAF. Passage of meconium in amniotic fluid is associated with increase of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This complication occurs in about 15% of infants and is more widespread in postterm neonates. About 1.5 percent of neonates with MSAF develop meconium aspiration syndrome. Method. Sera of 29 umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF and 32 healthy infants (HI were collected. Both groups had nonsmoker and non-alcoholic mothers with no diseases. The PAB was measured. Result. There was a significant increase of PAB value (32.8±15.9 HK in umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF in comparison to HI (24.5±12.6 HK (P<0.05. There was no significant correlation between PAB value and age of mothers. Conclusion. The increased PAB value in infants with MSAF showed that these infants are exposed to oxidative stress. Further research with larger population is needed to demonstrate the oxidative stress in infants with MSAF.

  19. Pro-oxidant effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in the land snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Francesco; Gorbi, Stefania; Machella, Nicola; Tedesco, Sara; Benedetti, Maura; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Notti, Alessandra; Fattorini, Daniele; Piva, Francesco; Principato, Giovanni

    2005-12-15

    Pro-oxidant effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) 50-Hz magnetic fields were investigated in the land snail Helix aspersa exposed both in short-term laboratory treatments and under field conditions by maintaining the organisms in the proximity of a power line for up to 2 months. Oxidative perturbations were investigated as individual antioxidants (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferases, and total glutathione) and total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, destabilization of lysosomal membranes, and loss of DNA integrity were also evaluated as markers of cell damage. The overall results indicated an oxidative challenge caused by ELF magnetic fields with particularly prompt and sensitive responses for catalase, glutathione reductase, and the overall capability to neutralize peroxyl radicals. Cell injuries occurred to different extents according to duration and intensity of electromagnetic exposure and confirmed complex cause-effect relationships between pro-oxidant factors, efficiency of antioxidant defenses, and the onset of oxidative toxicity. This study highlights the importance of a multimarker approach for detecting a wide panel of biological responses, the necessity of investigating the long-term effects of early oxidative responses, and the role of ELF in enhancing susceptibility to other forms of pathologies or diseases.

  20. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; do Nascimento, Gilson Soares; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Salgueiro, Clairce Luzia; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24288675

  1. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract in experimental diabetic nephropathy: a duration-dependent outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Rajavel; Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul; Chung, Ivy; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kassim, Normadiah M; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2013-09-29

    chronic administration of 1000 mg kg-1 OPLE exerts both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects in DN depending on the duration of treatment. The present study also reveals that the antioxidant/pro-oxidant effects of OPLE are in part, due to modulation of NADPH activity.

  2. Structural alerts for predicting clastogenic activity of pro-oxidant flavonoid compounds: quantitative structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordi, Estela Guardado; Pérez, Enrique Molina; Matos, Maria Joao; Villares, Eugenio Uriarte

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exert multiple biological effects that include acting as pro-oxidants at very high doses. The authors determined a structural alert to identify the clastogenic activity of a series of flavonoids with pro-oxidant activity. The methodology was based on a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. Specifically, the authors developed a virtual screening method for a clastogenic model using the topological substructural molecular design (TOPS-MODE) approach. It represents a useful platform for the automatic generation of structural alerts, based on the calculation of spectral moments of molecular bond matrices appropriately weighted, taking into account the hydrophobic, electronic, and steric molecular features. Therefore, it was possible to establish the structural criteria for maximal clastogenicity of pro-oxidant flavonoids: the presence of a 3-hydroxyl group and a 4-carbonyl group in ring C, the maximal number of hydroxyl groups in ring B, the presence of methoxyl and phenyl groups, the absence of a 2,3-double bond in ring C, and the presence of 5,7 hydroxyl groups in ring A. The presented clastogenic model may be useful for screening new pro-oxidant compounds. This alert could help in the design of new and efficient flavonoids, which could be used as bioactive compounds in nutraceuticals and functional food.

  3. The Dual Antioxidant/Prooxidant Effect of Eugenol and Its Action in Cancer Development and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Bezerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Eugenol has a dual effect on oxidative stress, which can action as an antioxidant or prooxidant agent. In addition, it has anti-carcinogenic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties. Considering the importance of eugenol in the area of food and human health, in this review, we discuss the role of eugenol on redox status and its potential use in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  4. European eel (Anguilla anguilla) genotoxic and pro-oxidant responses following short-term exposure to Roundup--a glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, S; Gaivão, I; Santos, M A; Pacheco, M

    2010-09-01

    The glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, is among the most used pesticides worldwide. Due to its extensive use, it has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems representing a potential threat to non-target organisms, including fish. Despite the negative impact of this commercial formulation in fish, as described in literature, the scarcity of studies assessing its genotoxicity and underlying mechanisms is evident. Therefore, as a novel approach, this study evaluated the genotoxic potential of Roundup to blood cells of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) following short-term (1 and 3 days) exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations (58 and 116 microg/l), addressing also the possible association with oxidative stress. Thus, comet and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) assays were adopted, as genotoxic end points, reflecting different types of genetic damage. The pro-oxidant state was assessed through enzymatic (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (total glutathione content) antioxidants, as well as by lipid peroxidation (LPO) measurements. The Roundup potential to induce DNA strand breaks for both concentrations was demonstrated by the comet assay. The induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities was also demonstrated through the ENA assay, though only after 3-day exposure to both tested concentrations. In addition, the two genotoxic indicators were positively correlated. Antioxidant defences were unresponsive to Roundup. LPO levels increased only for the high concentration after the first day of exposure, indicating that oxidative stress caused by this agrochemical in blood was not severe. Overall results suggested that both DNA damaging effects induced by Roundup are not directly related with an increased pro-oxidant state. Moreover, it was demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of Roundup can pose a health risk for fish populations.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identifies Differential Response to Pro-Oxidant Chemotherapy in a Xenograft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry H. Landowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of oxidative stress is a key component of cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant drugs have been demonstrated to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An emerging concept is that therapeutic outcomes are dictated by the differential redox buffering reserve in subpopulations of malignant cells, indicating the need for noninvasive biomarkers of tumor redox that can be used for dose identification and response assessment in a longitudinal setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enhanced with the thiol-binding contrast agent Gd-LC6-SH, and hemodynamic response imaging (HRI in combination with hypercapnia and hyperoxia were investigated as biomarkers of the pharmacodynamics of the small molecule pro-oxidant imexon (IMX. Human multiple myeloma cell lines 8226/S and an IMX-resistant variant, 8226/IM10, were established as contralateral tumors in SCID mice. T1slope, an MRI measure of the washout rate of Gd-LC6-SH, was significantly lower post-IMX therapy in 8226/S tumors compared with vehicle controls, indicating treatment-related oxidization of the tumor microenvironment, which was confirmed by analysis of tumor tissue for thiols. T1slope and ex vivo assays for thiols both indicated a more reduced microenvironment in 8226/IM10 tumors following IMX therapy. HRI with hypercapnia challenge revealed IMX inhibition of vascular dilation in 8226/S tumors but not 8226/IM10 tumors, consistent with decreased immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin in treated 8226/S tumors. MRI enhanced with Gd-LC6-SH, and HRI coupled with a hypercapnic challenge provide noninvasive biomarkers of tumor response to the redox modulator imexon.

  6. Multiple evidence for an early age pro-oxidant state in Down Syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallardó, Federico V; Degan, Paolo; d'Ischia, Marco; Kelly, Frank J; Zatterale, Adriana; Calzone, Rita; Castello, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Delgado, Rafael; Dunster, Christina; Lloret, Ana; Manini, Paola; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta; Vuttariello, Emilia; Pagano, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with Down syndrome (DS) and with its major phenotypic features, such as early ageing. In order to evaluate an in vivo pro-oxidant state, the following analytes were measured in a group of DS patients aged 2 months to 57 years: (a) leukocyte 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); (b) blood glutathione; (c) plasma levels of: glyoxal (Glx) and methylglyoxal (MGlx); some antioxidants (uric acid, UA, ascorbic acid, AA and Vitamin E), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. A significant 1.5-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels was observed in 28 DS patients vs. 63 controls, with a sharper increase in DS patients aged up to 30 years. The GSSG:GSH x 100 ratio was significantly higher in young DS patients (or=15 years that showed a significant decrease in the GSSG:GSH x 100 ratio ratio vs. controls of the respective age groups. Plasma Glx levels were significantly higher in young DS patients, whereas no significant difference was detected in DS patients aged >or=15 years. Unlike Glx, the plasma levels of MGlx were found to be significantly lower in DS patients vs. controls. A significant increase was observed in plasma levels of UA in DS patients that could be related to an increased plasma XO activity in DS patients. The plasma concentrations of AA were also increased in young (< 15 years) DS patients, but not in older patients vs. controls in the same age range. The levels of Vitamin E in DS patients did not differ from the values determined in control donors. The evidence for a multiple pro-oxidant state in young DS patients supports the role of oxidative stress in DS phenotype, with relevant distinctions according to patients' ages.

  7. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 泰子

    2013-01-01

    We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...

  8. Biological safety of water-soluble fullerenes evaluated using tests for genotoxicity, phototoxicity, and pro-oxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Hisae; Yamana, Shuichi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the safety of water-soluble polymer-enwrapped fullerenes (PVP/fullerenes) as antioxidants in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations by studying the genotoxicity, phototoxicity, and pro-oxidant effects of these fullerenes. These materials were not mutagenic to any of the tested bacterial strains and did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured mammalian cells. The PVP/fullerenes did not exhibit cytotoxicity under ultraviolet or sham irradiation in the alternative phototoxicity test. Moreover, they did not show any pro-oxidant effect in the presence of Fe(2+) or Cu(2+). Thus, we concluded that PVP/fullerenes are safe for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. This is the first study in which toxicity tests were performed on PVP/fullerenes.

  9. Prooxidant activity of norbixin in model of acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovani, B T; de Freitas, R B; Augusti, P R; Araldi, I C; Somacal, S; Quatrin, A; Emanuelli, T; da Rocha, M P; Bauermann, L de Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a central role in gastric injuries caused by ethanol (EtOH). Antioxidant strategies to counteract EtOH toxicity are highly desirable. Norbixin (NBIX) is a carotenoid with antioxidant potential largely used in the food industry. This study evaluated the NBIX effects in a model of gastric ulcer induced by EtOH in rats. Male Wistar rats received NBIX doses of 0, 10, and 25 mg/kg by gavage 1 h after EtOH administration (0 or 75% solution, 1 mL/200 g of animal). The animals were euthanized 1 h after the NBIX administration, and their stomachs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses, quantification of nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity determination. NBIX increased LPO in gastric mucosa and caused CAT inhibition and NPSH depletion in EtOH-treated animals. Results showed that NBIX did not protect gastric tissue against EtOH damage, and this could be associated to a prooxidant effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  11. Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thaís Montenegro; de Melo, Ademar Soares; Dias, Rui Guilherme Cardoso; Varela, Everton Luís Pompeu; de Oliveira, Fábio Rodrigues; Vieira, José Luís Fernandes; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde; Baetas, Ana Cristina; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2012-09-28

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. In folk medicine, Petiveria alliacea has a broad range of therapeutic properties; however, it is also associated with toxic effects. The present study evaluated the putative effects of Petiveria alliacea on the central nervous system, including locomotor activity, anxiety, depression-like behavior, and memory, and oxidative stress. Two-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=7-10 rats/group) were administered with 900 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extracts of Petiveria alliacea L. The behavioral assays included open-field, forced swimming, and elevated T-maze tests. The oxidative stress levels were measured in rat blood samples after behavioral assays and methemoglobin levels were measured in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, Petiveria alliacea increased locomotor activity. It also exerted previously unreported anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in behavioral tests. In the oxidative stress assays, the Petiveria alliacea extract decreased Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels and increased methemoglobin levels, which was related to the toxic effects. The Petiveria alliacea extract exerted motor stimulatory and anxiolytic effects in the OF test, antidepressant effects in the FS test, and elicited memory improvement in ETM. Furthermore, the Petiveria alliacea extract also exerted pro-oxidant effects in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the antioxidant status and increasing MetHb levels in human plasma, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mendoza-Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP, among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs, which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%, flavonols (42.89% and dihydrochalcones (11.60%. In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (−-epicatechin and 3% (+-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (−-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects.

  13. Prooxidant/Antioxidant Ratio (ProAntidex as a Better Index of Net Free Radical Scavenging Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ming Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  14. Prooxidant/antioxidant ratio (ProAntidex) as a better index of net free radical scavenging potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Teng; Palanisamy, Uma D; Cheng, Hwee Ming

    2010-11-03

    The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex) of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  15. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  16. Prooxidant effects of ferrous iron, hemoglobin, and ferritin in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates are different from those in raw-meat homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D U; Kim, S M

    1998-02-01

    Oil emulsion and raw and cooked tissue homogenates were used to determine the mechanisms of various iron forms on the catalysis of lipid peroxidation. Flax oil (0.25 g) was blended with 160 mL maleate buffer (0.1 M, pH 6.5) to prepare an oil emulsion. Raw or cooked turkey leg meat was used to prepare meat homogenates. Samples were prepared by adding iron from each of the various sources, reactive oxygen species, or enzyme (xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase) systems into the oil emulsion or meat homogenates. In oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates, ferrous iron and hemoglobin had strong prooxidant effects, but ferritin became prooxidant only when ascorbate was present. Hemoglobin and ferritin had no prooxidant effect in raw-meat homogenates. The status of heme iron and the released iron from hemoglobin had little effect on the prooxidant effect of hemoglobin in oil emulsion and cooked meat homogenate systems. The prooxidant effect of ferrous iron in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates disappeared in the presence of superoxide (.O2-), H2O2, or xanthine oxidase systems. In raw-meat homogenates, however, ferrous had strong prooxidant effects even in the presence of .O2-, or H2O2. The status of free iron was the most important factor in the oxidation of oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates but the impact in raw-meat homogenates was small.

  17. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  18. Acute effects of a prooxidant herbicide on the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperanza, Marta; Cid, Ángeles; Herrero, Concepción; Rioboo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.rioboo@udc.es

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Mitochondrial membrane potential constituted the most sensitive parameter assayed. • Several genotoxicity methods were applied for first time in ecotoxicological studies. • Oxidative DNA base damage (8-OHdG) was induced by paraquat exposure. • Cells with DNA strand breakage and subG1-nuclei increased in treated cultures. • Typical apoptosis hallmarks were observed in microalgal cells exposed to paraquat. - Abstract: Since recent evidence has demonstrated that many types of chemicals exhibit oxidative and/or genotoxic potential on living organisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA damage are currently the best accepted paradigms to assess the potential hazardous biological effects of a wide range of contaminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity responses on the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to the prooxidant herbicide paraquat. In addition to the growth endpoint, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assayed as potential markers of cytotoxicity using flow cytometry (FCM). To study the effects of paraquat on C. reinhardtii DNA, several genotoxicity approaches were implemented for the first time in an ecotoxicological study on microalgae. Oxidative DNA base damage was analysed by measuring the oxidative DNA lesion 8-OHdG by FCM. DNA fragmentation was analysed by different methods: comet assay, and cell cycle analysis by FCM, with a particular focus on the presence of subG1-nuclei. Finally, effects on morphology of nuclei were monitored through DAPI staining. The evaluation of these endpoints showed that several physiological and biochemical parameters reacted to oxidative stress disturbances with greater sensitivity than integrative parameters such as growth rates or cell viability. The experiments revealed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (ROS formation, depolarization of

  19. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  20. Standing Ovations and Profound Learning: Cultural Diversity in Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Describes the profound learning that took place at the International Children's Theatre Festival in Toyama City, Japan in July 2000. Argues that participation by the Japanese-American Drama Ensemble, a youth group from the public schools in Lexington, Massachusetts, and more than 400 children from all over the planet, showcased the cultural…

  1. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  2. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  3. Profound Haemaological Changes In Rats Fed On Different Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...

  4. Factors influencing the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of polyphenols in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lisa; Elias, Ryan J

    2012-03-21

    The nonenzymatic oxidation of polyphenols bearing di- and trihydroxyphenol groups results in the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), a reactive oxygen species that can potentially compromise the oxidative stability of foods and beverages. An investigation of the factors that promote the oxidation of a model polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), was undertaken in a model lipid-based food system. Factors affecting oxidative stability, such as exogenous iron chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EDTA and 2,2-bipyridine; BPY) and pH (3 and 7) were evaluated in hexadecane and flaxseed oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. At neutral pH, H₂O₂ levels were observed to rise rapidly in hexadecane emulsions except for EDTA-containing treatments. However, EDTA-containing samples showed the highest rate of EGCG oxidation, suggesting that H₂O₂ was rapidly reduced to hydroxyl radicals (HO•). Conversely, at pH 3, H₂O₂ concentrations were lower across all treatments. EDTA conferred the highest degree of EGCG stability, with no loss of the catechin over the course of the study. In order to assess whether or not the H₂O₂ production seen in oxidatively stable hexadecane emulsions translated to pro-oxidant activity in an oxidatively labile food lipid system, the effect of EGCG on the stability of flaxseed o/w emulsions was studied. EGCG displayed antioxidant activity at pH 7 throughout the study; however at pH 3, pro-oxidant activity was seen in EGCG-containing emulsions, with and without BPY. This study attempts to provide a mechanistic understanding of the conditions wherein polyphenols simultaneously exert pro-oxidant and antioxidant behavior in lipid dispersions.

  5. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J. P.; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent a...

  6. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  7. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  8. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  9. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  10. Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents

  11. Intubation of Profoundly Agitated Patients Treated with Prehospital Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a

  12. Investigation into the potential chemical mechanism of the pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids with liposomes under UV-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragan J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of β-carotene and lutein inside multilamellar liposomes under continuous UV-irradiation. The liposomes were obtained by the thin film method and carotenoids (Crts were incorporated by mixing at various concentrations (0.005, 0.0075, 0.02, 0.07 and 0.5 mol %. Liposomes formation and the presence of Crts inside them were confirmed by SEM microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. The antioxidant/pro- -oxidant activity of Crts inside liposomes was determined by the thiobarbituric acid–malondialdehyde (TBA–MDA test. The investigated Crts acted more or less unexpected (as pro-oxidants inside the lipid bilayers, interacting with the UV-produced lipid radicals and simultaneously suffering under the UV-irradiation. Their pro-oxidant activity with liposomes and under UV-irradiation could be explained by the formation of unstable adducts in the reaction with peroxyl radicals, or by Crts-cation radicals formation via the electron transfer mechanism. Such tentatively unexpected behavior of carotenoids should be taken into consideration in further carotenoids-based UV-filters projections in cosmetic formulations for skin protection. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  13. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings

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    Seyyed Mehdi Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study was aimed at evaluating prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and its relationship with laboratory findings and clinical manifestations. Methods. In this case-control study, 60 patients with SLE and 60 healthy individuals were enrolled. The blood samples were collected and their sera were separated. Subsequently, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance value was evaluated using PAB assay for each sample. Results. The mean of PAB values in SLE patients was significantly higher than healthy controls (147.3±42 versus 84.8±32.2 HK, P<0.0001. Furthermore, in SLE patients, there was a positive significant correlation between the PAB and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (r=0.492, P<0.001. In addition, the PAB values in patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis were significantly higher than those without these manifestations. Conclusion. The findings of current study showed that the mean of PAB was significantly higher in SLE patients and PAB was correlated with ESR. Moreover increased PAB was found in SLE patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis. These findings suggest that the measurement of PAB may be useful to show oxidative stress condition in SLE patients.

  14. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyyed Mehdi; Salimi, Saeedeh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Kalani, Hamed; Tavallaie, Shima; Farajian-Mashhadi, Farzaneh; Zakeri, Zahra; Sandoughi, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study was aimed at evaluating prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relationship with laboratory findings and clinical manifestations. Methods. In this case-control study, 60 patients with SLE and 60 healthy individuals were enrolled. The blood samples were collected and their sera were separated. Subsequently, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance value was evaluated using PAB assay for each sample. Results. The mean of PAB values in SLE patients was significantly higher than healthy controls (147.3 ± 42 versus 84.8 ± 32.2 HK, P oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis were significantly higher than those without these manifestations. Conclusion. The findings of current study showed that the mean of PAB was significantly higher in SLE patients and PAB was correlated with ESR. Moreover increased PAB was found in SLE patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis. These findings suggest that the measurement of PAB may be useful to show oxidative stress condition in SLE patients.

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors attenuate propofol-induced pro-oxidative and antifibrinolytic effect in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewodzka-Zelezniakowicz, Marzena; Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Anna; Kisiel, Wioleta; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szemraj, Janusz; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Chabielska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) against propofol-induced endothelial dysfunction and to elucidate the involved mechanisms in vitro. We examined the effects of propofol (50 μM), quinaprilat and enalaprilat (10-5 M) on fibrinolysis (t-PA, PAI-1, TAFI antigen levels), oxidative stress parameters (H2O2 and MDA antigen levels and SOD and NADPH oxidase mRNA levels) and nitric oxide bioavailability (NO2/NO3 concentration and NOS expression at the level of mRNA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that both ACE-Is promoted similar endothelial fibrinolytic properties and decreased oxidative stress in vitro. Propofol alone increased the release of antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative factors from the endothelium and increased mRNA iNOS expression. We also found that the incubation of HUVECs in the presence of propofol following ACE-Is pre-incubation caused weakness of the antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative potential of propofol and this effect was similar after both ACE-Is. This observation suggests that the studied ACE-Is exerted protective effects against endothelial cell dysfunction caused by propofol, independently of hemodynamics.

  16. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors in oregano and rosemary gourmet olive oils

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    Tsimidou, Maria

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to examine the presence of antioxidants and pro-oxidants in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils. Dry, ground plant material (5% w/w was infused to olive oil for 24, 48 and 72 hours and then it was removed by filtration. All preparations were found acceptable using a panel test. The total polar phenol content increased 3.5 and 1.7 times in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils with respect to that of the control sample. A qualitative enrichment of the methanol:water fraction of olive oil with phenolic compounds from herbs were found using HPLC. No rosmarinic acid was detected in the gourmet oils. Vanillic acid was only found in the rosemary gourmet oil. The presence of flavonoids was assessed using TLC. a-Tocopherol content of the oil matrix was not changed after herb infusion. A significant increase was found in pheophytin, a,b-carotene and lutein content of oregano flavoured oils. The oxidative stability of gourmet oils was greater to that of the control using the Rancimat test. In photo-oxidation, oregano flavoured oil was less stable than the rosemary one. Total chlorophyll content may be a critical factor for the shelf life of these preparations. Suitable labelling suggesting avoidance of light may be useful for a safe domestic use.El estudio fue realizado para examinar la presencia de antioxidantes y pro-oxidantes en aceites de oliva con aroma a orégano y romero. El material vegetal seco y molido se añade al aceite de oliva en proporción (5% w/w durante 24, 48 y 72 horas y posteriormente se elimina por filtración. Todas las preparaciones se encontraron aceptables usando un panel de catadores. El contenido de fenoles polares totales aumentó 3,5 y 1,7 veces, en aceites con aroma a orégano y romero, con respecto al de las muestras control. Un enriquecimiento cualitativo de la fracción metanol: agua del aceite de oliva, con compuestos fenólicos de las hierbas, se encontró usando HPLC. No se detectó

  17. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  18. Interaural comparison of spiral ganglion cell counts in profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profound Muscle Weakness and Pain after One Dose of Actonel

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    Irina Badayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO defines osteopenia as a bone density between 1 and 2.5 standard deviation (SD below the bone density of a normal young adult Iqbal 2000. Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point Iqbal 2000. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications used to treat osteoporosis, Padget's disease of bone, and osteopenia. We report a woman who developed profound muscle weakness and pain after one dose of Risedronate (Actonel.

  20. Eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graidis, Christos; Golias, Christos; Dimitriadis, Dimokritos; Dimitriadis, Georgios; Bitsis, Theodosis; Dimitrelos, Ilias; Tsiakou, Afroditi; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-02-25

    The interactions among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial pathophysiological process involving some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). Glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors are only restricted to blood platelets and they bind fibrinogen and adhesion proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor to form cross bridges between adjacent platelets. IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are an object of intense research activity for target therapy worldwide during the last decades. Three GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This case report discusses a forty-four-year-old male patient with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and developed profound thrombocytopenia within 4 hours of first administration of eptifibatide. This report adds another case of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia to the medical literature and endorses the importance of platelet count monitoring after initiating therapy with this agent.

  1. NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation capacity in unfixed tissue sections: characterization of the pro-oxidizing conditions and optimization of the histochemical detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Pompella, A.

    1994-01-01

    Factors which influence the iron-stimulated lipid peroxidation in rat liver have been studied by incubating unfixed cryostat sections with a pro-oxidant system and using an optimized histochemical detection method for lipid peroxidation products with 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide and Fast

  2. Augmentation of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat cerebrum by presence of pro-oxidant (graded doses of ethanol) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasunpriya; Sharma, Shiv Bhushan; Chowdary, Nadella Vijaya Subbaraya

    2010-11-01

    Both aluminum and ethanol are pro-oxidants and neurotoxic. Considering the possibilities of co-exposure and sharing mechanisms of producing neurotoxicity, the present study was planned to identify the level of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in altered pro-oxidant (ethanol exposure) status of cerebrum. Male rats were coexposed to aluminum and ethanol for 4 weeks. After the exposure period, cerebral levels of protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were measured. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione perioxidase (GPx) of cerebrum were estimated. In most of the cases significant correlations were observed between the alterations and graded ethanol doses, suggesting a dose-dependency in pushing the oxidant equilibrium toward pro-oxidants. Aluminum is found to influence significantly all the studied parameters of oxidative stress. Likewise, ethanol also influenced these parameters significantly, except GR, while the interaction between ethanol and aluminum could significantly influence only the GSH content and GR activity of cerebrum. Present study demonstrate that coexposure of aluminum with pro-oxidant might favor development of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in cerebrum. This observation might be helpful in understanding of mechanism of neurodegenerative disorders and ameliorate them.

  3. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

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    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  4. Effect of superoxide and superoxide-generating systems on the prooxidant effect of iron in oil emulsion and raw turkey homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D U; Kim, S M

    1998-09-01

    Mechanisms of superoxide.O2--generating systems on the pro-oxidant effect of iron from various sources were studied. Reaction mixtures were prepared with distilled water, oil emulsion, or meat homogenates. Free ionic iron (ferrous and ferric), ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) were used as iron sources, and KO2 and xanthine oxidase (XOD) systems were used to produce .O2-. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values and iron contents of the reaction mixtures were determined. Ferric iron and ferritin, in the presence or absence of superoxide-generating systems, had no catalytic effect on the oxidation of oil emulsion but became pro-oxidants when reducing agent (ascorbate) was present. Ferrous iron and Hb had strong catalytic effects on the oxidation of oil emulsion as shown by TBARS values. Superoxide and H2O2, generated from superoxide-generating systems, oxidized ferrous iron and ascorbate, and lowered the pro-oxidant effect of ferrous iron in oil emulsion. Addition of ferric or ferrous iron increased but Hb did not have any effect on the TBARS values of raw meat homogenates. The reaction mechanisms of superoxide and the superoxide-generating systems on the prooxidant effect of various iron sources indicated that .O2- was a strong oxidizer rather than a reducing agent, and the antioxidant effect of XOD system in oil was caused by the oxidation of ferrous iron to the ferric form by .O2- and/or H2O2.

