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Sample records for profound prooxidant due

  1. Profound hyper natremia due to central diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaqar, A.; Javaid, K.H.; Parveen, R.; Sadaf, R.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare endocrine disorder in paediatric patients. Polyuria is a cardinal manifestation that is extremely difficult to recognize in diapered infants. Careful urine quantification is the key to diagnosis in appropriate clinical setting. We report a case of a 4 months old infant presenting with an acute life threatening event following an episode of vomiting and decreased oral intake. She had profound hyper natremia which persisted after stabilization. Polyuria unrecognized by the mother was revealed by 24-hour urine output measurement. A diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was made after appropriate laboratory investigations including serum and urine osmolality. The central nature of the disease was confirmed by neuroimaging which showed holoprosencephaly. (author)

  2. Environmentally profound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rushu [China Yangzte Three Gorges Project Development Corp., Yichang Hubei (China)

    1999-09-01

    The Three Gorges dam project on the Yangtze river will have a profound effect on the people, the environment and cultural heritage sites. The dam will be the world's biggest and will provide almost 85 BkWh of hydro power per annum. A noticeable benefit will be a greatly reduced incidence of flooding in the Jingjiang reaches of the river. Additional benefits will be improved local navigation, climate and enhanced water quality. The main unwelcome impacts were loss of farmland and resettlement of people but here the government have been particularly careful to provide the relocated people with a reasonable standard of new accommodation and farmland. The loss of natural vegetation will be small but there are endangered species of birds and animals living in the region. A number of negative environmental affects (dust noise, incidence of certain diseases) and how they are to be mitigated are mentioned. (UK)

  3. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  4. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Boušová, I.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2011), s. 513-523 ISSN 0367-326X Grant - others:GA ČR GP524/09/P121 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenoxyl radical * Antioxidants * Prooxidants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.848, year: 2011

  5. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  6. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells.

  7. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.

  8. Extraction of Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica As Pro-Oxidant In Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuradibah M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging material such as plastic bags is one of the main factors that contribute to the environmental pollution due to slow degradation. The usage of metal oxide as pro-oxidant has been proven to accelerate the degradation of these materials, but the excessive usage of this pro-oxidant will be harmful to the human body. Therefore, in this research, spear grass is investigated to be used as natural based pro-oxidant that can increase the degradation rate of the polymers. In terms of that, spear grass is extracted by using pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE to obtain the metal element such as zinc (Zn and ferum (Fe. PHWE is using water as a solvent which is highly favourable due to non-toxicity and non-flammable characteristics that make it easy to handle. Box-Behnken design is used to optimize the temperature, extraction time, and sample-to-solvent ratio to get the maximum amount of Zn and Fe concentration from the extracted spear grass. As a conclusion, the leaf of spear grass contributed the highest amount of Zn and Fe concentration. The highest amount of Zn and Fe concentration is achieved at 150 °C, 20 minutes, and 3 g of sample to 45 ml of water.

  9. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of caffeine, theobromine and xanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Khan, Nizam Uddin; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2003-09-01

    Caffeine, along with its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine, is a key component of tea and coffee. These compounds are structurally similar to uric acid, a known antioxidant which is present in blood at relatively high concentrations, but also shows prooxidant activity. In view of the structural similarity between uric acid and caffeine and its metabolites, we studied the antioxidant and prooxidant properties of these compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the quenching effect of the compounds on oxidative DNA degradation by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Prooxidant activity was studied by measuring the ability of the compounds to oxidatively degrade DNA in the presence of copper ions. Caffeine, theobromine and xanthine have a quenching effect on the production of hydroxyl radicals, as well as on oxidative DNA breakage by hydroxyl radicals. Consistent with previous observations that many known antioxidants of plant origin are also capable of prooxidant action, the purine alkaloids also show oxidative DNA breakage in the presence of transition metal ions. The alkaloid caffeine and its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine exhibit both antioxidant and prooxidant properties. The results lead to the observation that caffeine and its metabolites may also contribute to the overall antioxidant and chemopreventive properties of caffeine-bearing beverages, such as tea.

  10. Electrochemical Behavior and Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Natural Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Todorović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the electrochemical oxidation of a number natural phenolics (salicylic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and rutin using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also studied. A structural analysis of the tested phenolics suggests that multiple OH substitution and conjugation are important determinants of the free radical scavenging activity and electrochemical behavior. Compounds with low oxidation potentials (Epa lower than 0.45 showed antioxidant activity, whereas compounds with high Epa values (>0.45 act as prooxidants.

  11. Limiting factors in the pro-oxidants production with the use of fatty acids mixture separated from soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Korchagin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of prooxidants - carboxylates of variable valence metals (iron, copper and cobalt was carried with the use of a mixture of fatty acids with an acid number of 100-120 mg KOH / g, separated from the soapstock, which is a liquid waste of oil- and fatproduction. Carboxylates of variable valency metals were synthesized in a high-energy ultrasound field using a generator USG13-0.1 / 22. Mixed thermal and ultrasound effects contribute to an increase in the yield of metal carboxylates. The maximum yield of prooxidates was over 84% (by weight.When carrying out the synthesis of carboxylates of metals of variable valence, ion activity was revealed in the exchange reactions with sodium salts on the basis of a mixture of fatty acids in the following order: Co2+ >Cu2+ >Fe2+. The synthesis of carboxylates of variable valence metals is a multifactor system and depends on temperature regimes, metal activity, viscosity and structural characteristics of a fatty acids mixture. The formation of metal carboxylates was carried out in a water-alcohol medium at a high rate for the heterogeneous systems, which are the exchange reactions between strong alkali salts and carbon acids. It should be noted that an increase in the synthesis temperature above 60 ° C with simultaneous ultrasound exposure reduced the yield of products and influenced the quality composition of the carboxylates of metals of variable valency.We should also take into account that ultrasound impact allows to obtain a prooxidant of the required dispersity and it is extremely important in the production of multifunctional and targeted additives. The use of ultrasound fields of high intensity in the synthesis of carboxylates of metals of variable valence is preferable in a less viscous medium due to the better ultrasound spread

  12. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT AND PRO-OXIDANT EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID

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    Goran Rankovic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals attack proteins, lipids, enzymes and DNA causing pathological changes in organism. There are many mechanisms that organism uses to fight against free radicals. Ascorbic acid is one of the strongest reducers and eliminators of free radicals. It reduces stable oxygenic, azoth and thyol radicals and acts as a primary defense against water radicals in blood. When radicals are dissolved in water suspensions of erythrocytes and low density lipoproteins (LDL, ascorbic acid catches and eliminates free radicals before they arrive to the membrane and LDL molecules. Even though ascorbic acid is not capable of eliminating free radicals out of fluid medium, it acts as synergist to alpha-tocopherol in lipid section, contributes to the lessening of lipid tocoperoxil radicals, and above all, regenerates alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid may act as pro-oxidant under in vitro conditions in the presence of metals; however, this effect is probably not important under in vivo conditions where metal ions, being sequestered, become second reducers.

  14. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO 4 , Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P 2 O 2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  15. Prooxidative and antioxidative properties of β-carotene in chlorophyll and riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of β-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of β-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 μM, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that β-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 μM β-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although β-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, β-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in β-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the β-carotene concentration, which indicates that β-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  17. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  18. Achieving profound anesthesia using the intraosseous technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, K A

    1997-10-01

    The intraosseous technique has been described as a useful adjunct to primary anesthetic administration. It has several advantages (Table 3) over other supplemental techniques in that it is relatively simple to implement into routine practice, it affords fast, predictable results, and it is relatively painless. The technique has been shown to be very successful in achieving profound pulpal anesthesia when administered as a supplement to the inferior alveolar nerve block and is effective in achieving profound anesthesia in irreversibly inflamed teeth, especially mandibular molars.

  19. Signal processing for the profoundly deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothyroyd, A

    1990-01-01

    Profound deafness, defined here as a hearing loss in excess of 90 dB, is characterized by high thresholds, reduced hearing range in the intensity and frequency domains, and poor resolution in the frequency and time domains. The high thresholds call for hearing aids with unusually high gains or remote microphones that can be placed close to the signal source. The former option creates acoustic feedback problems for which digital signal processing may yet offer solutions. The latter option calls for carrier wave technology that is already available. The reduced frequency and intensity ranges would appear to call for frequency and/or amplitude compression. It might also be argued, however, that any attempts to compress the acoustic signal into the limited hearing range of the profoundly deaf will be counterproductive because of poor frequency and time resolution, especially when the signal is present in noise. In experiments with a 2-channel compression system, only 1 of 9 subjects showed an improvement of perception with the introduction of fast-release (20 ms) compression. The other 8 experienced no benefit or a slight deterioration of performance. These results support the concept of providing the profoundly deaf with simpler, rather than more complex, patterns, perhaps through the use of feature extraction hearing aids. Data from users of cochlear implants already employing feature extraction techniques also support this concept.

  20. Resveratrol induces membrane and DNA disruption via pro-oxidant activity against Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonjong; Lee, Dong Gun

    2017-07-22

    Resveratrol is a flavonoid found in various plants including grapes, which has been reported to be active against various pathogenic bacteria. However, antibacterial effects and mechanisms via pro-oxidant property of resveratrol remain unknown and speculative. This research investigated antibacterial mechanism of resveratrol against a food-borne human pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, and confirmed the cell death associated oxidative damage. Resveratrol increased outer membrane permeability and membrane depolarization. It also was observed DNA injury responses such as DNA fragmentation, increasing DNA contents and cell division inhibition. Intracellular ROS accumulation, GSH depletion and significant increased malondialdehyde levels were confirmed, which indicated pro-oxidant activity of resveratrol and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the observed lethal damages were reduced by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine treatment supported the view that resveratrol-induced oxidative stress stimulated S. typhimurium cell death. In conclusion, this study expands understanding on role of pro-oxidant property and insight into previously unrecognized oxygen-dependent anti-Salmonella mechanism on resveratrol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of pH on antioxidant and prooxidant properties of common medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayliak Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied in vitro and vivo antioxidant and prooxidant abilities of aqueous extracts from Rosa canina L., Rhodiola rosea L., Hypericum perforatum L., and Gentiana lutea L. Methodology: Total antioxidant capacity was measured by four assays (phosphomolybdate method, Fe3+-reducing activity, ABTS•+ scavenging, H2O2 scavenging. Prooxidant activity was estimated by H2O2 production. Yeast viability in the presence of H2O2 and/or plant extracts was determined by plating or by counting live cells’ number. Results: Plant extracts differed in the total phenolic content (R. canina > R. rosea > H. perforatum > G. lutea which clearly correlated with their ABTS•+ scavenging activity (R2 = 0.963. H2O2 scavenging activity was not clearly associated with plant phenol levels and was significantly higher in acidic, than in alkaline medium. In line with this, plant extracts effectively protected yeast S. cereviasiae against H2O2 and stimulated reproductive ability of yeast cells at acidic but not at alkaline pH. At alkaline pH, plant extracts produced certain amounts of H2O2 which were related to their phenolic content. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of plant extracts is decreased at alkaline pH with an increase in the prooxidant activity. It reduces protective capacity of plant extracts against oxidative and other stresses in vivo.

  2. Profound bradycardia associated with NIV removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, C; Bourke, S C; Gibson, G J

    2012-01-01

    A patient with lower-limb onset ALS presented with a one-month history of vasovagal episodes and a one-week history of cough productive of green sputum and lethargy. She was drowsy and in acute on chronic type-two respiratory failure. She responded to non-invasive ventilation, however she suffered recurrent episodes of profound bradycardia on removal of the mask, which gradually resolved over ten days. We have reviewed the literature and offer a potential explanation for these events.

  3. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  4. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO{sub 4}, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol [ripe (113.7mg/100g), unripe (70.5mg/100g)] content and ferric reducing antioxidant property than the unripe pepper. However, there was no significant difference in the vitamin C [ripe (231.5{mu}g/g), unripe (224.4{mu}g/g)] content and Fe (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the pepper extracts caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in 25{mu}M Fe(II), 7{mu}M Sodium Nitroprusside and 1mM Quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the Rat's brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ripe pepper inhibited MDA (Malondialdehyhide) production in the Rat's brain than the unripe pepper. Conversely, both extract did not significantly inhibit Fe (II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe

  5. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  6. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  7. Chemical composition, in vitro antitumor and pro-oxidant activities of Glandora rosmarinifolia (Boraginaceae) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Paola; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Notarbartolo, Monica; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Sajeva, Maurizio; Zito, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The biological properties of essential oils have been demonstrated in the treatment of several diseases and to enhance the bioavailability of other drugs. In natural habitats the essential oils compounds may play important roles in the protection of the plants as antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, insecticides and also against herbivores by reducing their appetite for such plants or by repelling undesirable others. We analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry the chemical composition of the essential oil of aerial parts of Glandora rosmarinifolia (Ten.) D.C. Thomas obtained by hydrodistillation and verified some biological activities on a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HA22T/VGH, HepG2, Hep3B) and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (SUM 149, MDA-MB-231). In the essential oil we detected 35 compounds. The results of the biological assays indicate that essential oil of G. rosmarinifolia induces cell growth inhibition at concentration-dependent way in all cell line models. This oil does not seem to possess antioxidant activity, while the cytotoxicity of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil appeared to involve, at least in part, a pro-oxidant mechanism. Our results show for the first time the antitumoral and pro-oxidant activities of G. rosmarinifolia essential oil and suggest that it may represent a resource of pharmacologically active compounds.

  8. Homeostasis status between prooxidants and antioxidants as a potent marker in Iranian preeclamptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Mohammad H.; Dehghanan, R.; Daryani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to measure the plasma oxidant, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants, ascorbate, to magnify the prooxidants and antioxidants status as a marker of pre-eclampsia. Included in the study were 50 preeclamptic and 100 normotensive pregnant women of singleton gestations in their third trimester, presented in Allavi Hospitals in Ardabil province of Iran from August 2004 to April 2005. Among these patients plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) and vitamin C concentration were analyzed. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected aseptically in heparin bulb. Spectrophotometric methods were employed to determine the plasma concentrations of vitamin C. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used to analyze the data. In preeclampsia, significant increase in prooxidant MDA was observed as compared to controls. A significant fall in antioxidants vitamin C was noted in preeclampsia as compared to control. The MDA showed a significant balance to the level of vitamin C. Administration of regular nutritive supplementation containing reducing systems like vitamin C should help in maintaining the equilibrium during normal pregnancy and theoretically in preeclampsia too but to what extent they help in clinical practice is still being investigated. (author)

  9. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  10. The Dual Antioxidant/Prooxidant Effect of Eugenol and Its Action in Cancer Development and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Bezerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Eugenol has a dual effect on oxidative stress, which can action as an antioxidant or prooxidant agent. In addition, it has anti-carcinogenic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties. Considering the importance of eugenol in the area of food and human health, in this review, we discuss the role of eugenol on redox status and its potential use in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  11. Adrenaline in pro-oxidant conditions elicits intracellular survival pathways in isolated rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Vera Marisa; Silva, Renata; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Carvalho, Felix; Bastos, Maria Lourdes de; Albuquerque Carvalho, Rui; Carvalho, Marcia; Remiao, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    In several pathologic conditions, like cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, the sustained elevation of plasma and interstitial catecholamine levels, namely adrenaline (ADR), and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are hallmarks. The present work aimed to investigate in cardiomyocytes which intracellular signalling pathways are altered by ADR redox ability. To mimic pathologic conditions, freshly isolated calcium tolerant cardiomyocytes from adult rat were incubated with ADR alone or in the presence of a system capable of generating ROS [(xanthine with xanthine oxidase) (X/XO)]. ADR elicited a pro-oxidant signal with generation of reactive species, which was largely magnified by the ROS generating system. However, no change in cardiomyocytes viability was observed. The pro-oxidant signal promoted the translocation to the nucleus of the transcription factors, Heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, proteasome activity was compromised in the experimental groups where the generation of reactive species occurred. The decrease in the proteasome activity of the ADR group resulted from its redox sensitivity, since the activity was recovered by adding the ROS scavenger, tiron. Proteasome inhibition seemed to elicit an increase in HSP70 levels. Furthermore, retention of mitochondrial cytochrome c and inhibition of caspase 3 activity were observed by X/XO incubation in presence or absence of ADR. In conclusion, in spite of all the insults inflicted to the cardiomyocytes, they were capable to activate intracellular responses that enabled their survival. These mechanisms, namely the pathways altered by catecholamine proteasome inhibition, should be further characterized, as they could be of relevance in the ischemia preconditioning and the reperfusion injury

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identifies Differential Response to Pro-Oxidant Chemotherapy in a Xenograft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry H. Landowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of oxidative stress is a key component of cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant drugs have been demonstrated to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An emerging concept is that therapeutic outcomes are dictated by the differential redox buffering reserve in subpopulations of malignant cells, indicating the need for noninvasive biomarkers of tumor redox that can be used for dose identification and response assessment in a longitudinal setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enhanced with the thiol-binding contrast agent Gd-LC6-SH, and hemodynamic response imaging (HRI in combination with hypercapnia and hyperoxia were investigated as biomarkers of the pharmacodynamics of the small molecule pro-oxidant imexon (IMX. Human multiple myeloma cell lines 8226/S and an IMX-resistant variant, 8226/IM10, were established as contralateral tumors in SCID mice. T1slope, an MRI measure of the washout rate of Gd-LC6-SH, was significantly lower post-IMX therapy in 8226/S tumors compared with vehicle controls, indicating treatment-related oxidization of the tumor microenvironment, which was confirmed by analysis of tumor tissue for thiols. T1slope and ex vivo assays for thiols both indicated a more reduced microenvironment in 8226/IM10 tumors following IMX therapy. HRI with hypercapnia challenge revealed IMX inhibition of vascular dilation in 8226/S tumors but not 8226/IM10 tumors, consistent with decreased immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin in treated 8226/S tumors. MRI enhanced with Gd-LC6-SH, and HRI coupled with a hypercapnic challenge provide noninvasive biomarkers of tumor response to the redox modulator imexon.

  13. Amelioration of radiation stress by antioxidants and prooxidants: role of redox transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The development of radiation countermeasures has emerged as a major area of research in radiation biology as ionizing radiation is finding wide applications in power generation, agriculture, food processing, disease diagnosis and therapy. Chemical agents used to alter tissue toxicity of radiation can be broadly divided into three categories based on the time of intervention in relation to radiation. These are: radioprotectors, mitigators, and therapeutic agents. Radiation causes injury to normal tissue by a dynamic process involving generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their interactions with bio-molecules, intracellular signaling, cell-to-cell communication, inflammatory responses, tissue repair and cell death. Most of the radiation-induced damage to bio-molecules is caused by the formation of free radicals resulting from the radiolysis of water. However, antioxidants that neutralize free radicals failed to reach clinic. At present, no agent, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is available for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), although amifostine is approved for prophylaxis of dry mouth (xerostomia) from radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. Therefore, researchers are employing new approaches to ameliorate radiation induced injury. Some of these include use of cytokines, NF-κB (Nuclear factor κB) activators, agents that induce G1 arrest, antibiotics and inhibitors of P53. We have used pro-oxidants to upregulate cytoprotective pathways as a novel strategy to protect against radiation induced hematopoietic syndrome. Different prooxidants including hydrogen peroxide, diethylmaleate, t-butylhydroperoxide and naphthoquinone and its derivatives protected lymphocytes against radiation induced cell death. Further studies were carried out with 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) to explore the molecular mechanism of the observed protection. Thiol containing antioxidants abrogated NQ mediated radioprotection in lymphocytes. Addition of NQ to

  14. Antibacterial, Prooxidative and Genotoxic Activities of Gallic Acid and its Copper and Iron Complexes against Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    JONATHAN M. BARCELO; MILDIAMOND GUIEB; ANDERSON VENTURA; ARYZA NACINO; HERMINIA PINASEN; LEAH VIERNES; TRISHIA YODONG; BIANCA LOU ESTRADA; DANIEL VALDEZ; THRESHA BINWAG

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gallic acid and its complexes with aluminum and iron were investigated for their antibacterial, pro-oxidative, and genotoxic properties at alkaline pH. At 4.0μmol/mL, gallic acid displayed bacteriostatic property while aluminum-gallic acid and iron-gallic acid complexes showed bactericidal property against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A higher antibacterial activity was observed in the turbidimetric assay compared to the well-diffusion assay. The metal complexes of ...

  15. Critical Role of Zinc as Either an Antioxidant or a Prooxidant in Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ryul Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress. The actions of zinc are not straightforward owing to its numerous roles in biological systems. It has been shown that zinc deficiency and zinc excess cause cellular oxidative stress. To gain insights into the dual action of zinc, as either an antioxidant or a prooxidant, and the conditions under which each role is performed, the oxidative stresses that occur in zinc deficiency and zinc overload in conjunction with the intracellular regulation of free zinc are summarized. Additionally, the regulatory role of zinc in mitochondrial homeostasis and its impact on oxidative stress are briefly addressed.

  16. Reductive Stress in Inflammation-Associated Diseases and the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Reductive stress (RS is the counterpart oxidative stress (OS, and can occur in response to conditions that shift the redox balance of important biological redox couples, such as the NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, and GSH/GSSG, to a more reducing state. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymatic systems leads to excess reducing equivalents that can deplete reactive oxidative species, driving the cells to RS. A feedback regulation is established in which chronic RS induces OS, which in turn, stimulates again RS. Excess reducing equivalents may regulate cellular signaling pathways, modify transcriptional activity, induce alterations in the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins, reduce mitochondrial function, decrease cellular metabolism, and thus, contribute to the development of some diseases in which NF-κB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, participates. Here, we described the diseases in which an inflammatory condition is associated to RS, and where delayed folding, disordered transport, failed oxidation, and aggregation are found. Some of these diseases are aggregation protein cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and metabolic syndrome, among others. Moreover, chronic consumption of antioxidant supplements, such as vitamins and/or flavonoids, may have pro-oxidant effects that may alter the redox cellular equilibrium and contribute to RS, even diminishing life expectancy.

  17. Polyphenols of virgin coconut oil prevent pro-oxidant mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illam, Soorya Parathodi; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside. Pre-treatment of VCOP at different concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) significantly reduced the H 2 O 2 and 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced cell death in HCT-15 cells. Giving further insight to its mechanistic basis, oxidative stress induced alterations in glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of GR (Glutathione-Reductase), GPx (Glutathione-Peroxidase), GST (Glutathione-S-Transferase) and catalase (CAT) were restored to near-normal by VCOP, concomitantly reducing lipid peroxidation. The efficacy of VCOP was similar to that of Trolox and FA added in culture. The study thus suggests that VCOP protects cells from pro-oxidant insults by modulating cellular antioxidant status.

  18. Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thaís Montenegro; de Melo, Ademar Soares; Dias, Rui Guilherme Cardoso; Varela, Everton Luís Pompeu; de Oliveira, Fábio Rodrigues; Vieira, José Luís Fernandes; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde; Baetas, Ana Cristina; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2012-09-28

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. In folk medicine, Petiveria alliacea has a broad range of therapeutic properties; however, it is also associated with toxic effects. The present study evaluated the putative effects of Petiveria alliacea on the central nervous system, including locomotor activity, anxiety, depression-like behavior, and memory, and oxidative stress. Two-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=7-10 rats/group) were administered with 900 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extracts of Petiveria alliacea L. The behavioral assays included open-field, forced swimming, and elevated T-maze tests. The oxidative stress levels were measured in rat blood samples after behavioral assays and methemoglobin levels were measured in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, Petiveria alliacea increased locomotor activity. It also exerted previously unreported anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in behavioral tests. In the oxidative stress assays, the Petiveria alliacea extract decreased Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels and increased methemoglobin levels, which was related to the toxic effects. The Petiveria alliacea extract exerted motor stimulatory and anxiolytic effects in the OF test, antidepressant effects in the FS test, and elicited memory improvement in ETM. Furthermore, the Petiveria alliacea extract also exerted pro-oxidant effects in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the antioxidant status and increasing MetHb levels in human plasma, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  20. Proximal processes of children with profound multiple disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...

  1. Prooxidant/Antioxidant Ratio (ProAntidex as a Better Index of Net Free Radical Scavenging Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ming Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  2. Acute effects of a prooxidant herbicide on the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esperanza, Marta; Cid, Ángeles; Herrero, Concepción; Rioboo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mitochondrial membrane potential constituted the most sensitive parameter assayed. • Several genotoxicity methods were applied for first time in ecotoxicological studies. • Oxidative DNA base damage (8-OHdG) was induced by paraquat exposure. • Cells with DNA strand breakage and subG1-nuclei increased in treated cultures. • Typical apoptosis hallmarks were observed in microalgal cells exposed to paraquat. - Abstract: Since recent evidence has demonstrated that many types of chemicals exhibit oxidative and/or genotoxic potential on living organisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA damage are currently the best accepted paradigms to assess the potential hazardous biological effects of a wide range of contaminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity responses on the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to the prooxidant herbicide paraquat. In addition to the growth endpoint, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assayed as potential markers of cytotoxicity using flow cytometry (FCM). To study the effects of paraquat on C. reinhardtii DNA, several genotoxicity approaches were implemented for the first time in an ecotoxicological study on microalgae. Oxidative DNA base damage was analysed by measuring the oxidative DNA lesion 8-OHdG by FCM. DNA fragmentation was analysed by different methods: comet assay, and cell cycle analysis by FCM, with a particular focus on the presence of subG1-nuclei. Finally, effects on morphology of nuclei were monitored through DAPI staining. The evaluation of these endpoints showed that several physiological and biochemical parameters reacted to oxidative stress disturbances with greater sensitivity than integrative parameters such as growth rates or cell viability. The experiments revealed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (ROS formation, depolarization of

  3. Acute effects of a prooxidant herbicide on the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperanza, Marta; Cid, Ángeles; Herrero, Concepción; Rioboo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.rioboo@udc.es

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Mitochondrial membrane potential constituted the most sensitive parameter assayed. • Several genotoxicity methods were applied for first time in ecotoxicological studies. • Oxidative DNA base damage (8-OHdG) was induced by paraquat exposure. • Cells with DNA strand breakage and subG1-nuclei increased in treated cultures. • Typical apoptosis hallmarks were observed in microalgal cells exposed to paraquat. - Abstract: Since recent evidence has demonstrated that many types of chemicals exhibit oxidative and/or genotoxic potential on living organisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA damage are currently the best accepted paradigms to assess the potential hazardous biological effects of a wide range of contaminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity responses on the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to the prooxidant herbicide paraquat. In addition to the growth endpoint, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assayed as potential markers of cytotoxicity using flow cytometry (FCM). To study the effects of paraquat on C. reinhardtii DNA, several genotoxicity approaches were implemented for the first time in an ecotoxicological study on microalgae. Oxidative DNA base damage was analysed by measuring the oxidative DNA lesion 8-OHdG by FCM. DNA fragmentation was analysed by different methods: comet assay, and cell cycle analysis by FCM, with a particular focus on the presence of subG1-nuclei. Finally, effects on morphology of nuclei were monitored through DAPI staining. The evaluation of these endpoints showed that several physiological and biochemical parameters reacted to oxidative stress disturbances with greater sensitivity than integrative parameters such as growth rates or cell viability. The experiments revealed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (ROS formation, depolarization of

  4. Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Anestål

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SecTRAPs (selenium compromised thioredoxin reductase-derived apoptotic proteins can be formed from the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR by targeting of its selenocysteine (Sec residue with electrophiles, or by its removal through C-terminal truncation. SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both human and rat SecTRAPs killed human A549 and HeLa cells. The cell death displayed both apoptotic and necrotic features. It did not require novel protein synthesis nor did it show extensive nuclear fragmentation, but it was attenuated by use of caspase inhibitors. The redox active disulfide/dithiol motif in the N-terminal domain of TrxR had to be maintained for manifestation of SecTRAP cytotoxicity. Stopped-flow kinetics showed that NADPH can reduce the FAD moiety in SecTRAPs at similar rates as in native TrxR and purified SecTRAPs could maintain NADPH oxidase activity, which was accelerated by low molecular weight substrates such as juglone. In a cellular context, SecTRAPs triggered extensive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequently antioxidants could protect against the cell killing by SecTRAPs. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that formation of SecTRAPs could contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon exposure of cells to electrophilic agents targeting TrxR. SecTRAPs are prooxidant killers of cells, triggering mechanisms beyond those of a mere loss of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  5. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  6. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  7. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  8. Factors which Motivate Job Acceptance and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, Donald S.; May, Deborah C.

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 360 Pennsylvania teachers was designed to identify factors which motivate job acceptance among teachers of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. The responses of 235 teachers indicated that challenge and practicum experiences were the two most prevalent motivational factors underlying job acceptance. (Author)

  9. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  10. A Grounded Theory of Effective Reading by Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Julia; Wang, Ye

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to uncover and describe psycholinguistic and sociocognitive factors facilitating effective reading by signing adults who are profoundly deaf and do not use hearing technology. The sample comprised four groups, each consisting of 15 adults, for a total of 60 participants. The four groups were "deaf…

  11. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge: An Overview for International Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas J.

    W. Edwards Deming called for the transformation to a new style of organizational management based on greater cooperation between managers and employees. This transformation could be achieved by introducing "profound knowledge" into the system. This paper is a presentation outline that was used to introduce the basics of Deming's theory…

  12. Condition of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems in guinea pigs’ lungs under the condition of immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Stepanovych Reheda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the results of alterations in indices of pro-oxidant (conjugated diene and malondialdehyde and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, catalase systems in guinea pigs’ lungs  under the conditions of immobilization stress. The experiment was conducted on 40 female guinea pigs weighing 0.18-0.20 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each contained 10 guinea pigs: I – intact guinea pigs ( control, II–guinea pigs with model of IS on1st day of experiment;Ш–animals on 2nd  day of experiment;IV- group of animals on 34th day of experimental model of IS. The results of our experimental work showed  a significant accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the lung`s tissure in different periods ( on 1st, 2nd and 34th days of immobilization stress. The state of antioxidant defence was characterized by moderate decrease of inzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ceruloplasmin. disorders of balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems couse oxidative stress development.

  13. Antibacterial, Prooxidative and Genotoxic Activities of Gallic Acid and its Copper and Iron Complexes against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN M. BARCELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gallic acid and its complexes with aluminum and iron were investigated for their antibacterial, pro-oxidative, and genotoxic properties at alkaline pH. At 4.0μmol/mL, gallic acid displayed bacteriostatic property while aluminum-gallic acid and iron-gallic acid complexes showed bactericidal property against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A higher antibacterial activity was observed in the turbidimetric assay compared to the well-diffusion assay. The metal complexes of gallic acid also generated a higher concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide compared to gallic acid alone at > 0.50µmol/mL. Using the SOS response of the DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli PQ37, the metal complexes of gallic acid resulted to a significantly higher SOS Induction Factors (ρ<0.01 at ≥0.25μmol/mL. In addition, gallic acid and its metal complexes decrease the cell surface hydrophobicity of E. coli ATCC 25922 in a dose-dependent manner. The present study suggests that the antibacterial property of gallic acid and its metal complexes against Escherichia coli was caused by its pro-oxidative and genotoxic properties. Since metals are involved in the synthesis of the metal complexes of gallic acid, further tests should be conducted to determine their stability and effects to human health.

  14. Investigation into the potential chemical mechanism of the pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids with liposomes under UV-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragan J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of β-carotene and lutein inside multilamellar liposomes under continuous UV-irradiation. The liposomes were obtained by the thin film method and carotenoids (Crts were incorporated by mixing at various concentrations (0.005, 0.0075, 0.02, 0.07 and 0.5 mol %. Liposomes formation and the presence of Crts inside them were confirmed by SEM microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. The antioxidant/pro- -oxidant activity of Crts inside liposomes was determined by the thiobarbituric acid–malondialdehyde (TBA–MDA test. The investigated Crts acted more or less unexpected (as pro-oxidants inside the lipid bilayers, interacting with the UV-produced lipid radicals and simultaneously suffering under the UV-irradiation. Their pro-oxidant activity with liposomes and under UV-irradiation could be explained by the formation of unstable adducts in the reaction with peroxyl radicals, or by Crts-cation radicals formation via the electron transfer mechanism. Such tentatively unexpected behavior of carotenoids should be taken into consideration in further carotenoids-based UV-filters projections in cosmetic formulations for skin protection. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  15. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E.; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin’s pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin’s redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  16. Do colors exist? and other profound physics questions

    CERN Document Server

    Cottrell, Seth Stannard

    2018-01-01

    Why do polished stones look wet? How does the Twin Paradox work? Why are orbits ellipses? How can we be sure that pi never repeats? How does a quantum computer break encryption? Discover the answers to these, and other profound physics questions! This fascinating book presents a collection of articles based on conversations and correspondences between the author and complete strangers about physics and math. The author, a researcher in mathematical physics, responds to dozens of questions posed by inquiring minds from all over the world, ranging from the everyday to the profound. Rather than unnecessarily complex explanations mired in mysterious terminology and symbols, the reader is presented with the reasoning, experiments, and mathematics in a casual, conversational, and often comical style. Neither over-simplified nor over-technical, the lucid and entertaining writing will guide the reader from the each innocent question to a better understanding of the weird and beautiful universe around us. Advance prai...

  17. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  18. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  19. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors in oregano and rosemary gourmet olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimidou, Maria

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to examine the presence of antioxidants and pro-oxidants in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils. Dry, ground plant material (5% w/w was infused to olive oil for 24, 48 and 72 hours and then it was removed by filtration. All preparations were found acceptable using a panel test. The total polar phenol content increased 3.5 and 1.7 times in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils with respect to that of the control sample. A qualitative enrichment of the methanol:water fraction of olive oil with phenolic compounds from herbs were found using HPLC. No rosmarinic acid was detected in the gourmet oils. Vanillic acid was only found in the rosemary gourmet oil. The presence of flavonoids was assessed using TLC. a-Tocopherol content of the oil matrix was not changed after herb infusion. A significant increase was found in pheophytin, a,b-carotene and lutein content of oregano flavoured oils. The oxidative stability of gourmet oils was greater to that of the control using the Rancimat test. In photo-oxidation, oregano flavoured oil was less stable than the rosemary one. Total chlorophyll content may be a critical factor for the shelf life of these preparations. Suitable labelling suggesting avoidance of light may be useful for a safe domestic use.El estudio fue realizado para examinar la presencia de antioxidantes y pro-oxidantes en aceites de oliva con aroma a orégano y romero. El material vegetal seco y molido se añade al aceite de oliva en proporción (5% w/w durante 24, 48 y 72 horas y posteriormente se elimina por filtración. Todas las preparaciones se encontraron aceptables usando un panel de catadores. El contenido de fenoles polares totales aumentó 3,5 y 1,7 veces, en aceites con aroma a orégano y romero, con respecto al de las muestras control. Un enriquecimiento cualitativo de la fracción metanol: agua del aceite de oliva, con compuestos fenólicos de las hierbas, se encontró usando HPLC. No se detectó

  20. Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, N.R.; Fischer, M.H.; Heisey, D.M.; Leverson, G.E.; Mann, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fractures are more prevalent among people with severe and profound developmental disabilities than in the general population. In order to characterize the tendency of these people to fracture, and to identify features that may guide the development of preventive strategies, we analyzed fracture epidemiology in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities who lived in a stable environment. Data from a 23-year longitudinal cohort registry of 1434 people with severe and profound developmental disabilities were analyzed to determine the effects of age, gender, mobility, bone fractured, month of fracture, and fracture history upon fracture rates. Eighty-five percent of all fractures involved the extremities. The overall fracture rate increased as mobility increased. In contrast, femoral shaft fracture risk was substantially higher in the least mobile [relative risk (RR), 10.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29-32.66] compared with the most mobile group. Although the overall fracture rate was not associated with age, the femoral shaft fractures decreased but hand/foot fractures increased with age. Overall fracture risk declined in August and September (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89), being especially prominent for tibial/fibular fractures (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70). Gender was not a factor in fracture risk. Two primary fracture mechanisms are apparent: one, largely associated with lack of weight-bearing in people with the least mobility, is exemplified by femoral fractures during non-traumatic events as simple as diapering or transfers; the other, probably due to movement- or fall-related trauma, is exemplified by hand/foot fractures in people who ambulate. The fracture experience of people with severe and profound developmental disabilities is unique and, because it differs qualitatively from postmenopausal osteoporosis, may require population-specific methods for assessing risk, for improving bone integrity, and for reduction of falls and accidents

  1. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  2. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...