  5. Analysis of long-term degradation behaviour of polyethylene mulching films with pro-oxidants under real cultivation and soil burial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifaneia; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Kyrikou, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    Apart from the conventional polyethylene and the bio-based or mainly bio-based biodegradable in soil mulching films, polyethylene mulching films of controlled degradation in soil are already used in agriculture. The use of special pro-oxidants as additives is expected to accelerate the abiotic oxidation and the subsequent chain scission of the polymer under specific UV radiation or thermal degradation conditions, according to the literature. The role of pro-oxidants in the possible biodegradation of polyethylene has been theoretically supported through the use of controlled laboratory conditions. However, results obtained in real soil conditions, but also several laboratory test results, are not supporting these claims and the issue remains disputed. Mulching films made of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with pro-oxidants, after being used for one cultivation period in an experimental field with watermelon cultivation, were buried in the soil under real field conditions. This work presents the analysis of the degradation of the mulching films during the cultivation period as compared to the corresponding changes after a long soil burial period of 8.5 years. The combined effects of critical factors on the photochemical degradation of the degradable mulching LLDPE films with pro-oxidants under the cultivation conditions and their subsequent further degradation behaviour in the soil are analysed by testing their mechanical properties and through spectroscopic and thermal analysis.

  6. Evaluation of pollution in Camichin estuary (Mexico): pro-oxidant and antioxidant response in oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Pérez, M I; Romero-Bañuelos, C A; Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Diaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Vega-López, A

    2013-08-01

    The physiological system of molluscs, particularly pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms, could be altered by pollutants and induce disturbance on health status and productive parameters of aquatic organisms, such as oyster. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical contamination in water (total metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and oxidative stress parameters in oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis) in Camichin estuary, located in Mexican Tropical Pacific. The results obtained showed the presence of arsenic, lead and zinc, as well as naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in concentrations relatively higher than criteria established by local and international guidelines. Regarding the biomarkers of oxidative stress response (H2O2 and O2 concentration, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, and hydroperoxide concentration), differences between oyster from estuary and control group were significant. These results indicate that these pollutants could be related with oxidative stress detected in oyster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of a high glycemic index diet increases abdominal adiposity but does not influence adipose tissue pro-oxidant and antioxidant gene expression in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie Colbert; Huggins, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that consumption of a high glycemic index (GI) starch will increase adiposity, increase expression of the pro-oxidant enzyme (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADPH] oxidase), and decrease expression of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) in adipose tissue of mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 5-8/group) were fed a diet containing either high-GI starch (100% amylopectin) or low-GI starch (60% amylose/40% amylopectin) under low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) conditions for 16 weeks. Meal tolerance tests (MTTs) indicated that the postprandial blood glucose response over 120 minutes for the high-GI mice under LF and HF conditions was significantly greater than for mice fed low-GI diets. This result was not due to increased food consumption by the high-GI mice during the MTT. Although there was no difference in body weight between mice fed high-GI or low-GI starch, LF high-GI mice had significantly greater adiposity compared to LF low-GI mice. High-fat mice had a significant increase in NADPH oxidase expression compared to LF mice, but there was no significant effect of starch on NADPH oxidase expression. High-fat diet significantly decreased the expression of GPx and catalase, but there was no significant effect of starch on GPx and catalase expression. There was no difference in SOD expression among any of the diet groups. In conclusion, high GI diets increase adiposity under LF conditions but do not influence pro-oxidant or antioxidant enzyme gene expression in adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

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    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  9. Chemical Characterization of Urate Hydroperoxide, A Pro-oxidant Intermediate Generated by Urate Oxidation in Inflammatory and Photoinduced Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Eliziane S; Prado, Fernanda M; da Silva, Railmara P; Carvalho, Larissa A C; Prates, Marcus V C; Dadamos, Tony; Bertotti, Mauro; Di Mascio, Paolo; Kettle, Anthony J; Meotti, Flavia C

    2015-08-17

    Urate hydroperoxide is a strong oxidant generated by the combination of urate free radical and superoxide. The formation of urate hydroperoxide as an intermediate in urate oxidation is potentially responsible for the pro-oxidant effects of urate in inflammatory disorders, protein degradation, and food decomposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms that sustain the harmful effects of urate in inflammatory and oxidative stress related conditions, we report a detailed structural characterization and reactivity of urate hydroperoxide toward biomolecules. Urate hydroperoxide was synthesized by photo-oxidation and by a myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/superoxide system. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and MS(3) ion fragmentation revealed that urate hydroperoxide from both sources has the same chemical structure. Urate hydroperoxide has a maximum absorption at 308 nm, ε308nm = 6.54 ± 0.38 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1). This peroxide decays spontaneously with a rate constant of k = 2.80 ± 0.18 × 10(-4) s(-1) and a half-life of 41 min at 22 °C. Urate hydroperoxide undergoes electrochemical reduction at potential values less negative than -0.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl). When incubated with taurine, histidine, tryptophan, lysine, methionine, cysteine, or glutathione, urate hydroperoxide reacted only with methionine, cysteine, and glutathione. The oxidation of these molecules occurred by a two-electron mechanism, generating the alcohol, hydroxyisourate. No adduct between cysteine or glutathione and urate hydroperoxide was detected. The second-order rate constant for the oxidation of glutathione by urate hydroperoxide was 13.7 ± 0.8 M(-1) s(-1). In conclusion, the oxidation of sulfur-containing biomolecules by urate hydroperoxide is likely to be a mechanism by which the pro-oxidant and damaging effects of urate are mediated in inflammatory and photo-oxidizing processes.

  10. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple

  12. Profound sedation with propofol modifies atrial fibrillation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    During atrial fibrillation (AF), multiple wandering propagation wavelets at high rates drift around both atria under controversial hierarchical models. Antiarrhythmic drugs modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria, and can alter AF propagation dynamics and even terminate the arrhythmia. However, some other drugs, theoretically nonantiarrhythmic, may slightly block particular cardiac ionic currents through uncertain mechanisms in such a subtle way at regular heart rates that may have been pharmacologically overlooked. These potential effects might be better exposed at much higher activation rates as in AF, where atrial cells depolarize over 400 times per second. In this review, we aimed to compile and discuss results from several studies evaluating the net effect of profound sedation with propofol on atrial cells and atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Propofol is a very commonly used anesthetic agent, and its possible effect on AF dynamics has systematically not been taken into account in the myriad of clinical studies dealing with AF intracardiac recordings. The possible effect of sedation with propofol on AF was evaluated through the analysis of AF propagation patterns before and after its infusion in a series of patients submitted to pulmonary vein ablation. Effect on AV conduction will be discussed as well. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Multisensory speech perception of young children with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M

    1997-10-01

    The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.

  14. EFFECT OF JUMPS IN PROFOUNDNESS ON THE FOOTBALLER REFLECTION

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    Nebojša Đošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.

  15. Cancer Prevention Knowledge of People with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Helen E.; Reed, Barbara D.; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. RESULTS Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p English in multiple situations (p English use (p = 0.01) and believing that smoking was bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. CONCLUSION Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge. PMID:19132325

  16. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  17. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sati

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%, tumor volume (64.4%, and tumor burden (84.8% was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks, post-initiation (10 weeks and promotion (22 weeks stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group

  18. Pro-Oxidant Activity of Amine-Pyridine-Based Iron Complexes Efficiently Kills Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta González-Bártulos

    Full Text Available Differential redox homeostasis in normal and malignant cells suggests that pro-oxidant-induced upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS should selectively target cancer cells without compromising the viability of untransformed cells. Consequently, a pro-oxidant deviation well-tolerated by nonmalignant cells might rapidly reach a cell-death threshold in malignant cells already at a high setpoint of constitutive oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of a selected number of amine-pyridine-based Fe(II complexes that operate as efficient and robust oxidation catalysts of organic substrates upon reaction with peroxides. Five of these Fe(II-complexes and the corresponding aminopyridine ligands were selected to evaluate their anticancer properties. We found that the iron complexes failed to display any relevant activity, while the corresponding ligands exhibited significant antiproliferative activity. Among the ligands, none of which were hemolytic, compounds 1, 2 and 5 were cytotoxic in the low micromolar range against a panel of molecularly diverse human cancer cell lines. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity profile of some compounds remained unaltered in epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT-induced stable populations of cancer stem-like cells, which acquired resistance to the well-known ROS inducer doxorubicin. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 inhibited the clonogenicity of cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by caspase 3/7 activation. Flow cytometry analyses indicated that ligands were strong inducers of oxidative stress, leading to a 7-fold increase in intracellular ROS levels. ROS induction was associated with their ability to bind intracellular iron and generate active coordination complexes inside of cells. In contrast, extracellular complexation of iron inhibited the activity of the ligands. Iron complexes showed a high proficiency to cleave DNA through oxidative-dependent mechanisms, suggesting a likely

  19. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...... intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along...

  20. Influence of demetallization of hydrogenated sunflower oil on changes in the forms of heavy metals and their pro-oxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianov, K; Maneva, D; Ivanov, S

    1992-11-01

    The effect of removing heavy metals from hydrogenated sunflower oil using a method based on changes in the contents of the various forms of the heavy metals copper, iron, zinc and nickel and their respective pro-oxidative effects was studied. A high degree of removal of dissociated and bounded ions was observed for hydrogenated oil, while there was no change in the contents of the co-ordination form. The pro-oxidative effect of the dissociated ions and of the bound metal ions in hydrogenated oil decreased nine-fold and seven-fold, respectively, compared with that of the non-hydrogenated oil, as a result of which the oxidation stability of hydrogenated oil increased two-fold. Comparative studies confirmed as appropriate the use of wash waters and auxiliary solutions that do not contain heavy metals for the processing of the hydrogenate after the classical technology.

  1. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Surgery Profoundly Influences Gut Microbial-Host Metabolic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120

  3. Different patterns of in vivo pro-oxidant states in a set of cancer- or aging-related genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Ana; Calzone, Rita; Dunster, Christina; Manini, Paola; d'Ischia, Marco; Degan, Paolo; Kelly, Frank J; Pallardó, Federico V; Zatterale, Adriana; Pagano, Giovanni

    2008-02-15

    A comparative evaluation is reported of pro-oxidant states in 82 patients with ataxia telangectasia (AT), Bloom syndrome (BS), Down syndrome (DS), Fanconi anemia (FA), Werner syndrome (WS), and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) vs 98 control donors. These disorders display cancer proneness, and/or early aging, and/or other clinical features. The measured analytes were: (a) leukocyte and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), (b) blood glutathione (GSSG and GSH), (c) plasma glyoxal (Glx) and methylglyoxal (MGlx), and (d) some plasma antioxidants [uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA)]. Leukocyte 8-OHdG levels ranked as follows: WS>BS approximately FA approximately XP>DS approximately AT approximately controls. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly increased in a total of 22 patients with BS, FA, or XP vs 47 controls. The GSSG:GSH ratio was significantly increased in patients with WS and in young (< or =15 years) patients with DS or with FA and decreased in older patients with DS or FA and in AT, BS, and XP patients. The plasma levels of Glx and/or MGlx were significantly increased in patients with WS, FA, and DS. The UA and AA levels were significantly increased in WS and DS patients, but not in AT, FA, BS, nor XP patients. Rationale for chemoprevention trials is discussed.

  4. New Perspectives on Oxidized Genome Damage and Repair Inhibition by Pro-Oxidant Metals in Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Mitra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary cause(s of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases.

  5. New Perspectives on Oxidized Genome Damage and Repair Inhibition by Pro-Oxidant Metals in Neurological Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Joy; Guerrero, Erika N.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Wang, Haibo; Boldogh, Istvan; Rao, Kosagi Sharaf; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary cause(s) of neuronal death in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are still unknown. However, the association of certain etiological factors, e.g., oxidative stress, protein misfolding/aggregation, redox metal accumulation and various types of damage to the genome, to pathological changes in the affected brain region(s) have been consistently observed. While redox metal toxicity received major attention in the last decade, its potential as a therapeutic target is still at a cross-roads, mostly because of the lack of mechanistic understanding of metal dyshomeostasis in affected neurons. Furthermore, previous studies have established the role of metals in causing genome damage, both directly and via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little was known about their impact on genome repair. Our recent studies demonstrated that excess levels of iron and copper observed in neurodegenerative disease-affected brain neurons could not only induce genome damage in neurons, but also affect their repair by oxidatively inhibiting NEIL DNA glycosylases, which initiate the repair of oxidized DNA bases. The inhibitory effect was reversed by a combination of metal chelators and reducing agents, which underscore the need for elucidating the molecular basis for the neuronal toxicity of metals in order to develop effective therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have focused on the oxidative genome damage repair pathway as a potential target for reducing pro-oxidant metal toxicity in neurological diseases. PMID:25036887

  6. The impact of lead and cadmium on selected motility, prooxidant and antioxidant parameters of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdá, Eva; Kňažická, Zuzana; Lukáčová, Jana; Schneidgenová, Monika; Goc, Zofia; Greń, Agnieszka; Szabó, Csaba; Massányi, Peter; Lukáč, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) content on basic motility characteristics (motility-MOT, progressive motility-PROG) as well as selected markers of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (catalase-CAT, glutathione-GSH, malondialdehyde-MDA) in bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Twenty five semen samples were collected from breeding bulls and used in the study. Motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) system. The samples were centrifuged, fractions of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were separated, lysates were prepared from the sperm cell fractions. Pb and Cd concentrations were determined by the voltametric method (ASV), antioxidants and MDA were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The analysis showed that the average concentration of Pb in the seminal plasma was 0.23 ± 0.02 μg/mL, while its amount in the sperm cells was significantly higher (0.41 ± 0.07 μg/mL; P 0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that both heavy metals were significantly negatively correlated with MOT and PROG (P male fertility.

  7. Copper-mediated DNA damage by the neurotransmitter dopamine and L-DOPA: A pro-oxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmani, Nida; Zafar, Atif; Arif, Hussain; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz; Wani, Altaf A

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, cancer and ageing. Owing to the established link between labile copper concentrations and neurological diseases, it is critical to explore the interactions of neurotransmitters and drug supplements with copper. Herein, we investigate the pro-oxidant DNA damage induced by the interaction of L-DOPA and dopamine (DA) with copper. The DNA binding affinity order of the compounds has been determined by in silico molecular docking. Agarose gel electrophoresis reveals that L-DOPA and DA are able to induce strand scission in plasmid pcDNA3.1 (+/-) in a copper dependent reaction. These metabolites also cause cellular DNA breakage in human lymphocytes by mobilizing endogenous copper, as assessed by comet assay. Further, L-DOPA and DA-mediated DNA breaks were detected by the appearance of post-DNA damage sensitive marker γH2AX in cancer cell lines accumulating high copper. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the co-localization of downstream repair factor 53BP1 at the damaged induced γH2AX foci in cancer cells. The present study corroborates and provides a mechanism to the hypothesis that suggests metal-mediated oxidation of catecholamines contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Applications of Anti/Prooxidant Fullerenes in Nanomedicine along with Fullerenes Influence on the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Petrovic; Mariana Seke; Branislava Srdjenovic; Aleksandar Djordjevic

    2015-01-01

    Fullerenes are molecules that, due to their unique structure, have very specific chemical properties which offer them very wide array of applications in nanomedicine. The most prominent are protection from radiation-induced injury, neuroprotection, drug and gene delivery, anticancer therapy, adjuvant within different treatments, photosensitizing, sonosensitizing, bone reparation, and biosensing. However, it is of crucial importance to be elucidated how fullerenes immunomodulate human system o...

  10. Effect of Selected Plant Phenolics on Fe2+-EDTA-H₂O₂ System Mediated Deoxyribose Oxidation: Molecular Structure-Derived Relationships of Anti- and Pro-Oxidant Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Jeffrey; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-12-31

    In the presence of transition metal ions and peroxides, polyphenols, well-known dietary antioxidants, can act as pro-oxidants. We investigated the effect of 13 polyphenols and their metabolites on oxidative degradation of deoxyribose by an •OH generating Fenton system (Fe2+-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-H₂O₂). The relationship between phenolics pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects and their molecular structure was analyzed using multivariate analysis with multiple linear regression and a backward stepwise technique. Four phenolics revealed a significant inhibitory effect on OH-induced deoxyribose degradation, ranging from 54.4% ± 28.6% (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) to 38.5% ± 10.4% (catechin) (n = 6), correlating with the number of -OH substitutions (r = 0.58). Seven phenolics augmented the oxidative degradation of deoxyribose with the highest enhancement at 95.0% ± 21.3% (quercetin) and 60.6% ± 12.2% (phloridzin). The pro-oxidant effect correlated (p phenolics exhibiting pro-oxidant activity may increase the possibility of systemic oxidative stress in patients treated with medications containing chelating properties or those with high plasma concentrations of H₂O₂ and non-transferrin bound iron.

  11. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  12. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  13. Applications of Anti/Prooxidant Fullerenes in Nanomedicine along with Fullerenes Influence on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Petrovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are molecules that, due to their unique structure, have very specific chemical properties which offer them very wide array of applications in nanomedicine. The most prominent are protection from radiation-induced injury, neuroprotection, drug and gene delivery, anticancer therapy, adjuvant within different treatments, photosensitizing, sonosensitizing, bone reparation, and biosensing. However, it is of crucial importance to be elucidated how fullerenes immunomodulate human system of defense. In addition, the most current research, merging immunology and nanomedicine, results in development of nanovaccines, which may represent the milestone of future treatment of diseases.

  14. Effects of glutathione, Trolox and desferrioxamine on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage: anti-oxidant or pro-oxidant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naihao; Chen, Wei; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support the role of heme proteins as major inducers of oxidative damage is increasingly present. Antioxidants have been widely used to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action was usually dependent on their anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we chose three classic antioxidants, i.e. glutathione (GSH, an important intracellular antioxidant), 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, a phenolic antioxidant without chelating effect) and desferrioxamine (DFO, a good iron chelator), to study their efficiencies on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage. It was found that all of these antioxidants had the capacities to act as free radical scavengers and reducing agents to remove cytotoxic ferryl hemoglobin, demonstrating apparent anti-oxidant activities. However, the effects on hemoglobin-H(2)O(2)-induced protein oxidation depended on the categories and concentrations of antioxidants. GSH efficiently inhibited protein (bovine serum albumin or rat heart homogenate) carbonyl formation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to their protective effects at high concentrations, both Trolox and DFO could significantly aggravate protein oxidation at low concentrations. The pro-oxidant effects of Trolox and DFO on hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage were probably related to their abilities in producing additional free radicals, such as superoxide (O·(2)(-)) and hydroxyl radical (·OH). The dual effects on hemoglobin redox reactions may provide new insights into the physiological implications of Trolox and DFO with cellular heme proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prooxidant cytotoxicity of chromate in mammalian cells: the opposite roles of DT-diaphorase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivinskas, H.; Maroziene, A.; Cenas, N. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Inst. of Biochemistry; Nemeikaite-Ceniene, A.; Normantiene, T. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Inst. of Immunology

    2006-11-15

    The geno- and cytotoxicity of chromate, an important environmental pollutant, is partly attributed to the flavoenzyme-catalyzed reduction with the concomitant formation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this work was to characterize the role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1, DT-diaphorase, EC 1.6.99.2) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in the mammalian cell cytotoxicity of chromate, which was evidenced controversially so far. The chromate reductase activity of NQO1 was higher than that of GR, but lower than that of lipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.4.3), ferredoxin:NADP{sup +} reductase (EC 1.18.1.2), and NADPH: cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4). The reduction of chromate by NQO1 was accompanied by the formation of reactive oxygen species. The concentration of chromate for 50% survival of bovine leukemia virus-transformed lamb kidney fibroblasts (line FLK) during a 24-h incubation was (22 {+-} 4) {mu}M. The cytotoxicity was partly prevented by desferrioxamine, the antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine and by an inhibitor of NQO1, dicumarol, and potentiated by 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), which inactivates GR. The NADPH-dependent chromate reduction by digitonin-permeabilized FLK cells was partly inhibited by dicumarol and not affected by BCNU. Taken together, these data indicate that the oxidative stress-type cytotoxicity of chromate in FLK cells may be partly attributed to its reduction by NQO1, but not by GR. The effect of BCNU on the chromate cytotoxicity mav indicate that the general antioxidant action of reduced glutathione is more important than its prooxidant activities arising from the reactions with chromate. (orig.)

  16. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Eric R.; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  17. IL-15 is required for postexercise induction of the pro-oxidative mediators PPARδ and SIRT1 in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Lebris S; Anderson, Barbara G; Conner, Jennifer D; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Marcell, Taylor J

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise induces transient upregulation of the pro-oxidative mediators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ), silent information regulator of transcription (sirtuin)-1 (SIRT1), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and PGC-1β in skeletal muscle. To determine the role of the cytokine IL-15 in acute postexercise induction of these molecules, expression of these factors after a bout of exhaustive treadmill running was examined in the gastrocnemius muscle of untrained control and IL-15-knockout (KO) mice. Circulating IL-15 levels increased transiently in control mice after exercise. Control mice, but not IL-15-KO mice, upregulated muscle PPARδ and SIRT1 protein after exercise, accompanied by a complex pattern of mRNA expression for these factors. However, in exhaustive exercise, control mice ran significantly longer than IL-15-KO mice. Therefore, in a second experiment, mice were limited to a 20-minute run, after which a similar pattern of induction of muscle PPARδ and SIRT1 protein by control mice only was observed. In a separate experiment, IL-15-KO mice injected systemically with recombinant IL-15 upregulated muscle PPARδ and SIRT1 mRNA within 30 minutes and also exhibited increased muscle PPARδ protein levels by 3 hours. After exercise, both control and IL-15-KO mice downregulated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα) mRNA, whereas IL-15Rα-deficient mice exhibited constitutively elevated circulating IL-15 levels. These observations indicate IL-15 release after exercise is necessary for induction of PPARδ and SIRT1 at the protein level in muscle tissue and suggest that exercise releases IL-15 normally sequestered by the IL-15Rα in the resting state. These findings could be used to develop an IL-15-based strategy to induce many of the metabolic benefits of physical exercise.

  18. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  19. Healhy Ageing in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : Promoting Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities

  20. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  1. Joint Attention Behaviours in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: The Influence of the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Heleen; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of the profound cognitive and physical problems, people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are able to develop joint attention behaviours (JAB) and benefit from positive interactions. Aims: To investigate which context factors influence the JAB of people with PIMD. Method: Based on video recordings of…

  2. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to acknowledge the excellence of these two scholars by a double Festschrift, "A due". Both have been working at the Music Department of the University of Copenhagen and have collaborated with The Royal Library on various projects. This publication contains contributions from 44 colleagues, who thus - in topics...

  3. IMPACTUL REMEDIULUI BioR ASUPRA UNOR PARAMETRI AI SISTEMULUI PROOXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT LA PREPELIŢELE ADULTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MACARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problema stimulării productivităţii în avicultură, pentru asigurarea consumatorilor cu alimente de înaltă calitate, devine din ce în ce mai stringentă la nivel mondial. Studiul a avut drept scop evaluarea efectelor remediului BioR asupra indicilor marker ai peroxidării lipidelor (PLO şi ai sistemului antioxidant (SAO la prepeliţele adulte crescute în condiţii fiziologice de producţie. Studiul a fost realizat pe 5 loturi de prepeliţe. Remediul BioR a fost administrat de două ori: la începutul studiului şi la 7-10 zile după prima administrare, în doze diferite. S-a constatat că administrarea remediului BioR determină îmbunătăţirea indicilor sistemului PLO - SAO şi activitatea majorităţii indicilor evaluaţi depinde direct sau indirect de doza utilizată, momente ce trebuie să fie luate în considerare atunci când se alege doza optimă a remediului.THE IMPACT OF THE BioR REMEDY ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE PRO-OXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN ADULT QUAILSThe problem of aviculture productivity stimulation in order to ensure consumers with high quality food is becoming increasingly stringent worldwide. The study aimed to assess the effects of the BioR remedy on the marker indices of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant system (AOS in adult quails bred under physiological production conditions. The research was conducted on 5 lots of quails. The BioR remedy was administered twice: at the beginning of the study, and at the 7-10th day after the first administration, in different doses. It was found that the BioR remedy administration leads to the improvement of POL-SAO system indices, and the level or activity of the most evaluated indices depended directly or indirectly on the used dose, which must be taken into account when selecting the optimal dose of the remedy.

  4. The management of children with Down syndrome and profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A

    2016-01-01

    Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.

  5. Antioxidant properties of Krebs cycle intermediates against malonate pro-oxidant activity in vitro: a comparative study using the colorimetric method and HPLC analysis to determine malondialdehyde in rat brain homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Robson Luiz; Roos, Daniel Henrique; Grotto, Denise; Garcia, Solange C; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2007-06-13

    A variety of Krebs cycle intermediaries has been shown to possess antioxidant properties in different in vivo and in vitro systems. Here we examined whether citrate, succinate, malate, oxaloacetate, fumarate and alpha-ketoglutarate could modulate malonate-induced thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) production in rat brain homogenate. The mechanisms involved in their antioxidant activity were also determined using two analytical methods: 1) a popular spectrophotometric method (Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K., 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry 95, 351-358.) and a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure (Grotto, D., Santa Maria, L. D., Boeira, S., Valentini, J., Charão, M. F., Moro, A. M., Nascimento, P. C., Pomblum, V. J., Garcia, S. C., 2006. Rapid quantification of malondialdehyde in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-visible detection. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 43, 619-624.). Citrate, malate, and oxaloacetate reduced both basal and malonate-induced TBARS production. Their effects were not changed by pre-treatment of rat brain homogenates at 100 degrees C for 10 min. alpha-Ketoglutarate increased basal TBARS without changing malonate-induced TBARS production in fresh and heat-treated homogenates. Succinate reduced basal--without altering malonate-induced TBARS production. Its antioxidant activity was abolished by KCN or heat treatment. Fumarate reduced malonate-induced TBARS production in fresh homogenates; however, its effect was completely abolished by heat treatment. There were minimal differences among the studied methods. Citrate, oxaloacetate, malate, alpha-ketoglutarate and malonate showed iron-chelating activity. We suggest that antioxidant properties of citrate, malate and oxaloacetate were due to their ability to cancel iron redox activity by forming inactive complexes, whereas alpha-ketoglutarate and malonate pro-oxidant

  6. Factors influencing attentiveness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in multisensory storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Penne, Anneleen; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method developed for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The developers of MSST have established specific guidelines aimed at increasing the listener's attention. Whether, and to what extent, these guidelines indeed

  7. Differential prooxidative effects of the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, in normal and oral cancer cells are related to differences in sirtuin 3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Park, Jong-Yung; Lambert, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    We have previously reported that the green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), can induce oxidative stress in oral cancer cells but exerts antioxidant effects in normal cells. Here, we report that these differential prooxidative effects are associated with sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an important mitochondrial redox modulator. EGCG rapidly induced mitochondria-localized reactive oxygen species in human oral squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-25, SCC-9) and premalignant leukoplakia cells (MSK-Leuk1), but not in normal human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1). EGCG suppressed SIRT3 mRNA and protein expression, as well as, SIRT3 activity in SCC-25 cells, whereas it increased SIRT3 activity in HGF-1 cells. EGCG selectively decreased the nuclear localization of the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), the transcription factor regulating SIRT3 expression, in SCC-25 cells. This indicates that EGCG may regulate SIRT3 transcription in oral cancer cells via ERRα. EGCG also differentially modulated the mRNA expressions of SIRT3-associated downstream targets including glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase 2 in normal and oral cancer cells. SIRT3 represents a novel potential target through which EGCG exerts differential prooxidant effects in cancer and normal cells. Our results provide new biomarkers to be further explored in animal studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The Mechanism of Melanocytes-Specific Cytotoxicity Induced by Phenol Compounds Having a Prooxidant Effect, relating to the Appearance of Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nagata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific phenol compounds including rhododendrol (RD, a skin-brightening ingredient in cosmetics, are reported to induce leukoderma, inducing a social problem, and the elucidation of mechanism of leukoderma is strongly demanded. This study investigated the relationship among the cytotoxicities of six phenol compounds on B16F10 melanoma cells and HaCaT keratinocytes and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS. As a result, the cytotoxicity of RD on B16F10 cells was higher than that on HaCaT cells, and RD significantly increased intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels in B16F10 cells. Furthermore, although raspberry ketone (RK, RD derivative, also increased intracellular ROS in B16F10 cells, increase in ROS was suppressed by disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate dehydrate (EDTA. The amounts of increased ROS with RK in HaCaT cells without melanocyte were further increased by tyrosinase. Therefore, tyrosinase, a metalloprotein having copper, was speculated to be one of causative agents allowing phenol compounds to work as a prooxidant. Hydroxyl radical was generated by adding a mixture of tyrosinase and H2O2 to RD, and the amount of the radical was further increased by UVB, indicating that RD cytotoxicity was caused by intracellularly increased ROS, which possibly related to phenol induced prooxidants.