  3. Genetic and phytochemical variability of six Teucrium arduini L. populations and their antioxidant/prooxidant behaviour examined by biochemical, macromolecule- and cell-based approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Durgo, K.; Grúz, Jiří; Kremer, D.; Kosalec, I.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Salopek-Sondi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 186, SI (2015), s. 298-305 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidative/prooxidative activity * Cytotoxicity * Ethnopharmacology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2015

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  5. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  6. Evaluation of pollution in Camichin estuary (Mexico): pro-oxidant and antioxidant response in oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Pérez, M I; Romero-Bañuelos, C A; Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Diaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Vega-López, A

    2013-08-01

    The physiological system of molluscs, particularly pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms, could be altered by pollutants and induce disturbance on health status and productive parameters of aquatic organisms, such as oyster. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical contamination in water (total metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and oxidative stress parameters in oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis) in Camichin estuary, located in Mexican Tropical Pacific. The results obtained showed the presence of arsenic, lead and zinc, as well as naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in concentrations relatively higher than criteria established by local and international guidelines. Regarding the biomarkers of oxidative stress response (H2O2 and O2 concentration, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, and hydroperoxide concentration), differences between oyster from estuary and control group were significant. These results indicate that these pollutants could be related with oxidative stress detected in oyster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of human polimorfonuclear leucocyte migration by clofazimine: a new pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen van Rensburg, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    Preliminary studies on the in vitro and in vivo effects of clofazimine on the function of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from normal individuals and patients with lepromatous leprosy showed that clofazimine caused a progressive dose-dependent inhibition of both random mortality of PMNL as well as migration of PMNL induced by the leucoattractant endotoxin-activated serum (EAS). The drug also increased chemiluminescence as well as hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS). These studies on clofazimine include the use of radiolabelling with 14 C, 125 I and 3 H. Clofazimine-mediated inhibition of PMNL migration is dependent on intact membrane-associated oxidative metabolism. Clofazimine is therefore a pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

  8. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Bipolar Affective Disorder in a Patient of Profound Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Usama Bin; Mumtaz, Humza; Mansoor, Sawera

    2018-03-01

    Profound deafness is a lifelong impairment, leading to the physical disability as well as poor psychological adjustment. We herein present a mental health disorder rarely seen among the patients of profound deafness. A 16-year deaf and dumb girl, previously treated for depression, presented with unusual laughter, irritability, flight of ideas, decreased sleep, ideas of self importance, and decreased social functioning and educational performance. These problems were understood by the parents via sign language, who interpreted them to the interviewer. Her Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score was 19 and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score was 52. She was diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). Marked improvement in the symptoms and social and educational performance was noted after two weeks of the treatment with sodium valproate, resperidone and clonazepam. Treatment options were explained to the patient with risks and benefits, and she was involved in the decision-making. This case report highlights the importance of accurately diagnosing and managing a rare mental health disorder among the physically handicapped people, especially those who cannot communicate effectively and explain their unusual subjective experiences.

  10. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  11. Profound neonatal hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis caused by pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Horvath, Gabriella A; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Nelson, Tanya; Waters, Paula J; Sargent, Michael; Struys, Eduard; Jakobs, Cornelis; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Connolly, Mary B

    2012-05-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) was first described in 1954. The ALDH7A1 gene mutations resulting in α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of PDE was identified only in 2005. Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy is the presenting feature in >50% of patients with classic PDE. We report the case of a 13-month-old girl with profound neonatal hypoglycemia (0.6 mmol/L; reference range >2.4), lactic acidosis (11 mmol/L; reference range A (p.Val278Val), and a novel putative pathogenic missense mutation c.1192G>C (p.Gly398Arg) in the ALDH7A1 gene. She has been seizure-free since 1.5 months of age on treatment with pyridoxine alone. She has motor delay and central hypotonia but normal language and social development at the age of 13 months. This case is the first description of a patient with PDE due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene who presented with profound neonatal hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis masquerading as a neonatal-onset gluconeogenesis defect. PDE should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis in addition to medically refractory neonatal seizures.

  12. The prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis in Guinea pigs after exposure to fractionated low-low X-radiation and correction of its disturbances with antioxidant complex treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraboj, V.A.; Olejnik, S.A.; Blyum, I.A.; Khmelevskij, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    The state of prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis in Guinea pigs exposed to whole-body fractionated X-irradiation (5 fractions of 0.2 Gy at a 24 hr interval, up to total dose of 1.0 Gy, at a dose rate of 0.425 R/min) and a possibility of its disturbance correction with the complex of vitamins C, E and P was studied. Accumulation of primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products, decrease of the ascorbic acid content, increase of the content of its oxidized forms (dehydroascorbic acid and diketogulonic acid) in radiosensitive and radioresistant organs were found. Antioxidant complex administration reduced the disturbances of prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis, but did not provide complete normalization

  13. Otolithic organ function in patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Profound sensorineural hearing loss (PSHL is not uncommonly encountered in otology. In clinics, there is a high incidence of otolithic damage in patients with PSHL, but relevant reports are few. Sharing a continuous membranous structure and similar receptor cell ultrastructures, the cochlea and vestibule may be susceptible to the same harmful factors. Disorders of the inner ear may result in a variety of manifestations, including vertigo, spatial disorientation, blurred vision, impaired articulation, and hearing impairment. Considering the diversity of clinical symptoms associated with PSHL with otolithic dysfunction, it may be frequently misdiagnosed, and objective means of testing the function of otolithic organs should be recommended for hearing-impaired patients. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs via air-conducted sound are of great importance for the diagnosis of otolithic function. Hearing devices such as cochlear implants are commonly accepted treatments for PSHL, and early identification and treatment of vestibular disorders may increase the success rate of cochlear implantation. Therefore, it is necessary to increase awareness of otolithic functional states in patients with PSHL.

  14. Cancer prevention knowledge of people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2009-03-01

    Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p internet (p = 0.02), and believing that smoking is bad (p bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge.

  15. Histones induce rapid and profound thrombocytopenia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ashish A.

    2011-01-01

    Histones are released from dying cells and contribute to antimicrobial defense during infection. However, extracellular histones are a double-edged sword because they also damage host tissue and may cause death. We studied the interactions of histones with platelets. Histones bound to platelets, induced calcium influx, and recruited plasma adhesion proteins such as fibrinogen to induce platelet aggregation. Hereby fibrinogen cross-linked histone-bearing platelets and triggered microaggregation. Fibrinogen interactions with αIIbβ3 integrins were not required for this process but were necessary for the formation of large platelet aggregates. Infused histones associated with platelets in vivo and caused a profound thrombocytopenia within minutes after administration. Mice lacking platelets or αIIbβ3 integrins were protected from histone-induced death but not from histone-induced tissue damage. Heparin, at high concentrations, prevented histone interactions with platelets and protected mice from histone-induced thrombocytopenia, tissue damage, and death. Heparin and histones are evolutionary maintained. Histones may combine microbicidal with prothrombotic properties to fight invading microbes and maintain hemostasis after injury. Heparin may provide an innate counter mechanism to neutralize histones and diminish collateral tissue damage. PMID:21700775

  16. Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from lemon (Citrus limoni) peels on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography. Antioxidant properties of the oil and inhibition of pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenate were also assessed. The essential oil inhibited AChE and BChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. GC analysis revealed the presence of sabinene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, the essential oil exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by ferric reducing property, Fe(2+)-chelation and radicals [DPPH, ABTS, OH, NO] scavenging abilities. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  17. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypothalamic obesity in patients with craniopharyngioma: Profound changes of several weight regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRoth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking examples of dysfunctional hypothalamic signaling of energy homeostasis is observed in patients with hypothalamic lesions leading to hypothalamic obesity (HO. This drastic condition is frequently seen in patients with craniopharyngioma (CP, an embryological tumor located in the hypothalamic and/or pituitary region, frequently causing not only hypopituitarism, but also leading to damage of medial hypothalamic nuclei due to the tumor and its treatment. HO syndrome in CP patients is characterized by fatigue, decreased physical activity, uncontrolled appetite, and morbid obesity, and is associated with insulin and leptin resistance. Mechanisms leading to the profoundly disturbed energy homeostasis are complex. This review summarizes different aspects of important clinical studies as well as data obtained in rodent studies. In addition a model is provided describing how medial hypothalamic lesion can interact simultaneously with several weight regulating circuitries.

  19. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  1. Exposure of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, to gold nanoparticles and the pro-oxidant menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-03-01

    Relatively little is known about how gold nanoparticles (GNP) might interact in vivo with marine organisms. Mytilus edulis was exposed (24h) to approximately 15 nm GNP, menadione and both compounds simultaneously (GNP/menadione). GNP was detected by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy mainly in digestive gland of samples exposed to GNP though not GNP/menadione, perhaps due to impaired feeding. Thioredoxin reductase activity and malondialdehyde levels were determined in all tissues. Thioredoxin reductase inhibition was detected only in digestive gland exposed to menadione whilst malondialdehyde levels did not vary in response to treatment in all tissues. GNP caused a decrease in the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in digestive gland, but no difference was found in other tissues or for other treatments. One dimensional electrophoresis of proteins containing thiol groups was performed in all tissues and revealed a reduction in protein thiols for all treatments in digestive gland. Two dimensional electrophoresis of digestive gland extracts, from GNP and control groups, showed decreased levels of thiol proteins in response to GNP which we attribute to oxidation. Our results suggest that GNP causes a modest level of oxidative stress sufficient to oxidize thiols in glutathione and proteins but without causing lipid peroxidation or induction of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  2. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Eric R.; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  3. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  4. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response Related Genetic Variants, Pro-oxidants, Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lavender

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and detoxification mechanisms have been commonly studied in Prostate Cancer (PCa due to their function in the detoxification of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS and carcinogens. However, findings have been either inconsistent or inconclusive. These mixed findings may, in part, relate to failure to consider interactions among oxidative stress response related genetic variants along with pro- and antioxidant factors. Methods: We examined the effects of 33 genetic and 26 environmental oxidative stress and defense factors on PCa risk and disease aggressiveness among 2,286 men from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project (1,175 cases, 1,111 controls. Single and joint effects were analyzed using a comprehensive statistical approach involving logistic regression, multi-dimensionality reduction, and entropy graphs. Results: Inheritance of one CYP2C8 rs7909236 T or two SOD2 rs2758331 A alleles was linked to a 1.3- and 1.4-fold increase in risk of developing PCa, respectively (p-value = 0.006-0.013. Carriers of CYP1B1 rs1800440GG, CYP2C8 rs1058932TC and, NAT2 (rs1208GG, rs1390358CC, rs7832071TT genotypes were associated with a 1.3 to 2.2-fold increase in aggressive PCa [p-value = 0.04-0.001, FDR 0.088-0.939]. We observed a 23% reduction in aggressive disease linked to inheritance of one or more NAT2 rs4646247 A alleles (p = 0.04, FDR = 0.405. Only three NAT2 sequence variants remained significant after adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing, namely NAT2 rs1208, rs1390358, and rs7832071. Lastly, there were no significant gene-environment or gene-gene interactions associated with PCa outcomes. Conclusions: Variations in genes involved in oxidative stress and defense pathways may modify PCa. Our findings do not firmly support the role of oxidative stress genetic variants combined with lifestyle/environmental factors as modifiers of PCa and disease progression. However, additional multi

  5. A Replication to Increase Happiness Indices among Some People with Profound Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Martin T.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The happiness indices in a Fun Time activity were systematically increased for three of four people with profound multiple disabilities by providing their preferred stimuli. The fourth showed decreased unhappiness. However, three people with profound disabilities and minimal movement failed to show any indices of happiness or unhappiness.…

  6. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  7. IMPACTUL REMEDIULUI BioR ASUPRA UNOR PARAMETRI AI SISTEMULUI PROOXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT LA PREPELIŢELE ADULTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MACARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problema stimulării productivităţii în avicultură, pentru asigurarea consumatorilor cu alimente de înaltă calitate, devine din ce în ce mai stringentă la nivel mondial. Studiul a avut drept scop evaluarea efectelor remediului BioR asupra indicilor marker ai peroxidării lipidelor (PLO şi ai sistemului antioxidant (SAO la prepeliţele adulte crescute în condiţii fiziologice de producţie. Studiul a fost realizat pe 5 loturi de prepeliţe. Remediul BioR a fost administrat de două ori: la începutul studiului şi la 7-10 zile după prima administrare, în doze diferite. S-a constatat că administrarea remediului BioR determină îmbunătăţirea indicilor sistemului PLO - SAO şi activitatea majorităţii indicilor evaluaţi depinde direct sau indirect de doza utilizată, momente ce trebuie să fie luate în considerare atunci când se alege doza optimă a remediului.THE IMPACT OF THE BioR REMEDY ON THE PARAMETERS OF THE PRO-OXIDANT (OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN ADULT QUAILSThe problem of aviculture productivity stimulation in order to ensure consumers with high quality food is becoming increasingly stringent worldwide. The study aimed to assess the effects of the BioR remedy on the marker indices of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant system (AOS in adult quails bred under physiological production conditions. The research was conducted on 5 lots of quails. The BioR remedy was administered twice: at the beginning of the study, and at the 7-10th day after the first administration, in different doses. It was found that the BioR remedy administration leads to the improvement of POL-SAO system indices, and the level or activity of the most evaluated indices depended directly or indirectly on the used dose, which must be taken into account when selecting the optimal dose of the remedy.

  8. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  9. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  10. Correlation of nucleotides and carbohydrates metabolism with pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems of erythrocytes depending on age in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikov, S A; Borzenko, B G; Shatova, O P; Bakurova, E M; Polunin, G E

    2014-06-01

    To examine the relationship between metabolic features of purine nucleotides and antioxidant system depending on the age of patients with colorectal cancer. The activity of adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the NOx concentration and the oxidative modification of proteins were determined spectrophotometricaly in 50 apparently healthy people and 26 patients with colorectal cancer stage -III---IV, aged 40 to 79 years. Increase of pro-oxidant system of erythrocytes with the age against decrease in level of antioxidant protection in both healthy individuals and colorectal cancer patients was determined. A significant increase of pro-ducts of oxidative proteins modification in erythrocytes with ageing was shown. Statistically significant correlation between enzymatic and non enzymatic markers pro-oxidant system and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in erythrocytes of patient with colorectal cancer was determined. Obtained results have demonstrated the imbalance in the antioxidant system of erythrocytes in colorectal cancer patients that improve the survival of cancer cells that is more distinctly manifested in ageing.

  11. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents

  12. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F; Monteiro, Henrique L; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L; Zago, Anderson S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50-84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the "Functional Fitness Battery Test," BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values.

  13. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  14. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  15. The management of children with Down syndrome and profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A

    2016-01-01

    Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.

  16. Reversal of profound rocuronium neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reversal of neuromuscular blockade can be accomplished by chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by sugammadex, a synthetic gamma-cyclodextrin derivative. The current study determined the feasibility of reversal of rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in the

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant or Prooxidant Properties of Selected Amino Acids Using In Vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions Under Riboflavin Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of selected amino acids were tested using in vitro assays and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization. Headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes were determined for the degree of oxidation. Riboflavin photosensitization was adapted as the oxidation driving force. In vitro assays showed that cysteine had the highest antioxidant properties followed by tryptophan and tyrosine. However, in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization, tyrosine inhibited lipid oxidation whereas tryptophan acted as a prooxidant. Tryptophan accelerated the rates of oxidation in O/W emulsion without RF. The antioxidant properties of amino acids differed depending on the antioxidant determination methods, oxidation driving forces, and food matrices. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  19. Prooxidant action of furanone compounds: implication of reactive oxygen species in the metal-dependent strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Haneda, M; Makino, T; Yoshino, M

    2007-07-01

    Prooxidant properties of furanone compounds including 2,5-furanone (furaneol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-furan-3-one), 4,5-furanone (4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) (sotolone) and cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) were analyzed in relation to the metal-reducing activity. Only 2.5-furanone known as a "strawberry or pineapple furanone" inactivated aconitase the most sensitive enzyme to active oxygen in the presence of ferrous sulfate, suggesting the furaneol/iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. 2,5-Furanone caused strand scission of pBR322 DNA in the presence of copper. Treatment of calf thymus DNA with 2,5-furanone plus copper produced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA. 2,5-Furanone showed a potent copper-reducing activity, and thus, DNA strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by 2,5-furanone can be initiated by the production of superoxide radical through the reduction of cupric ion to cuprous ion, resulting in the conversion to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. However, an isomer and analog of 2,5-furanone, 4,5-furanone and cyclotene, respectively, did not show an inactivation of aconitase, DNA injuries including strand breakage and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and copper-reducing activity. Cytotoxic effect of 2,5-furanone with hydroxyketone structure can be explained by its prooxidant properties: furaneol/transition metal complex generates reactive oxygen species causing the inactivation of aconitase and the formation of DNA base damage by hydroxyl radical.

  20. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Transitioning hearing aid users with severe and profound loss to a new gain/frequency response: benefit, perception, and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte

    2011-03-01

    Adults with severe and profound hearing loss tend to be long-term, full-time users of amplification who are highly reliant on their hearing aids. As a result of these characteristics, they are often reluctant to update their hearing aids when new features or signal-processing algorithms become available. Due to the electroacoustic constraints of older devices, many severely and profoundly hearing-impaired adults continue to wear hearing aids that provide more low- and mid-frequency gain and less high-frequency gain than would be prescribed by the National Acoustic Laboratories' revised formula with profound correction factor (NAL-RP). To investigate the effect of a gradual change in gain/frequency response on experienced hearing-aid wearers with moderately severe to profound hearing loss. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-three experienced adult hearing-aid users with severe and profound hearing loss participated in the study. Participants were selected for inclusion in the study if the gain/frequency response of their own hearing aids differed significantly from their NAL-RP prescription. Participants were assigned either to a control or to an experimental group balanced for aided ear three-frequency pure-tone average (PTA) and age. Participants were fitted with Siemens Artis 2 SP behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids that were matched to the gain/frequency response of their own hearing aids for a 65 dB SPL input level. The experimental group progressed incrementally to their NAL-RP targets over the course of 15 wk, while the control group maintained their initial settings throughout the study. Aided speech discrimination testing, loudness scaling, and structured questionnaires were completed at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 wk postfitting. A paired comparison between the old and new gain/frequency responses was completed at 1 and 15 wk postfitting. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine differences between the experimental and control groups and changes

  2. ProFound: Source Extraction and Application to Modern Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Koushan, S.; Taranu, D. S.; Casura, S.; Liske, J.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce PROFOUND, a source finding and image analysis package. PROFOUND provides methods to detect sources in noisy images, generate segmentation maps identifying the pixels belonging to each source, and measure statistics like flux, size, and ellipticity. These inputs are key requirements of PROFIT, our recently released galaxy profiling package, where the design aim is that these two software packages will be used in unison to semi-automatically profile large samples of galaxies. The key novel feature introduced in PROFOUND is that all photometry is executed on dilated segmentation maps that fully contain the identifiable flux, rather than using more traditional circular or ellipse-based photometry. Also, to be less sensitive to pathological segmentation issues, the de-blending is made across saddle points in flux. We apply PROFOUND in a number of simulated and real-world cases, and demonstrate that it behaves reasonably given its stated design goals. In particular, it offers good initial parameter estimation for PROFIT, and also segmentation maps that follow the sometimes complex geometry of resolved sources, whilst capturing nearly all of the flux. A number of bulge-disc decomposition projects are already making use of the PROFOUND and PROFIT pipeline, and adoption is being encouraged by publicly releasing the software for the open source R data analysis platform under an LGPL-3 license on GitHub (github.com/asgr/ProFound).

  3. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  4. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-03-01

    People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the methodological approach that was used to achieve this. In this qualitative study, two dyads consisting of a person with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and a teacher or carer were filmed as they engaged in school-based activities. Two 1-hour videotapes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Attuning was identified within the theory proposed here as a central process that calibrates and regulates communication. Attuning is conceptualized as a bidirectional, dyadic communication process. Understanding this process may support more effective communication between people with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and their interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of Auditory Neuropathy in a Population of Children with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Saki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this investigation is to determine auditory neuropathy in the students with severe to profound hearing losses in Ahwaz.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 212 children of 7-11 year old with severe to profound hearing loss performed ordinary audiometric evaluations as well as ABR and OAE. The patients with normal DPOAE who had no record of acoustic reflex having normal ABR, were considered as the patients with auditory neuropathy. Results: The neuropathic complication found in 14 children was appeared in 8 ones as one-sided (57.14% and in 6 ones (42.86% as two-sided. 68% of the patients as diagnosed had a very low Speech Discrimination Score (SDS.Conclusion: we must be very vigilant in auditory neuropathy diagnosis for the purpose to be successful in appropriate treatment of severe to profound hearing losses.

  6. Classroom Procedures for the Measurement of Behavior State among Students with Profound Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Barbara; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-implemented classroom measurement procedures of short duration are as reliable as methods used in research studies to determine behavior state (e.g., awake active, awake inactive, asleep, drowsed) of six students with profound mental disabilities. Results indicated that more frequent but briefer measurements…

  7. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  8. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  9. Self-Concept of Severely to Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charlotte; Hasenstab, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    A study examined demographic, impairment-related, and parental variables that best predicted self-concept among 49 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired 5- to 11-year-olds. A strong relationship was observed between self-concept and parental indulgence, parental rejection, parental protection, parental discipline, and extent of language…

  10. A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

    A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

  11. Operationalizing quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities : a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K.; Maes, B.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: In a recent study, we constructed an item pool that contains items on the quality of life (QOL) and related aspects of support of people with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). In the present study, a panel of experts assessed the content and the structure of this item pool in order

  12. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  13. Reversal of rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular block by sugammadex in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Driessen, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    A case is reported in which a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent and reverses rocuronium- and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and

  14. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. A brain-computer interface (BCI) system This brain-computer interface (BCI) system ...

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of the Suitability of Aquatics for People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, Cian; Coughlan, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aquatics is an under-researched but possibly appropriate form of activity for people with severe to profound intellectual disabilities (SPIDs). Aim: The current pilot study investigates the suitability of an aquatics programme for service users with SPIDs. Method: Four service users with SPID completed an 8-12-session aquatics…

  16. Determining alertness in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the reliability of an observation list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, V.S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Nakken, H.

    In the support of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), assessing the level of alertness is a recurring issue for parents and other direct support persons. Although observations show clear advantages above and beyond other assessment methods, there are problems

  17. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  18. Normality and Impairment following Profound Early Institutional Deprivation: A Longitudinal follow-up into Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppner, Jana M.; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal analyses on normal versus impaired functioning across 7 domains were conducted in children who had experienced profound institutional deprivation up to the age of 42 months and were adopted from Romania into U.K. families. Comparisons were made with noninstitutionalized children adopted from Romania and with nondeprived within-U.K.…

  19. The pros and cons of inclusive education for children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, Sanne; de Boer, Anke; van der Putten, Annette; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Although children with disabilities have the right to be included into the school system, children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) are often not included. The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about inclusive education for children with PIMD by identifying

  20. Bereavement and Loss: Developing a Memory Box to Support a Young Woman with Profound Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Garrard, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Supporting bereaved people with profound learning disabilities still remains an under-researched area. Moreover, the barriers of communication and disenfranchised grief mean that they often do not receive the support they require, leading to emotional and behavioural difficulties. This article describes research using a case study design, which…

  1. Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: An inventory of visual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.G.C.; Janssen, C.G.C.; van Ramshorst, T.; Deen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities (SPMD) is the subject of considerable debate and is difficult to assess. Methods: In a typical Dutch care organization, all clients with SPMD (n = 76) participated in the study and specific

  2. Is more profound knowledge in the field of radiation nece--ssary for doctors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1981-01-01

    Reasons are listed why doctors should have more profound knowledge in the field of radiation. Despite imperceptibility by human senses of ionizing radiation, the parameters characterizing irradiation can accurately be measured. The units of the said parameters are listed and characterized and the relationships are explained of the radiation dose and non-stochastic and stochastic radiation effects. (Ha)

  3. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  4. Attentional Processes in Interactions between People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ine, Hostyn; Heleen, Neerinckx; Bea, Maes

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes…

  5. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  6. A Vibrotactile Interface to Motivate Movement for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann; Larsen, Jeppe Veirum

    2014-01-01

    V-Sense is a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments to move. The interface makes use of touch, in particular vibrations, as a supportive function to motivate users' actions. Specifically, we propose a vibrotactile...

  7. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…

  8. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Homøe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cochlear implant (CI treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists for evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation. In particular, children treated with CI are in need of long-term post-operative auditory training and other follow-up support. Design. The study is retrospective with updated information on present performance. Results. Since 2001, a total of 11 Greenlandic patients living in Greenland have been treated with CI, 7 children and 4 adults. Of these children, 4 use oral communication only and are full-time CI-users, 2 with full-time use of CI are still in progress with use of oral communication, and 1 has not acquired oral language yet, but has started auditory and speech training. Six children attend mainstream public school while one child is in kindergarten. Of the adults, only 1 has achieved good speech perception with full-time use of CI while 3 do not use the CI. Discussion. From an epidemiological point of view, approximately 1–3 children below 6 years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along with the auditory and speech/language outcomes. Finally, we present a suggestion for the future CI treatment and recommendations for an increased effort in the

  9. Characterization of heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Basal expression and response to pro-oxidant exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holowiecki, Andrew; O'Shields, Britton; Jenny, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    While heme is an important cofactor for numerous proteins, it is highly toxic in its unbound form and can perpetuate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase enzymes (HMOX1 and HMOX2) degrade heme into biliverdin and carbon monoxide, with biliverdin subsequently being converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb). As a result of the teleost-specific genome duplication event, zebrafish have paralogs of hmox1 (hmox1a and hmox1b) and hmox2 (hmox2a and hmox2b). Expression of all four hmox paralogs and two bvr isoforms were measured in adult tissues (gill, brain and liver) and sexually dimorphic differences were observed, most notably in the basal expression of hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb in liver samples. hmox1a, hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male liver tissues in response to 96 h cadmium exposure (20 μM). hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male brain samples, but only hmox2a was significantly reduced in male gill samples in response to the 96 h cadmium exposure. hmox paralogs displayed significantly different levels of basal expression in most adult tissues, as well as during zebrafish development (24 to 120 hpf). Furthermore, hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were significantly induced in zebrafish eleutheroembryos in response to multiple pro-oxidants (cadmium, hemin and tert-butylhydroquinone). Knockdown of Nrf2a, a transcriptional regulator of hmox1a, was demonstrated to inhibit the Cd-mediated induction of hmox1b and bvrb. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms of hmox and bvr transcriptional regulation in zebrafish, providing initial evidence of the partitioning of function of the hmox paralogs. - Highlights: • hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb are sexually dimorphic in expression. • hmox paralogs were induced in adult tissues by cadmium exposure. • hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were induced by multiple pro-oxidants zebrafish embryos. • Differential expression of zebrafish hmox paralogs suggest

  10. Characterization of heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Basal expression and response to pro-oxidant exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holowiecki, Andrew [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Molecular Cardiovascular Biology Division and Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); O' Shields, Britton [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Jenny, Matthew J., E-mail: mjjenny@ua.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    While heme is an important cofactor for numerous proteins, it is highly toxic in its unbound form and can perpetuate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase enzymes (HMOX1 and HMOX2) degrade heme into biliverdin and carbon monoxide, with biliverdin subsequently being converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb). As a result of the teleost-specific genome duplication event, zebrafish have paralogs of hmox1 (hmox1a and hmox1b) and hmox2 (hmox2a and hmox2b). Expression of all four hmox paralogs and two bvr isoforms were measured in adult tissues (gill, brain and liver) and sexually dimorphic differences were observed, most notably in the basal expression of hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb in liver samples. hmox1a, hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male liver tissues in response to 96 h cadmium exposure (20 μM). hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male brain samples, but only hmox2a was significantly reduced in male gill samples in response to the 96 h cadmium exposure. hmox paralogs displayed significantly different levels of basal expression in most adult tissues, as well as during zebrafish development (24 to 120 hpf). Furthermore, hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were significantly induced in zebrafish eleutheroembryos in response to multiple pro-oxidants (cadmium, hemin and tert-butylhydroquinone). Knockdown of Nrf2a, a transcriptional regulator of hmox1a, was demonstrated to inhibit the Cd-mediated induction of hmox1b and bvrb. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms of hmox and bvr transcriptional regulation in zebrafish, providing initial evidence of the partitioning of function of the hmox paralogs. - Highlights: • hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb are sexually dimorphic in expression. • hmox paralogs were induced in adult tissues by cadmium exposure. • hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were induced by multiple pro-oxidants zebrafish embryos. • Differential expression of zebrafish hmox paralogs suggest

  11. Thermal Oxidation of Polyolefins by Mild Pro-Oxidant Additives Based on Iron Carboxylates and Lipophilic Amines: Degradability in the Absence of Light and Effect on the Adhesion to Paperboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Anh Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and inland pollution by non-degradable plastic bags and other plastic articles is a topic of great concern. Natural degradation processes based on oxidation of plastic pollutants could possibly contribute to limit the extent of pollution. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the absence of light by non-polluting pro-oxidants has not been presented before. In this study, we show that two amines, stearyl amine and [(3-(11-aminoundecanoyl amino propane-1-] silsesquioxane (amino-POSS in combination with ferric stearate (FeSt3 tremendously accelerate the thermal oxidation of polyolefins compared with reference samples. Both amines and FeSt3 are to a large extent based on renewable resources. Polyethylene and polypropylene samples containing less than 100 ppm of iron and 1% of amine were extremely brittle after 10 days in a circulation oven in the absence of light. No significant degradation could be seen with samples containing iron but no amine. In a different application, the initial oxidation of polyethylene can be used in order to increase its adhesion to cardboard. Excellent adhesion between polyethylene and cardboard is important for liquid packaging based on renewable resources. Amino-POSS has been chosen for food packaging applications due to its expected lower leakage from polyethylene (PE compared with stearyl amine. Film samples of PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were partly oxidized in a circulation oven. The oxidation was documented by increased carbonyl index (CI and melt flow index (MFI. The limited extent of oxidation has been proved by unchanged tensile strength and only moderate changes in elongation at break when compared to reference polyethylene films containing no FeSt3 or amino-POSS. The PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were compression moulded to paperboard. The adhesion of non-aged blends to paperboard decreased with increasing amino-POSS content which is in good compliance with an earlier reported lubricant effect of high

  12. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  13. Microwave acid-digestion method for determination of nickel, pro-oxidants and other heavy metals in different brands of banaspati ghee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.; Khan, F.; Noor, S.; Amin-ur-Rehman

    2009-01-01

    Samples of different brands of banaspati ghee (Hydrogenated vegetable oil) were procured from local market in Peshawar. Nickel, Pro-oxidants and other heavy metals in these samples were determined by microwave acid digestion method and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to evaluate the value of different brands of banaspati ghee found in the local Peshawar market. Microwave acid digestion program was developed to give reliable estimates for metals in small sample (0.5g) of banaspati ghee. It reduced the external contamination and required small quantities of acid, improving the detection-limits and overall accuracy of the analytical method. Iron and copper concentrations were found in ranges of (0.44-4.64 ppm), (0.072 - 0.38 ppm), respectively. Nickel ranged (0.098 - 0.24 ppm), while the concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc ranged (0. 035 - 0. 15ppm), (0.022 - 0. 16ppm), (0.025 - 0.095ppm), (0.029 - 0.12 ppm) and (0.019 - 0.13 ppm), respectively.(author)

  14. Nrf2 and regulation of the antioxidant system in the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica: Adaptation to environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Benedetti, Maura; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Despite the key importance of Nrf2-Keap1 in regulating antioxidant system in vertebrates, this system is still poorly investigated in marine species. The present study focused on the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica which, during the final phases of embryo development in platelet ice, is challenged by a sudden enhancement of environmental oxidative conditions associated to ice melting. Partial coding sequences were identified for Nrf2, its repressor Keap1 and for typical Nrf2-target antioxidant genes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase isoform 1 and Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase. Compared to temperate homologues, the protein sequences showed an elevated conservation of amino acids essential for catalytic functions, while a few specific substitutions in non-essential regions may represent a molecular adaptation to improve flexibility and accessibility to active site at cold temperatures. The role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in modulating the activation of antioxidant defences was demonstrated at both transcriptional and functional levels with a clear temporal increase of antioxidant protection in embryos before the hatching. Such findings confirm the importance of Nrf2 and highlight regulation of antioxidants as an adaptive strategy in P. antarctica to protect the early life stages toward the environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent...... on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α......-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols...

  16. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  17. Speech timing and working memory in profoundly deaf children after cochlear implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...

  18. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2013-10-15

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain.