  9. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  10. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  11. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  12. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  14. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES – THE WAY OF SOCIALIZATION OF PEOPLE WITH PROFOUND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii I. Netosov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the software and hardware, that give people with profound visual impairments the opportunity to work on the computer. Attention is drawn to the Braille printers, relief-dot displays, voice synthesizers, scanners that can read, adaptation and correction programs and so on. It is emphasized that ICT for the blind is a factor of their inclusion in the life as the subjects of action. For solving this problem people with profound visual impairments need systemic help of the state and civil society in getting programs and equipment, because they are high-tech, and therefore expensive. It is important to spread the information about the activity of the centers of tiflo-computerization, to organize the laboratories of correction and socialization of people with profound visual impairments, to provide the training of the specialists.

  15. Cytogenetic damage and induction of pro-oxidant state in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to gliphosate, vinclozolin, atrazine, and DPX-E9636.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioi, M B; Scarfi, M R; Santoro, A; Barbieri, R; Zeni, O; Salvemini, F; Di Berardino, D; Ursini, M V

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), mitotic index (MI), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity in human peripheral lymphocytes from three healthy donors exposed in vitro to different concentrations of gliphosate, vinclozolin, atrazine, and DPX-E9636. The pesticides gliphosate, vinclozolin, and atrazine have been studied in a broad range of genetic tests with predominantly conflicting or negative results, whereas little is known about the genotoxicity of DPX-E9636. In our experimental conditions, each chemical compound tested produced a dose-related increase in the percent of aberrant cells and an increase of SCE/cell. Furthermore, at the highest concentrations of vinclozolin, atrazine, and DPX-E9636, we observed a significant reduction of the mitotic index. The increase of G6PD activity in exposed lymphocyte cultures strongly indicated an induction of a pro-oxidant state of the cells as an initial response to pesticide exposure.

  16. Carbamazepine-mediated pro-oxidant effects on the unicellular marine algal species Dunaliella tertiolecta and the hemocytes of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaka, Pinelopi; Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Ntaikou, Ioanna; Kostopoulou, Maria N; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the pro-oxidant behavior of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) on the marine algal species Dunaliella tertiolecta and the immune defense-related hemocytes of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A phytotoxicity test, performed in a first step, showed a significant inhibition of the growth rate and the chlorophyll alpha (Chl-α) content in algae after exposure for 24 h to different concentrations of CBZ (1-200 mg L(-1)). On the other hand, the increased levels of lipid peroxidation products, such as MDA, measured in 24 h CBZ-treated cells were attenuated with time (48-96 h), followed by a significant recovery of both the algal growth rate and the Chl-α content in all cases. The latter could be related to the concomitant enhancement of total carotenoids in CBZ-treated algae with time, which in turn could protect algal growth and survival against CBZ-induced oxidative stress. On the other hand, the increased levels of cell death, superoxide anions ((·)O2 (-)), nitric oxides (NO, in terms of nitrites, NO2 (-)) and MDA content observed in mussel hemocytes exposed to environmentally relevant (0.01-1 μg L(-1)) and/or higher (10 and 100 μg L(-1)) concentrations of the drug, clearly indicate the ability of CBZ to induce oxidative effects on cells of non-target species, such as mussels, affecting thus their overall health status. The significant relationships occurred among the tested biological parameters in both bioassays, further reinforce CBZ-mediated pro-oxidant effects on species, widely used in ecotoxicological and toxicological studies and provide a more comprehensive view on its environmental fate and ecotoxicological risk evaluation.

  17. Bile salt-induced pro-oxidant liver damage promotes transplanted cell proliferation for correcting Wilson disease in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Brigid; Kapoor, Sorabh; Schilsky, Michael L; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-05-01

    Insights into disease-specific mechanisms for liver repopulation are needed for cell therapy. To understand the efficacy of pro-oxidant hepatic perturbations in Wilson disease, we studied Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats with copper toxicosis under several conditions. Hepatocytes from healthy Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats were transplanted intrasplenically into the liver. A cure was defined as lowering of copper to below 250 microg/g liver, presence of ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (atp7b) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver and improvement in liver histology. Treatment of animals with the hydrophobic bile salt, cholic acid, or liver radiation before cell transplantation produced cure rates of 14% and 33%, respectively; whereas liver radiation plus partial hepatectomy followed by cell transplantation proved more effective, with cure in 55%, P < 0.01; and liver radiation plus cholic acid followed by cell transplantation was most effective, with cure in 75%, P < 0.001. As a group, cell therapy cures in rats preconditioned with liver radiation plus cholic acid resulted in less hepatic copper, indicating greater extent of liver repopulation. We observed increased hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in LEC rats, suggesting chronic oxidative stress. After liver radiation or cholic acid, hepatic lipid peroxidation levels increased, indicating further oxidative injury, although we did not observe overt additional cytotoxicity. This contrasted with healthy animals in which liver radiation and cholic acid produced hepatic steatosis and loss of injured hepatocytes. We concluded that pro-oxidant perturbations were uniquely effective for cell therapy in Wilson disease because of the nature of preexisting hepatic damage.

  18. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...... input signals. The application of some popular second order sliding mode controllers and their smooth counterparts are analyzed and experimentally verified. The controllers are considered for output feedback control and compared with a conventional PI control approach. The controllers under...... consideration are applied for position tracking control of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive exhibiting strong variations in inertia- and gravitational loads, and furthermore suffer from profound valve dynamics. Results demonstrate that both the twisting- and super twisting algorithms may be successfully applied...

  20. Profound Endothelial Damage Predicts Impending Organ Failure and Death in Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively), or...

  1. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  2. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  3. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  4. Staff interactive style during multisensory storytelling with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical

  5. Staff Interactive Style during Multisensory Storytelling with Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical research evidence. In general, there is a lack of…

  6. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  7. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  8. The role of attention in the affective life of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,

  9. The impact of medical conditions on the support of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, HP; Vlaskamp, C

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records

  10. Assessing the Efficacy of an Academic Hearing Peer Tutor for a Profoundly Deaf Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Suzanne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of using a hearing peer tutor to provide daily 20-minute math instruction for a profoundly deaf sixth-grade girl indicated that the peer tutoring intervention was highly successful, with the tutee meeting accuracy criteria for each of 4 curriculum objectives after only a brief period of intervention. (Author/DB)

  11. Profoundly Gifted Girls and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Psychometric Case Study Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Doobay, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    A case study of the psychometric characteristics of two profoundly gifted girls, one with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the other without ASD, is used to describe the nuances and subtleties most relevant in understanding the relationship between extreme giftedness and social difficulties. Through the presentation of the results from…

  12. Identification Audiometry in an Institutionalized Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ernest J.; And Others

    An audiometric screening survey was conducted on a severely and profoundly mentally retarded population using noise-makers and pure tone audiometry. Of those tested with noise-makers, 83% gave an identifiable response to sound, 7% did not respond, and 10% were considered difficult-to-test. By contrast, 4% passed, 2% failed, and 94% were…

  13. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  14. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. L. G.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound

  15. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  16. Multisensory Narrative Tracking by a Profoundly Deaf Subject Using an Electrocutaneous Vocoder and a Vibrotactile Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Observed Mood and Emotions in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…

  18. Eptifibatide induced profound thrombocytopenia in a patient with pelvic malignancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Kathryn C.; Guntupalli, Saketh R.; Thaker, Premal H.

    2012-01-01

    ► Eptifibatide is associated with profound thrombocytopenia and thrombosis secondary to a HITT-like mechanism associated with drug-dependant antibodies. ► Caution with eptifibatide use is needed in those pre-disposed to hypercoaguability, particularly those with an underlying malignancy.

  19. The Development of Plato Computer-Based Instruction for the Severely and Profoundly Developmentally Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Clapp, Elizabeth Jane

    The 2 year project (July 1, 1978 through June 30, 1980) sought to determine the viability, attractiveness, and effectiveness of computer based instruction with approximately 225 severely and profoundly mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled institutionalized children and adults. Over 100 instructional formats were developed by staff…

  20. Peer Interactions among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during group activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    Background Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the

  1. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  2. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  3. Extent, Duration, and Content of Day Services' Activities for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Hiemstra, Saskia J.; Wiersma, Linda A.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government instituted policies that enable persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to attend day services. Over the past 15 years, surveys have indicated a progressive increase in the number of hours that such adults spend at day activities centers. However, information about how these…

  4. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  5. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  6. A functionally focused curriculum for children with profound multiple disabilities : A goal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Reynders, K; Vlaskamp, C; Nakken, H

    Background This study analysed goals formulated in a functionally focused curriculum called Mobility Opportunities Via Education(TM) (MOVE). Method The subjects were 49 children with profound multiple disabilities (PMD) who attended a centre for special education where the MOVE curriculum was

  7. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  8. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  9. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  10. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  11. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a team of researchers in developing a brain-computer interface (BCI) system to help the profoundly paralyzed communicate. Dr. Wolpaw has received support from two NIH Institutes—NIBIB and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development—and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. "For the ...

  12. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has…

  13. Assessment of Computer-Based Preferences of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bishop, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating the use of computer-based stimuli that may then be used to develop activities and programming for students with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Both studies used an alternating treatments design and systematic assessment strategy to present stimuli sequentially and to measure student…

  14. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  15. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  16. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  17. An Analysis of Snoezelen Equipment to Reinforce Persons with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Smalls, Yemonja

    2004-01-01

    Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with…

  18. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Homøe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cochlear implant (CI treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists for evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation. In particular, children treated with CI are in need of long-term post-operative auditory training and other follow-up support. Design. The study is retrospective with updated information on present performance. Results. Since 2001, a total of 11 Greenlandic patients living in Greenland have been treated with CI, 7 children and 4 adults. Of these children, 4 use oral communication only and are full-time CI-users, 2 with full-time use of CI are still in progress with use of oral communication, and 1 has not acquired oral language yet, but has started auditory and speech training. Six children attend mainstream public school while one child is in kindergarten. Of the adults, only 1 has achieved good speech perception with full-time use of CI while 3 do not use the CI. Discussion. From an epidemiological point of view, approximately 1–3 children below 6 years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along with the auditory and speech/language outcomes. Finally, we present a suggestion for the future CI treatment and recommendations for an increased effort in the

  19. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  20. A gene responsible for profound congenital nonsyndromal recessive deafness maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, T.B.; Liang, Y.; Asher, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive deafness is the most common form of human hereditary hearing loss. Two percent of the 2,185 residents of Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia have profound congenital neurosensory nonsyndromal hereditary deafness due to a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation (NARD1). Families, identified through children with profound congenital deafness having hearing parents, give the expected 25% deaf progeny when corrected for ascertainment bias. Congenitally deaf individuals from Bengkala show no response to pure tone audiological examination. Obligate heterozygotes for autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala have normal or borderline normal hearing. A chromosomal location for NARD1 was assigned directly using a linkage strategy that combines allele-frequency dependent homozygosity mapping (AHM) followed by an analysis of historical recombinants to position NARD1 relative to flanking markers. Thirteen deaf Bengkala villagers of hearing parents were typed initially for 148 STRPs distributed across the human genome and a cluster of tightly linked 17p markers with a significantly higher number of homozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium were identified. NARD1 maps closest to STRPs for D17S261 (Mfd41) and D17S805 (AFM234ta1) that are 3.2 cM apart. Recombinant genotypes for the flanking markers, D17S122 (VAW409) and D17S783 (AFM026vh7), in individuals homozygous for NARD1 place NARD1 in a 5.3 cM interval of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 on a refined 17p-17q12 genetic map.

  1. Thermal Oxidation of Polyolefins by Mild Pro-Oxidant Additives Based on Iron Carboxylates and Lipophilic Amines: Degradability in the Absence of Light and Effect on the Adhesion to Paperboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Anh Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and inland pollution by non-degradable plastic bags and other plastic articles is a topic of great concern. Natural degradation processes based on oxidation of plastic pollutants could possibly contribute to limit the extent of pollution. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the absence of light by non-polluting pro-oxidants has not been presented before. In this study, we show that two amines, stearyl amine and [(3-(11-aminoundecanoyl amino propane-1-] silsesquioxane (amino-POSS in combination with ferric stearate (FeSt3 tremendously accelerate the thermal oxidation of polyolefins compared with reference samples. Both amines and FeSt3 are to a large extent based on renewable resources. Polyethylene and polypropylene samples containing less than 100 ppm of iron and 1% of amine were extremely brittle after 10 days in a circulation oven in the absence of light. No significant degradation could be seen with samples containing iron but no amine. In a different application, the initial oxidation of polyethylene can be used in order to increase its adhesion to cardboard. Excellent adhesion between polyethylene and cardboard is important for liquid packaging based on renewable resources. Amino-POSS has been chosen for food packaging applications due to its expected lower leakage from polyethylene (PE compared with stearyl amine. Film samples of PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were partly oxidized in a circulation oven. The oxidation was documented by increased carbonyl index (CI and melt flow index (MFI. The limited extent of oxidation has been proved by unchanged tensile strength and only moderate changes in elongation at break when compared to reference polyethylene films containing no FeSt3 or amino-POSS. The PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were compression moulded to paperboard. The adhesion of non-aged blends to paperboard decreased with increasing amino-POSS content which is in good compliance with an earlier reported lubricant effect of high

  2. Affect attunement in communicative interactions between adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and support workers

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sheridan Lee

    2017-01-01

    The quality of life of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is affected by many factors, including health status, involvement in activities, and social networks; but most critical is the quality of interaction experienced by the person on a daily basis. For many people with PIMD, most of whom reside in residential services where they receive 24-hour support, the primary people for interaction are paid disability support workers (DSWs). Quality interaction is ...

  3. Not all SCN1A epileptic encephalopathies are Dravet syndrome: Early profound Thr226Met phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Mountier, Emily I; Gill, Deepak; Davis, Suzanne; Joshi, Charuta; DeVile, Catherine; Kurian, Manju A; Mandelstam, Simone; Wirrell, Elaine; Nickels, Katherine C; Murali, Hema R; Carvill, Gemma; Myers, Candace T; Mefford, Heather C; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2017-09-05

    To define a distinct SCN1A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with early onset, profound impairment, and movement disorder. A case series of 9 children were identified with a profound developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and SCN1A mutation. We identified 9 children 3 to 12 years of age; 7 were male. Seizure onset was at 6 to 12 weeks with hemiclonic seizures, bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, or spasms. All children had profound developmental impairment and were nonverbal and nonambulatory, and 7 of 9 required a gastrostomy. A hyperkinetic movement disorder occurred in all and was characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis with prominent oral dyskinesia and onset from 2 to 20 months of age. Eight had a recurrent missense SCN1A mutation, p.Thr226Met. The remaining child had the missense mutation p.Pro1345Ser. The mutation arose de novo in 8 of 9; for the remaining case, the mother was negative and the father was unavailable. Here, we present a phenotype-genotype correlation for SCN1A. We describe a distinct SCN1A phenotype, early infantile SCN1A encephalopathy, which is readily distinguishable from the well-recognized entities of Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. This disorder has an earlier age at onset, profound developmental impairment, and a distinctive hyperkinetic movement disorder, setting it apart from Dravet syndrome. Remarkably, 8 of 9 children had the recurrent missense mutation p.Thr226Met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zachar; Maurine Neiman

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution o...

  5. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in correspo...

  6. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...

  7. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  8. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  9. A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum

    2014-01-01

    V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...... interface on the arm and around the shoulder using the saltation perceptual illusion to induce movement of the corresponding joint. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface and the proposed experimental design to evaluate it....

  10. Localization training results in individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  12. Frequency compression hearing aid for severe-to-profound hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Goto, K; Tateno, M; Kaga, K

    2000-10-01

    Objective of this study is to know how a frequency compression hearing aid with new concepts is beneficial for severe-to-profound hearing impairments. (2) Clinical trials of this hearing aid were conducted for 11 severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners. These 11 wore the frequency compression hearing aid in their daily life and reported subjectively on its performance. Speech recognition tests with five listeners and audio-visual short sentence recognition tests with three listeners were also conducted. This hearing aid can separately adjust the fundamental frequency from the spectral envelope of input speech and can adjust frequency response by use of a post-processing digital filter. (3) Five listeners out of these 11 came to prefer this hearing aid in their daily life and are still wearing it. The results of the speech recognition tests show that the speech recognition scores were not improved for all listeners and the results of the audio-visual short sentence recognition tests do that the audio-visual recognition scores were improved for two listeners. (4) There were some severe-to-profound hearing impaired listeners who preferred the frequency compression hearing aid finally. It is also suggested that the benefits of this hearing aid may be evaluated correctly using not only speech but also visual materials.

  13. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Florian M; Lorenz, Ingrid; Lorch, Annette; Constable, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85) are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  14. Research Ethics Committees and the Benefits of Involving People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in service user involvement in research, such involvement rarely extends to people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. New developments in visual methodologies offer the potential for people with profound and multiple learning disabilities to be included in research. At the same time, however,…

  15. Azadirachta indica acts as a pro-oxidant and modulates cell cycle associated proteins during DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the modulatory effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) on cell cycle-associated proteins during two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice. Considering the dual role of reactive oxygen species in cancer and its chemoprevention, the levels of lipid peroxidation (index of peroxidative damage) were also determined. Skin tumours were induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as a carcinogen followed by the repetitive application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. Skin tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group exhibited enhanced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, index of proliferation), p21 and cyclin D1, with no alterations in p53 expression in comparison to the control group. Tumours in AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited low PCNA and cyclin D1 expression and enhanced expression of p53 and p21 in comparison to the DMBA/TPA group. The skin tumours obtained in the AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited high lipid peroxidation levels in comparison to the tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group. The observations of the present study suggest that AAILE behaves as a pro-oxidant in the tumours, thereby rendering them susceptible to damage, which eventually culminates into its anti-neoplastic action. Also, cell cycle regulatory proteins may be modulated by AAILE and could affect the progression of cells through the cell cycle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Pro-oxidant status and Nrf2 levels in psoriasis vulgaris skin tissues and dimethyl fumarate-treated HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Bae, Jin Ho; Kang, Sang-Gue; Cho, Sung Woo; Chun, Dong-Il; Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Chul Han; Nam, Hae Seon; Lee, Seon Hwa; Lee, Sang Han; Cho, Moon Kyun

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. The aim of this study is to compare antioxidant protein expression in psoriasis vulgaris (PV) skin tissues with that in normal skin tissues in vivo and to evaluate the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), used for the treatment of psoriasis, on ROS generation and apoptosis in a human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Compared with normal skin tissues, PV skin tissues showed increased protein oxidation as well as down-regulation of Nrf2 and its regulatory proteins such as HO-1 and AKR1C3. Using HaCaT cells to model DMF-induced pro-oxidant effects in the skin cells, we found that DMF treatment induced increased ROS levels and apoptotic cell death, as signified by increased proportion of cells with Annexin V-PE(+) staining and a sub-G 0 /G 1 peak in the cell cycle. Preceding these changes, DMF treatment resulted in up-regulation of Nrf2, HO-1, and AKR1C3 proteins in these cells. Collectively, increased oxidative stress and impaired cellular anti-oxidant enzyme systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PV. DMF may exert an additive therapeutic efficacy in PV by attenuating the redox burden and subsequent oxidative damage to normal keratinocytes through activation of Nrf2 pathway relative to PV.

  17. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent...... on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α......-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols...

  18. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prooxidant effect of α-tocopherol on soybean oil. Global monitoring of its oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions by1H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Rubio, A S; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L; Guillén, María D

    2018-04-15

    The effect of adding α-tocopherol in proportions ranging from 0.002 to 5% in weight on the oxidative stability of soybean oil was studied. For the first time, the oxidation process under accelerated storage conditions including evolution of the molar percentages of the several types of oil acyl groups, and formation and evolution of various kinds of oxidation products comprising hydroperoxides, hydroxy-dienes and other alcohols, epoxides, aldehydes and keto-dienes, was followed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. It is proved that, except in the lowest proportion, α-tocopherol not only exerts a prooxidant effect on soybean oil but also modifies its oxidation pathway, affecting the oxidation products generation rate, their nature, relative proportions and concentrations. It is noticeable that the highest α-tocopherol concentrations induce the generation of some toxic compounds at earlier stages of the thermoxidation process and sometimes in higher concentration, such as certain oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and monoepoxides derived from linoleic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide nanoparticles: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchez, Jérémie; Forest, Valérie; Boumahdi, Najih; Boudard, Delphine; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Leconte, Yann; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Silicon carbide is an extremely hard, wear resistant, and thermally stable material with particular photoluminescence and interesting biocompatibility properties. For this reason, it is largely employed for industrial applications such as ceramics. More recently, nano-sized SiC particles were expected to enlarge their use in several fields such as composite supports, power electronics, biomaterials, etc. However, their large-scaled development is restricted by the potential toxicity of nanoparticles related to their manipulation and inhalation. This study aimed at synthesizing (by laser pyrolysis or sol-gel methods), characterizing physico-chemical properties of six samples of SiC nanopowders, then determining their in vitro biological impact(s). Using a macrophage cell line, toxicity was assessed in terms of cell membrane damage (LDH release), inflammatory effect (TNF-α production), and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species generation). None of the six samples showed cytotoxicity while remarkable pro-oxidative reactions and inflammatory response were recorded, whose intensity appears related to the physico-chemical features of nano-sized SiC particles. In vitro data clearly showed an impact of the extent of nanoparticle surface area and the nature of crystalline phases (α-SiC vs. β-SiC) on the TNF-α production, a role of surface iron on free radical release, and of the oxidation state of the surface on cellular H2O2 production.

  1. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp. Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omodesola O. Ogunruku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM and Capsicum chinense (RO and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P<0.05 ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P<0.05 ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated.

  2. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia.Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  3. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  4. Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with readministration of eptifibatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kimberly N; Schnabel, Joseph G; Rochetto, Richard P; Tanner, Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Case reports of acute profound thrombocytopenia have been reported with eptifibatide, yet the true incidence of this reaction is unknown. We describe a 50-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after readministration of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide was administered through hospital day 3, when it was discontinued in preparation for coronary angiography and PCI; the drug was restarted on day 5. On hospital day 6, she was noted to have a platelet count below 5 x 10(3)/mm,(3) indicating a profound decrease from a baseline of 456 x 10(3)/mm(3) on admission. Eptifibatide, heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel were potential causative agents. Anticoagulation and vancomycin were stopped, and her platelet count increased to 30 x 10(3)/mm(3) on day 7. Subsequent reexposure to heparin and vancomycin yielded no adverse effects. The patient's platelet count increased over the remainder of her hospitalization, and she was discharged home on day 19. Based on clinical presentation and negative heparin platelet factor 4 antibody test, eptifibatide was the most likely cause of thrombocytopenia. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that eptifibatide was the probable cause of thrombocytopenia (score of 5); scores of 1 (possible) or 0 (doubtful) were derived with heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel. We conducted a literature search and compiled information from published case reports to describe the pattern of onset and recovery of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia. In all patients receiving eptifibatide, routine platelet counts should be monitored at baseline and within 2-6 hours after starting the drug.

  5. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  6. A profound case of neurally mediated syncope with asystole after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Ramsey, Mitchell J; Ruffin, David M

    2012-06-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is an alarming yet benign condition that may present postoperatively for the first time in otherwise healthy patients. Although VVS is associated anecdotally with nasal manipulation, no data have been found to quantify this incidence with otolaryngology surgeries. We present a case of profound, recurrent syncope and documented asystole with an initial diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conclude with a discussion of neurally mediated syncope particular to the perioperative setting. It is essential to recognize neurocardiogenic etiology to differentiate it from other more concerning causes of syncope and asystole. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  8. Lemierre’s Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Birkner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre’s syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre’s syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant.

  9. Profound loss of neprilysin accompanied by decreased levels of neuropeptides and increased CRP in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gök Sargın

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, CD10 acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected. Substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were extracted from freshly frozen tissues and measured using ELISA. Levels of NEP expression were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunoreactivity scores were calculated. GEBOES grading system was also used. We demonstrated a profound loss (69.4% of NEP expression in UC, whereas all healthy controls had NEP expression. Patients with UC had lower neuronal SP; however non-neuronal SP remained similar. UC patients had also lower neuronal and non-neuronal VIP levels. CGRP were low in general and no significant changes were observed. Additionally, CRP positive patients with UC had higher rates of NEP loss (80% vs 51.9% and lower SP levels when compared with CRP negative patients with UC. Concurrent decreases in SP and VIP with profound loss of NEP expression observed in UC is likely to be one of the factors in pathogenesis. Further studies are required to define the role of neuropeptides and NEP in UC.

  10. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  11. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  12. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  13. A quantitative review of self-help research with the severely and profoundly mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarski, E A; Diorio, M S

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-seven studies published since 1964 through 1982 on training self-help skills to severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons were analyzed according to 19 parameters reflecting their methodological details. The results showed a steady interest in this research area over time, but 63% of the studies focused on toileting and feeding with fewer studies looking at other self-help skills. Package treatments composed primarily of accelerative techniques were most frequently used to train these skills. Methodologically, it was found that these studies typically involved profoundly mentally retarded people (33% of studies) who were trained by residential staff (69% of studies) in institutional settings (63% of studies). The results also indicated an increase over time in the number of studies rated acceptable on the reliability and design parameters. Finally, very few studies reported assessments of generalization, maintenance, or social validity. It was concluded that, (a) researchers need to broaden their interests in terms of settings, trainers, and behaviors studied to best meet the needs of this population, (b) the experimental quality of this literature is improving, and (c) the social impact of observed behavior changes has yet to be fully explored.

  14. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Li, Jie; Yao, Xuerui; Li, Wei; Du, Haibo; Tang, Mingliang; Xiong, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  15. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  16. The pro-oxidant gene p66shc increases nicotine exposure-induced lipotoxic oxidative stress in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Istvan; Hall, Samuel; Reed, Dustin K; Dixit, Mehul

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (NIC) exposure augments free fatty acid (FFA) deposition and oxidative stress, with a concomitant increase in the expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc. In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been observed in the kidneys of mice fed a high‑fat diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the pro‑oxidant p66shc mediates NIC‑dependent increases in renal oxidative stress by augmenting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing the FFA‑induced antioxidant response in cultured NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells. Briefly, NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells were treated with 200 µM NIC, 100 µM oleic acid (OA), or a combination of NIC and OA. The expression levels of p66shc and MnSOD were modulated according to genetic methods. ROS production and cell injury, in the form of lactate dehydrogenase release, were subsequently detected. Promoter activity of p66shc and MnSOD, as well as forkhead box (FOXO)‑dependent transcription, was investigated using reporter luciferase assays. The results demonstrated that NIC exacerbated OA‑mediated intracellular ROS production and cell injury through the transcriptional activation of p66shc. NIC also suppressed OA‑mediated induction of the antioxidant MnSOD promoter activity through p66shc‑dependent inactivation of FOXO activity. Overexpression of p66shc and knockdown of MnSOD had the same effect as treatment with NIC on OA‑mediated lipotoxicity. These data may be used to generate a therapeutic means to ameliorate renal lipotoxicity in obese smokers.

  17. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant responses in the liver and kidney of wild Goodea gracilis and their relation with halomethanes bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Martínez-Torres, M Lysset; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2013-12-01

    In mammals, it has been shown that halomethanes (HM) are bioactivated by enzymes such as CYP 2E1 and the theta isoform of GST to produce reactive metabolites. However, in fish, little information is available, although HM can form autochthonously in aquatic environments. This study assessed the effect of HM in dusky splitfin (Goodea gracilis) from three lakes of the Valley of Mexico by analysing specific HM biomarkers as well as a broad range of biomarkers. The concentration of HM was a function of its half-life (higher in deep waters), while its precursors and solar radiation are secondary factors that determine its concentration. The kidney showed higher basal metabolism than the liver, probably because of its function as a haematopoietic and filtration organ. Using integrated biological response version 2 (IBRv2), it was found that the hepatic and renal O₂· content is a pro-oxidant force capable of inducing oxidative stress (ROOH, TBARS and RC=O). Early damage was found to be dependent on low concentrations of HM in Major Lake, whereas late damage was observed in fish exposed to higher concentrations of HM in Zumpango Lake and Ancient Lake. The activities of enzymes involved in antioxidant defence seemed to be inefficient. The quantitative assessment of biomarkers (ANOVA) and the estimate of parameter A obtained from IBRv2 provided different information. However, the data support the greater predictive power of IBRv2, but it requires a series of interrelated biomarkers to infer these possibilities. G. gracilis presents marked patterns of adaptation, which are dependant on the HM concentrations in environmental mixtures, although the response is complex and many toxicants could induce similar responses.

  18. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  19. Use of a Treatment Package in the Management of a Profoundly Mentally Retarded Girl's Pica and Self-Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment involving verbal reprimands, physical restraint, response interruption, and positive practice overcorrection resulted in rapid and dramatic decreases in the levels of pica and self-stimulation of a 4-year-old profoundly retarded girl. (CL)

  20. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  1. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the reversibility of acid secretion in profound hypochlorhydria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Sekine, H; Koike, T; Imatani, A; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

    2004-06-01

    Although profound hypochlorhydria is considered to be an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer, long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on its reversibility remains uncertain. To clarify the change in acid secretion after eradication in a long-term follow-up over 5 years in patients with profound hypochlorhydria. Twenty-three H. pylori-positive patients with hypochlorhydria (hypochlorhydria.

  2. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Host-associated and free-living phage communities differ profoundly in phylogenetic composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gregory Caporaso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling has been widely used for comparing bacterial communities, but has so far been impossible to apply to viruses because of the lack of a single marker gene analogous to 16S rRNA. Here we developed a reference tree approach for matching viral sequences and applied it to the largest viral datasets available. The resulting technique, Shotgun UniFrac, was used to compare host-associated and non-host-associated phage communities (130 total metagenomes, and revealed a profound split similar to that found with bacterial communities. This new informatics approach complements analysis of bacterial communities and promises to provide new insights into viral community dynamics, such as top-down versus bottom-up control of bacterial communities by viruses in a range of systems.

  4. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has considered how carers conceptualize bereavement in relation to this group. Semi-structured interviews obtained responses from seven carers. Transcripts were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: 'difficulty articulating the experience of loss' and 'making sense of bereavement through familiar patterns'. Carers conceptualize bereavement primarily in cognitive terms, but also take account of relational factors mediating loss. Implications for training and further research are outlined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Care versus treatment at the end of life for profoundly disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are profoundly mentally handicapped do not have the capacity to make their own decisions and also do not have a past record of decisions, from when they had capacity, to guide us in making decisions for them. They represent a difficult group, ethically, for surrogate decision making. Here I propose some guidelines, distinguishing between these patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). As the life span of patients becomes shorter, or their level of consciousness becomes permanently impaired, the presumption for comfort care should become an imperative, and the standard of evidence to justify any invasive intervention should become higher. For members of this population, who have no more ability to refuse treatment than to consent to it, protection of the vulnerable must mean allowing a peaceful death as well as a comfortable life. Reasonable legal safeguards are also proposed to allow improved end-of-life decisions to be made for this population.

  6. A longitudinal study of active treatment of adaptive skills of individuals with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-haee, M A

    2001-10-01

    A longitudinal study indicated that a single group of adults living in a large state institution (O'Berry Center in Goldsboro, North Carolina) benefited from receiving active treatment, although no control group was permitted. After five years, 59 individuals with profound mental retardation improved their skills in six general areas of dressing, grooming, eating, toileting, communication, and social interaction. After five more years of active treatment, 51 persons who had remained in the program maintained their skills in dressing, grooming, eating, and communication. Significant improvement in the use of toilet and a loss in social interaction were observed. Although the participants were 10 years older at the end of this study, their adaptive behaviors, in comparison to the date of entry, either improved or were maintained. Therefore, aging was not associated with decline in skills.

  7. Acquisition and generalization of instruction following behavior in profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, R; Dubin, W

    1979-08-01

    Four profoundly retarded male residents of a state institution learned to comply with the instructions "come here," "stay," and "sit." Acquisition occurred in a special therapy room and instructions were presented in a fixed sequence. All subjects learned to comply with the instructions in the training environment. Testing occurred in the subject's ward dayroom where instructions were presented in a random sequence. Despite dramatic changes in the stimulus conditions associated with the transfer to the testing situation the subjects performed close to their asymptotic level. Three experimentally naive subjects participated in a second experiment which was similar to the first, except that the number of acquisition sessions and the number of trials per session were reduced. The reduction in number of acquisition trials did not appear to affect performance in the testing environment. The possibility of terminating off-task behavior of institutionalized individuals by eliciting previously acquired instruction following behavior was discussed.

  8. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  9. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-07-01

    Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Group activities for children with PIMD initiated by a direct support worker were video-recorded. The behaviour and positioning of the children and the behaviour of the direct support workers were coded. Limited peer-directed behaviour of the children with PIMD and peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers are observed. Weak associations were found between the positioning or peer interaction-influencing behaviours and the behaviour of children with PIMD. Children with PIMD show social interest in each other during group activities. More knowledge is needed to create an environment which facilitates peer-directed behaviours of persons with PIMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensorimotor functioning and prelinguistic communication of severely and profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, D; Barrera, R D; Feldman, R S

    1981-03-01

    The prelinguistic, nonverbal communicative behavior of 40 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded children and adolescents functioning at various stages of Piaget's sensorimotor period was examined. Five scales of the Uzgiris and Hunt (1975) sensorimotor assessment were used to determine general level of sensorimotor functioning. A standard set of communication elicitation tasks was employed to examine the gestures used to communicate in both imperative and declarative contexts. More competent sensorimotor performance was associated with higher frequency of more sophisticated and symbolic forms of gestural communication, and subjects generally used more complex gestures to communicate in the imperative than in the declarative tasks. Applicability of the results to the design of future language-intervention programs and their implications for general theory concerning the relations between language and cognition and between normal and atypical development were discussed.

  11. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  12. Identifying perception behaviours in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Miriam; Verheul, Ellen; Velthausz, Frank

    2017-12-21

    To support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), it is essential to understand how they experience their environment. Insight into perception behaviour may provide an entry point for improved understanding. A random sample of a 30-min video registration of five participants with PIMD was used to code behaviours per second based on an ethogram containing 157 different perception behaviours in nine categories. Eighty-nine different perception behaviours were observed, of which movements with eyes, head and arms were most common. The senses used most were seeing, hearing and touching. Finally, the function of five perception patterns was established in relation to their function:awareness, focusing attention and tension regulation. Close observation using an observation ethogram provides insight into how people with PIMD perceive their environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoenzymes Profoundly and Differentially Modulate Carbon Flux into Lignins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R. A.; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L.; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E.; Patten, Ann M.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1–6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  14. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure.

  15. Plasma antidiuretic hormone in cases with the early onset of profound unilateral deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Nishioka, Rie; Taguchi, Daizo; Nishimura, Masahiko

    2008-12-01

    The p-ADH level in cases of juvenile unilateral profound deafness (JUPD) and the timecourse of the level were examined to investigate whether or not an increase of p-ADH is involved in the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) in JUPD. In 90 consecutive patients with unilateral profound or total sensorineural deafness with the onset in early childhood, pure-tone audiometric examination and the measurement of p-ADH and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) were followed up once or twice a year as far as possible. At every testing, we performed careful history-taking about episodic vertigo/dizziness, fluctuant hearing loss, and tinnitus in order to find out whether patients had experienced these clinical signs of the development of DEH. Means and standard deviation (S.D.) of p-ADH level and osmolality in all samples tested (n=368) were 7.3+/-7.0 pg/mL (0.7-52.0 pg/mL), and 288.6+/-4.4 mOsm/L (273-306 mOsm/L), respectively. The mean of p-ADH level was much higher than those previously reported in children and adolescents. High levels of p-ADH (over 5.0 pg/mL) were often observed in subjects between 6 and 19 years of age, but not so frequently in subjects of 20 years of age or older. Long-term follow-up of p-ADH levels revealed that DEH frequently developed in cases with persistent elevation of p-ADH. The elevation of p-ADH is likely to promote the development of DEH in cases of JUPD, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  16. Expression and function of striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase is profoundly altered in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Steven P.; Xu, Jian; Leung, John; Urfer, Roman; Nikolich, Karoly; Oksenberg, Donna; Lombroso, Paul J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) acts in the central nervous system to dephosphorylate a number of important proteins involved in synaptic function including ERK and NMDA receptor subunits. These proteins are also linked to stroke, in which cerebral ischemia triggers a complex cascade of events. Here we demonstrate that STEP is regulated at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels in rat models of cerebral ischemia and that its regulation may play a role in the outcome of ischemic insults. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there are profound decreases in the levels of STEP mRNA, whilst in global ischemia STEP mRNA is selectively down-regulated in areas susceptible to ischemic damage. In a neuroprotective preconditioning paradigm, and in regions of the brain that are relatively resistant to ischemic damage, STEP mRNA levels are increased. Furthermore, there is a significant processing of STEP after ischemia to generate a novel species, STEP33, resulting in a redistribution of STEP from membrane-bound to soluble compartments. Concomitant with the cleavage of mature forms of STEP, there are changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK. We show that the cleavage of STEP leads to a catalytically active form, but this cleaved form no longer binds to and dephosphorylates its substrate pERK. Therefore, in response to ischemic insults, there are profound reductions in both the amount and the activity of STEP, its localization, as well as the activity of one of its key substrates, pERK. These changes in STEP may reflect a critical role in the outcomes of ischemic brain injury. PMID:18445231

  17. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea.

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    Florian M Trefz

    Full Text Available Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH < 6.85. When exclusively considering laboratory parameters, classification tree analysis identified plasma glucose concentrations < 3.2 mmol/L, plasma sodium concentrations ≥ 151 mmol/L, serum GGT activity < 31 U/L and a thrombocyte count < 535 G/L as predictors of mortality. However, multivariable logistic regression models based on these laboratory parameters did not have a sufficiently high enough sensitivity (59% and specificity (79% to reliably predict treatment outcome. The sensitivity and specificity of jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 were 11% and 97%, respectively, for predicting non-survival in this study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information.

  18. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937.

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    Humberto Riera

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1 in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125, p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation.

  19. Effect of Selected Plant Phenolics on Fe2+-EDTA-H2O2 System Mediated Deoxyribose Oxidation: Molecular Structure-Derived Relationships of Anti- and Pro-Oxidant Actions

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    Jeffrey de Graft-Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of transition metal ions and peroxides, polyphenols, well-known dietary antioxidants, can act as pro-oxidants. We investigated the effect of 13 polyphenols and their metabolites on oxidative degradation of deoxyribose by an •OH generating Fenton system (Fe2+-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-H2O2. The relationship between phenolics pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects and their molecular structure was analyzed using multivariate analysis with multiple linear regression and a backward stepwise technique. Four phenolics revealed a significant inhibitory effect on OH-induced deoxyribose degradation, ranging from 54.4% ± 28.6% (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid to 38.5% ± 10.4% (catechin (n = 6, correlating with the number of –OH substitutions (r = 0.58. Seven phenolics augmented the oxidative degradation of deoxyribose with the highest enhancement at 95.0% ± 21.3% (quercetin and 60.6% ± 12.2% (phloridzin. The pro-oxidant effect correlated (p < 0.05 with the number of –OH groups (r = 0.59, and aliphatic substitutes (r = −0.22 and weakly correlated with the occurrence of a catechol structure within the compound molecule (r = 0.17. Selective dietary supplementation with phenolics exhibiting pro-oxidant activity may increase the possibility of systemic oxidative stress in patients treated with medications containing chelating properties or those with high plasma concentrations of H2O2 and non-transferrin bound iron.

  20. Cathelicidin (LL-37) and its correlation with pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional human study.

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    Sahebari, M; Roshandel, G; Saadati, N; Saghafi, M; Abdolahi, N; Rezaieyazdi, Z

    2017-08-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls. Of those, 39 patients had active and 11 patients had inactive disease. Serum levels of LL-37 were measured by ELISA and PAB values by a special method. Results There was no difference in levels of LL-37 between patients and healthy controls (50.9 ± 20.8 vs. 67.7 ± 43.3 ng/ml, P = 0.31). LL-37 did not correlate with SLEDAI and its items in total patients. LL-37 had a positive correlation with SLEDAI in active patients ( P = 0.01, r = 0.4). In active patients (78% of patients), multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative correlation between LL-37 and C3 ( P = 0.01, standardized beta -0.50). No difference was found in levels of PAB between patients and controls (90.4 ± 34.1 vs. 86.9 ± 25.6 HK, P = 0.4).There was no difference in the levels of PAB between patients with active and inactive disease (93.2 ± 34.1 vs. 80.2 ± 33.7 HK, P = 0.27). No correlation was found between levels of PAB and SLEDAI items and total score. However, a positive correlation between the levels of LL-37 and PAB in SLE patients was found ( r = 0.3, P lupus compared with healthy individuals. LL-37 serum values rose in parallel with SLEDAI in active disease. Positive correlation between serum PAB and LL-37 could be a great achievement of this study that may suggest the role of antioxidants in controlling NETosis.

  1. Two case presentations of profound labial edema as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

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    Krapf, Jill M; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-09-01

    Hypermobility-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), an often-missed diagnosis with the potential for serious sequelae, may have a variety of uncommon presentations, some of which may be gynecologic. The aim of this case report is to present two cases of profound labial edema associated with intercourse as a presenting symptom of hypermobility-type EDS. A 25-year-old female presented with severe labia minora swelling and bladder pressure associated with intercourse, in addition to persistent genital arousal. History revealed easy bruising, joint pain, and family history of aneurysm. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent profound labial swelling for 6 years, associated with sensitivity and pain with intercourse. The patient has a history of joint pain and easy bruising, as well a sister with joint hypermobility and unexplained lymphedema. The presenting symptom of profound labial edema led to the diagnosis of hypermobility-type EDS. Patients with hypermobility syndrome exhibit an increased ratio of type III collagen to type I collagen, causing tissue laxity and venous insufficiency. Abnormal collagen may lead to gynecologic manifestations, including unexplained profound labial edema, pelvic organ prolapse in the absence of risk factors, and possibly persistent genital arousal. This case report highlights the need for further research to determine incidence of labial edema in hypermobility-type EDS and to further elucidate a potential correlation between profound labial edema and collagen disorders. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Microswitch Technology for Enabling Self-Determined Responding in Children with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

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    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 18 studies reporting on the use of microswitch technology to enable self-determined responding in children with profound and multiple disabilities. Identified studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) experimental design, (c) microswitches and procedures used, and (d) main results. The 18 studies formed three groups based on whether the microswitch technology was primarily intended to enable the child to (a) access preferred stimuli (7 studies), (b) choose between stimuli (6 studies), or (c) recruit attention/initiate social interaction (5 studies). The results of these studies were consistently positive and support the use of microswitch technology in educational programs for children with profound and multiple disabilities as a means to impact their environment and interact with others. Implications for delivery of augmentative and alternative communication intervention to children with profound and multiple disabilities are discussed.

  3. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures.

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    Zhu, Linhai; Fu, Bojie; Zhu, Huoxing; Wang, Cong; Jiao, Lei; Zhou, Ji

    2017-06-16

    Although trait choice is crucial to quantify functional diversity appropriately, the quantitative methods for it are rarely compared and discussed. Meanwhile, very little is known about how trait choice affects ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. We presented the four methods of trait selection as alternatives to the ordination axis-based method, which directly identify a subset of key traits to represent the main variation of all the traits. To evaluate their performance, we compared the closeness of association obtained by different methods between species richness and functional diversity indices (FAD, FD, Q, FDis) in the six ecosystems. The evaluation was also benchmarked against the results obtained by calculating the possible indices using all the trait combinations (the complete search method). We found that the trait selection methods were potential alternatives to axis-based method to gain a mechanistic understanding of functional responses and effects of traits, while these methods as well as the axis-based method possibly use mismatched information to interpret the investigated ecosystem properties. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. The complete search method should be used to assess the rationale of different trait choice methods and the quality of the calculated indices.

  4. Profound reversible seasonal changes of individual skull size in a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Javier; Dechmann, Dina K N; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Hertel, Moritz

    2017-10-23

    Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size [1]. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains [2]. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel's phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of red-toothed shrews and some mustelids [3-5]. The seasonal 20% decrease and 15% re-growth of the most common proxy, braincase height, were documented at population level from extracted skulls post-mortem. Quantifying intra-individual change had so far been methodologically prohibitive. Here, we followed the intra-individual change in skull size and body mass throughout the full cycle in wild recaptured shrews (Sorex araneus). Using X-ray images we showed that individuals decreased the size of their braincases in anticipation of winter by an average of 15.3%. Braincases then partially regrew in spring by 9.3%. Body mass decreased by 17.6% and then dramatically increased by 83.4% in spring. Thus, we demonstrate that the dramatic changes incurred by Dehnel's phenomenon occur in the individual's bone and other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dexamethasone exerts profound immunologic interference on treatment efficacy for recurrent glioblastoma

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    Wong, E T; Lok, E; Gautam, S; Swanson, K D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with recurrent glioblastoma have a poor outcome. Data from the phase III registration trial comparing tumour-treating alternating electric fields (TTFields) vs chemotherapy provided a unique opportunity to study dexamethasone effects on patient outcome unencumbered by the confounding immune and myeloablative side effects of chemotherapy. Methods: Using an unsupervised binary partitioning algorithm, we segregated both cohorts of the trial based on the dexamethasone dose that yielded the greatest statistical difference in overall survival (OS). The results were validated in a separate cohort treated in a single institution with TTFields and their T lymphocytes were correlated with OS. Results: Patients who used dexamethasone doses >4.1 mg per day had a significant reduction in OS when compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day, 4.8 vs 11.0 months respectively (χ2=34.6, Pdexamethasone >4.1 mg per day was 3.2 months compared with those who used ⩽4.1 mg per day was 8.7 months (χ2=11.1, P=0.0009). There was a significant correlation between OS and T-lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Dexamethasone exerted profound effects on both TTFields and chemotherapy efficacy resulting in lower patient OS. Therefore, global immunosuppression by dexamethasone likely interferes with immune functions that are necessary for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26125449

  6. A patient with profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery: A case report

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    Michael T Flannery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A case of profound weight loss after gastric bypass surgery with multiple negative evaluations. Case presentation: A 41-year-old African-American female presented with greater-than-expected weight loss after gastric bypass and increasing abdominal pain over a 2-year period. An extensive workup was pursued for the patient with blood analysis, tumor markers, imaging studies both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, arterial studies, and endoscopy from above and below, all of which demonstrated normal results. The patient was followed up without improvement, and repeated studies were also normal. The patient was labeled with a nonorganic etiology for her symptoms, which led to a psychiatry referral which was refused. Conclusion: The patient’s surgeon, who already had removed a normal appendix and gallbladder, repeated a laparoscopic exam. The exam was normal except for a small focus of pancreatic cancer in the celiac plexus. The patient died from perioperative sepsis from peritonitis 2 days after surgery. The case is discussed and findings reviewed.

  7. Vestibular function of patients with profound deafness related to GJB2 mutation.

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    Kasai, Misato; Hayashi, Chieri; Iizuka, Takashi; Inoshita, Ayako; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Okada, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2010-09-01

    GJB2 mutations are responsible not only for deafness but also for the occurrence of vestibular dysfunction. However, vestibular dysfunction tends to be unilateral and less severe in comparison with that of bilateral deafness. The correlation between the cochlear and vestibular end-organs suggests that some children with congenital deafness may have vestibular impairments. On the other hand, GJB2 gene mutations are the most common cause of nonsyndromic deafness. The vestibular function of patients with congenital deafness (CD), which is related to GJB2 gene mutation, remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between GJB2 gene mutation and vestibular dysfunction in adults with CD. A total of 31 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with CD, were enrolled in the study. A hearing test and genetic analysis were performed. The vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured and a caloric test was performed to assess the vestibular function. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction was then statistically analyzed. The hearing level of all CD patients demonstrated a severe to profound impairment. In seven CD patients, their hearing impairment was related to GJB2 mutation. Five of the seven patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation demonstrated abnormalities in one or both of the two tests. The percentage of vestibular dysfunction of the patients with CD related to GJB2 mutation was statistically higher than in patients with CD unrelated to GJB2 mutation and in healthy controls.

  8. Holding Ashley (X): Bestowing Identity Through Caregiving in Profound Intellectual Disability.

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    Freitag, Lisa; Liaschenko, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life. In this article, we analyze the ethics of the Ashley Treatment within the context of family caregiving. Through the physical and emotional work of caregiving, families participate in the formation and maintenance of personal identity, a process that Hilde Lindemann recently called "holding." We argue that, in an intellectually disabled person such as Ashley, who depends on her family for every aspect of her care, the family's contribution to identity is an essential source of personhood. We believe that the treatment can be justified if it is indeed an instance of appropriate family "holding" for Ashley. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum infection early in pregnancy has profound consequences for foetal growth.

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    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Matondo, Sungwa; Minja, Daniel T R; Resende, Mafalda; Pehrson, Caroline; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Olomi, Raimos; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Salanti, Ali; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G

    2017-10-06

    Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GApregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0.0099) and shorter pregnancy length (mean reduction 6.6 days [1.0;112.5], P=0.0087). The birth weight (mean reduction 221g [6;436], P=0.044) and the placental weight (mean reduction 84g ([18; 150], P=0.013) at term were also reduced. The study suggests that early exposure to P. falciparum, which are not prevented by current control strategies, has profound impact on foetal growth, pregnancy length and the placental weight at term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pro-oxidant activity of dietary chemopreventive agents: an under-appreciated anti-cancer property [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/15s

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    Asfar S Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was quoted by Hippocrates more than two thousand years ago and since ancient times the health benefits of different natural agents have been exploited. In modern research, the disease preventive benefits of many such natural agents, particularly dietary compounds and their derivatives, has been attributed to their well recognized activity as the regulators of redox state of the cell. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on their antioxidant activity. A large body of evidence indicates that a major fraction of these agents can elicit pro-oxidant (radical generating behavior which has been linked to their anti-cancer effects. This editorial provides an overview of the under-appreciated pro-oxidant activity of natural products, with a special focus on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of transition metal ions, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

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    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  12. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

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    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The validation of an educational database for children with profound intellectual disabilities

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    Karlien Spangenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability took the South African Government to court in 2010 on its failure to implement the right to education for Children with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability. Subsequently, multidisciplinary teams were appointed by the Western Cape Education Department to deliver services to the Special Care Centres (SCCs. Initially, minimal information was available on this population.Objectives: The purpose is to document the process of developing and validating a database for the collection of routine data.Method: A descriptive analytical study design was used. A sample of convenience was drawn from individuals under the age of 18 years, enrolled in SCCs in the Western Cape. The team who entered and analysed the data reached consensus regarding the utility and feasibility of each item.Results: Data were collected on 134 children. The omission of certain items from the database was identified. Some information was not reliable or readily available. Of the instruments identified to assess function, the classification systems were found to be reliable and useful, as were the performance scales. The WeeFIM, on the other hand, was lengthy and expensive, and was therefore discarded.Discussion and conclusions: A list of items to be included was identified. Apart from an individual profile, it can be useful for service planning and monitoring, if incorporated into the central information system used to monitor the performance of all children. Without such inclusion, this most vulnerable population, despite court ruling, will not have their right to education adequately addressed.