  19. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  20. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia.Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  1. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  2. Correlation between audiovestibular function tests and hearing outcomes in severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Te; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Kuo, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated whether audiovestibular function tests, namely auditory brain stem response (ABR) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests were correlated to hearing outcomes after controlling the effects of other potential confounding factors in severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). Eighty-eight patients with severe to profound SSHL were enrolled in this study. Pretreatment hearing levels, results of audiovestibular function tests, and final hearing outcomes were recorded from retrospective chart reviews. Other factors, including age, gender, delay of treatment, vertigo, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, were collected as well. Comparative analysis between multiple variables and hearing outcomes was conducted using the cumulative logits model in overall subjects. Further, multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was conducted in the stratified groups of severe (70 dB HL 90 dB HL) SSHL. Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment hearing levels, presence of vertigo, and results of ABR and VEMP testing were significant outcome predictors in the overall subjects. Stratification analysis demonstrated that both the presence of ABR and VEMP waveforms were significantly correlated with better hearing outcomes in the group of severe SSHL [ABR: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.78 to 122, p = 0.01; VEMP: aOR = 5.91, 95% CI = 1.18 to 29.5, p = 0.03], whereas the presence of vertigo was the only significant negative prognostic factor in the group of profound SSHL (aOR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.04). Other variables, including age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and delay of treatment, were not significantly related to hearing outcomes in both groups (p > 0.05). A predictive hearing recovery table with the combined ABR and VEMP results was proposed for the group of severe SSHL. ABR and VEMP tests should be included in the battery of neurootological examinations in

  3. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13-65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from -10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = -5) and career goals (median IR = -6) were observed; both ratings were worse ( P negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids ( P =0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist. Profound vision loss in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults is associated with significant negative psychological and psychosocial effects, which are influenced by

  4. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant.

  5. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Zied; Bonnet, Crystel; Zainine, Rim; Lahbib, Saida; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Bechraoui, Rym; Marrakchi, Jihène; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Louha, Malek; Largueche, Leila; Ben Yahia, Salim; Kheirallah, Moncef; Elmatri, Leila; Besbes, Ghazi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Petit, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3) are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys), in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24), and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*). Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  6. Profound microcephaly, primordial dwarfism with developmental brain malformations: a new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Saleem, Sahar N; Ahmed, Mahmoud K H; Issa, Mahmoud; Effat, Laila K; Kayed, Hisham F; Zaki, Maha S; Gaber, Khaled R

    2012-08-01

    We describe two sibs with a lethal form of profound congenital microcephaly, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, subtle skeletal changes, and poorly developed brain. The sibs had striking absent cranial vault with sloping of the forehead, large beaked nose, relatively large ears, and mandibular micro-retrognathia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extremely simplified gyral pattern, large interhemispheric cyst and agenesis of corpus callosum, abnormally shaped hippocampus, and proportionately affected cerebellum and brainstem. In addition, fundus examination showed foveal hypoplasia with optic nerve atrophy. No abnormalities of the internal organs were found. This profound form of microcephaly was identified at 17 weeks gestation by ultrasound and fetal brain MRI helped in characterizing the developmental brain malformations in the second sib. Molecular analysis excluded mutations in potentially related genes such as RNU4ATAC, SLC25A19, and ASPM. These clinical and imaging findings are unlike that of any recognized severe forms of microcephaly which is believed to be a new microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) with developmental brain malformations with most probably autosomal recessive inheritance based on consanguinity and similarly affected male and female sibs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivaros, Stavros M. [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Radon, Mark R. [The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A. [University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cowell, Patricia E. [University of Sheffield, Department of Human Communication Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Academic Unit of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  8. Validation of the Spanish version of the Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Sergio; Huedo, Isabel; López-Utiel, Melisa; Soler-Moratalla, Isabel; Flores-Ruano, Teresa; Fernández-Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón, Alicia; Doody, Rachelle S; Abizanda, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There are no short valid instruments to evaluate cognitive status in severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the Spanish language. To validate the Spanish version of the Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination (BPMSE-Sp). The Baylor Profound Mental Status Examination (BPMSE) was translated to Spanish and back translated. Validation was conducted in 100 patients with severe probable AD with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) reliability. The mean age of patients was 84.9; 74% were female; 64% were institutionalized. The mean MMSE was 5.6; the mean BPMSE-Sp was 13.6; the mean BPMSE-Sp behavior was 1.2; the mean SIB was 42.2; and the mean NPI-Q was 4.7. BPMSE-Sp presented good internal consistency (Cronbach α= 0.84). There were significant correlations between the BPMSE-Sp and MMSE (r = 0.86, p reliability were in both cases excellent, ranging between 0.96 and 0.99 (p <  0.001). BPMSE-Sp had fewer floor and ceiling effects than the MMSE. The BPMSE-Sp is a valid tool for use in daily practice and research in the evaluation of cognitive function of patients with severe AD.

  9. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  10. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  11. Quantification of structural changes in the corpus callosumin children with profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivaros, Stavros M.; Radon, Mark R.; Mileva, Reneta; Gledson, Ann; Keane, John A.; Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Batty, Ruth; Cowell, Patricia E.; Hoggard, Nigel; Griffiths, Paul D.; Wright, Neville B.; Tang, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Birth-related acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury has specific patterns of damage including the paracentral lobules. To test the hypothesis that there is anatomically coherent regional volume loss of the corpus callosum as a result of this hemispheric abnormality. Study subjects included 13 children with proven acute profound hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 13 children with developmental delay but no brain abnormalities. A computerised system divided the corpus callosum into 100 segments, measuring each width. Principal component analysis grouped the widths into contiguous anatomical regions. We conducted analysis of variance of corpus callosum widths as well as support vector machine stratification into patient groups. There was statistically significant narrowing of the mid-posterior body and genu of the corpus callosum in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Support vector machine analysis yielded over 95% accuracy in patient group stratification using the corpus callosum centile widths. Focal volume loss is seen in the corpus callosum of children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury secondary to loss of commissural fibres arising in the paracentral lobules. Support vector machine stratification into the hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury group or the control group on the basis of corpus callosum width is highly accurate and points towards rapid clinical translation of this technique as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. (orig.)

  12. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger; Stein, Jürgen; Fürst, Robert; Steinhilber, Dieter; Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC 50 values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G 2 /M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like PDEs, SIRT1

  13. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  14. Developing a questionnaire on physical activity support of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity, which is even more true in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Physical activity approaches, particularly for people with PIMD, are more likely to be

  15. Early reversal of profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex in a randomized multicenter study - Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparr, Harald J.; Vermeyen, Karel M.; Beaufort, Anton M.; Rietbergen, Henk; Proost, Johannes H.; Saldien, Vera; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Wierda, J. Mark K. H.

    Background: Sugammadex reverses the neuromuscular blocking effects of rocuronium by chemical encapsulation. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex for reversal of profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade were evaluated. Methods: Ninety-eight male adult patients were

  16. Examining relationships between staff attributions of soundscapes and core affect in people with severe or profound intellectual and visual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Vlaskamp, Carla; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Post, Wendy J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A.J.J.M.

    Background: People with profound intellectual disabilities experience a high prevalence of visual disabilities, making them more dependent on sound. However, research addressing the influence of the auditory environment is scarce. Method: Observations of the auditory environments (soundscapes) and

  17. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  18. Informal social networks of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Relationship with age, communicative abilities and current living arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people

  19. Family matters: The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent years, there has been greater recognition of the important position of parents and siblings of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities and the importance of the wellbeing of all ...

  20. Terpene metabolic engineering via nuclear or chloroplast genomes profoundly and globally impacts off-target pathways through metabolite signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoreck, Elise K; Su, Jin; Silverman, Ian M; Gosai, Sager J; Gregory, Brian D; Yuan, Joshua S; Daniell, Henry

    2016-09-01

    The impact of metabolic engineering on nontarget pathways and outcomes of metabolic engineering from different genomes are poorly understood questions. Therefore, squalene biosynthesis genes FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (FPS) and SQUALENE SYNTHASE (SQS) were engineered via the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast (C), nuclear (N) or both (CN) genomes to promote squalene biosynthesis. SQS levels were ~4300-fold higher in C and CN lines than in N, but all accumulated ~150-fold higher squalene due to substrate or storage limitations. Abnormal leaf and flower phenotypes, including lower pollen production and reduced fertility, were observed regardless of the compartment or level of transgene expression. Substantial changes in metabolomes of all lines were observed: levels of 65-120 unrelated metabolites, including the toxic alkaloid nicotine, changed by as much as 32-fold. Profound effects of transgenesis on nontarget gene expression included changes in the abundance of 19 076 transcripts by up to 2000-fold in CN; 7784 transcripts by up to 1400-fold in N; and 5224 transcripts by as much as 2200-fold in C. Transporter-related transcripts were induced, and cell cycle-associated transcripts were disproportionally repressed in all three lines. Transcriptome changes were validated by qRT-PCR. The mechanism underlying these large changes likely involves metabolite-mediated anterograde and/or retrograde signalling irrespective of the level of transgene expression or end product, due to imbalance of metabolic pools, offering new insight into both anticipated and unanticipated consequences of metabolic engineering. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cathelicidin (LL-37) and its correlation with pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebari, M; Roshandel, G; Saadati, N; Saghafi, M; Abdolahi, N; Rezaieyazdi, Z

    2017-08-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls. Of those, 39 patients had active and 11 patients had inactive disease. Serum levels of LL-37 were measured by ELISA and PAB values by a special method. Results There was no difference in levels of LL-37 between patients and healthy controls (50.9 ± 20.8 vs. 67.7 ± 43.3 ng/ml, P = 0.31). LL-37 did not correlate with SLEDAI and its items in total patients. LL-37 had a positive correlation with SLEDAI in active patients ( P = 0.01, r = 0.4). In active patients (78% of patients), multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative correlation between LL-37 and C3 ( P = 0.01, standardized beta -0.50). No difference was found in levels of PAB between patients and controls (90.4 ± 34.1 vs. 86.9 ± 25.6 HK, P = 0.4).There was no difference in the levels of PAB between patients with active and inactive disease (93.2 ± 34.1 vs. 80.2 ± 33.7 HK, P = 0.27). No correlation was found between levels of PAB and SLEDAI items and total score. However, a positive correlation between the levels of LL-37 and PAB in SLE patients was found ( r = 0.3, P lupus compared with healthy individuals. LL-37 serum values rose in parallel with SLEDAI in active disease. Positive correlation between serum PAB and LL-37 could be a great achievement of this study that may suggest the role of antioxidants in controlling NETosis.

  2. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  3. Basic life support and children with profound and multiple learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.

  4. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  5. Profound Endothelial Damage Predicts Impending Organ Failure and Death in Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2015-01-01

    levels at enrollment predicted risk of multiple organ failure during follow-up (HR [> 14 ng/mL vs. organ failure and death in septic......Endothelial damage contributes to organ failure and mortality in sepsis, but the extent of the contribution remains poorly quantified. Here, we examine the association between biomarkers of superficial and profound endothelial damage (syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], respectively......), organ failure, and death in sepsis. The data from a clinical trial, including critically ill patients predominantly suffering sepsis (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00271752) were studied. Syndecan-1 and sTM levels at the time of study enrollment were determined. The predictive ability of biomarker levels...

  6. Outcomes of laryngohyoid suspension techniques in an ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Venkatesan, Naren N; Siddiqui, M Tausif; Cates, Daniel J; Kuhn, Maggie A; Postma, Gregory M; Belafsky, Peter C

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of various techniques of laryngohyoid suspension in the elimination of aspiration utilizing a cadaveric ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia. Animal study. The head and neck of a Dorper cross ewe was placed in the lateral fluoroscopic view. Five conditions were tested: baseline, thyroid cartilage to hyoid approximation (THA), thyroid cartilage to hyoid to mandible (laryngohyoid) suspension (LHS), LHS with cricopharyngeus muscle myotomy (LHS-CPM), and cricopharyngeus muscle myotomy (CPM) alone. Five 20-mL trials of barium sulfate were delivered into the oropharynx under fluoroscopy for each condition. Outcome measures included the penetration aspiration scale (PAS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Swallow Safety Scale (NIH-SSS). Median baseline PAS and NIH-SSS scores were 8 and 6, respectively, indicating severe impairment. THA scores were not improved from baseline. LHS alone reduced the PAS to 1 (P = .025) and NIH-SSS to 2 (P = .025) from baseline. LHS-CPM reduced the PAS to 1 (P = .025) and NIH-SSS to 0 (P = .025) from baseline. CPM alone did not improve scores. LHS-CPM displayed improved NIH-SSS over LHS alone (P = .003). This cadaveric model represents end-stage profound oropharyngeal dysphagia such as what could result from severe neurological insult. CPM alone failed to improve fluoroscopic outcomes in this model. Thyrohyoid approximation also failed to improve outcomes. LHS significantly improved both PAS and NIH-SSS. The addition of CPM to LHS resulted in improvement over suspension alone. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:E422-E427, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  8. Pro-oxidant activity of dietary chemopreventive agents: an under-appreciated anti-cancer property [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/15s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfar S Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” was quoted by Hippocrates more than two thousand years ago and since ancient times the health benefits of different natural agents have been exploited. In modern research, the disease preventive benefits of many such natural agents, particularly dietary compounds and their derivatives, has been attributed to their well recognized activity as the regulators of redox state of the cell. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on their antioxidant activity. A large body of evidence indicates that a major fraction of these agents can elicit pro-oxidant (radical generating behavior which has been linked to their anti-cancer effects. This editorial provides an overview of the under-appreciated pro-oxidant activity of natural products, with a special focus on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of transition metal ions, and discusses their possible use as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  10. Simultaneous versus Sequential Intratympanic Steroid Treatment for Severe-to-Profound Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Lim, Won Sub; Park, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Joong Keun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; An, Yong-Hwi; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong Yang; Lim, Hyun Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Severe-to-profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) has a poor prognosis. We aimed to compare the efficacy of simultaneous and sequential oral and intratympanic steroids for this condition. Fifty patients with severe-to-profound SSNHL (>70 dB HL) were included from 7 centers. The simultaneous group (27 patients) received oral and intratympanic steroid injections for 2 weeks. The sequential group (23 patients) was treated with oral steroids for 2 weeks and intratympanic steroids for the subsequent 2 weeks. Pure-tone averages (PTA) and word discrimination scores (WDS) were compared before treatment and 2 weeks and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Treatment outcomes according to the modified American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) criteria were also analyzed. The improvement in PTA and WDS at the 2-week follow-up was 23 ± 21 dB HL and 20 ± 39% in the simultaneous group and 31 ± 29 dB HL and 37 ± 42% in the sequential group; this was not statistically significant. Complete or partial recovery at the 2-week follow-up was observed in 26% of the simultaneous group and 30% of the sequential group; this was also not significant. The improvement in PTA and WDS at the 2-month follow-up was 40 ± 20 dB HL and 37 ± 35% in the simultaneous group and 41 ± 25 dB HL and 48 ± 41% in the sequential group; this was not statistically significant. Complete or partial recovery at the 2-month follow-up was observed in 33% of the simultaneous group and 35% of the sequential group; this was also not significant. Seven patients in the sequential group did not need intratympanic steroid injections for sufficient improvement after oral steroids alone. Simultaneous oral/intratympanic steroid treatment yielded a recovery similar to that produced by sequential treatment. Because the addition of intratympanic steroids can be decided upon based on the improvement after an oral steroid, the sequential regimen can be recommended to avoid unnecessary

  11. Targeting superoxide dismutase to endothelial caveolae profoundly alleviates inflammation caused by endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Kiseleva, Raisa Yu; Arguiri, Evguenia; Villa, Carlos H; Muro, Silvia; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Stan, Radu V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2018-02-28

    Inflammatory mediators binding to Toll-Like receptors (TLR) induce an influx of superoxide anion in the ensuing endosomes. In endothelial cells, endosomal surplus of superoxide causes pro-inflammatory activation and TLR4 agonists act preferentially via caveolae-derived endosomes. To test the hypothesis that SOD delivery to caveolae may specifically inhibit this pathological pathway, we conjugated SOD with antibodies (Ab/SOD, size ~10nm) to plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein (Plvap) that is specifically localized to endothelial caveolae in vivo and compared its effects to non-caveolar target CD31/PECAM-1. Plvap Ab/SOD bound to endothelial cells in culture with much lower efficacy than CD31 Ab/SOD, yet blocked the effects of LPS signaling with higher efficiency than CD31 Ab/SOD. Disruption of cholesterol-rich membrane domains by filipin inhibits Plvap Ab/SOD endocytosis and LPS signaling, implicating the caveolae-dependent pathway(s) in both processes. Both Ab/SOD conjugates targeted to Plvap and CD31 accumulated in the lungs after IV injection in mice, but the former more profoundly inhibited LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation and elevation of plasma level of interferon-beta and -gamma and interleukin-27. Taken together, these results indicate that targeted delivery of SOD to specific cellular compartments may offer effective, mechanistically precise interception of pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking cessation induces profound changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Biedermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Yet, knowledge about the role of environmental factors such as smoking (which is known to influence theses aforementioned disease states on the complex microbial composition is sparse. We aimed to investigate the role of smoking cessation on intestinal microbial composition in 10 healthy smoking subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation. METHODS: During the observational period of 9 weeks repetitive stool samples were collected. Based on abundance of 16S rRNA genes bacterial composition was analysed and compared to 10 control subjects (5 continuing smokers and 5 non-smokers by means of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: Profound shifts in the microbial composition after smoking cessation were observed with an increase of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria on the phylum level. In addition, after smoking cessation there was an increase in microbial diversity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that smoking is an environmental factor modulating the composition of human gut microbiota. The observed changes after smoking cessation revealed to be similar to the previously reported differences in obese compared to lean humans and mice respectively, suggesting a potential pathogenetic link between weight gain and smoking cessation. In addition they give rise to a potential association of smoking status and the course of IBD.