  14. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

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    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  15. Participation of adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities: Definition and operationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, Gineke; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van der Putten, Annette A J; Waninge, Aly

    2017-02-01

    The available opinions regarding participation do not appear to be applicable to adults with visual and severe or profound intellectual disabilities (VSPID). Because a clear definition and operationalization are lacking, it is difficult for support professionals to give meaning to participation for adults with VSPID. The purpose of the present study was to develop a definition and operationalization of the concept of participation of adults with VSPID. Parents or family members, professionals, and experts participated in an online concept mapping procedure. This procedure includes generating statements, clustering them, and rating their importance. The data were analyzed quantitatively using multidimensional scaling and qualitatively with triangulation. A total of 53 participants generated 319 statements of which 125 were clustered and rated. The final cluster map of the statements contained seven clusters: (1) Experience and discover; (2) Inclusion; (3) Involvement; (4) Leisure and recreation; (5) Communication and being understood; (6) Social relations; and (7) Self-management and autonomy. The average importance rating of the statements varied from 6.49 to 8.95. A definition of participation of this population was developed which included these seven clusters. The combination of the developed definition, the clusters, and the statements in these clusters, derived from the perceptions of parents or family members, professionals, and experts, can be employed to operationalize the construct of participation of adults with VSPID. This operationalization supports professionals in their ability to give meaning to participation in these adults. Future research will focus on using the operationalization as a checklist of participation for adults with VSPID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors associated with challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

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    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A J J; Post, W J; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-06-01

    Several factors that correlate with the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour are mentioned in research. These are factors related to persons with ID, but also to direct support professionals and the context. Although many of these factors seem to affect the onset or continuation of challenging behaviour in people with ID in general, results are often inconclusive and have little focus on people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The present study aimed to assess the extent to which known factors related to challenging behaviour are also applicable to a group of 198 people with PIMD. To determine which factors were associated with challenging behaviour, univariate analyses on associations between known risk factors and challenging behaviour were conducted. The associated factors were then subject to a regression analysis to determine the extent to which they explain the prevalence of challenging behaviour and can thus be seen as factors associated with challenging behaviour. The results show that, in particular, factors concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD, such as sleeping problems and auditory problems, were related to the variance in mean frequency of challenging behaviour. Only one factor related to the direct support professionals was found: when these professionals had been offered training on the subject of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities in general, they identified significantly more withdrawn behaviour. We found no contextual factors related to challenging behaviour. These findings are generally consistent with findings reported in other studies, especially concerning the personal characteristics of people with PIMD. Further research should focus on the effects of providing safe auditory environments and appropriate sleep schedules for people with PIMD on the occurrence of challenging behaviour. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  17. Initiation of activities and alertness in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V; Vlaskamp, C

    2015-03-01

    When providing activities to individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), direct support persons (DSPs) often face questions that are, among other things, related to the alertness of the person with PIMD. While previous studies have revealed that stimulation might have a greater impact on levels of alertness than the internal conditions of the individual, they have also emphasized the importance of interaction in order to influence the level of alertness. Because the initiation of this interaction has been described as one of its core components, the present study has focused on the relationship between the stimuli presented, the initiation of the activity (by the person with PIMD or the DSP), and the level of alertness of the person with PIMD. Videotapes of the one-to-one interactions of 24 individuals with PIMD and their DSPs in multisensory environments have been scored using the Alertness Observation List. In a sequential analysis, the percentages of stimuli presented were related to the percentages of initiation. Furthermore, two other analyses focused on the relationship between the level of alertness and the preceding and subsequent percentages of initiation respectively. The results show that high percentages of the activities are initiated by the DSPs. In addition, activities that were initiated by the individual with PIMD were preceded and followed by higher percentages of alert behaviour than those initiated by the DSP. Outcomes differed for the different types of stimuli. These results have striking implications for the lives of individuals with PIMD. It is quite possible that DSPs often act too quickly, whereas they would be better off waiting for a reaction on the part of their client. In general, DSPs need to find a balance between being passive themselves and promoting in the individual with PIMD a state of being as active and alert as possible. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of

  18. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  20. The Hands with Eyes and Nose in the Palm: As Effective Communication Alternatives for Profoundly Deaf People in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutswanga, Phillipa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…

  1. Noonan Syndrome: An Underestimated Cause of Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment. Which Clues to Suspect the Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alban; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; Cavé, Hélène; Baujat, Geneviève; Gherbi, Souad; Couloigner, Vincent; Marlin, Sandrine

    2017-09-01

    To highlight Noonan syndrome as a clinically recognizable cause of severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. New clinical cases and review. Patients evaluated for etiological diagnosis by a medical geneticist in a reference center for hearing impairment. Five patients presenting with confirmed Noonan syndrome and profound sensorineural hearing impairment. Diagnostic and review of the literature. Five patients presented with profound sensorineural hearing impairment and molecularly confirmed Noonan syndrome. Sensorineural hearing impairment has been progressive for three patients. Cardiac echography identified pulmonary stenosis in two patients and was normal for the three other patients. Short stature was found in two patients. Mild intellectual disability was found in one patient. Inconspicuous clinical features as facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism, or easy bruising were of peculiar interest to reach the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. Profound sensorineural hearing impairment can be the main feature of Noonan syndrome. Associated features are highly variable; thus, detailed medical history and careful physical examination are mandatory to consider the diagnosis in case of a sensorineural hearing impairment.

  2. Movement skill assessment in children with profound multiple disabilities : a psychometric analysis of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties of the Top Down Motor Milestone Test (TDMMT), an internationally used instrument in the planning and evaluation of movement-oriented interventions. Setting: Centres for special education in the Netherlands. Subjects: Children with profound multiple

  3. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  4. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  5. Therapeutic interventions in the Netherlands and Belgium in support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han

    For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the

  6. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  7. The effects of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Marleen D.; Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the benefits of physical activity in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is an increase in alertness. This study investigated the effect of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness and the relationship of this effect to the level of additional motor

  8. "Trying, Failing, Succeeding, and Trying Again and Again": Perspectives of Teachers of Pupils with Severe Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phyllis; Riley, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the perspectives of seven teachers in England who teach pupils with severe profound and multiple learning difficulties about their learning to teach this group of students. Teachers' views were captured through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous online communications. Four themes emerged from teachers' perspectives…

  9. Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura: Clinical and histopathological predictors of systemic disease and profound renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Cao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura patients older than 30 years have a threefold increased risk of renal involvement. The risk of profound renal disease necessitating nephrology referral rose significantly with age and the presence of cutaneous bullae and/or necrosis.

  10. The Gender Mix among Staff in Schools for Pupils with Severe and Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties and Its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Phil

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on several studies of gender mix among staff in ten schools for students with severe, profound and/or multiple disabilities. Headteachers' perceptions of the impact of women's dominance in these positions are explored, and a series of proposals for future recruitment and staff development is put forth. (Contains seven…

  11. Camera-based microswitch technology to monitor mouth, eyebrow, and eyelid responses of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for

  12. The documentation of health problems in relation to prescribed medication in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed.

  13. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  14. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  15. See Me, Feel Me. Using Physiology to Validate Behavioural Observations of Emotions of People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioural observations are the most frequently used source of information about emotions of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities but have not yet been validated against other measures of emotion. In this study we wanted to validate the behavioural observations of emotions using respiration (rib cage contribution,…

  16. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent

  17. The False-Friend Effect in Three Profoundly Deaf Learners of French: Disentangling Morphology, Phonology and Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Three profoundly deaf individuals undertook a low-frequency backward lexical translation task (French/English), where morphological structure was manipulated and orthographic distance between test items was measured. Conditions included monomorphemic items (simplex), polymorphemic items (complex), items whose French morphological structure…

  18. Profound Expressive Language Impairment in Low Functioning Children with Autism: An Investigation of Syntactic Awareness Using a Computerised Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as "monkey…

  19. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  20. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  1. From Individualism to Co-Construction and Back Again: Rethinking Research Methodology for Children with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ben; Watson, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are said to experience severe congenital impairments to consciousness and cognition stemming from neurological damage. Such children are understood as operating at the pre-verbal stages of development, and research in the field typically draws conceptual resources from psychology to…

  2. Normalization of Institutional Mealtimes for Profoundly Retarded Persons: Effects and Noneffects of Teaching Family-Style Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated a program for teaching family-style mealtime skills to four profoundly retarded institutionalized adolescents. The program used forward chaining with a less-to-more intrusive prompting sequence and contingent reinforcement to teach the skills. (Author/DB)

  3. Transfer of information between parents and teachers of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities at special educational centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteine, H.; Zijlstra, H. P.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: Because of the complexity of the problems that affect children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), communication between parents and teachers at special educational centres is indispensable. Logs are widely used in the Netherlands although only little is known

  4. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of...

  5. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of…

  6. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Monitor Mouth, Eyebrow, and Eyelid Responses of Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on…

  7. Establishing a Connection between Quality of Life and Pre-Academic Instruction for Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzien, Jonna L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education has begun to concentrate its efforts on developing objectives and procedural strategies that promote a positive quality of life for students with profound multiple disabilities, while determining which educational strategies are the most appropriate. A multi-element design was used to compare the effects of two…

  8. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  9. Efforts to Increase Social Contact in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Analysing Individual Support Plans in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of…

  10. Parental Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in General Primary Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke A.; Munde, Vera S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing introduction of inclusive education, children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are barely included. Because an underlying factor here may be the attitudes of those directly involved, the present study focuses on the attitude of parents and relating variables concerning experience with individuals with…

  11. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  12. Physiological Measurements as Validation of Alertness Observations: An Exploratory Case Study of Three Individuals with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Vera; Vlaskamp, Carla; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Ruijssenaars, Wied

    2012-01-01

    Although observation largely takes into account the needs and abilities of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities, several difficulties are related to this assessment method as well. Our aim in this study was to investigate what possibilities the use of physiological measurements make available to validate alertness…

  13. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  14. Multi-sensory Environments: An Exploration of Their Potential for Young People with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Helen; Cavet, Judith

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy concerning multisensory environments for children and adults with profound and multiple learning difficulties, from a British perspective. The need for critical evaluation of such multisensory interventions as the "snoezelen" approach and the paucity of relevant, rigorous research on educational…

  15. The Documentation of Health Problems in Relation to Prescribed Medication in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed. Method: Persons with PIMD with an…

  16. Associations and Dissociations between Psychoacoustic Abilities and Speech Perception in Adolescents with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Segal, Osnat; Algom, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the relationship between psychoacoustic capabilities and speech perception in adolescents with severe-to-profound hearing loss (SPHL). Method: Twenty-four adolescents with SPHL and young adults with normal hearing were assessed with psychoacoustic and speech perception tests. The psychoacoustic tests included gap detection…

  17. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  18. Mouse background strain profoundly influences Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S Gulati

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the central role of Paneth cells in maintaining intestinal host-microbial homeostasis. However, the direct impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function remains unclear. Here, we characterize key differences in Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition in two widely utilized, genetically distinct mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129/SvEv. In doing so, we demonstrate critical influences of host genotype on Paneth cell activity and the enteric microbiota.Paneth cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, acid urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Effects of mouse background on microbial composition were assessed by reciprocal colonization of germ-free mice from both background strains, followed by compositional analysis of resultant gut bacterial communities using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and 16 S qPCR. Our results revealed that 129/SvEv mice possessed fewer Paneth cells and a divergent AMP profile relative to C57BL/6 counterparts. Novel 129/SvEv á-defensin peptides were identified, including Defa2/18v, Defa11, Defa16, and Defa18. Host genotype profoundly affected the global profile of the intestinal microbiota, while both source and host factors were found to influence specific bacterial groups. Interestingly, ileal α-defensins from 129/SvEv mice displayed attenuated antimicrobial activity against pro-inflammatory E. coli strains, a bacterial species found to be expanded in these animals.This work establishes the important impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. It further identifies specific AMP and microbial alterations in two commonly used inbred mouse strains that have varying susceptibilities to a variety of disorders, ranging from obesity to intestinal

  19. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  1. A comparison of the effects of four therapy procedures on concentration and responsiveness in people with profound learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Pitcaithly, D; Geelen, N; Buntin, L; Broxholme, S; Ashby, M

    1997-06-01

    This paper is an investigation into the efficacy of four therapeutic treatment procedures increasingly used with people with profound learning disabilities: snoezelen, hand massage/aromatherapy, relaxation, and active therapy (a bouncy castle). In particular, the effects of these procedures on concentration and responsiveness were examined. Eight subjects with profound learning disabilities took part in the study and each subject received each of the treatments. To assess the effects of the treatments, simple concentration tasks were administered and the subjects' responsiveness to each treatment was rated by independent observers. The results suggest that both snoezelen and relaxation had a positive effect on concentration and seemed to be the most enjoyable therapies for clients, whereas hand massage/aromatherapy and active therapy had no or even negative effects on concentration and appeared less enjoyable.

  2. Acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of acute leukemia--report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T; Namiki, S; Kawabata, I

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports an unusual case in which acute lymphocytic leukemia presented acute profound sensorineural hearing loss as the initial manifestation of the disease. The patient is a 55-year-old woman who complained of left hearing loss of sudden onset. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear at mid and low frequencies. The patient was tentatively diagnosed as idiopathic sudden deafness and admitted for the treatment, but her laboratory data indicated that she was at an advanced stage of leukemia. The patient's hearing loss did not improve subjectively until she deceased 1 year after the admission. The mechanism producing acute hearing loss in leukemic patients is reviewed and discussed, and the importance of differentiating possible underlying diseases before we diagnose idiopathic sudden deafness is stressed.

  3. Urticaria due to antihistamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Morillas, L; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, P; Reaño Martos, M; Sanz, M L; Laguna Martínez, J J

    2011-01-01

    .... We report a patient with urticaria due to ingestion of ebastine and fexofenadine. Skin prick tests, patch tests, and basophil activation tests with the implicated drugs and antihistamines from other families were negative...

  4. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  5. Managing Profound Suffering at the End-of-Life: Should expanding access to continuous deep sedation be the priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in addressing and managing profound suffering at the end-of-life, the priority should not be the legalization of physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia in jurisdictions where these practices are not currently available. Rather, concerted efforts should be made by society and the healthcare provider community to expand patient access to proportionate distress-relieving sedation and continuous deep sedation.

  6. Case report: profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Sana; Mazer, C David; Baker, Andrew J; Choi, Mabel; Hare, Gregory M T

    2006-07-01

    Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings, including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case of profound hypotension, refractory to inotropic and vasopressor therapy following an iv infusion of labetalol. Initiation of an iv labetalol infusion resulted in good blood pressure control in a patient suffering from a Fisher grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage with an initial Glascow coma scale of 14/15 and mild hydrocephalus. Progressive deterioration of neurological symptoms and evidence of worsening hydrocephalus preceded the sudden development of profound hypotension (60/35 mmHg) and bradycardia with a minimum heart rate of 40 beats.min(-1). Initial resuscitative efforts included administration of intravascular fluid, hypertonic saline, atropine, adrenalin (more than 10 mg in divided doses) and noradrenalin. These measures restored the blood pressure to 80/45 with a HR of 98 beats.min(-1). Intraoperative placement of an intraventricular drain released cerebrospinal fluid under pressure with an initial intracranial pressure of 15 cm H(2)O. A combination of adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine and vasopressin infusions were required to restore the blood pressure to 130/65 mmHg after an additional two hours. All inotropic and vasopressor support was weaned off after the 14th hr (about two drug half-lives). The patient was awake and responsive the following day, with no obvious neurological consequences. No evidence of neurological injury, drug administration error or myocardial dysfunction was documented. The episode of profound hypotension which occurred after initiating a labetolol infusion required maximal combined vasopressor therapy to restore the blood pressure suggesting that this patient demonstrated an extreme sensitivity to labetalol. Combination therapy with adrenergic and nonadrenergic agonists may be required for optimal treatment

  7. Preferred low- and high-frequency compression ratios among hearing aid users with moderately severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Dyrlund, Ole; Carter, Lyndal; Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the low- and high-frequency compression ratios of a fast-acting device that were preferred by people with moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Three compression ratios (1:1, 1.8:1, and 3:1) were combined in the low and high frequencies to produce nine schemes that were evaluated pair-wise for three weeks in the field using an adaptive procedure. The evaluation was performed by 21 experienced hearing aid users with a moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Diaries and an exit interview were used to monitor preferences. Generally, the subjects preferred lower compression ratios than are typically prescribed, especially in the low frequencies. Specifically, 11 subjects preferred linear amplification in the low frequencies, and 14 subjects preferred more compression in the high than in the low frequencies. Preferences could not be predicted from audiometric data, onset of loss, or past experience with amplification. The data suggest that clients with moderately severe to profound hearing loss should be fitted with low-frequency compression ratios in the range 1:1 to 2:1 and that fine-tuning is essential.

  8. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  9. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Surgery to improve hearing of a preschool child with profound bilateral deafness

    OpenAIRE

    井口,郁雄; 増田,游; 高塚,ま由; 小倉, 義郎; 藤本, 明子

    1987-01-01

    Hearing loss in children under school age adversely effects speech and personality development. It is possible to improve conductive hearing loss by surgery, but difficult to improve combined hearing loss. The authors succeeded surgically improving the hearing of a 5 year-old boy suffering from speech retardation due to bilateral congenital combined hearing loss. The improvement in hearing aided speech training. He has graduated from schools for the deaf (primary, middle and senior high schoo...

  11. Disruption of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems with elevated expression of the ubiquitin proteosome system in the cachectic heart muscle of nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, E C A; Sullivan-Gunn, M J; Vaughan, V C; McGlynn, M A; Lewandowski, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Current research into the mechanisms of organ atrophy associated with cancer cachexia have centred on the loss of skeletal muscle, as it is one of the most profound physical changes of the disease. However, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience significant atrophy of the heart. The mechanisms causing cardiac tissue wastage in cancer cachexia are largely unknown. However, it is believed to involve a number of molecular interactions between the tumour and host. Increased levels of oxidative stress have been found in cancer cachectic skeletal muscle and has been linked to the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome system (UPS). The aim of the current study was to examine the role of oxidative stress and the UPS in the hearts of mice with cancer cachexia. Oxidative damage to DNA (8-OH-2dG), mRNA levels of the ROS-producing enzymes NADPH oxidase (NOX), and xanthine oxidase (XDH), the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and key components of the UPS was measured in the heart of mice with cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and SOD enzyme activity was also measured in the same heart samples. 8-OH-2dG levels were 1.5-fold higher in the heart of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a 1.7-fold lower level of NOX2 mRNA and twofold higher XDH mRNA in the same hearts. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.5-fold lower level of SOD activity in the heart. Accompanying these pro- and antioxidant differences was a significantly higher level of mRNA for the key UPS elements MURF-1 (4.3=fold) and MAFbx (3.8-fold) in the hearts of mice with cancer cachexia. The current study demonstrated that cardiac atrophy of cachectic mice is associated with oxidative damage to DNA in the myocardium. The higher levels of XDH mRNA in cachectic hearts suggest that xanthine oxidase may have an important role to play in producing oxidative stress. It appears that the combination of higher XDH expression and lower SOD enzyme

  12. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  13. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  14. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  15. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  16. Bilateral Entry and Release of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Profound Apoptosis of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinrong; Hill, Terence E.; Morimoto, Chikao; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, which exclusively infects and releases through the apical route, this virus can do so through either side of polarized Calu-3 cells. Infection results in profound apoptosis within 24 h irrespective of its production of titers that are lower than those of SARS-CoV. Together, our results provide new insights into the dissemination and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and may indicate that the virus differs markedly from SARS-CoV. PMID:23824802

  17. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal infarct: a rare disease due to a rare etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshintala, Divya; Bansal, Saurabh K.; Emani, Vamsi Krishna; Yadav, Manajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Renal infarction is caused by profound hypoperfusion secondary to embolic/thrombotic occlusion of the renal artery or vasospasm of the renal artery. We present a case of a 54-year-old patient who presented with nausea, vomiting, and vague abdominal pain. He had frequent episodes of migraine headaches and he treated himself with as needed rizatriptan. CT scan of the abdomen showed renal cortical infarction. After extensive investigations, etiology of his renal infarct was deemed to be due to rizatriptan. PMID:26091657

  19. Effectiveness of videos improving cancer prevention knowledge in people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2012-06-01

    Deaf persons have a poorer understanding of cancer prevention, which is felt to be partly due to communication barriers. One hundred ninety-seven d/Deaf persons completed a survey and video on cancer prevention. Half viewed a spoken English program designed for hearing persons (control group); the other half viewed an amended program that had American Sign Language, captions, and printed English options added (experimental group). Knowledge was measured before and after the video, including 1 and 6 months later. Respondents were primarily Caucasian, had low incomes, lost hearing at young ages, and had d/Deaf spouses. Although overall knowledge improved after viewing the video, the presence of culture-specific communications (American Sign Language, captions) did not improve scores compared to the control group, either immediately after the intervention or over time. Moreover, percentage correct on all pretest, and almost all post-test, questions was <50% for both experimental and control groups. For all subjects, regardless of which group they were in, a hearing spouse (p  < 0.001) and more healthcare information sources (p = 0.001) improved knowledge, while African-Americans showed a trend to lesser improvement (p = 0.06). Using culture-specific language did not improve cancer prevention knowledge in this d/Deaf population, and overall knowledge remained low. More study is needed to determine the best way to increase cancer prevention knowledge in this population.

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  1. Profound and pervasive degradation of Madagascar's freshwater wetlands and links with biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Andrew J; Razafindrajao, Felix; Young, Richard P; Hilton, Geoff M

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting a global trend, freshwater wetlands in Madagascar have received little conservation or research attention. Madagascar is a global conservation priority due to its high level of species endemism but most work has focused on protecting forests. For the first time, we investigated the state of wetlands across the country to determine the effects of human disturbance. We conducted a rapid survey of 37 wetlands, using waterbirds and benthic invertebrates as ecological indicators. We recorded nine variables relating to human disturbance, revealing widespread wetland destruction. Principal Components Analysis reduced the nine variables to a single Principal Component (PC) that explained 50% of the dataset variance, demonstrating that different forms of human disturbance are ubiquitous and inseparable. The disturbance PC provides an index of how pristine a lake is and in Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) was significantly inversely related to the number of waterbird species present and the density of Chironomidae. The disturbance PC was estimated for every wetland in a GIS-derived dataset of wetland locations in Madagascar, giving a country-wide frequency distribution of disturbance. To validate the estimated PC values, we used the GLMs to predict the number of endemic bird species at an independent sample of 22 lakes. The predicted values correlated with the observed number of species, demonstrating that our procedure can identify lakes with high biodiversity value. The disturbance PC provides a convenient method for ranking sites, and a country-wide ranking demonstrates that the only near-pristine lakes in Madagascar are small sites that have been preserved by remoteness from human activity and not conservation management. The strategy of conserving high biodiversity remnants is insufficient because existing remnants suffer some degree of degradation and only support small populations of threatened species. Large-scale restoration of degraded wetlands is

  2. Profound and pervasive degradation of Madagascar’s freshwater wetlands and links with biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindrajao, Felix; Young, Richard P.; Hilton, Geoff M.

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting a global trend, freshwater wetlands in Madagascar have received little conservation or research attention. Madagascar is a global conservation priority due to its high level of species endemism but most work has focused on protecting forests. For the first time, we investigated the state of wetlands across the country to determine the effects of human disturbance. We conducted a rapid survey of 37 wetlands, using waterbirds and benthic invertebrates as ecological indicators. We recorded nine variables relating to human disturbance, revealing widespread wetland destruction. Principal Components Analysis reduced the nine variables to a single Principal Component (PC) that explained 50% of the dataset variance, demonstrating that different forms of human disturbance are ubiquitous and inseparable. The disturbance PC provides an index of how pristine a lake is and in Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) was significantly inversely related to the number of waterbird species present and the density of Chironomidae. The disturbance PC was estimated for every wetland in a GIS-derived dataset of wetland locations in Madagascar, giving a country-wide frequency distribution of disturbance. To validate the estimated PC values, we used the GLMs to predict the number of endemic bird species at an independent sample of 22 lakes. The predicted values correlated with the observed number of species, demonstrating that our procedure can identify lakes with high biodiversity value. The disturbance PC provides a convenient method for ranking sites, and a country-wide ranking demonstrates that the only near-pristine lakes in Madagascar are small sites that have been preserved by remoteness from human activity and not conservation management. The strategy of conserving high biodiversity remnants is insufficient because existing remnants suffer some degree of degradation and only support small populations of threatened species. Large-scale restoration of degraded wetlands is

  3. Experimental incubations elicit profound changes in community transcription in OMZ bacterioplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Stewart

    Full Text Available Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for "challenging" microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia increased 4-13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community

  4. Navigating Uncertainty: Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Skill, and Confidence in Assessing and Managing Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child’s parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented.

  5. Transient blood-brain barrier permeability following profound temporary global ischemia: an experimental study using /sup 14/C-AIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, J.; Crockard, H.A.; Ross-Russell, R.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of reperfusion after profound incomplete forebrain ischemia on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to a small protein tracer was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The mean cortical blood to brain transfer constant (Ki) for /sup 14/C-amino isobutyric acid (AIB) was significantly greater at 3 and 6 h of reperfusion, 2.5 times the mean values of controls (p less than 0.05) (2.5 microliter g-1 min-1 and 1.0 microliters g-1 min-1 respectively), but had returned to control values after reperfusion for 24 h. Analysis of distribution of Ki values showed that following 15 min and 30 min of profound ischemia, there was a significant increase in transfer of AIB across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after recirculation for up to 6 h, though there was no evidence of protein extravasation as assessed by Evans Blue (EB) dye. After 24 h of reperfusion, the BBB to AIB was restored, and Ki values had returned to control values. It is concluded that following transient global ischemia, the BBB may recover rapidly.

  6. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H sub 2 (15)O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Institute of Medicine, Juelich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 15}O-labeled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H{sub 2}{sup 15}O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients.

  7. Rehabilitation and outcome of severe profound deafness in a group of 16 infants affected by congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Bianchini, Chiara; Arboretti, Rosa; Martini, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the audiological consequences of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) and to evaluate the outcome of rehabilitation with hearing aids and/or cochlear implant (CI), associated with an adequate speech-language therapy. A retrospective review of data was made from a total of 16 infants, affected by severe to profound hearing loss from congenital CMV infection, referred to a tertiary audiological center for rehabilitation. Audiological evaluation was performed using behavioral audiometry, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and/or electrocochleography (ECochG). Of the 16 children (median age at diagnosis of hearing loss: 21.33 +/- 0.7 months) with CMV hearing loss, 14 were affected by profound bilateral hearing loss and received a CI, while 2 were affected by bilateral severe hearing loss and received hearing aids. Cochlear implants can provide useful speech comprehension to patients with CMV-related deafness, even if language development is lower when compared to a group of Connexin (Cx) 26+ cochlear-implanted children (eight subjects), matched for age. Congenital CMV infection still represents a serious clinical condition, as well as an important cause of hearing loss in children. More studies have claimed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of damage and thus to ensure a better therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, in cases of CMV-deafened babies, the overall outcome of cochlear implantation is good.

  8. Effects of early identification and intervention on language development in Japanese children with prelingual severe to profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Norio; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omori, Kana; Sugaya, Akiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Early identification and intervention for prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss is supposed to reduce the delay in language development. Many countries have implemented early detection and hearing intervention and conducted regional universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, the benefits of UNHS in later childhood have not yet been confirmed, although language development at school age has a lifelong impact on children's future. Our Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders project attempted to reveal the effects of UNHS and those of early intervention on the development of verbal communication in Japanese children. In this study, 319 children with prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 4 to 10 years of age, were evaluated with the Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development used as an objective variable. Participation in UNHS and early intervention were used as explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated after adjusting several confounding factors with use of logistic regression analysis. In addition, caregivers' answers were obtained by a questionnaire, and the process of diagnosis with and without UNHS was analyzed retrospectively. Early intervention was significantly associated with better language development (AOR, 3.23; p identification leads directly to early intervention.

  9. Credit where due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the motor development of young children with possible severe to profound cognitive and motor developmental delay by means of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Aim: Early motor stimulation may be valuable for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however limited knowledge of their typical motor developmental trajectory may be currently restraining the efficacy and specificity of this intervention. Research on young children

  11. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allegra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  12. [Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irezábal, Julio; Martínez, Inés; Isasa, Patricia; Barrón, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Free-living amebae appertaining to the genus Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia are the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. These amebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil, air and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, although they only occasionally cause disease. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal disease of the central nervous system, and amebic keratitis, a painful disease of the eyes. Keratitis usually follows a chronic course due to the delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The clear increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in the last 20 years is related to the use and deficient maintenance of contact lenses, and to swimming while wearing them. The expected incidence is one case per 30,000 contact lens wearers per year, with 88% of cases occurring in persons wearing hydrogel lenses. This review presents information on the morphology, life-cycle and epidemiology of Acanthamoeba, as well as on diagnostic procedures (culture), appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prevention measures.

  13. A Patient with Interstitial 5q21 Deletion, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Dysmorphic Features, and Profound Neurologic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, results from germ line mutation or deletion of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC gene on chromosome 5q21. Patients with FAP suffer from multiple polyps mainly at the colorectal region as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which has propensity to transform into carcinoma. FAP has also been well described in association with various syndromic extra-gastrointestinal manifestations. Less commonly, patients with FAP present with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction and developmental delay, though the reason for the association is unclear. Herein, we report the case of a male patient born with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, 46,XY, del(5 (q14q23, presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, profound developmental delay, cognitive dysfunction, and multiple congenital anomalies including talipes equinovarus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facial features.

  14. Profound expressive language impairment in low functioning children with autism: an investigation of syntactic awareness using a computerised learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as 'monkey flies'. The game progressed in levels from 2 to 4 word sequences, contingent upon success at each stage. Although performance was highly variable across participants, a detailed review of their learning profiles suggested that no child lacked syntactic awareness and that elementary syntactic control in a non-speech domain was superior to that manifest in their spoken language. The reasons for production failures at the level of speech in children with autism are discussed.

  15. Parental adaptation to out-of-home placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified as either inducing emotional stress (i.e., guilt, sadness, fear and worry, anger and frustration, and uncertainty) or relief. Parental appraisals of responses to placement by children, extended family, and friends were identified as factors affecting the parents' adaptation to placement. The primary coping methods used by parents to decrease emotional stress and increase relief consisted of reappraisals regarding the necessity of placement, involvement in the child's life, psychotherapy, and the passage of time.

  16. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  17. Parents' experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-03-01

    There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.

  18. The effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants for severe-to-profound deafness in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoonhoven, Jelmer; Sparreboom, Marloes; van Zanten, Bert G A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Dreschler, Wouter A; Grolman, Wilko; Maat, Bert

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation compared with unilateral cochlear implantation or bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss. In 2007, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the U.K. conducted a systematic review on cochlear implantation. This study forms an update of the adult part of the NICE review. The electronic databases MEDLINE and Embase were searched for English language studies published between October 2006 and March 2011. Studies were included that compared bilateral cochlear implantation with unilateral cochlear implantation and/or with bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Speech perception in quiet and in noise, sound localization and lateralization, speech production, health-related quality of life, and functional outcomes were analyzed. Data extraction forms were used to describe study characteristics and the level of evidence. The effect size was calculated to compare different outcome measures. Pooling of data was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the studies. As in the NICE review, the level of evidence of the included studies was low, although some of the additional studies showed less risk of bias. All studies showed a significant bilateral benefit in localization over unilateral cochlear implantation. Bilateral cochlear implants were beneficial for speech perception in noise under certain conditions and several self-reported measures. Most speech perception in quiet outcomes did not show a bilateral benefit. The current review provides additional evidence in favor of bilateral cochlear implantation, even in complex listening situations.

  19. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Patrizia; Giuglietti, Marta; Baglioni, Antonella; Verdolini, Norma; Murgia, Nicola; Piccirilli, Massimo; Elisei, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite adequate therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Drug-resistant epilepsy is even more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability. As a result, several non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to improve quality of life in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. A number of studies have demonstrated that music can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges. In particular, Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy as well. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on seizure frequency in institutionalized epileptic subjects with profound/severe intellectual disability. Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 21.6 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a cross-over design; they listened to Mozart K448 once a day for six months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the listening period and both baseline and control periods. During the music period, none of the patients worsened in seizure frequency; one patient was seizure-free, five had a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and the remaining showed minimal (N=2) or no difference (N=4). The average seizure reduction compared to the baseline was 20.5%. Our results are discussed in relation to data in the literature considering differences in protocol investigation. Music may be considered a useful approach as add-on therapy in some subjects with profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy and can provide a new option for clinicians to consider, but further large sample, multicenter studies are needed to better understand the characteristics of responders and non-responders to this type of non

  20. HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not inflammatory cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of accelerated liver damage in subjects coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that ongoing chronic liver inflammation is responsible for the liver injury in HCV-infected patients. We aimed to determine whether HIV-1 coinfection altered intrahepatic inflammatory profiles in HCV infection, thereby hastening liver damage. We used a real-time RT-PCR-based array to comparatively analyze intrahepatic inflammation gene profiles in liver biopsy specimens from HCV-infected (n = 16, HCV/HIV-1-coinfected (n = 8 and uninfected (n = 8 individuals. We then used human hepatocytes to study the molecular mechanisms underlying alternations of the inflammatory profiles. Compared with uninfected individuals, HCV infection and HCV/HIV-1 coinfection markedly altered expression of 59.5% and 50.0% of 84 inflammation-related genes tested, respectively. Among these genes affected, HCV infection up-regulated the expression of 24 genes and down-regulated the expression of 26 genes, whereas HCV/HIV-1 coinfection up-regulated the expression of 21 genes and down-regulated the expression of 21 genes. Compared with HCV infection, HCV/HIV-1 coinfection did not dramatically affect intrahepatic gene expression profiles of cytokines and their receptors, but profoundly altered expression of several chemokine genes including up-regulation of the CXCR3-associated chemokines. Human hepatocytes produced these chemokines in response to virus-related microbial translocation, viral protein stimulation, and antiviral immune responses.HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects. The altered chemokines may orchestrate the tissue-specific and cell-selective trafficking of immune cells and autoimmunity to accelerate liver disease in HCV/HIV-1 coinfection.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  2. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    current') ensues which, if it is sufficiently large and/or long, lowers the action potential threshold and causes repetitive firing; this may be the mechanism causing paraesthesiae. At high pyrethroid concentrations, the sodium tail current may be sufficiently great to prevent further action potential generation and 'conduction block' ensues. Only low pyrethroid concentrations are necessary to modify sensory neurone function. Type II pyrethroids also decrease chloride currents through voltage-dependent chloride channels and this action probably contributes the most to the features of poisoning with type II pyrethroids. At relatively high concentrations, pyrethroids can also act on GABA-gated chloride channels, which may be responsible for the seizures seen with severe type II poisoning. Despite their extensive world-wide use, there are relatively few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. Less than ten deaths have been reported from ingestion or following occupational exposure. Occupationally, the main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin. Inhalation is much less important but increases when pyrethroids are used in confined spaces. The main adverse effect of dermal exposure is paraesthesiae, presumably due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerve fibres. The face is affected most commonly and the paraesthesiae are exacerbated by sensory stimulation such as heat, sunlight, scratching, sweating or the application of water. Pyrethroid ingestion gives rise within minutes to a sore throat, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. There may be mouth ulceration, increased secretions and/or dysphagia. Systemic effects occur 4-48 hours after exposure. Dizziness, headache and fatigue are common, and palpitations, chest tightness and blurred vision less frequent. Coma and convulsions are the principal life-threatening features. Most patients recover within 6 days, although there were seven fatalities among 573 cases in one series and one among 48 cases in another

  3. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  4. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas; Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for the relative efficacy of

  5. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, M; D'Acquisto, F; Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Livrea, M A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  6. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  7. Making a difference? A comparison between multi-sensory and regular storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-11-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards

  8. Molecular basis of inherited microcytic anemia due to defects in iron acquisition or heme synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; De Falco, Luigia; Beaumont, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Microcytic anemia is the most commonly encountered anemia in general medical practice. Nutritional iron deficiency and β thalassemia trait are the primary causes in pediatrics, whereas bleeding disorders and anemia of chronic disease are common in adulthood. Microcytic hypochromic anemia can result from a defect in globin genes, in heme synthesis, in iron availability or in iron acquisition by the erythroid precursors. These microcytic anemia can be sideroblastic or not, a trait which reflects the implications of different gene abnormalities. Iron is a trace element that may act as a redox component and therefore is integral to vital biological processes that require the transfer of electrons as in oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, DNA biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism. However, it can also be pro-oxidant and to avoid its toxicity, iron metabolism is strictly controlled and failure of these control systems could induce iron overload or iron deficient anemia. During the past few years, several new discoveries mostly arising from human patients or mouse models have highlighted the implication of iron metabolism components in hereditary microcytic anemia, from intestinal absorption to its final inclusion into heme. In this paper we will review the new information available on the iron acquisition pathway by developing erythrocytes and its regulation, and we will consider only inherited microcytosis due to heme synthesis or to iron metabolism defects. This information could be useful in the diagnosis and classification of these microcytic anemias. PMID:19181781

  9. Molecular basis of inherited microcytic anemia due to defects in iron acquisition or heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; De Falco, Luigia; Beaumont, Carole

    2009-03-01

    Microcytic anemia is the most commonly encountered anemia in general medical practice. Nutritional iron deficiency and beta thalassemia trait are the primary causes in pediatrics, whereas bleeding disorders and anemia of chronic disease are common in adulthood. Microcytic hypochromic anemia can result from a defect in globin genes, in heme synthesis, in iron availability or in iron acquisition by the erythroid precursors. These microcytic anemia can be sideroblastic or not, a trait which reflects the implications of different gene abnormalities. Iron is a trace element that may act as a redox component and therefore is integral to vital biological processes that require the transfer of electrons as in oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, DNA biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism. However, it can also be pro-oxidant and to avoid its toxicity, iron metabolism is strictly controlled and failure of these control systems could induce iron overload or iron deficient anemia. During the past few years, several new discoveries mostly arising from human patients or mouse models have highlighted the implication of iron metabolism components in hereditary microcytic anemia, from intestinal absorption to its final inclusion into heme. In this paper we will review the new information available on the iron acquisition pathway by developing erythrocytes and its regulation, and we will consider only inherited microcytosis due to heme synthesis or to iron metabolism defects. This information could be useful in the diagnosis and classification of these microcytic anemias.

  10. Supporting end of life decision making: Case studies of relational closeness in supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-11-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions. Five people with severe or profound intellectual disability's experiences of supported decision making were examined. This article is particularly focused on one participant's experiences at the end of his life. All five case studies identified that supporters were most effective in providing decision-making support for participants when they were relationally close to the person and had knowledge of the person's life story, particularly in relation to events that demonstrated preference. Findings from this study provide new understandings of supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability and have particular relevance for supporting decision making at the end of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Left ventricular failure produces profound lung remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice: heart failure causes severe lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjie; Guo, Haipeng; Xu, Dachun; Xu, Xin; Wang, Huan; Hu, Xinli; Lu, Zhongbing; Kwak, Dongmin; Xu, Yawei; Gunther, Roland; Huo, Yuqing; Weir, E Kenneth

    2012-06-01

    Chronic left ventricular failure causes pulmonary congestion with increased lung weight and type 2 pulmonary hypertension. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for type 2 pulmonary hypertension and the development of novel treatments for this condition requires a robust experimental animal model and a good understanding of the nature of the resultant pulmonary remodeling. Here we demonstrate that chronic transverse aortic constriction causes massive pulmonary fibrosis and remodeling, as well as type 2 pulmonary hypertension, in mice. Thus, aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure are associated with a ≤5.3-fold increase in lung wet weight and dry weight, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Interestingly, the aortic constriction-induced increase in lung weight was not associated with pulmonary edema but resulted from profound pulmonary remodeling with a dramatic increase in the percentage of fully muscularized lung vessels, marked vascular and lung fibrosis, myofibroblast proliferation, and leukocyte infiltration. The aortic constriction-induced left ventricular dysfunction was also associated with right ventricular hypertrophy, increased right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and right atrial hypertrophy. The massive lung fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and pulmonary hypertension in mice after transverse aortic constriction clearly indicate that congestive heart failure also causes severe lung disease. The lung fibrosis and leukocyte infiltration may be important mechanisms in the poor clinical outcome in patients with end-stage heart failure. Thus, the effective treatment of left ventricular failure may require additional efforts to reduce lung fibrosis and the inflammatory response.

  12. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  13. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  14. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  15. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  16. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  17. Reduced lymphocyte longevity and homeostatic proliferation in lamin B receptor-deficient mice results in profound and progressive lymphopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Anne M; de Graaf, Carolyn A; Baldwin, Tracey M; Goradia, Ankita; Collinge, Janelle E; Kile, Benjamin T; Metcalf, Donald; Starr, Robyn; Hilton, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is a highly unusual inner nuclear membrane protein with multiple functions. Reduced levels are associated with decreased neutrophil lobularity, whereas complete absence of LBR results in severe skeletal dysplasia and in utero/perinatal lethality. We describe a mouse pedigree, Lym3, with normal bone marrow and thymic development but profound and progressive lymphopenia particularly within the T cell compartment. This defect arises from a point mutation within the Lbr gene with only trace mutant protein detectable in homozygotes, albeit sufficient for normal development. Reduced T cell homeostatic proliferative potential and life span in vivo were found to contribute to lymphopenia. To investigate the role of LBR in gene silencing in hematopoietic cells, we examined gene expression in wild-type and mutant lymph node CD8 T cells and bone marrow neutrophils. Although LBR deficiency had a very mild impact on gene expression overall, for common genes differentially expressed in both LBR-deficient CD8 T cells and neutrophils, gene upregulation prevailed, supporting a role for LBR in their suppression. In summary, this study demonstrates that LBR deficiency affects not only nuclear architecture but also proliferation, cell viability, and gene expression of hematopoietic cells.

  18. How parents and physicians experience end-of-life decision-making for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal-Schuller, I H; Willems, D L; Ewals, F V P M; van Goudoever, J B; de Vos, M A

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life decisions (EoLD) often concern children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Yet, little is known about how parents and physicians discuss and make these decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate the experiences of the parents and the involved physician during the end-of-life decision-making (EoLDM) process for children with PIMD. In a retrospective, qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the physicians and parents of 14 children with PIMD for whom an EoLD was made within the past two years. A long-lasting relationship appeared to facilitate the EoLDM process, although previous negative healthcare encounters could also lead to distrust. Parents and physicians encountered disagreements during the EoLDM process, but these disagreements could also improve the decision-making process. Most parents, as well as most physicians, considered the parents to be the experts on their child. In making an EoLD, both parents and physicians preferred a shared decision-making approach, although they differed in what they actually meant by this concept. The EoLDM process for children with PIMD can be improved if physicians are more aware of the specific situation and of the roles and expectations of the parents of children with PIMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  20. The nature of affect attunement used by disability support workers interacting with adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, S; Iacono, T

    2014-12-01

    The interactions experienced by adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) with their disability support workers (DSWs) may have a large impact on life quality. However, defining good-quality interaction has presented challenges for this group. It has been suggested that in typically developing infant-mother dyads, the presence of affect attunement may be an indicator of quality. Affect attunement refers to the recasting of one person's affect by another with emphasis. The presence and nature of affect attunement in interactions between 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs were explored in this study. Natural interactions were videorecorded for 21 pairs of adults with PIMD and their DSWs. The recordings were analysed for the presence and nature of affect attunement incidents, and analysed using descriptive statistics. Affect attunement incidents were observed in 16 of the pairs. The DSW's attunement behaviour was in response to subtle, short duration behaviours of participants with PIMD. These brief moments of connection may be a basis of good-quality interaction. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Peptide vaccination induces profound changes in the immune system in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the immune status of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients is mostly characterized by immunosuppression, there is an accumulation of in vivo (graft-versus-leukemia effect and in vitro (spontaneous remissions after infections data that indicates that CLL might be effectively targeted by T-cell based immunotherapy. Recently, we characterized receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM as a preferential target for immunotherapy of CLL. We also completed a RHAMM-derived peptide vaccination phase I/II clinical trial in CLL. Here, we present a detailed immunological analysis of six CLL patients vaccinated with HLA-A2 restricted RHAMM-derived epitope R3 (ILSLELMKL. Beside effective induction of R3-specific cytotoxic T-cells, peptide vaccination caused profound changes in different T-cell subsets as well as cytokines. We present longitudinal analyses of Th17, CD8+CD103+, CD8+CD137+ and IL-17 producing CD8+ T cells (CD8+IL- -17+ as well as important cytokines involved in regulation of immune response such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-2 and TNF throughout the peptide vaccination period. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 161–167

  3. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.

  4. An overview of research on increasing indices of happiness of people with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G E; Singh, N N; O'Reilly, M F; Oliva, D; Basili, G

    2005-02-04

    This paper was to provide an overview of research studies aimed at increasing indices of happiness of persons with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Computerized and manual searches were carried out to identify the studies published from 1990 to 2004 (i.e., the period during which the issues of quality fo life and happiness in people with disabilities have become more prominent). Twenty-four research studies were identified. They involved the use of six different procedures, that is, structured stimulation sessions, microswitch-based simulation sessions, leisure activities and favourite work tasks or conditions, positive environment or positive behaviour support programmes and mindful caregiving, favourite stimulation automatically delivered on exercise engagement, and snoezelen. Data tended to be positive with increases in the participants' indices of happiness, but some failures also occurred. The outcomes were discussed in relation to (a) methodological issues, such as designs of the studies, length of the intervention, and number of participants, and (b) personal and practical implications of the procedures. Some suggestions for future research (particularly focused on extending evidence and overcoming present methodological weakness) were also examined.

  5. Developing a Sense of Knowing and Acquiring the Skills to Manage Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairments: Mothers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with profound cognitive impairment (PCI are a heterogenous group who often experience frequent and persistent pain. Those people closest to the child are key to assessing their pain. This mixed method study aimed to explore how parents acquire knowledge and skills in assessing and managing their child’s pain. Eight mothers completed a weekly pain diary and were interviewed at weeks 1 and 8. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and the quantitative data using descriptive statistics. Mothers talked of learning through a system of trial and error (“learning to get on with it”; this was accomplished through “learning to know without a rule book or guide”; “learning to be a convincing advocate”; and “learning to endure and to get things right.” Experiential and reflective learning was evident in the way the mothers developed a “sense of knowing” their child’s pain. They drew on embodied knowledge of how their child usually expressed and responded to pain to help make pain-related decisions. Health professionals need to support mothers/parents to develop their knowledge and skills and to gain confidence in pain assessment and they should recognise and act on the mothers’ concerns.

  6. Hypokalaemia and Renal Tubular Acidosis due to Abuse of Nurofen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Blackstock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurofen Plus is a common analgesic containing ibuprofen and codeine. We present a case of a 38-year-old lady who developed renal tubular acidosis with severe hypokalaemia, after chronic abuse of Nurofen Plus tablets. She presented with confusion and profound biochemical abnormalities requiring critical care admission for electrolyte replacement. Ibuprofen causes renal tubular acidosis due to its effects on carbonic anhydrase activity.

  7. Profoundly Expanded T-cell Clones in the Inflamed and Uninflamed Intestine of Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenspleet, M E; Westera, L; Peters, C P; Hakvoort, T B M; Esveldt, R E; Vogels, E; van Kampen, A H C; Baas, F; Buskens, C; Bemelman, W A; D'Haens, G; Ponsioen, C Y; Te Velde, A A; de Vries, N; van den Brink, G R

    2017-07-01

    T cells are key players in the chronic intestinal inflammation that characterises Crohn's disease. Here we aim to map the intestinal T-cell receptor [TCR] repertoire in patients with Crohn's disease, using next-generation sequencing technology to examine the clonality of the T-cell compartment in relation to mucosal inflammation and response to therapy. Biopsies were taken from endoscopically inflamed and uninflamed ileum and colon of 19 patients with Crohn's disease. From this cohort, additional biopsies were taken after 8 weeks of remission induction therapy from eight responders and eight non-responders. Control biopsies from 11 patients without inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] were included. The TCRβ repertoire was analysed by next-generation sequencing of biopsy RNA. Both in Crohn's disease patients and in non-IBD controls, a broad intestinal T-cell repertoire was found, with a considerable part consisting of expanded clones. Clones in Crohn's disease were more expanded [p = 0.008], with the largest clones representing up to as much as 58% of the total repertoire. There was a substantial overlap of the repertoire between inflamed and uninflamed tissue and between ileum and colon. Following therapy, responders showed larger changes in the T-cell repertoire than non-responders, although a considerable part of the repertoire remained unchanged in both groups. The intestinal T-cell repertoire distribution in Crohn's disease is different from that in the normal gut, containing profoundly expanded T-cell clones that take up a large part of the repertoire. The T-cell repertoire is fairly stable regardless of endoscopic mucosal inflammation or response to therapy.

  8. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioenergetics of the heart at high altitude: environmental hypoxia imposes profound transformations on the myocardial process of ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, Baltazar D; Marticorena, Emilio

    2002-12-01

    The low concentration of O2 in the thin air at high altitude is undoubtedly the reason for the remarkable modifications in the structure and function of the heart, lung, and blood of humans permanently living under these conditions. The effect of natural hypoxia on the energy metabolism of the cell is however not well understood. Here we study the proces of ATP synthesis in the heart of guinea pigs native to high altitude (4500 m) as compared with those native to sea level. The following are the novel findings of this study. (1) The rates and extents of ATP synthesis in the presence of low concentrations of ADP (<30 microM) are significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. (2) The Hill coefficient, i.e. the degree of cooperativity between the three catalytic sites of the ATP synthase, is lower at high altitude (n = 1.36) than at sea level (n = 1.94). (3) Both, the affinity for ADP and the fractional occupancy of the catalytic sites by ATP, are higher at high altitude than at sea level but the P50, i.e. the concentration of ADP at which 50% of the catalytic sites are filled with ADP and/or ATP, is the same (approximately 74.7 microM). (4) In the physiological range of ADP concentrations, the phosphorylation potential deltaGp is significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. It is concluded that the molecular mechanism of energy transduction is profoundly modified at high altitude in order to readily and efficiently generate ATP in the presence of low concentrations of O2 and ADP.

  10. Odor-Induced Neuronal Rhythms in the Olfactory Bulb Are Profoundly Modified in ob/ob Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelminski, Yan; Magnan, Christophe; Luquet, Serge H; Everard, Amandine; Meunier, Nicolas; Gurden, Hirac; Martin, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing. Therefore, we studied the fate of odor-induced activity in the olfactory bulb in the genetic context of leptin deficiency using the obese ob/ob mice. By means of an odor discrimination task with concomitant local field potential recordings, we showed that ob/ob mice perform better than wild-type (WT) mice in the early stage of the task. This behavioral gain of function was associated in parallel with profound changes in neuronal oscillations in the olfactory bulb. The distribution of the peaks in the gamma frequency range was shifted toward higher frequencies in ob/ob mice compared to WT mice before learning. More notably, beta oscillatory activity, which has been shown previously to be correlated with olfactory discrimination learning, was longer and stronger in expert ob/ob mice after learning. Since oscillations in the olfactory bulb emerge from mitral to granule cell interactions, our results suggest that cellular dynamics in the olfactory bulb are deeply modified in ob/ob mice in the context of olfactory learning.

  11. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P; van der Putten, A A J; ten Brug, A; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-01-01

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give for challenging behaviour in this group. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the way staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD; and (2) to analyse whether more experienced staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD differently than less experienced staff. In total, 195 direct support staff and an equal number of children and adults with PIMD participated in the study. Direct support staff filled out the Challenging behaviour Attribution Scale (five causal explanatory models of challenging behaviour) to explain challenging behaviour in one individual that they supported. The results show that direct support staff as a whole report the biomedical model as the most plausible explanation for challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD. However, in the present study the mean scores on all models are low. This might indicate that a large number of staff found none of the models particularly useful as possible explanations of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. This could mean that staff have difficulties stating the cause of challenging behaviour in this group. Another possible explanation could be that there is little scientific knowledge about causing and maintaining factors of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. It could also mean that staff have additional explanations for challenging behaviour in this target group that are not mentioned in the instrument used. Future research should address these issues. No differences were found between more experienced and less experienced direct support staff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Att Tolka Barns Signaler: Gravt utvecklingsstorda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation (To Interpret Childrens' Signals: Play and Communication in Profoundly Mentally Retarded and Multiply Handicapped Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane

    Written in Swedish with an English-language summary, this report describes a study which examined the interaction between mothers or caregivers and their children with profound mental retardation and multiple disabilities, particularly looking at the function of play in communicative interaction. The six children all had five or six handicaps in…

  13. Physical health issues in adults with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities : A systematic review of cross-sectional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmeren, van Dinette; van der Schans, C. P.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, H. A.; Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; Waninge, A.

    BackgroundPeople with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) encounter several risk factors associated with higher mortality rates. They are also likely to experience a cluster of health problems related to the severe brain damage/dysfunction. In order to earlier detect

  14. Supporting Children with Severe-to-Profound Learning Difficulties and Complex Communication Needs to Make Their Views Known: Observation Tools and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathead, Scot; Yates, Rhiannon; Hill, Vivian; Kenny, Lorcan; Croydon, Abigail; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    All children have the right to shape decisions that influence their lives. Yet, children with severe-to-profound intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs are often marginalized from this process. Here, we examined the utility of a set of tools incorporating ethnographic and structured observational methods with three such…

  15. Look closer : The alertness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during multi-sensory storytelling, a time sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the

  16. A good read : A study into the use and effects of multi-sensory storytelling; a storytelling method for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brug, Annet

    2015-01-01

    In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the

  17. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility : A pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention.