  13. Partial neuroprotection by nNOS inhibition during profound asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Paul P; Davidson, Joanne O; van den Heuij, Lotte G; Tan, Sidhartha; Silverman, Richard B; Ji, Haitao; Blood, Arlin B; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair Jan

    2013-12-01

    Preterm brain injury is partly associated with hypoxia-ischemia starting before birth. Excessive nitric oxide production during HI may cause nitrosative stress, leading to cell membrane and mitochondrial damage. We therefore tested the hypothesis that therapy with a new, selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, JI-10 (0.022mg/kg bolus, n=8), given 30min before 25min of complete umbilical cord occlusion was protective in preterm fetal sheep at 101-104day gestation (term is 147days), compared to saline (n=8). JI-10 had no effect on fetal blood pressure, heart rate, carotid and femoral blood flow, total EEG power, nuchal activity, temperature or intracerebral oxygenation on near-infrared spectroscopy during or after occlusion. JI-10 was associated with later onset of post-asphyxial seizures compared with saline (p<0.05), and attenuation of the subsequent progressive loss of cytochrome oxidase (p<0.05). After 7days recovery, JI-10 was associated with improved neuronal survival in the caudate nucleus (p<0.05), but not the putamen or hippocampus, and more CNPase positive oligodendrocytes in the periventricular white matter (p<0.05). In conclusion, prophylactic nNOS inhibition before profound asphyxia was associated with delayed onset of seizures, slower decline of cytochrome oxidase and partial white and gray matter protection, consistent with protection of mitochondrial function. © 2013.

  14. Attentional processes in interactions between people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and direct support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Ine, Hostyn; Neerinckx, Heleen; Heleen, Neerinckx; Maes, Bea; Bea, Maes

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes resulting from their interactions, and to understand how these variables relate to each other. Video observations of 17 staff-client dyads were coded using partial interval recording. The results showed considerable variation across individuals and dyads. In general, persons with PIMD directed the attention of staff members infrequently. The staff members frequently directed their clients' attention towards a topic of interest but did not often use the tactile modality. Within the staff-client dyad, there was not much joint attention; however, shared attention episodes occurred frequently. Shared attention and joint attention are strongly correlated. A negative correlation was found between clients not using attention-directing behaviours and staff members using tactile methods to direct the attention, and joint attention episodes. This study presents both directions for future research and practical implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The current status of audiologic rehabilitation for profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charles E; Eby, Thomas L

    2010-03-01

    Audiologic rehabilitation of individuals with profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) has traditionally been limited to the use of air-conduction contralateral routing of sound (CROS) hearing aids. Treatment for these individuals has expanded with new applications of the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA), transcranial hearing aid (t-CROS), and the cochlear implant. In this article, the authors review the literature that addresses these various treatment options. Contemporary review Historical information is available that describes the limited efficacy of air-conduction CROS hearing aids in lifting hearing handicap associated with USNHL. Current investigations on providing cross hearing are generally focused on use of the BAHA. Little is known at present whether new developments in hearing aid technology can improve on conventional air-conduction CROS or t-CROS approaches. Interestingly, the cochlear implant seems to be a viable option for individuals with USNHL and tinnitus who also have intact auditory nerve pathways. There is indication in the literature that BAHA provides greater relief of hearing handicap associated with USNHL than CROS hearing aids; however, both have been found to provide limited patient satisfaction and seemingly fall short of restoring true sound localization. Adequate trials have not been performed comparing BAHA with the best CROS hearing aid technology. Transcranial hearing aids and cochlear implants are experimental methods to treat USNHL and hold promise, although there remains a lack of studies available to fully support this.

  16. Differentiating characteristics of deafblindness and autism in people with congenital deafblindness and profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars-van den Boom, M A A; Antonissen, A C F M; Knoors, H; Vervloed, M P J

    2009-06-01

    In persons with deafblindness, it is hard to distinguish autism spectrum disorders from several deafblind specific behaviours caused by the dual sensory impairments, especially when these persons are also intellectually disabled. As a result, there is an over-diagnosis of autism in persons who are deafblind leading to unsuitable interventions. Autism as specified by the DSM-IV was studied in 10 persons with congenital deafblindness with profound intellectual disabilities. Behaviours of people with deafblindness and autism (n = 5) and of people with deafblindness without autism (n = 5) were observed in a semi-standardised assessment. All people with deafblindness showed impairments in social interaction, communication and language. In contrast to persons without autism, people with deafblindness and autism showed significantly more impairments in reciprocity of social interaction, quality of initiatives to contact and the use of adequate communicative signals and functions. No differences between the groups were found for quantity and persistence of stereotyped behaviour, quality of play and exploration and adequate problem-solving strategies. This study indicates that there are some possibilities to differentiate autism from behaviours specific for deafblindness. It also confirms the large overlap in overt behaviours between people with deafblindness and persons with autism.

  17. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  18. A Glance on Diagnosis and Ttreatment of Profound Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azimian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (M.S is one of the prevalent diseases of the central nervous system which cause disability in young adults. This appears as neural signs in different parts and various times. The main defect is local deterioration or destruction of myelin tissue in the brain and spinal cord. Profound fatigue is one the most common symptoms of this disease. Because MS is prevalent in middle ages, so the presence of this symptom affects the life and activity of the patient In these ages people have high amount of activities and this functional disorder creates many difficulties for daily works in patient. For this reason, fatigue problem in patients, always, have caught the attention of researchers. Despite numerous studies, still the exact reason for producing fatigue have not been mentioned But several mechanisms have been discussed, such as: autoimmune mechanism of the disease, Involvement and disorder of endocrine system, involvement of central nervous system and de-synchronization of autonom system. Among these, autoimmune mechanism is considered as a main role in producing fatigue. Lack of proper knowledge regarding exact fatigue mechanism several problems in its treatment. Evaluation is the first step for controlling fatigue, which is done through various tests. Clear and proper evaluation can be obtained by these tests. After evaluation, non-drug and finally drug procedures are helpful. In non-drug treatment the focus is on: sport exercises, suitable diet program, identification and improvement of the patient psychotic disorders, energy conservation methods. Finally, the use of drugs such as Amantadine, Pemoline and Modafini is recommended for fatigue treatment.

  19. Profound tumor-specific Th2 bias in patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimato, Shinji; Maier, Lisa M; Maier, Richard; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Anderson, Richard CE; Anderson, David E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against tumor-associated antigens is one promising approach to immunotherapy against malignant gliomas. While previous vaccine efforts have focused exclusively on HLA class I-restricted peptides, class II-restricted peptides are necessary to induce CD4 + helper T cells and sustain effective anti-tumor immunity. In this report we investigated the ability of five candidate peptide epitopes derived from glioma-associated antigens MAGE and IL-13 receptor α2 to detect and characterize CD4 + helper T cell responses in the peripheral blood of patients with malignant gliomas. Primary T cell responses were determined by stimulating freshly isolated PBMCs from patients with primary glioblastoma (GBM) (n = 8), recurrent GBM (n = 5), meningioma (n = 7), and healthy controls (n = 6) with each candidate peptide, as well as anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and an immunodominant peptide epitope derived from myelin basic protein (MBP) serving as positive and negative controls, respectively. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-5 levels, and the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-5 was used to determine whether the response had a predominant Th1 or Th2 bias. We demonstrate that novel HLA Class-II restricted MAGE-A3 and IL-13Rα2 peptides can detect T cell responses in patients with GBMs as well as in healthy subjects. Stimulation with a variety of peptide antigens over-expressed by gliomas is associated with a profound reduction in the IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio in GBM patients relative to healthy subjects. This bias is more pronounced in patients with recurrent GBMs. Therapeutic vaccine strategies to shift tumor antigen-specific T cell response to a more immunostimulatory Th1 bias may be needed for immunotherapeutic trials to be more successful clinically

  20. Cochlear implantation: is hearing preservation necessary in severe to profound hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derinsu, Ufuk; Serin, Gediz Murat; Akdaş, Ferda; Batman, Çağlar

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the cochlear implant surgery is to place the electrode array with minimal damage to preserve the residual hearing. Round-window insertion can be performed in a manner that is potentially less traumatic than the standard cochleostomy. The purpose of the study was to investigate audiological results of the round-window approach using standard electrode. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate our experience in patients with implanted through round window between January 2007 and March 2009. Sixty patients had undergone cochlear implant surgery through the round window with full insertion of a standard electrode array. Preoperative and postoperative pure-tone thresholds were measured for implanted ears in the range of 250 to 4000 Hz. Within these 60 cases, 31 patients had been evaluated. The population comprised 16 women and 15 men. The mean age was 15.96 years (range, 4-64 years). Follow-up times ranged from 6 to 26 months. Preservation of low-frequency hearing (250 and 500 Hz) was achieved in 27 (87%) of 31 patients. Complete hearing preservation (all frequencies) was accomplished in 11 patients (35.48%). No hearing could be determined postoperatively in 4 patients (12.9%), having preoperative thresholds of 120 dB at 250, 500, and 1000 Hz. Round-window approach has been widely used for preservation of residual hearing. In our patients with severe to profound hearing loss, we preserved residual hearing. Although the residual hearing cannot be sufficient for using additional acoustic stimulation, the preserved residual hearing means minimal damage and a more convenient cochlea, so this is promising for future development.

  1. Recurrent Vestibular Migraine Vertigo Attacks Associated With the Development of Profound Bilateral Vestibulopathy: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Jacob L; Ishiyama, Akira; Ishiyama, Gail

    2017-09-01

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is a debilitating condition characterized by gait ataxia, oscillopsia, and imbalance. Case series of patients with migraine-linked vertigo spells and profound BVP. PATIENT 1:: A 69-year-old man presented with a history of recurrent severe vertigo spells lasting up to 3 days in duration associated with prostrating migraine headaches starting at age 60. His symptoms were misdiagnosed as an anxiety syndrome. At age 68, electronystagmography (ENG) revealed bilaterally absent caloric responses and complete BVP. His hearing was normal. PATIENT 2:: A 51-year-old man presented with a history of "earthquake-like" vertigo, sharp head pain, and phonophobia. These episodes occurred a handful of times over a 7-year period. Previous ENG testing at age 43 was normal. However, his ENG at age 48 revealed complete BVP. He was started on acetazolamide and noted improved balance, although subsequent ENG was unchanged. PATIENT 3:: A 49-year-old woman presented with a history of recurrent migraines with visual aura associated with vertigo lasting 1 hour. ENG at age 50 revealed complete BVP. Subjectively, she noted improved balance with acetazolamide and subsequent ENG demonstrated mild improvement. PATIENT 4:: A 43-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of optical migraines and recurrent vertigo spells, lasting 30 seconds, which was misdiagnosed as positional vertigo. He additionally had a 10-year history of oscillopsia. ENG at age 61 revealed complete BVP. In these cases, vestibular migraine was linked to recurrent vertigo spells that eventually led to complete bilateral vestibulopathy.

  2. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  3. The notochord in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergoes profound morphological and mechanical changes during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvi, Harald; Rusten, Iselin; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nordvik, Kari; Totland, Geir K; Karlsen, Tine; Wiig, Helge; Long, John H

    2017-11-01

    We present the development of the notochord of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), from early embryo to sexually mature fish. Over the salmon's lifespan, profound morphological changes occur. Cells and gross structures of the notochord reorganize twice. In the embryo, the volume of the notochord is dominated by large, vacuolated chordocytes; each cell can be modeled as a hydrostat organized into a larger cellular-hydrostat network, structurally bound together with desmosomes. After the embryo hatches and grows into a fry, vacuolated chordocytes disappear, replaced by extracellular lacunae. The formation of mineralized, segmental chordacentra stiffens the notochord and creates intervertebral joints, where tissue strain during lateral bending is now focused. As development proceeds towards the parr stage, a process of devacuolization and intracellular filament accumulation occur, forming highly dense, non-vacuolated chordocytes. As extracellular lacunae enlarge, they are enclosed by dense filamentous chordocytes that form transverse intervertebral septa, which are connected to the intervertebral ligaments, and a longitudinal notochordal strand. In the vertebral column of pelagic adults, large vacuolated chordocytes reappear; cells of this secondary population have a volume up to 19 000 times larger than the primary vacuolated chordocytes of the early notochord. In adults the lacunae have diminished in relative size. Hydrostatic pressure within the notochord increases significantly during growth, from 525 Pa in the alevins to 11 500 Pa in adults, at a rate of increase with total body length greater than that expected by static stress similarity. Pressure and morphometric measurements were combined to estimate the stress in the extracellular material of the notochordal sheath and intervertebral ligaments and the flexural stiffness of the axial skeleton. The functional significance of the morphological changes in the axial skeleton is discussed in relation to the

  4. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  5. Classic Bartter syndrome complicated with profound growth hormone deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masanori; Tajima, Toshihiro; Muroya, Koji; Asakura, Yumi

    2013-12-30

    Classic Bartter syndrome is a salt-wasting tubulopathy caused by mutations in the CLCNKB (chloride channel Kb) gene. Although growth hormone deficiency has been suggested as a cause for persistent growth failure in patients with classic Bartter syndrome, in our opinion the diagnoses of growth hormone deficiency has been unconvincing in some reports. Moreover, Gitelman syndrome seems to have been confused with Bartter syndrome in some cases in the literature. In the present work, we describe a new case with CLCNKB gene mutations and review the reported cases of classic Bartter syndrome associated with growth hormone deficiency. Our patient was a Japanese boy diagnosed as having classic Bartter syndrome at eight months of age. The diagnosis of Bartter syndrome was confirmed by CLCNKB gene analysis, which revealed compound heterozygous mutations with deletion of exons 1 to 3 (derived from his mother) and ΔL130 (derived from his father). His medical therapy consisted of potassium (K), sodium chloride, spironolactone, and anti-inflammatory agents; this regime was started at eight months of age. Our patient was very short (131.1cm, -4.9 standard deviation) at 14.3 years and showed profoundly impaired growth hormone responses to pharmacological stimulants: 0.15μg/L to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and 0.39μg/L to arginine. His growth response to growth hormone therapy was excellent. The present case strengthens the association between classic Bartter syndrome and growth hormone deficiency. We propose that growth hormone status should be considered while treating children with classic Bartter syndrome.

  6. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  9. The Hands with Eyes and Nose in the Palm: As Effective Communication Alternatives for Profoundly Deaf People in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutswanga, Phillipa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…

  10. How to Facilitate Transition to Adulthood? Innovative Solutions from Parents of Young Adults with Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Couture, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Background: At age 21, access to specialised services for youth with profound intellectual disability is reduced. Few studies have focused on parents' views concerning potential solutions to ease the transition to adulthood, and most existing solutions target young adults with less severe intellectual disability. The aim of this study is to…

  11. Reliability of assessing the sensory perception of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, C.; Cuppen-Fonteine, H.

    Background This study describes preliminary stages of developing a checklist to enable practitioners to determine the behavioural responses of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities to sensory stimuli. Reliability of currently used checklists is low, with a focus on the

  12. Motor activation in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: research in daily practice in residential facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The total study aims at generating knowledge about the best way to motor activate persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in residential facilities. The purpose of the current poster presentation is to present the results of the first step executed in this project

  13. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  14. The documentation of health problems in relation to prescribed medication in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed.

  15. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  16. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  17. Camera-based microswitch technology to monitor mouth, eyebrow, and eyelid responses of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for

  18. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  19. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  20. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent

  1. An Evaluation of Social and Adaptive Skills in Adults with Bipolar Disorder and Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…

  2. Therapeutic interventions in the Netherlands and Belgium in support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han

    For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the

  3. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  4. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, V. S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    BackgroundWhile optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is focused on the environment' or alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking.

  5. Noonan Syndrome: An Underestimated Cause of Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment. Which Clues to Suspect the Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alban; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; Cavé, Hélène; Baujat, Geneviève; Gherbi, Souad; Couloigner, Vincent; Marlin, Sandrine

    2017-09-01

    To highlight Noonan syndrome as a clinically recognizable cause of severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. New clinical cases and review. Patients evaluated for etiological diagnosis by a medical geneticist in a reference center for hearing impairment. Five patients presenting with confirmed Noonan syndrome and profound sensorineural hearing impairment. Diagnostic and review of the literature. Five patients presented with profound sensorineural hearing impairment and molecularly confirmed Noonan syndrome. Sensorineural hearing impairment has been progressive for three patients. Cardiac echography identified pulmonary stenosis in two patients and was normal for the three other patients. Short stature was found in two patients. Mild intellectual disability was found in one patient. Inconspicuous clinical features as facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism, or easy bruising were of peculiar interest to reach the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. Profound sensorineural hearing impairment can be the main feature of Noonan syndrome. Associated features are highly variable; thus, detailed medical history and careful physical examination are mandatory to consider the diagnosis in case of a sensorineural hearing impairment.

  6. Quality-Enhancing Interventions for People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Review of the Empirical Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Bea; Lambrechts, Greet; Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study provides an overview of empirical research on the effectiveness of quality-enhancing interventions for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Method: Through computerised searches of the PsycINFO and ERIC databases, and using several search criteria specifically relating to the target group and…

  7. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  8. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  10. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number...... and job insecurity may explain the divergence from previous results. An important strength of our study is that the reform investigated can be considered a quasi-experiment, as it was exogenous and implemented simultaneously by the affected local governments. We also have access to an objective measure...... of robustness tests are performed, including propensity score matching and in-depth analysis of particular sub-groups of public sector employees. The results indicate that profound organizational change per se does not necessarily lead to decreased health, if job insecurity is low. However, a very modest effect...

  12. Managing Profound Suffering at the End-of-Life: Should expanding access to continuous deep sedation be the priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in addressing and managing profound suffering at the end-of-life, the priority should not be the legalization of physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia in jurisdictions where these practices are not currently available. Rather, concerted efforts should be made by society and the healthcare provider community to expand patient access to proportionate distress-relieving sedation and continuous deep sedation.