  18. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  19. The use of a Multisensory Environment for Assessment of Sensory Abilities and Preferences in Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla; Schuivens, Evelyne

    Background To offer appropriate activities within the curriculum for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is a challenge. An important determinant of the adequacy of an activity is whether teachers have detailed and specific knowledge about the sensory abilities and

  20. Feasibility, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…

  1. Becoming Aware of What You Know or Need to Know: Gathering Client and Context Characteristics in Day Services for Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, C.; Hiemstra, S. J.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with profound and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are dependent on staff to be sufficiently knowledgeable as to provide them with appropriate day services. One important determinant of the appropriateness and adequacy of a day support program is the level to which staff have detailed and specific knowledge about the functional abilities and…

  2. Supporting End of Life Decision Making: Case Studies of Relational Closeness in Supported Decision Making for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions.…

  3. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  4. Relabelling Behaviour. The Effects of Psycho-Education on the Perceived Severity and Causes of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…

  5. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  6. Parents' Experiences of Collaborating with Professionals in the Support of Their Child with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L. G.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. Method: A…

  7. Effects of Inservice Teacher Training on Correct Implementation of Assessment and Instructional Procedures for Teachers of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Erin L.; Morgan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A multicomponent training package (live training, video modeling, role playing, and feedback) was used to train teachers to conduct assessment and to instruct students with profound multiple disabilities. Phase 1 of the study involved training seven teachers to conduct assessment in three areas: (a) preference assessment (i.e., identification of…

  8. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  9. Learn and Apply: Using Multi-Sensory Storytelling to Gather Knowledge about Preferences and Abilities of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities--Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead…

  10. Multi-Sensory Rooms: Comparing Effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference Environment on the Behavior of Adults with Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N = 27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were…

  11. The Tell-Tale: What Do Heart Rate; Skin Temperature and Skin Conductance Reveal about Emotions of People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2012-01-01

    Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement…

  12. Specific needs of families of young adults with profound intellectual disability during and after transition to adulthood: What are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present

  13. A randomised controlled trial on evaluation of the clinical efficacy of massage therapy in a multisensory environment for residents with severe and profound intellectual disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J S L; Chien, W T

    2017-06-01

    Recent literature has suggested that relaxation activities can reduce the challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities, particularly in severe and profound grades, due to the counteractive effect of muscle relaxation on emotional frustration or psychological distress. Despite having inconclusive evidence, multisensory environment (MSE) and massage therapy (MT) are the commonly used approaches to relaxation among these people. However, these two approaches have not yet practised or tested in combination for reducing these people's challenging behaviours. A preliminary clinical efficacy trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of MT, MSE and their combined use for residents with intellectual disabilities in a long-term care facility on reducing their challenging behaviours. Eligible residents were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the four study groups (n = 11-12 per group), that is, MT in MSE, MSE alone, MT alone or usual care, for a 10-week intervention after a 1-month washout period. Outcome measures, including the Behaviour Problem Inventory, pulse and respiration rates, Behaviour Checklist and Alertness Observation Checklist, were assessed at recruitment and immediately following the interventions. A total of 42 participants (17 men and 25 women) completed the study. There were no significant differences in frequency and severity of challenging behaviours and most of the outcome measures between the four groups at post-test. Nevertheless, there were statistical significant differences on the active and inactive state (Alertness Observation Checklist) between the three treatment and control groups. Many participants in the three treatment groups changed from an active to inactive state (i.e. reduced activity levels) throughout the interventions, especially the MT in MSE. Such inactivity might suggest the participants' brief exhaustion followed by a period of alertness during the treatment activities. But their attention span and

  14. The relationship between challenging behaviours, mood and interest/pleasure in adults with severe and profound intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A M; Visconti, K J; Csorba, J; Radvanyi, K; Rojahn, J

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether current mood and interest/pleasure ratings in adults with moderate to profound intellectual disabilities were predictive of challenging behaviour [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), aggressive/destructive behaviour and stereotypic behaviour] and vice versa. In this combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study, staff members of a Hungarian residential facility completed translated versions of the Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S), the Challenging Behaviour Interview (CBI) and the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire-Short Form (MIPQ-S) for 50 participants at two time points, approximately 4 to 5 months apart. Bivariate correlations from data concurrently assessed at Time-1 showed significant linear relationships between the SIB (both frequency and severity scores) and Interest/Pleasure sub-scales, and the Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour (severity scores) and the MIPQ-S Mood sub-scales (unadjusted for multiple correlations). All of these effects were found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Multiple regression analyses revealed that (1) low interest/pleasure assessed at Time-1 predicted high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-2. (2) Interest/pleasure was not predictive of aggressive or stereotypic behaviour. (3) Mood at Time-1 did not predict any of the three types of behaviour problems at Time-2. (4) In reverse, high SIB (frequency and severity) at Time-1 predicted low interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. (5) Surprisingly, frequent aggressive/destructive behaviour predicted high interest/pleasure. (6) Stereotypic behaviour scores at Time-1 did not predict interest/pleasure ratings at Time-2. Again, all of these effects were only found with the BPI-S data, but not with the CBI. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Hungarian versions of all three questionnaires had generally satisfactory outcomes. The fact that increasingly frequent and severe SIB was predicted by declining

  15. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  16. Prevalence of Mutations in Deafness-Causing Genes in Cochlear Implanted Patients with Profound Nonsyndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianfen; Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengguo; Xiao, Yun; Gu, Lintao; Han, Yuechen; Fan, Zhaomin; Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    The mutations of GJB2, SLC26A4, and mtDNA12SrRNA are the most common inherited causes of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) in China, yet previous genetic screenings were mainly carried on patients with moderate-to-profound impairment. We aimed to detect the mutation frequencies in NSHL population within a more specified range of severity. Patients with profound NSHL who had undergone cochlear implantation in the Shandong Provincial Hospital (Shandong, China) were recruited. The majority (n  =  472) were between 0.7 and 6 years old, and the remaining (n  =  63) were between 6 and 70 years old. In total, 115 mutation alleles of the three genes were screened with SNP scan assay. Of the patients, 19.44% (104/535) were found to have GJB2 mutations, and the most common allele was c.235delC, followed by c.299_300delAT and c.109G>A. SLC26A4 mutations were detected in 13.46% patients (72/535), and the most common allele was c.919-2A>G (IVS7-2A>G), followed by c.1174A>T and c.2168A>G. Seven patients (1.31%) carried mutations in mtDNA12SrRNA, with the alleles of m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T. We found the allele frequency of c.109G>A (GJB2) was relatively lower in the profound NSHL population in comparison to the moderate-to-profound ones, and the c.1174A>T (SLC26A4) relatively higher. It suggests those mutations may be connected with the degree of deafness, which needs more observations and analyses to support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  17. New speech tests reveal benefit of wide-dynamic-range, fast-acting compression for consonant discrimination in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Josephine E; Moore, Brian C J

    2003-10-01

    Fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) has been shown to give better discrimination of soft speech and shouted speech than linear amplification for moderately hearing-impaired young adults. For severe and profound hearing losses, higher compression ratios are needed. The resultant distortion of the temporal envelope and reduced modulation depth may offset improvements in audibility offered by WDRC. This study compares the effectiveness of WDRC and linear amplification for children with different degrees of hearing loss. Pre-recorded tests of closed-set consonant confusions and open-set word recognition were developed to assess performance. Three groups of subjects (aged 4-14 years) with moderate (51-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB) and profound (91-115 dB) hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids programmed with WDRC or linear amplification. The frequency response was adjusted to match each child's own hearing aid prescription. For each group, stimuli were presented both in quiet and in noise at levels chosen to avoid floor and ceiling effects. Consonant confusion scores for the profound and severe groups combined and for the moderate group were significantly better with WDRC than with linear amplification. Open-set test results showed greater variability. Although mean scores were higher for WDRC than for linear processing, the effects were of marginal statistical significance.

  18. Factors influencing speech and language outcomes of children with early identified severe/profound hearing loss: Clinician-identified facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Anne Nivelles; Purcell, Alison; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Early identification of severe/profound childhood hearing loss (HL) gives these children access to hearing devices and early intervention to facilitate improved speech and language outcomes. Predicting which infants will go on to achieve such outcomes remains difficult. This study describes clinician identified malleable and non-malleable factors that may influence speech and language outcomes for children with severe/profound HL. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six experienced auditory verbal clinicians. A collective case study design was implemented. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using constant comparative analysis. Clinicians identified that, for children with severe/profound HL, early identification, early amplification and commencing auditory-verbal intervention under 6 months of age may facilitate child progress. Possible barriers were living in rural/remote areas, the clinicians' lack of experience and confidence in providing intervention for infants under age 6-months and belonging to a family with a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The results indicate that multiple factors need to be considered by clinicians working with children with HL and their families to determine how each child functions within their own environment and personal contexts, consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Such an approach is likely to empower clinicians to carefully balance potential barriers to, and facilitators of, optimal speech and language outcomes for all children with HL.

  19. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  20. Speech perception, production and intelligibility in French-speaking children with profound hearing loss and early cochlear implantation after congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, L; Ettienne, V; Prang, I; Couloigner, V; Garabedian, E-N; Loundon, N

    2015-12-01

    To analyze speech in children with profound hearing loss following congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection with cochlear implantation (CI) before the age of 3 years. In a cohort of 15 children with profound hearing loss, speech perception, production and intelligibility were assessed before and 3 years after CI; variables impacting results were explored. Post-CI, median word recognition was 74% on closed-list and 48% on open-list testing; 80% of children acquired speech production; and 60% were intelligible for all listeners or listeners attentive to lip-reading and/or aware of the child's hearing loss. Univariate analysis identified 3 variables (mean post-CI hearing threshold, bilateral vestibular areflexia, and brain abnormality on MRI) with significant negative impact on the development of speech perception, production and intelligibility. CI showed positive impact on hearing and speech in children with post-cCMV profound hearing loss. Our study demonstrated the key role of maximizing post-CI hearing gain. A few children had insufficient progress, especially in case of bilateral vestibular areflexia and/or brain abnormality on MRI. This led us to suggest that balance rehabilitation and speech therapy should be intensified in such cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  2. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of

  3. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  5. Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum

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    Bomb K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a gram negative rod widely distributed in nature. It is known to cause meningitis in neonates and premature infants. Adult infections are not common and are usually nosocomially acquired. We report an unusual case of native valve endocarditis in a 58-year-old man due to this organism. A high degree of suspicion and correct identification and sensitivity testing is required to diagnose infections by this rare isolate.

  6. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossink, Leontien Wm; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention. Pilot randomised controlled trial. A large-scale twenty-four-hour residential facility in the Netherlands. Thirty-seven persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Participants in the intervention group received a power-assisted exercise intervention three times a week for thirty minutes over a twenty-week period. Participants in the control group received care as usual. Trial feasibility by recruitment process and outcomes completion rates; intervention feasibility by programme compliance rates; potential outcomes by functional abilities, alertness, body composition, muscle tone, oxygen saturation, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life. Thirty-seven participants were recruited ( M age = 32.1, SD = 14.6) and were randomly allocated to intervention ( n = 19) and control ( n = 18) groups. Programme compliance rates ranged from 54.2% to 97.7% with a mean (SD) of 81.5% (13.4). Oxygen saturation significantly increased in the intervention group. Standardised effect sizes on the difference between groups in outcome varied between 0.02 and 0.62. The power-assisted exercise intervention and the trial design were feasible and acceptable to people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility. This pilot study suggests that the intervention improves oxygen saturation, but further implementation with the aim of improving other outcomes should be considered with caution.

  7. Vibroacoustic sound therapy: case studies with children with profound and multiple learning difficulties and the elderly in long-term residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy, an approach which is being developed for use in special schools for children with profound and multiple learning difficulties, and in long-term care homes for the elderly and the elderly mentally infirm. Using non-invasive techniques and music/sound technology, children and the elderly are being empowered and enabled to (re)discover self expression and communication skills. Two case studies drawn from the world of the young disabled, and from the elderly, illustrate the potential for improving quality of life and well-being in these institutional settings.

  8. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency Closed Reduction of a C4/5 Fracture Dislocation with Complete Paraplegia Resulting in Profound Neurologic Recovery

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    Christian W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical spinal cord injuries due to traumatic fractures are associated with persistent neurological deficits. Although clinical evidence is weak, early decompression, defined as <24–72 h, has been frequently proposed. Animal studies show better outcomes after early decompression within one hour or less, which can hardly ever be achieved in clinical practice. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old patient was hospitalized after being hit by a shying horse. After diagnosis of C4/5 fracture dislocation and complete paraplegia, she was intubated and sedated with deep relaxation. Emergency reduction was performed at approximately 120 minutes after trauma. Subsequently, a standard anterior decompression, discectomy, and fusion were carried out. She was then transferred to a specialized rehabilitation hospital. Her neurologic function improved from AIS grade A on admission to grade B postoperatively and grade D after four months of rehabilitation. One year after the accident, she was ambulatory without walking aids and restarted horse riding. Discussion and Conclusion. Rarely in clinical practice, decompression of the spine canal can be performed as early as in this case. This case highlights the potential benefit of utmost early reduction in cervical fracture dislocations with compression of the spinal cord.

  10. Measurement tools for mental health problems and mental well-being in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Samantha; Vereenooghe, Leen; Hastings, Richard P; Adams, Dawn; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Gore, Nick; Hatton, Chris; Hood, Kerry; Jahoda, Andrew; Langdon, Peter E; McNamara, Rachel; Oliver, Chris; Roy, Ashok; Totsika, Vasiliki; Waite, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Mental health problems affect people with intellectual disabilities (ID) at rates similar to or in excess of the non-ID population. People with severe ID are likely to have persistent mental health problems. In this systematic review (PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015024469), we identify and evaluate the methodological quality of available measures of mental health problems or well-being in individuals with severe or profound ID. Electronic searches of ten databases identified relevant publications. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved records (n=41,232) and full-text articles (n=573). Data were extracted and the quality of included papers was appraised. Thirty-two papers reporting on 12 measures were included. Nine measures addressed a broad spectrum of mental health problems, and were largely observational. One physiological measure of well-being was included. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped Scale-II and Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire are reliable measures in this population. However, the psychometric properties of six other measures were only considered within a single study - indicating a lack of research replication. Few mental health measures are available for people with severe or profound ID, particularly lacking are tools measuring well-being. Assessment methods that do not rely on proxy reports should be explored further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Xq22 inversion breakpoint interrupted a novel Ras-like GTPase gene in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Masahiro; Agarwala, Kishan Lal; Hayashi, Masaharu; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imoto, Issei; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inazawa, Johji

    2002-09-01

    A male patient with profound mental retardation, athetosis, nystagmus, and severe congenital hypotonia (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD]) was previously shown to carry a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome, 46,Y,inv(X)(p21.2q22.2). His mother carried this inversion on one X allele. The patient's condition was originally misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy, and only later was it diagnosed as DMD. Because the DMD gene is located at Xp21.2, which is one breakpoint of the inv(X), and because its defects are rarely associated with severe mental retardation, the other clinical features of this patient were deemed likely to be associated with the opposite breakpoint at Xq22. Our precise molecular-cytogenetic characterization of both breakpoints revealed three catastrophic genetic events that had probably influenced neuromuscular and cognitive development: deletion of part of the DMD gene at Xp21.2, duplication of the human proteolipid protein gene (PLP) at Xq22.2, and disruption of a novel gene. The latter sequence, showing a high degree of homology to the Sec4 gene of yeast, encoded a putative small guanine-protein, Ras-like GTPase that we have termed "RLGP." Immunocytochemistry located RLGP at mitochondria. We speculate that disruption of RLGP was responsible for the patient's profound mental retardation.

  12. Simultaneous Labyrinthectomy and Cochlear Implantation for Patients with Single-Sided Ménière’s Disease and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Doobe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the treatment outcome of a simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation in patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Prospective study. Method. Five patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease with active vertigo and functional deafness were included. In all cases, simultaneous cochlear implantation combined with labyrinthectomy surgery was performed. The outcome has been evaluated by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and speech recognition. Results. The combined labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation led in all patients to a highly significant reduction of dizziness up to a restitutio ad integrum. After activation of the cochlear implant and rehabilitation, a mean monosyllabic speech understanding of 69% at 65 dB was observed. Conclusion. For patients with single-sided Ménière’s disease and profound sensorineural hearing loss the simultaneous labyrinthectomy and cochlear implantation are efficient method for the treatment of vertigo as well as the rehabilitation of the auditory system.

  13. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. APPENDICULAR INVAGINATION DUE TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Kruh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invagination of the vermiform appendix is a very rare occurrence. We summarize epidemiologic and etiologic factors, types of classification, symtomatology, diagnostic features and treatment.Patients and treatment. The authors present 49-years old female with long-standing abdominal pains, who came in our hospital due to acute exacerbation with sever abdominal pain. Because of progressive symptoms and sensitivity in the right-lower abdominal quadrant a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. An anomaly of cecum and the absence of appendix vermiformis have forced us to proceed with laparotomy in McBurnay point. After cecotomy an invaginated gangrenous appendix was found. The histological examination revealed endometriosis.Conclusions. By presenting this extremely rare pathology we also want to emphasize the important role of diagnostic laparoscopy in front of acute abdomen.

  15. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Abulfazl; Talebi, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary complications in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases) and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female) underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients' risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. WE GROUPED OUR PATIENTS INTO THREE CATEGORIES: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted), more severely impaired (FEV1 atelectasia in 160 patients (80%). 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10%) developed ARDS. 14 patients (7%) developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10%) of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15%) required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity.

  16. Transient hypofibrinogenemia due to allopurinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin ZQ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ZhiQiang Yin,1,* JiaLi Xu,2,* YongQiang Li,3,* JiPing Xia,1 Dan Luo1 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study reports a case of an 80-year-old male who suffered from drug eruption due to oral allopurinol for the treatment of gout. This patient complained of widespread erythema and maculopapule with itch, and small quantities of purplish-red rash with diffused distribution on four limbs were noted. After he was hospitalized, the area with purpuric rash increased in size, and hypofibrinogenemia was found. After treatment with intravenous infusion of fibrinogen and cryoprecipitate, and continued treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone, the skin rash gradually went away. This is the first report of purpura and hypofibrinogenemia induced by allopurinol and the pathophysiology underlying this reaction remained unknown. Keywords: purpura, fibrinogen, drug eruption, gout

  17. [Organ alterations due to aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Aging defined as progressive organ dysfunction which makes keeping homeostasis more difficult starts at the age of 30-40. However, due to difficulties with the distinction between aging and disease processes, changes previously believed to be caused by aging are often recognized as the effect of pathologies when new data is presented. According to current knowledge, cardio-vascular aging includes decreased elasticity of main arteries, decreased ability of left ventricule to relaxate, diminished function of sino-atrial node and decreased effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Aging in the respiratory system is attributed to increased size of alveoli and alveolar ducts (which easier collapse), a decrease in the gase exchange area, a decrease in respiratory volumes (both static and dynamic) and a severe decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. In aging kidneys both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration are decreased. As the result of tubular alterations the kidney ability to conserve and dilute urine, and its capability to regulate the pH and serum sodium level diminish. Less dramatic changes are seen in the gastrointestinal tract. According to available data, high prevalence of gastric atrophy and hypochlorhydria are a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Also, constipation is attributed much more to sedative life style and diet than to aging itself. In summary, none of the presented alterations is severe enough to cause the disease, but all of them increase the risk of pathology and thus pave the way for the disease even in healthy elderly subjects.

  18. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  19. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  20. Speech reading and learning to read: a comparison of 8-year-old profoundly deaf children with good and poor reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret; Moreno, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Nine children with severe-profound prelingual hearing loss and single-word reading scores not more than 10 months behind chronological age (Good Readers) were matched with 9 children whose reading lag was at least 15 months (Poor Readers). Good Readers had significantly higher spelling and reading comprehension scores. They produced significantly more phonetic errors (indicating the use of phonological coding) and more often correctly represented the number of syllables in spelling than Poor Readers. They also scored more highly on orthographic awareness and were better at speech reading. Speech intelligibility was the same in the two groups. Cluster analysis revealed that only three Good Readers showed strong evidence of phonetic coding in spelling although seven had good representation of syllables; only four had high orthographic awareness scores. However, all 9 children were good speech readers, suggesting that a phonological code derived through speech reading may underpin reading success for deaf children.

  1. Technology-assisted programmes to promote leisure engagement in persons with acquired brain injury and profound multiple disabilities: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; De Pace, Claudia; Chiapparino, Claudia; Ricci, Irene; Navarro, Jorge; Addante, Luigi M; Spica, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate technology-assisted programmes for enabling a woman and a man with brain injury and profound multiple disabilities to acquire leisure engagement. METHOD. The technology for the woman (Study I) involved a portable computer with mouse, a Clicker 4 software package, a touch/pressure microswitch, and an interface to connect the Clicker with the microswitch. This technology allowed the woman to choose with a simple hand response among four stimulus categories (e.g., watching a film and interacting with others), each of which included several alternatives. The technology for the man (Study II) involved a computer-based choice system that allowed him to select preferred songs through a microswitch-aided finger-movement response. RESULTS. Data showed that the two participants learned to use the technology available and selected among the stimulus events thus reaching positive leisure engagement. CONCLUSION. Technology-assisted programmes may provide persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities leisure engagement opportunities.

  2. Single-centre experience with the Impella CP, 5.0 and RP in 109 consecutive patients with profound cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Blom; Veien, Karsten Tange; Møller-Helgestad, Ole Kristian

    2017-01-01

    patients (13%). CONCLUSION: Impella treatment is feasible in profound cardiogenic shock at an acceptable rate of complications. Despite an aggressive approach to restore cardiac output, mortality was high. Besides the severity of lactic acidosis there were no strong predictors of early death.......RATIONALE: Short-term mechanical circulatory support is increasingly used in the management of cardiogenic shock, but data from controlled studies are sparse. Thus, real-life data on complication rates and predictors of adverse outcome are important. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study...... and predictors of death while on Impella support and within 180 days were identified. In 79 patients (72%) cardiogenic shock was caused by myocardial infarction, acute heart failure in 16 (15%) and post-cardiotomy shock in 14 patients (13%). Thirty-five patients (32%) were comatose after cardiac arrest...

  3. Effectiveness of a nurse-led preadmission intervention for parents of children with profound multiple disabilities undergoing hip-joint surgery: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a family-centered care (FCC) intervention provided by an advanced practice nurse (APN) for parents of children with profound disabilities undergoing surgery. In a quasi-experimental design, we used the MPOC-20 to assess satisfaction with FCC and interviews to identify potential mechanisms for improving satisfaction. There was a positive effect on the MPOC-20 domain "general information," albeit with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.35). The interviewed parents expected additional support. Emphasis should be placed on providing comprehensive care coordination by an experienced APN. Shared care management is crucial in improving FCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rat liver mitochondrial membrane characteristics and mitochondrial functions are more profoundly altered by dietary lipid quantity than by dietary lipid quality: effect of different nutritional lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Manar; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Chabi, Béatrice; Crouzier, David; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Cristol, Jean Paul; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Coudray, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Dietary lipids are known to affect the composition of the biological membrane and functions that are involved in cell death and survival. The mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are membrane protein complexes whose function depends on the composition and fluidity of the mitochondrial membrane lipid. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of different nutritional patterns of dietary lipids on liver mitochondrial functions. A total of forty-eight Wistar male rats were divided into six groups and fed for 12 weeks with a basal diet, lard diet or fish oil diet, containing either 50 or 300 g lipid/kg. The 30 % lipid intake increased liver NEFA, TAG and cholesterol levels, increased mitochondrial NEFA and TAG, and decreased phospholipid (PL) levels. SFA, PUFA and unsaturation index (UI) increased, whereas MUFA and trans-fatty acids (FA) decreased in the mitochondrial membrane PL in 30 % fat diet-fed rats compared with 5 % lipid diet-fed rats. PL UI increased with fish oil diet v. basal and lard-rich diets, and PL trans-FA increased with lard diet v. basal and fish oil diets. The 30 % lipid diet intake increased mitochondrial membrane potential, membrane fluidity, mitochondrial respiration and complex V activity, and decreased complex III and IV activities. With regard to lipid quality effects, β-oxidation decreased with the intake of basal or fish oil diets compared with that of the lard diet. The intake of a fish oil diet decreased complex III and IV activities compared with both the basal and lard diets. In conclusion, the characteristics and mitochondrial functions of the rat liver mitochondrial membrane are more profoundly altered by the quantity of dietary lipid than by its quality, which may have profound impacts on the pathogenesis and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Activation-induced cell death drives profound lung CD4(+) T-cell depletion in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Iulia; Drummond, M Bradley; Gama, Lucio; Coon, Tiffany; Merlo, Christian A; Wise, Robert A; Clements, Janice E; Kirk, Gregory D; McDyer, John F

    2014-10-01

    As overall survival improves, individuals with HIV infection become susceptible to other chronic diseases, including accelerated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether individuals with HIV-associated COPD exhibit dysregulated lung mucosal T-cell immunity compared with control subjects. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated peripheral blood and lung mucosal T-cell immunity in 14 HIV(+)COPD(+), 13 HIV(+)COPD(-), and 7 HIV(-)COPD(+) individuals. HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals demonstrated profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion with reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived lung mononuclear cells, not observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and diminished CD4(+) T cell absolute numbers, compared with control subjects. Furthermore, HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals demonstrated decreased pulmonary HIV-specific and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-reactive CD4(+) memory responses, including loss of multifunctionality, compared with HIV(+)COPD(-) control subjects. In contrast, lung mucosal HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were preserved. Lung CD4(+) T cells from HIV(+)COPD(+) individuals expressed increased surface Fas death receptor (CD95) and programmed death-1, but similar bronchoalveolar lavage viral loads as control subjects. However, programmed death-1 expression inversely correlated with HIV-specific lung CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T-cell responses, suggesting functional exhaustion. Moreover, lung CD4(+) T cells from HIV(+)COPD(+) patients demonstrated increased basal and HIV antigen-induced expression of the early apoptosis marker annexin V compared with control subjects, which was significantly attenuated with anti-Fas blockade. Lastly, lung mucosal, but not blood, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios from HIV(+) patients significantly correlated with the FEV1, but not in HIV(-)COPD(+) patients. Together, our results provide evidence for profound lung mucosal CD4(+) T-cell depletion via a Fas-dependent activation-induced cell death mechanism, along with

  6. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  7. The Profound Power of Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition,…

  8. Ritual's role in profound change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In today's healthcare environment, characterized by downsizing, restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, organizational cultures and employees are experiencing rapid--and often tense--changes. Ritual can facilitate change by acknowledging it and allowing the grieving process to take its course. The success of an organizational culture change can depend on whether the organization and its members have been given an opportunity to grieve. Until they grieve their losses, people cannot embrace the new. Organizational leaders who have survived downsizing must come to grips with their own survivor status first and then lead others in the organization through the current painful but irrevocable shift in their relationship to the organization. The use of ritual helps organizational survivors see the connection between the grieving process and their survivor symptoms of denial, anger, depression, guilt, fear, insecurity, anxiety, and uncertainty. A good ritual should allow those present to rise above barriers that separate, worries that overburden, and blindness that limits and to gather as one with God. As a rule, a good ritual is participative and recognizes the audience's diversity. The ritual should not just address those present but invite them to act, pray, or sing. Ritual is an important way to provide a structure that allows people to express their emotions. For leaders, it can be a visible way to acknowledge grief and show support for organizational members. For ritual to have any meaning, key leaders need to be present and perhaps have a role in the creation and enactment of the ritual.

  9. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  10. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Farias Moeller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK level as well as a profound hypothyroid state. Muscle biopsy revealed severe muscle necrosis and myositis. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in obtaining an euthyroid state and regain of muscle strength as well as decrease in CK levels. Although rare, hypothyroidism should be considered as a potential cause of rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients undergoing a myopathy workup.

  11. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Golpour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study performed on 10 normal-hearing children with mean age of 4-5, from Gazvin kindergartens and 10 hearing impaired children with similar IQ and age from Nioosha Rehabilitation Center. The language and non language information was received by spontaneous and descriptive speech, and questionnaire, respectively and for comparing syntax comprehension, Specific language impairment test was used. Then these results were compared between two groups. Results: Difference between spontaneous speech and descriptive speech in hearing impaired child is just like normal child. These differences are that the number of utterance, the mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme in spontaneous speech is greater than descriptive speech but the mean length of utterance and richness of vocabulary in descriptive speech is greater than spontaneous speech. Mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme and richness of vocabulary related to morphological part and the number of utterance, the mean length of utterance and syntax comprehension related to syntax, in spontaneous and descriptive speech of normal children speech is greater than hearing impaireds`. Conclusion: According to recent researches, compared with normal child, the hearing impaired child nearly never to reach equal level, and for this reason, training for this group is necessary. It is concluded that although these children have severe to profound hearing loss they are developing their

  12. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe-to-profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with

  13. Unexpected high losses of Anopheles gambiae larvae due to rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krijn P Paaijmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae experience high mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. Here we study the impact of rainfall, one of the abiotic factors to which the immatures are frequently exposed, on their mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that rainfall significantly affected larval mosquitoes by flushing them out of their aquatic habitat and killing them. Outdoor experiments under natural conditions in Kenya revealed that the additional nightly loss of larvae caused by rainfall was on average 17.5% for the youngest (L1 larvae and 4.8% for the oldest (L4 larvae; an additional 10.5% (increase from 0.9 to 11.4% of the L1 larvae and 3.3% (from 0.1 to 3.4% of the L4 larvae were flushed away and larval mortality increased by 6.9% (from 4.6 to 11.5% and 1.5% (from 4.1 to 5.6% for L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, compared to nights without rain. On rainy nights, 1.3% and 0.7% of L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, were lost due to ejection from the breeding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that immature populations of malaria mosquitoes suffer high losses during rainfall events. As these populations are likely to experience several rain showers during their lifespan, rainfall will have a profound effect on the productivity of mosquito breeding sites and, as a result, on the transmission of malaria. These findings are discussed in the light of malaria risk and changing rainfall patterns in response to climate change.

  14. The dilemma for staff in 'playing a game' with a person with profound intellectual disabilities: empowerment, inclusion and competence in interactional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W M L; Antaki, Charles; Walton, Chris; Stribling, Penny

    2008-05-01

    Games between staff and people with intellectual disabilities serve to promote social engagement and inclusion. However, when the person has limited and idiosyncratic communicative abilities, it may be hard to gauge what his/her own view of the matter is. We examine video-taped records of two episodes in which a staff member of a group home prompted a resident with profound intellectual disabilities to play a verbal and a non-verbal 'game'. We examine how the staff member in these two cases designs her actions to solve the dilemma she faces between, on the one hand, abandoning an activity when the resident does not provide clear indications that she/he wants to continue or, on the other hand, persisting with it until the resident begins to enjoy it or, at least, participate more fully. The solution lies in a pervasive institutional practice: treat resistance or ambiguity as temporary reluctance. We discuss these interactions as examples of how principles of empowerment, inclusion and independence play out in the details of everyday interaction.

  15. Topochemical synthesis of Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at varied Fe/Co ratios: unique intercalation of triiodide and its profound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2011-01-26

    Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at different Fe/Co ratios were synthesized from brucite-like Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) via oxidative intercalation reaction using an excess amount of iodine as the oxidizing agent. A new redoxable species: triiodide (I(3)(-)), promoted the formation of single-phase Co-Fe LDHs. The results point to a general principle that LDHs with a characteristic ratio of total trivalent and divalent cations (M(3+)/M(2+)) at 1/2 may be the most stable in the oxidative intercalation procedure. At low Fe content, e.g., starting from Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (x triiodide and iodide into the interlayer gallery of as-transformed LDH phase, which profoundly impacted the relative intensity ratio of basal Bragg peaks as a consequence of the significant X-ray scattering power of triiodide. In combination with XRD simulation, the LDH structure model was constructed by considering both the host layer composition/charge and the arrangement of interlayer triiodide/iodide. The work provides a clear understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors associated with the oxidative intercalation reaction and is helpful in elucidating the formation of LDH structure in general.

  16. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  18. Framework for assessing individuals with rare genetic disorders associated with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): the example of Phelan McDermid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorya, Latha; Leon, Jill; Trelles, M Pilar; Thurm, Audrey

    2017-12-21

    Specialized strategies are needed to understand the complex neuropsychological impairments reported in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) associated with rare genetic disorders. This narrative review focuses on assessment of individuals with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) as a condition commonly associated with PIMD. Published case series and prospective studies were reviewed to evaluate approaches to cognitive, language, motor/sensory, and behavioral domains. This review is framed using general principles for neuropsychological evaluation in PIMD. Neuropsychological assessment domains and tools varied across published reports. Adaptive behavior measures, out-of-range developmental assessments, and social-communication measures were commonly used. Available findings were used to shape a recommended framework with potential to improve measurement of clinical outcomes and advance scientific discovery. The recommended framework outlines an inter-disciplinary and multimodal neuropsychological assessment process relying on modified standardized assessments, functional assessments, and caregiver/informant reports when evaluating individuals with PIMD. Arrested development and skill variability/regression are also discussed as additional, important considerations in neuropsychological evaluation of individuals with PIMD and rare genetic disorders.

  19. Very good performance with bimodal stimulation in a like-hybrid modality in a patient with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with low-frequencies preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laria, Carla; Auletta, Gennaro; Riccardi, Pasquale; Papa, Carmine; Malesci, Rita; Franzé, Annamaria; Marciano, Elio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we describe the experimental protocol set up to obtain very good results in speech performance and in time course, with a subject presenting profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with low-frequencies preservation. We used a bimodal stimulation with a like-hybrid modality. Auditory functions have been analyzed by standard tonal and speech audiometry tests, and verbal perception test. The fitting protocol permitted the subject to reach a perception at 65 dB of 100% in a very short time. The subject showed a sufficient recovery of the language spectral information and a good integration of verbal information with high consonantal recognition is present. This case report shows the importance to realize a correct cochlear implant fitting and that, in the case of bimodal stimulation, it is very important to obtain the mutual adjustment of the two hearing aids. Moreover, this study enhances the importance of realizing a preservative surgery to make the most of cochlear implants capacity. © 2013.

  20. Bilateral sensorineural deafness and hydrocephalus due to foramen of Monro obstruction in sibs: A newly described autosomal recessive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudley, A.E.; McCullough, C.; McCullough, D.W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    1997-01-31

    We identified a Canadian-Mennonite family in which a brother and sister have hydrocephalus due to obstruction at the foramen of Monro and profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. This appears to be a unique combination of anomalies and, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Both parents and a brother are phenotypically normal. The parents are second cousins. Thus, on the basis of consanguinity, affected sibs of both sexes, and in the absence of evidence for intrauterine infections or other adverse perinatal events, this syndrome is likely inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  1. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this requirement...

  2. Cholestatic jaundice due to ackee fruit poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J; Vender, R; Camuto, P

    1994-09-01

    A 27-yr-old Jamaican male presented with a 2-month history of jaundice, pruritus, intermittent diarrhea, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Over the next month, his abdominal pain and diarrhea improved, but his jaundice and pruritus worsened. He was afebrile and profoundly jaundice, with a benign abdominal examination. Medical workup included a normal abdominal ultrasound, iron studies, ceruloplasm, and serum electrophoresis. Negative viral (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, mononucleosis, hepatitis A, B, C) studies, ANA, AMA, ASMA, RPR were noted. He denied any alcohol, drug, or toxin exposure. Liver tests revealed total bilirubin of 25.6 mg/dl, direct bilirubin of 13.9 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 278 IU/L, AST 45 IU/L, and ALT 71 IU/L. Liver biopsy demonstrated centrilobular zonal necrosis and cholestasis most consistent with a toxic reaction. The patient was again interviewed regarding potential toxins, and he admitted to the ingestion of ackee fruit, a native Jamaican fruit that is illegal in the United States. Shortly after he had ceased intake of the fruit, his symptoms resolved and his liver function tests returned to normal. We present a case of chronic ackee fruit ingestion that led to cholestatic jaundice, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

  3. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II--content of the first lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Lexical content is commonly understood to refer to the various categories of words that children produce and has been studied extensively in children with normal hearing. Unlike the hearing child, however, little is known about the word categories that make up the first lexicon of children with hearing loss (HL). Knowledge of the first lexicon is increasingly important, as infants with HL are now being detected through universal newborn hearing screening programs and fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants in before 12 months of age. For these children, emergence of the first spoken words is a major milestone eagerly awaited by parents and one of the first verbal language goals of teachers and therapists working with such children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lexical content of the first 50 and 100 words produced by children with HL and to contrast this with that of a group of hearing children. Lexical content was compared in two groups of children: one group composed of 24 participants with severe profound or profound HL and a second group composed of 16 participants with normal hearing. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All were "switched on" or fitted before 30 months of age. The Diary of Early Language (Di-EL) was used to collect a 100-word lexicon from each participant. All single word and frozen phrase data from each child's Di-EL were allocated to 1 of 15 word types grouped into four word categories (noun, predicate, grammatical, and paralexical), and the results were compared for both groups. The hearing and HL groups showed similar distributions of word categories, with nouns constituting the largest portion of the lexicon followed by predicates and paralexicals. Grammaticals made up the smallest portion of the lexicon. However, several significant differences were evident between the two groups. In both the 50- and 100-word lexicons, the hearing group

  4. Beneficios económicos del implante coclear para la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Peñaranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB, costo-utilidad (CU y costo-efectividad (CE de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group and 38 belonging to the control group who used

  5. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chuanyin; Zhao, Na; Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  6. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of Şfty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes. As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative

  7. The impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding, subjective hearing performance, and tinnitus perception in patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Marino, Roberta; Acharya, Aanand; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise, subjective perception of hearing, and tinnitus perception of adult patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss and to investigate whether duration of deafness and age at implantation would influence the outcomes. In addition, this article describes the auditory training protocol used for unilaterally deaf patients. This is a prospective study of subjects undergoing cochlear implantation for unilateral deafness with or without associated tinnitus. Speech perception in noise was tested using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise test presented at 65 dB SPL. The Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate the subjective perception of hearing with a cochlear implant and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance was measured using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire. Data were collected before cochlear implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Twenty-eight postlingual unilaterally deaf adults with or without tinnitus were implanted. There was a significant improvement in speech perception in noise across time in all spatial configurations. There was an overall significant improvement on the subjective perception of hearing and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance reduced significantly across time. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not influence the outcomes significantly. Cochlear implantation provided significant improvement in speech understanding in challenging situations, subjective perception of hearing performance, and quality of life. Cochlear implantation also resulted in reduced tinnitus disturbance. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not seem to influence the outcomes.

  8. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  9. Profound Transcriptomic Differences Found between Sperm Samples from Sperm Donors vs. Patients Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Techniques Tends to Disappear after Swim-up Sperm Preparation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meseguer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although spermatozoa delivers its RNA to oocytes at fertilization, its biologicalrole is not well characterized. Our purpose was to identify the genes differentially and exclusivelyexpressed in sperm samples both before and after the swim-up process in control donors andinfertile males with the purpose to identify their functional significance in male fertility.Materials and Methods: This was a nested case-control study. Ten sperm samples were obtainedfrom infertile patients [n=5 (two aliquots each from five samples; one before the swim-upprocess and one after] and donors [n=5 (two aliquots from five samples, one before the swim-upprocess and one after]. Oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to study the genome-wideexpression of pooled samples from infertile patients vs. donors. A total of four microarrays wereperfomed: two with sperm sample aliquots before swim-up and two with sperm samples aliquotsafter swim-up, from both the case and control groups. The results were evaluated to detect whichgenes expressed differentially [fold change (FC>5 and p<0.05] and which genes were exclusiveto each of the groups, both before and after swim-up.Results: Profound differences were detected between the fresh sperm samples of donors vs.infertile patients with respect to both differentially and exclusively expressed genes. Neverthelessthese differences seemed to decrease after the swim-up selection process.Conclusion: There are important differences between the expression profiles of sperm samplesof fertile donors vs. infertile patients who require assisted reproduction techniques (ART. Thesedifferences are potential forecasters of fertility success, although their reliability needs to beexplored further.

  10. Combination of atorvastatin with sulindac or naproxen profoundly inhibits colonic adenocarcinomas by suppressing the p65/β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Nanjoo; Reddy, Bandaru S; DeCastro, Andrew; Paul, Shiby; Lee, Hong Jin; Smolarek, Amanda K; So, Jae Young; Simi, Barbara; Wang, Chung Xiou; Janakiram, Naveena B; Steele, Vernon; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2011-11-01

    Evidence supports the protective role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and statins against colon cancer. Experiments were designed to evaluate the efficacies atorvastatin and NSAIDs administered individually and in combination against colon tumor formation. F344 rats were fed AIN-76A diet, and colon tumors were induced with azoxymethane. One week after the second azoxymethane treatment, groups of rats were fed diets containing atorvastatin (200 ppm), sulindac (100 ppm), naproxen (150 ppm), or their combinations with low-dose atorvastatin (100 ppm) for 45 weeks. Administration of atorvastatin at 200 ppm significantly suppressed both adenocarcinoma incidence (52% reduction, P = 0.005) and multiplicity (58% reduction, P = 0.008). Most importantly, colon tumor multiplicities were profoundly decreased (80%-85% reduction, P < 0.0001) when given low-dose atorvastatin with either sulindac or naproxen. Also, a significant inhibition of colon tumor incidence was observed when given a low-dose atorvastatin with either sulindac (P = 0.001) or naproxen (P = 0.0005). Proliferation markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, and β-catenin in tumors of rats exposed to sulindac, naproxen, atorvastatin, and/or combinations showed a significant suppression. Importantly, colon adenocarcinomas from atorvastatin and NSAIDs fed animals showed reduced key inflammatory markers, inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2, phospho-p65, as well as inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-4. Overall, this is the first report on the combination treatment using low-dose atorvastatin with either low-dose sulindac or naproxen, which greatly suppress the colon adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity. Our results suggest that low-dose atorvastatin with sulindac or naproxen might potentially be useful combinations for colon cancer prevention in humans.

  11. Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J

    2013-07-01

    Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genetic variants on rat chromosome 8 exhibit profound effects on hypertension severity and survival during nitric oxide inhibition in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Angela; Schütten-Faber, Sabrina; Schulte, Leonard; Unland, Johannes; Kossmehl, Peter; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension and mortality is aggravated by nitric oxide inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats. MWF rats carry major albuminuria quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome (RNO) 6 and RNO8; susceptibility of SHRs to L-NAME is enhanced by transfer of RNO6 from MWF rats into the SHR background. Here, we tested whether the sensitivity to L-NAME in SHRs is affected by transfer of RNO8 from MWF rats in consomic SHR-8(MWF) rats. In study 1, we analyzed survival in male SHR and SHR-8(MWF) rats in response to 18 weeks of treatment with either normal drinking water (vehicle-treated) or water containing 20mg/L L-NAME. In study 2, we analyzed blood pressure and renal damage in both strains in response to 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME compared with vehicle-treated groups. In study 1, starting after 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME, mortality reached 90% in SHRs in contrast with the group of L-NAME treated SHR-8(MWF) rats (P rats survived similar to vehicle-treated rats. In study 2, L-NAME resulted in a more pronounced increase in mean arterial blood pressures in SHRs compared with SHR-8(MWF) rats (216 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 11 mm Hg; P rats after L-NAME treatment (P < 0.05), whereas albuminuria was not different between strains. The blood pressure increase and impaired survival of SHRs in response to nitric oxide inhibition is profoundly influenced by genes on RNO8.

  13. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  14. The nature of peer-directed behaviours in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and its relationship with social scaffolding behaviours of the direct support worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B

    2016-01-01

    The multiple and complex disabilities of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) form a barrier for peer interactions and peer-directed behaviours. In this study, we further explore the nature of peer-directed behaviours in persons with PIMD and its relationship with social scaffolding behaviour of direct support workers (DSWs). Fourteen dyads of children with PIMD, who knew each other for at least 12 months, participated. They were sitting in close proximity while they were filmed with and without the presence of the DSW. Video recordings were coded continuously making use of observation schemes for the peer-directed behaviours of the children and the peer interaction influencing behaviours of the DSW. Significantly more singular peer-directed behaviour (without DSW: 18.00%; with DSW: 3.81%) was observed than multiple peer-directed behaviour (without DSW: 4.01%; with DSW: 0.52%). The amount of time the singular and multiple peer-directed behaviours were observed was significantly lower in the presence of a DSW. When the DSW shows peer interaction influencing behaviour, it was mostly social scaffolding behaviour (2.17%). The conditional probability of observing social scaffolding behaviour in the 10 s following on singular peer-directed behaviour was 0.02 with a Yule's Q of 0.04 and following on multiple peer-directed behaviour 0.04 with a Yule's Q of 0.33. The way in which peer interactions in children with PIMD are defined could have an impact on the amount of observed peer-directed behaviours and on the effect of the social scaffolding behaviours presented by DSW. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  16. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points: an international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pühringer, Friedrich K; Rex, Christopher; Sielenkämper, Andreas W

    2008-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969), a novel, selective relaxant binding agent, was specifically designed to rapidly reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for the reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was evaluated....

  17. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points - An international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhringer, F.K.; Rex, C.; Sielenkamper, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex (Org 25969), a novel, selective relaxant binding agent, was specifically designed to rapidly reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for the reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was evalua...

  18. Pacemaker Lead Endocarditis Due to Trichosporon Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Pratap Chandra; Purohit, Bharat Vijay; Agrawal, Binod; Reddy, Krupal; Nutankavala, Lavanya; Narreddy, Suneetha; Reddy, Mallikkarjun; Abu Salim, Md

    2015-04-01

    Pacemaker-related fungal endocarditis is an uncommon and unexpected complication. It is associated with high mortality rates. Due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, negative blood culture and delays in obtaining appropriate imaging studies; late diagnosis is common with fungal endocarditis. Hereby we are reporting a rare case of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to Trichosporon species. In literature we did not find any case of pacemaker-related endocarditis due to Trichosporon species.

  19. Hypertensive emergency due to pheochromocytoma crisis complicated with refractory hemodynamic collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Bozbay, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Hypertensive emergency usually appears in older patients with previous recurrent episodes, and is among the most frequent admissions to emergency departments. A 29-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with the diagnosis of hypertensive emergency. The patient complained of severe headache, dyspnea, palpitation, diaphoresis, and confusion due to hypertensive encephalopathy. Her blood pressure was 250/150 mmHg on admission. At the referral hospital, the patient had undergone cranial CT because of her confused state and this excluded acute cerebral hemorrhage. Also at that hospital, thoracoabdominal CT for differential diagnosis depicted an adrenal mass with a necrotic core. After admission to our clinic, initial control of excessive blood pressure was not achieved despite high dose intravenous nitrate therapy. Thereafter intravenous esmolol treatment was initiated simultaneously with oral alpha blocker therapy in order to counterbalance the unopposed alpha adrenergic activity with beta blocker therapy. After 12 hours, sudden onset of hypotension developed and deepened despite IV saline, inotropic and vasopressor agents such as IV dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. The patient died at the 24th hour due to hemodynamic collapse as a result of hyperadrenergic state due to possible pheochromocytoma crisis. This case is an exceptional example of hypertensive emergency secondary to fulminant pheochromocytoma crisis failing to respond to intensive antihypertensive treatment, and in which patient death was unavoidable due to uncontrolled excessive adrenergic activity which led to profound cardiogenic shock.

  20. Due Diligence and "Reasonable Man," Offshore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bill Maurer

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of an international crackdown against preferential tax regimes, Caribbean tax havens and other jurisdictions have adopted "due diligence" procedures to manage financial and reputational risk...

  1. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  2. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  3. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  4. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  5. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ISSN 1597-6343. Numerical Solutions of Some Parametric Effects Due to Electromagnetic Wave. Scattering by an Infinite Circular Cylinder. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE. TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING BY AN INFINITE. CIRCULAR CYLINDER. *1 Suleiman A. B. and 1 ...

  6. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing

  7. Obstructive anuria due to blood clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anjali; Nanda, Smiti; Singhal, Savita Rani; Gupta, Anshu

    2008-10-01

    An unusual case of anuria due to the obstruction caused by blood clot following repair of ruptured uterus is presented. Although the blood clot usually dissolves, the awareness of this complication is important to avoid the unnecessary procedures.

  8. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gmail.com. MS received 1 October 2013; ... Apparently, collisions among the reactant atoms can overcome this electron-electron ... Therefore, its existence is not due to some interpretational issues arising exclusively from the crude Drude model.

  9. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  10. Eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported one case of eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea (black grains occurred on the right foot of the patient studied. The structure, microscopic morphology and therapeutic evolution are also studied and reported.

  11. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.

  12. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  13. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  14. Mild Angelman syndrome phenotype due to a mosaic methylation imprinting defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Laura C; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Boutis, Paula; Buiting, Karin; Weksberg, Rosanna; Williams, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder causing severe to profound intellectual disability, absent or very limited speech and a high risk for seizures. AS is caused by a loss of function of the maternally-derived UBE3A allele due to one of several mechanisms including imprinting defects (ImpDs). We present a girl with AS due to a mosaic ImpD who has relatively high developmental function (VABS-II composite score of 76) and communication skills (as demonstrated in supplemental video links). Given the patient's relatively mild developmental impairment, without clinical evidence of seizures, gait disturbance or inappropriate laughter, the diagnosis of AS was not initially suspected. Initial laboratory testing for AS was inconclusive but additional studies suggested mosaic ImpD and characteristic EEG findings provided further support for the clinical diagnosis. Our patient, along with other case reports of children with AS and relatively mild phenotypes, raises the question as to whether there exists an undiagnosed group of individuals with mild intellectual disability and expressive speech delays due to mosaic methylation defects of the chromosome 15q11.2-13 region. Population studies may be needed to determine if such an undiagnosed group exists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    S?nchez-Rodr?guez, Martha A.; Castrej?n-Delgado, Lizett; Zacar?as-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-N??ez, V?ctor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determi...

  16. Modulation of heart redox status by garlic based on route of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G4ES5

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... garlic high dose oral treatment exhibited profound antianemic ... at acidic pH soluble proteins constituted with copper a colourful complex measurable at 546 nm. .... exhibited dual effects in rat that is antioxidant or prooxidant ...

  17. Systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Martínez, Francisco Javier García; Ginarte, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2011-10-01

    Systemic photosensitivity due to the intake of plants or herbal compounds is a rare phenomenon. Goji berries are widely used as a well-being and anti-aging remedy. In spite of this, only a few adverse reactions and no cases of photosensitivity have been reported to date. A 53-year-old male consulted due to a pruriginous eruption located on sun-exposed areas of 2 weeks of duration. He had been taking Goji berries and infusions of cat's claw herb for 5 and 3 months, respectively. Minimal erythema dose for UVB (MED-UVB) was diminished when the patient was taking these products, and became normal when they were withdrawn. Photoprovocation tests with Goji berries and cat's claw were performed. MED-UVB decreased after the intake of Goji berries, and was normal with cat's claw. We report the first case of systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  19. Hydrological Alterations Due to Climate-Induced Regional Vegetation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. B.; Vivoni, E. R.; Springer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    An extended, severe drought in the southwestern U.S. from 2000 to 2003 was accompanied by increased temperatures and bark beetle infestations, inducing the large-scale mortality of woody overstory (Pinus edulis). The consequential redistribution of water, radiation, and nutrient availability modified the ecosystem phenology, species composition, and forced the ecosystem to transition into a new state. We hypothesize that the hydrological processes in the ecosystem were also altered due to the mortality. Thus, our objective is to investigate changes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum at the watershed scale. The Rio Ojo Caliente Basin is a subbasin of the Upper Rio Grande, located mostly in New Mexico, and is approximately 1,000 km2. Examining a remotely-sensed vegetation index (1-km AVHRR NDVI from 1990 to 2006), there is an increasing trend in the NDVI from 1989 to 1999 (pre-mortality period), a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2003 (mortality period), and a dramatic increasing trend from 2004 to 2006 (post-mortality period) in which the NDVI rebounds to nearly pre-mortality magnitudes. This pattern exists across varying spatial scales (plot to watershed to region) and signifies a profound alteration in the ecosystem, for while the vegetation composition was altered to a great degree, the system rapidly returned to a homeostatic state balancing resource supply and use during the post-mortality period. To investigate hydrological changes due to the mortality, we employ a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model, tRIBS (TIN-based Real-Time Integrated Basin Simulator) for the Rio Ojo Caliente Basin. STATSGO 1-km soils data, 10-meter National Elevation Dataset DEMs, Carson National Forest vegetation species data, and MM5-downscaled NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-I meteorologic data are used as model inputs. A combination of MODIS and AVHRR remote-sensing data, values from the literature, and field data from a long-term, pi {n}on-juniper (PJ) observation site in Los

  20. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  1. Prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis infection in 38 endemic rural communities in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. Using standard parasitological and clinical methods of diagnosis, 7,144 consenting individuals aged 5 years and above were examined for ...

  2. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  3. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  4. Dysphagia due to diffuseidiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease isa form of degenerative arthritiswith unique spinal and extra spinal manifestations. Dysphagia due to DISH is uncommon but when present DISH should be suspected. Surgical decompression can relieve some of the symptoms. We report a case of a 60 ...

  5. COMMENTARY Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum Hemorrhage and. Unsafe Abortion: A Call for Commitment. Joseph Karanja. 1, 2. , Projestine Muganyizi. 3 ... towards achieving. Millennium. Development Goal (MDG) 5 at a Regional. Experts' Summit. During the weeklong conference convened to explore the myriad factors.

  6. Extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A. Rakha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to establish an extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan. The result is obtained with the help of two terminating results for the series $_3F_{2}$ very recently obtained by Rakha et al. A few interesting special cases are also given.

  7. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rumund, Anouke; Verrips, Aad; Verhagen, Wim I M

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  8. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouke van Rumund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  9. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  10. [Gait disorders due to neurological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Snijders, A.H.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are seen frequently and often have a neurological cause. The clinical management of patients presenting with a gait disorder is often complicated due to the large number of diseases that can cause a gait disorder and to the difficulties in interpreting a specific gait disorder

  11. Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barre's syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still ...

  12. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  13. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  14. Abdominal injury due to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation.

  15. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 3. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction. Andrew Das ... Arulsamy1. Condensed Matter Group, Institute of Interdisciplinary Science, No. 24, level-4, Block C, Lorong Bahagia, Pandamaran, 42000 Port Klang, Selangor DE, Malaysia ...

  16. Aggradation in rivers due to overloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Van der Sande, J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of aggradation in a river due to overloading is tackled with a mathematical model consisting of a set of one-dimensional (in space) basic equations in which the water motion is assumed to be quasi-steady and the sediment transport is determined by local conditions. Analytical solutions

  17. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Rumund, A. van; Verrips, A.; Verhagen, W.I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  18. Studies on the pro-oxidant chemistry of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    There is currently much interest in the development of functional foods aiming at the prevention of the development of some diseases, for example cancer, by the introduction of selected natural substances at elevated levels into the diet. The rationale for this approach is based especially

  19. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  20. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... food, such as meat, milk, fruits and vegetables (Butchko et al. 2002). ... normal growth and development (Butchko et al. 2002). It is also a ..... 629–727. Maher TJ and Wurtman RJ 1987 Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive. Environ. Health. Perspect. 75 3–57. Makhro A, Wang ...