  13. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  14. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Demonstration of ipsilateral brain activation by noise in patients profoundly deaf with cochlear implant, or unilaterally deaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Wieler, H.; Morgenstern, C.; Lipman, J.; Langen, K.-J.; Schmid, A.; Rota, E.; Patton, D.; Feinendegen, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Two groups of patients with hearing handicaps have been investigated with PET and F-18-2-FDG. Since these patients were unilaterally deaf or profoundly deaf with a cochlear implant installed, monaural stimulation was possible excluding any effects of bone conduction to the contralateral ear. White noise was used as acoustic stimulus in unilaterally deaf patients. The peripheral auditory nerve of cochlear implant patients was stimulated by electrical impulses which were encoded from music or a 4-tone mixture by an electronic speech processor. The non-music stimuli were chosen to avoid associative cortical reactions. In both groups response to the stimuli by increase of glucose consumption (LCMRglc) was found not only in the contralateral primary auditory cortex as expected from neuroanatomical knowledge, but also in the ipsilateral auditory cortex. Furthermore there was no correlation between the hemisphere showing increased LCMRglc and the side of stimulation or the type of stimulus. The similarity of results obtained in both groups by acoustical and electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve suggests that this kind of measurement might be a tool to predict or check the performance of a cochlear implant in a profoundly deaf patient. The finding of increased LCMRglc in the area of the normal auditory cortex in patients profoundly deaf since birth contradicts the hypothesis of degeneration of this cortical center in such patients. (Author)

  16. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  17. DRESS with delayed onset acute interstitial nephritis and profound refractory eosinophilia secondary to Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Meara Paloma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS is a relatively rare clinical entity; even more so in response to vancomycin. Methods Case report. Results We present a severe case of vancomycin-induced DRESS syndrome, which on presentation included only skin, hematological and mild liver involvement. The patient further developed severe acute interstitial nephritis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, central nervous system (CNS involvement and worsening hematological abnormalities despite immediate discontinuation of vancomycin and parenteral corticosteroids. High-dose corticosteroids for a prolonged period were necessary and tapering of steroids a challenge due to rebound-eosinophilia and skin involvement. Conclusion Patients with DRESS who are relatively resistant to corticosteroids with delayed onset of certain organ involvement should be treated with a more prolonged corticosteroid tapering schedule. Vancomycin is increasingly being recognized as a culprit agent in this syndrome.

  18. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  19. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  20. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  1. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allegra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  2. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  3. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tong; Xie Ping; Liu Ying; Li Guangyu; Xiong Qian; Hao Le; Li Huiying

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD 50 (14 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight) and 1LD 50 (87 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD 50 dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD 50 not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil

  4. Subtle variation in shade avoidance responses may have profound consequences for plant competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Franca J; Pierik, Ronald; Anten, Niels P R; Evers, Jochem B

    2017-12-21

    Although phenotypic plasticity has been shown to be beneficial for plant competitiveness for light, there is limited knowledge on how variation in these plastic responses plays a role in determining competitiveness. A combination of detailed plant experiments and functional-structural plant (FSP) modelling was used that captures the complex dynamic feedback between the changing plant phenotype and the within-canopy light environment in time and 3-D space. Leaf angle increase (hyponasty) and changes in petiole elongation rates in response to changes in the ratio between red and far-red light, two important shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana growing in dense population stands, were chosen as a case study for plant plasticity. Measuring and implementing these responses into an FSP model allowed simulation of plant phenotype as an emergent property of the underlying growth and response mechanisms. Both the experimental and model results showed that substantial differences in competitiveness may arise between genotypes with only marginally different hyponasty or petiole elongation responses, due to the amplification of plant growth differences by small changes in plant phenotype. In addition, this study illustrated that strong competitive responses do not necessarily have to result in a tragedy of the commons; success in competition at the expense of community performance. Together, these findings indicate that selection pressure could probably have played a role in fine-tuning the sensitive shade avoidance responses found in plants. The model approach presented here provides a novel tool to analyse further how natural selection could have acted on the evolution of plastic responses.

  5. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mice lacking mucin 1 have a profound defect in tumor growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmer, Dahlia M; Curry, Jennifer M; Roy, Lopamudra D; Tinder, Teresa L; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Schettini, Jorge; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Yong Y; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2011-07-01

    MUC1 is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in more than 60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The functional role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has yet to be fully elucidated due to a dearth of appropriate models. In this study, we have generated mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (KC), which are either Muc1-null (KCKO) or express human MUC1 (KCM). We show that KCKO mice have significantly slower tumor progression and rates of secondary metastasis, compared with both KC and KCM. Cell lines derived from KCKO tumors have significantly less tumorigenic capacity compared with cells from KCM tumors. Therefore, mice with KCKO tumors had a significant survival benefit compared with mice with KCM tumors. In vitro, KCKO cells have reduced proliferation and invasion and failed to respond to epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Further, significantly less KCKO cells entered the G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle compared with the KCM cells. Proteomics and Western blotting analysis revealed a complete loss of cdc-25c expression, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as a significant decrease in nestin and tubulin-α2 chain expression in KCKO cells. Treatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, abrogated the enhanced proliferation of the KCM cells but had minimal effect on KCKO cells, suggesting that MUC1 is necessary for MAPK activity and oncogenic signaling. This is the first study to utilize a Muc1-null PDA mouse to fully elucidate the oncogenic role of MUC1, both in vivo and in vitro. ©2011 AACR

  6. Experimental Incubations Elicit Profound Changes in Community Transcription in OMZ Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frank J.; Dalsgaard, Tage; Young, Curtis R.; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome) is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for “challenging” microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia) increased 4–13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community, and on the

  7. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H2(15)O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O-labeled water (H 2 15 O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H 2 15 O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H 2 15 O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients

  8. Blind rats are not profoundly impaired in the reference memory Morris water maze and cannot be clearly discriminated from rats with cognitive deficits in the cued platform task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Schallert, T; Emerich, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Morris water maze is commonly used to test cognitive function in rodent models of neurological disorders including age-related cognitive deficits. It is often assumed that the most profoundly impaired aged rats may be blind due to retinal degeneration, and it has been reported that animals with visual sensory deficits can be identified based on their performance in a cued platform task. The results of the present study demonstrate that blind rats can perform surprisingly well in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, and that blind rats cannot be selectively excluded based on performance in the cued platform task since atropine-treated rats also perform poorly in the cued platform task. Future studies may be able to develop screening procedures that help to eliminate subjects with non-cognitive deficits, but the present results do not support the use of the cued platform or straight swim task as screening procedures. Experimenters must be careful to consider the role that visual sensory function and other non-cognitive factors may have in performance of the spatial learning Morris water maze, and also the role that severe cognitive deficits may have in performance of the cued platform task.

  9. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  10. Exploring the motor development of young children with possible severe to profound cognitive and motor developmental delay by means of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Aim: Early motor stimulation may be valuable for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however limited knowledge of their typical motor developmental trajectory may be currently restraining the efficacy and specificity of this intervention. Research on young children

  11. Reversal of rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg/kg) profound neuromuscular block by sugammadex: a multicenter, dose-finding and safety study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Driessen, J.J.; Marcus, M.A.; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Heeringa, M.; Klimek, M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade can be accomplished by chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin derivative. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular

  12. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  13. Efforts to increase social contact in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: Analysing individual support plans in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of people with PIMD. ISPs for 60 persons with PIMD in the Netherlands were inductively coded and illustrated with quotations. It turned out that every ISP contained information about social contacts. Of all the quotations extracted, 71.2% were about current conditions, 6.2% were about the future and less than 1% concerned actual goals. The social contacts of people with PIMD are mentioned in their ISPs, but this is rarely translated into goals. The results of the current study suggest that attention should be paid to ensuring that professionals understand the importance of social contacts and their application in practice.

  14. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  15. A Case of Profound Soft Tissue Infection of Lower Limb Contained Maggots after IV Abuse of Iranian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Heidary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections include soft tissue infections are notable reason for hospital admission among IDUs, owing to unsterile injection techniques and equipment, contamination of drugs with organisms, and poor hygiene. In present case report a patient with profound limb infection is introduced. Case: A 32 years old man was transferred to the emergency department. He was IDU with Iranian for 3 years. Gangrenous deformity of left lower extremity below the knee was seen. Live maggots were moving around the limb freely. The patient underwent before knee amputation (BKA to remove the infected tissues of the limb. Conclusion: In order to evaluate and treat the serious infectious disease problems, drug abuse treatment programs will need to develop appropriate procedures. It is important that physicians, nurses, and other health care providers become better educated about drug abuse. Workers in drug abuse treatment should be well informed about infectious diseases and other complications of drug abuse.

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  17. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, M; D'Acquisto, F; Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Livrea, M A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  18. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  19. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark......Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly...... and Italy during 2009. The research identifies the current practice and compares it with the recommended practice in international guidelines. The current practice is very diverse and could in many cases be improved by a more structured approach and stricter adherence to international guidelines. However...

  20. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  1. Making a difference? A comparison between multi-sensory and regular storytelling for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, A; Van der Putten, A A J; Penne, A; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    2016-11-01

    Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was developed to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities in storytelling culture. In order to increase the listeners' attention, MSST stories are individualised and use multiple sensory stimuli to support the verbal text. In order to determine the value of MSST, this study compared listeners' attention under two conditions: (1) being read MSST books and (2) being read regular stories. A non-randomised control study was executed in which the intervention group read MSST books (n = 45) and a comparison group (n = 31) read regular books. Books were read 10 times during a 5-week period. The 1st, 5th and 10th storytelling sessions were recorded on video in both groups, and the percentage of attention directed to the book and/or stimuli and to the storyteller was scored by a trained and independent rater. Two repeated measure analyses (with the storytelling condition as a between-subject factor and the three measurements as factor) were performed to determine the difference between the groups in terms of attention directed to the book/stimuli (first analysis) and storyteller (second analysis). A further analysis established whether the level of attention changed between the reading sessions and whether there was an interaction effect between the repetition of the book and the storytelling condition. The attention directed to the book and/or the stimuli was significantly higher in the MSST group than in the comparison group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the attention directed to the storyteller. For MSST stories, most attention was observed during the fifth reading session, while for regular stories, the fifth session gained least attentiveness from the listener. The persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities paid more attention to the book and/or stimuli in the MSST condition compared with the regular story telling group. Being more attentive towards

  2. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  3. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  4. A Recurrent De Novo Variant in NACC1 Causes a Syndrome Characterized by Infantile Epilepsy, Cataracts, and Profound Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Kelly; Meng, Linyan; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Bearden, David R; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg; Busk, Oyvind L; Stong, Nicholas; Liston, Eriskay; Cohn, Ronald D; Scaglia, Fernando; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Tarpinian, Jennifer; Skraban, Cara M; Deardorff, Matthew A; Friedman, Jeremy N; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Walley, Nicole; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kranz, Peter G; Jasien, Joan; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; McDonald, Marie; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Freemark, Michael; Kansagra, Sujay; Freedman, Sharon; Bali, Deeksha; Millan, Francisca; Bale, Sherri; Nelson, Stanley F; Lee, Hane; Dorrani, Naghmeh; Goldstein, David B; Xiao, Rui; Yang, Yaping; Posey, Jennifer E; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Lupski, James R; Wangler, Michael F; Shashi, Vandana

    2017-02-02

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increasingly enabled new pathogenic gene variant identification for undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders and provided insights into both gene function and disease biology. Here, we describe seven children with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, profound developmental delays and/or intellectual disability, cataracts, severe epilepsy including infantile spasms, irritability, failure to thrive, and stereotypic hand movements. Brain imaging in these individuals reveals delay in myelination and cerebral atrophy. We observe an identical recurrent de novo heterozygous c.892C>T (p.Arg298Trp) variant in the nucleus accumbens associated 1 (NACC1) gene in seven affected individuals. One of the seven individuals is mosaic for this variant. NACC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in gene expression and has not previously been associated with germline disorders. The probability of finding the same missense NACC1 variant by chance in 7 out of 17,228 individuals who underwent WES for diagnoses of neurodevelopmental phenotypes is extremely small and achieves genome-wide significance (p = 1.25 × 10 -14 ). Selective constraint against missense variants in NACC1 makes this excess of an identical missense variant in all seven individuals more remarkable. Our findings are consistent with a germline recurrent mutational hotspot associated with an allele-specific neurodevelopmental phenotype in NACC1. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  5. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, E.E.; Hendricks, J.R.; Portell, R.W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Haywood, A. M.; Hunter, S.J.; Lieberman, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks.

  6. Comparison of swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation versus total laryngectomy in a validated ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, N N; Johnson, C M; Siddiqui, M T; Cates, D J; Kuhn, M A; Postma, G N; Belafsky, P C

    2017-04-01

    To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy. Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model. Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001). The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.

  7. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  8. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  9. JAK inhibition induces silencing of T Helper cytokine secretion and a profound reduction in T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Clodagh; Kordasti, Shahram; Seidl, Thomas; Perez Abellan, Pilar; Thomas, Nicholas S B; Harrison, Claire N; McLornan, Donal P; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-10-01

    CD4(+) T cells maintain cancer surveillance and immune tolerance. Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a driver of clonal evolution in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that T cells play an important role in their pathogenesis. Treatment with JAK inhibitors (JAKi) results in improvements in MPN-associated constitutional symptoms as well as reductions in splenomegaly. However, effects of JAKi on T cells in MPN are not well established and the baseline immune signature remains unclear. We investigated the frequency and function of CD4(+) T cell subsets in 50 MPN patients at baseline as well as during treatment with either ruxolitinib or fedratinib in a subset. We show that CD4(+)  CD127(low)  CD25(high)  FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells are reduced in MPN patients compared to healthy controls and that this decrease is even more pronounced following JAKi therapy. Moreover, we show that after 6 months of treatment the number of T helper (Th)-17 cells increased. We also describe a functional 'silencing' of T helper cells both in vivo and in vitro and a blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines from these cells. This profound effect of JAKi on T cell function may underlay augmented rates of atypical infections that have been reported with use of these drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Developing and Implementing School for Highly Gifted, Exceptionally Gifted, and Profoundly Gifted Students: An Interview with Lynette Breedlove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin KARADUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research, while moderately gifted students can often fit in the regular classrooms with differentiated instructions, pull-out programs, or acceleration options, highly gifted students do better when they are grouped with other intellectually-advanced peers in accordance with their strengths, interests, and background knowledge of a topic. Each of these students requires special attention and management strategies to develop better cognitive, social, emotional, and physical skills. Thanks to the grouping strategy, highly gifted students can study concepts at the appropriate pace, depth, and complexity so that these students feel valued and normal (Neville, 2007; Rogers, 2007. In order to fully meet these students’ needs, creating a school for highly, exceptionally, and profoundly gifted students would be a more beneficial plan compared to requiring them to stay within the regular classroom, accelerating, or grade skipping. Rogers (2002 pointed out that these students showed more academic growth by studying with other intellectual peers in separate classrooms. According to VanTassel-Baska (2006, identification, curriculum, program design, staff development, parental involvement assessment, and evaluation areas were essential for gifted program development. In accordance with the program development guidelines noted above, in this presentation, the process of developing and implementing a program for highly gifted students in Science, Math, Reading, and Social Studies will be provided based on an interview with Lynette Breedlove, Ph.D. who is the director of Advanced Academic Studies & Secondary Counseling at Spring Branch Independent School District in Houston, TX.

  11. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Signe Schuster; de Almeida, Edigar Rezende; Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Rossi, Amanda Costa; Koji Tsuji, Robinson; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Brito, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR) at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2%) had bilateral responses. Four (9.5%) showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7%) in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  12. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  13. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  14. Finding of synergistic and cancel effects on the aroxyl radical-scavenging rate and suppression of prooxidant effect for coexistence of α-tocopherol with β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (or -tocotrienols).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Izumisawa, Katsuhiro; Koike, Taisuke; Mukai, Kazuo

    2014-08-13

    Measurements of aroxyl radical (ArO•)-scavenging rate constants (k(s)(AOH)) of antioxidants (AOHs) [α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (TocHs) and -tocotrienols (Toc-3Hs)] were performed in ethanol solution via stopped-flow spectrophotometry. k(s)(AOH) values of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc-3Hs showed good agreement with those of the corresponding α-, β-, γ-, and δ- TocHs. k(s)(AOH) values were measured not only for each antioxidant but also for mixtures of two antioxidants: (i) α-TocH with β-, γ-, or δ-TocH and (ii) α-TocH with α-, β-, γ-, or δ-Toc-3H. A synergistic effect in which the k(s)(AOH) value increases by 12% for γ-TocH (or by 12% for γ-Toc-3H) was observed for solutions including α-TocH and γ-TocH (or γ-Toc-3H). On the other hand, a cancel effect in which the k(s)(AOH) value decreases (a) by 7% for β-TocH (or 11% for β-Toc-3H) and (b) by 24% for δ-TocH (or 25% for δ-Toc-3H) was observed for solutions including two kinds of antioxidants. However, only a synergistic effect may function in edible oils, because contents of β- and δ-TocHs (and β- and δ-Toc-3Hs) are much less than those of α- and γ-TocHs (and α- and γ-Toc-3Hs) in many edible oils. UV-vis absorption of α-Toc•, which was produced by reaction of α-TocH with ArO•, decreased remarkably for coexistence of α-TocH with β-, γ-, or δ-TocH (or β-, γ-, or δ-Toc-3H), indicating that the prooxidant effect of α-Toc• is suppressed by the coexistence of other TocHs and Toc-3Hs.

  15. Speech and language therapists' approaches to communication intervention with children and adults with profound and multiple learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-11-01

    People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the decisions to use specific interventions and the extent to which the rationales underpinning these decisions related to the components of evidence based practice (EBP), namely empirical evidence, clinical experience and client/carer views and values. A questionnaire on communication assessment and intervention for people with PMLD was sent to SLTs in the UK to elicit information on: the communication intervention approaches they used; their rationales for their intervention choices; their use of published evidence to inform decision making. Intensive interaction and objects of reference were the communication interventions most often used with people with PMLD, with some differences between children and adults evident. Rationales provided conformed somewhat to the EBP framework though extension of the existing framework and addition of practical and organizational considerations led to a revised typology of rationale for decision making. Rationales most frequently related to the empowerment, development and behavioural preferences of the person with PMLD. Empirical research evidence was seldom mentioned by SLTs as informing intervention decision making leading to very diverse practice. There is a need for further research on the effectiveness of commonly used but under-evaluated interventions. There is also a need to alert SLTs to the evidence base supporting other approaches, particularly switch-based, cause and effect approaches. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagias, S; Ernersson, A; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T; Nystrom, F H

    2008-05-01

    To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r = 0.62, p = 0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred.

  17. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amide-linked Ethanolamine Conjugate of Gemfibrozil as a Profound HDL Enhancer: Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Screening and Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Himanshu; Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentration of any or all types of lipids in the plasma including hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia leads to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Effective medication needs multiple drug therapy as recommended cholesterol and triglyceride levels are difficult to achieve by monotherapy and frequently require the use of more than one lipid-lowering medication. Gemfibrozil lowers plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins mainly VLDL and increases HDL. It is associated with short plasma half-life (1.5h) and GIT distress on long term use. In a study it was found that ethanolamine decreases serum cholesterol, especially VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in rats fed an HF/HC diet. In the present work, we thought of exploring the effect of co-drug of gemfibrozil with ethanolamine (GE-I) as a potential combination therapy for the management of mixed hyperlipidemia. Synthesis of GE-I was effected by CDI coupling. Structure was confirmed spectrally. Interestingly kinetic studies revealed that GE-I resisted chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. In tritoninduced hyperlipidemia, significant lowering of serum lipid levels was observed. The hallmark of GEI was its profound effect on HDL level which was raised above the normal level by 15%. Docking study also supported modulatory effect of GE-I (docking score -7.012) on PPAR-α which was comparable to docking score of gemfibrozil (-9.432). These preliminary observations prompt us to consider GE-I as a novel, serendipitous, hybrid anti-hyperlipidemic new chemical entity which needs be studied extensively to prove it as an HDL enhancing anti-hyperlipidemic agent.

  19. Supporting End of Life Decision Making: Case Studies of Relational Closeness in Supported Decision Making for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions.…

  20. Secrets for Survival: The Training Program for Teachers of the Severely/Profoundly Handicapped (S/PH). Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    As a description of a "survival kit" for teachers confronted with the instruction of severely/profoundly handicapped children, complete information with regard to purposes of the kit, printed and audiovisual contents, scope and sequencing of topics for the six training modules, and activities and resources involved in the use of the kit is…

  1. Feasibility, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…

  2. Feasibility, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Rook, R.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments

  3. Reversal of rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block by accidental high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, A.L.; Boer, H.D. de; Klimek, M.; Heeringa, M.; Klein, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent and reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A case is reported in which a patient accidentally received a high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1) to reverse a rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block. A fast and

  4. A good read : A study into the use and effects of multi-sensory storytelling; a storytelling method for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brug, Annet

    2015-01-01

    In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the

  5. Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

  6. Relabelling behaviour : The effects of psycho-education on the perceived severity and causes of challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; Putten, van der Annette; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPrevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the

  7. Relabelling Behaviour. The Effects of Psycho-Education on the Perceived Severity and Causes of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…

  8. Efforts in enhancing social contacts of persons with severe of profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Analysing individual support plans in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content

  9. Implementation of an Initial Training Program for New Employees in a Profoundly Mentally and Physically Handicapped Children and Adult Residential Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Linda A.

    A project was designed to reduce the turnover of direct care staff in a community-based residential facility that provides a home and educational or adult day training services for 54 severely or profoundly mentally and physically handicapped children and adults. The project sought to reduce total staff turnover by 40%, reduce employee…

  10. Look closer : The alertness of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities during multi-sensory storytelling, a time sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the

  11. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss before and after Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura; Kuwahara, Katsura; Truax, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services.…

  12. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  13. Specific needs of families of young adults with profound intellectual disability during and after transition to adulthood: What are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Gallagher, Frances; Couture, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    At the age of 21, the trajectory of services offered to youth with profound intellectual disability (ID) change significantly since access to specialised services is more limited. Despite the desire of parents to avoid any impact on their child, several factors can influence the course of this transition. However, there is little research on facilitators and obstacles to the transition to adulthood, and impacts on people with a profound ID. It is therefore difficult to provide solutions that meet their specific needs. The study aimed to document the needs of parents and young adults with profound ID during and after the transition to adulthood by exploring their transitioning experience and factors that influenced it. Using a descriptive qualitative design, two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen (14) parents of young adults aged between 18 and 26 with a profound ID. At this point, many material, informative, cognitive and emotional needs of young adults and their parents are not met. Obstacles, mainly organisational, persist and result in a particularly difficult transition to adulthood experience. By knowing the specific needs of these families, it is possible to develop and implement solutions tailored to their reality. WHAT THE PAPERS ADDS?: The transition to adulthood is a critical period for families with young adults with an intellectual disability (ID), a reality observed internationally. Current literature on all levels of ID suggests some barriers to transition that lead to negative impacts on both parents and young adults with ID. However, presently, very little research exists on the reality of families of young adults with profound ID and factors influencing transition to adult life. Most of studies target people with mild to moderate ID. Considering the significant disabilities of people with profound ID, it is possible to imagine that their experience of transition will be even more difficult and they will present

  14. Hypokalaemia and Renal Tubular Acidosis due to Abuse of Nurofen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Blackstock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurofen Plus is a common analgesic containing ibuprofen and codeine. We present a case of a 38-year-old lady who developed renal tubular acidosis with severe hypokalaemia, after chronic abuse of Nurofen Plus tablets. She presented with confusion and profound biochemical abnormalities requiring critical care admission for electrolyte replacement. Ibuprofen causes renal tubular acidosis due to its effects on carbonic anhydrase activity.

  15. A randomised controlled trial on evaluation of the clinical efficacy of massage therapy in a multisensory environment for residents with severe and profound intellectual disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J S L; Chien, W T

    2017-06-01

    Recent literature has suggested that relaxation activities can reduce the challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities, particularly in severe and profound grades, due to the counteractive effect of muscle relaxation on emotional frustration or psychological distress. Despite having inconclusive evidence, multisensory environment (MSE) and massage therapy (MT) are the commonly used approaches to relaxation among these people. However, these two approaches have not yet practised or tested in combination for reducing these people's challenging behaviours. A preliminary clinical efficacy trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of MT, MSE and their combined use for residents with intellectual disabilities in a long-term care facility on reducing their challenging behaviours. Eligible residents were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the four study groups (n = 11-12 per group), that is, MT in MSE, MSE alone, MT alone or usual care, for a 10-week intervention after a 1-month washout period. Outcome measures, including the Behaviour Problem Inventory, pulse and respiration rates, Behaviour Checklist and Alertness Observation Checklist, were assessed at recruitment and immediately following the interventions. A total of 42 participants (17 men and 25 women) completed the study. There were no significant differences in frequency and severity of challenging behaviours and most of the outcome measures between the four groups at post-test. Nevertheless, there were statistical significant differences on the active and inactive state (Alertness Observation Checklist) between the three treatment and control groups. Many participants in the three treatment groups changed from an active to inactive state (i.e. reduced activity levels) throughout the interventions, especially the MT in MSE. Such inactivity might suggest the participants' brief exhaustion followed by a period of alertness during the treatment activities. But their attention span and

  16. Multimodal MR-imaging reveals large-scale structural and functional connectivity changes in profound early blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Hirsch, Gabriella V.; Zajac, Lauren; Koo, Bang-Bon; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis. When comparing the brains of early blind individuals to sighted controls, we found evidence of co-occurring decreases in cortical volume and cortical thickness within visual processing areas of the occipital and temporal cortices respectively. Increases in cortical volume in the early blind were evident within regions of parietal cortex. Investigating white matter connections using HARDI revealed patterns of increased and decreased connectivity when comparing both groups. In the blind, increased white matter connectivity (indexed by increased fiber number) was predominantly left-lateralized, including between frontal and temporal areas implicated with language processing. Decreases in structural connectivity were evident involving frontal and somatosensory regions as well as between occipital and cingulate cortices. Differences in white matter integrity (as indexed by quantitative anisotropy, or QA) were also in general agreement with observed pattern changes in the number of white matter fibers. Analysis of resting state sequences showed evidence of both increased and decreased functional connectivity in the blind compared to sighted controls. Specifically, increased connectivity was evident between temporal and inferior frontal areas. Decreases in functional connectivity were observed

  17. Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-11-01

    Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and

  18. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...

  19. End-of-life care: nurses' experiences in caring for dying patients with profound learning disabilities--a descriptive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Ng, J

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study identifies areas of expertise and deficits in the specific knowledge and practical skills of nurses in the care of dying patients with profound learning disabilities in one NHS Primary Care Trust in the UK. In response to these findings, we have developed a simple observational checklist applicable to profound learning disability nursing to identify disease-related personality and physiological changes. The method consists of a descriptive case study of five nurses qualified in learning disabilities nursing, using semi-structured interviews. The disease trajectory was used as a framework of reference to guide the data analysis. Themes showed were 'certainty of knowing' about disease-related changes in patients' habits and behaviour and 'uncertainty and ambiguity' in the patho-physiology of advanced diseases and disease progression. This study interprets a lack of patho-physiological knowledge in both malignant and non-malignant diseases leading to delayed diagnosis and timely intervention. Timeliness of observation and intervention are emphasised.

  20. The health impacts of women's low control in their living environment: A theory-based systematic review of observational studies in societies with profound gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Andy; Orton, Lois; Nayak, Shilpa; Ring, Adele; Petticrew, Mark; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review of observational evidence on the health impacts of women's low control/autonomy in the living environment in societies with profound gender discrimination and gender bias. Thirty observational studies of varying methodological quality were included. Overall, the evidence suggests that women's lower control or autonomy (for example lack of freedom of movement outside the home, lack of authority to access healthcare for sick children) was associated with poorer mental and physical health for women and higher morbidity and mortality for their children, after adjusting for their socioeconomic circumstances. Further studies are needed to disentangle and understand the pathways between low control and health outcomes in contexts of profound gender discrimination. This systematic review has highlighted the general low quality of the evidence base on this research question. It identifies the pressing need for high quality, longitudinal studies in the future. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Triple-loop learning as foundation for profound change, individual cultivation, and radical innovation. Construction processes beyond scientific and rational knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    Peschl, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ernst von Glasersfeld’s question concerning the relationship between scientific/ rational knowledge and the domain of wisdom and how these forms of knowledge come about is the starting point. This article aims at developing an epistemological as well as methodological framework that is capable of explaining how profound change can be brought about in various contexts, such as in individual cultivation, in organizations, in processes of radical innovation, etc. This fra...

  2. The tell-tale: what do heart rate; skin temperature and skin conductance reveal about emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2012-01-01

    Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement behavioural information with information from another source. As it is accepted that emotions consist of language, behaviour and physiology, in this article we investigated if physiology could give information about the emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities. To this aim we tested hypotheses derived from the motivational model of Bradley, Codispoti, Cuthbert, and Lang (2001) about the relation between heart rate and the valence of emotions and between heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature and behavioural expressions of emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disability. We presented 27 participants with 4 staff-selected negative and 4 staff-selected positive stimuli. The situations were videotaped and their heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature was measured. Each behaviour of the participant was coded using the observational method developed by Petry and Maes (2006). As hypothesized, we found a lower heart rate when participants were presented with negative stimuli than when they were presented with positive stimuli in the first 6s of stimuli presentation. Their skin temperature was higher for the expression of low intensity negative emotions compared to the expression of low intensity positive emotions. The results suggest that, as with people without disability, heart rate and skin temperature can give information about the emotions of persons with severe and profound ID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergent Innovation—a Socio-Epistemological Innovation Technology. Creating Profound Change and Radically New Knowledge as Core Challenges in Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to innovation: Emergent Innovation. As opposed to radical innovation Emergent Innovation finds a balance and integrates the demand both for radically new knowledge and at the same time for an organic development from within the organization. From a knowledge management perspective one can boil down this problem to the question of how to cope with the new and with profound change in knowledge. This question will be dealt with in the first part of t...

  4. The study of 1H-MRS on monkey of resuscitation after cerebral selection ultra-profound hypothermic blood flow occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Jun; Xu Wei; Fang Shaolong; Zhao Xinxiang; Feng Zhongtang; Jiang Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the appearance and feature of 1 H/protion magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) on resuscitation after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermic and blood flow occlusion. To study effects of cerebral biochemical metabolism after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion and to explore the validity and feasibility of it. Methods: Bilateral carotid arteries and jugular veins were clipped about 10 minutes before perfusion. Then selective cerebral circulation was established by perfusion of cooling lingers liquid through right internal carotid artery and flow out of left jugular vein with clip of other carotid arteries and jugular veins. Brain temperature reached (15.1 ± 0.9) degree C, while the body temperature maintained (32.50 ± 0.58) degree C. Cerebral blood recovered after 60 minutes of cerebral ischemia and monkey came back. The cerebral MAI and DWI as well as 1 H-MRS were examined 4, 24, 72 h, 21 days before and after cerebral selective ultro-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion. The peak of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr, PCr) of VOL were compare with those of control group in different time. Results: MRI T 1 WI, MRI T 2 WI and DWI is normal in different time in different region; there was not a significant difference in the ratio of NAA/(Cr+PCr), Cho/(Cr+PCr) in ROI in different time in the different region in the light of statistical analysis (P>0.05). Conclusion: The light of cerebral biochemical metabolism, selective ultra-profound hypothermia is safety and may provide effective protective effects and safety during cerebral ischemia. (authors)

  5. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  6. Speech perception, production and intelligibility in French-speaking children with profound hearing loss and early cochlear implantation after congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, L; Ettienne, V; Prang, I; Couloigner, V; Garabedian, E-N; Loundon, N

    2015-12-01

    To analyze speech in children with profound hearing loss following congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection with cochlear implantation (CI) before the age of 3 years. In a cohort of 15 children with profound hearing loss, speech perception, production and intelligibility were assessed before and 3 years after CI; variables impacting results were explored. Post-CI, median word recognition was 74% on closed-list and 48% on open-list testing; 80% of children acquired speech production; and 60% were intelligible for all listeners or listeners attentive to lip-reading and/or aware of the child's hearing loss. Univariate analysis identified 3 variables (mean post-CI hearing threshold, bilateral vestibular areflexia, and brain abnormality on MRI) with significant negative impact on the development of speech perception, production and intelligibility. CI showed positive impact on hearing and speech in children with post-cCMV profound hearing loss. Our study demonstrated the key role of maximizing post-CI hearing gain. A few children had insufficient progress, especially in case of bilateral vestibular areflexia and/or brain abnormality on MRI. This led us to suggest that balance rehabilitation and speech therapy should be intensified in such cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Inadequacy of the paradigms of special education to subjects with severe and profound grade intellectual disability - the need for pragmatic realism in psychiatry and special pedagogy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipowicz, Kasper; Żuraw, Hanna; Witusik, Andrzej; Mokros, Łukasz; Najbert, Edyta; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2018-05-25

    People with severe and profound grade disabilities are the subject of interest in psychiatry, clinical psychology and special pedagogy. Unfortunately, the paradigmatic approach to special education based on postmodern philosophy is in contrast to the biomedical approach that is based on the positivist and Cartesian models. The paper is an attempt to systematize the similarities and differences between the humanistic approach and the modern biomedical model, which, despite the apparent differences, do not differ so much from each other. Work with a person disabled intellectually in the severe or profound degree is governed by the principles of methodical realism, taking into account to an equal extent the principal deficits, the concomitant diseases, limitations and the social context. The deeper the impairment and disability is, the smaller is the role of the humanistic paradigm in work with the client in the medical management and educational process. Changing the paradigms of special pedagogy has drawn attention to the social context of disability, separating, however, special pedagogy from modern medicine and psychology, cognitive-oriented and psychometry-based. The postmodern paradigm has become an ideology, which makes it difficult to work with deeply disabled people. Only the multidirectional approach including a variety of paradigms makes it possible to provide integrational aid to people with severe and profound grade intellectual disabilities. Working with such a disabled person should take into account equally the biomedical and humanistic aspects. © 2018 MEDPRESS.

  8. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  9. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of

  10. Febrile status epilepticus due to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kazuhiro; Kitazawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, depend on the etiology, including infection due to viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood may also contribute to this. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae in febrile status epilepticus. We reviewed the medical records of children aged ≤3 years with febrile status epilepticus who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. The differences between the RSV-positive and RSV-negative groups were evaluated according to the demographic and clinical data. A total of 99 patients with febrile status epilepticus who had been tested for RSV infection were identified. Three patients in the RSV-positive group (n = 19) and four in the RSV-negative group (n = 80) presented with bronchiolitis. The incidence of intubation and anti-seizure drug treatment in the RSV-positive group was significantly higher than in the -negative group. While all of the patients in the RSV-negative group recovered completely, six patients in the RSV-positive group developed encephalopathy and profound neurological sequelae. In five of the six patients, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed subcortical white matter lesions. RSV infection in the absence of bronchiolitis can initially present as febrile status epilepticus and subsequently develop into acute encephalopathy with profound neurological sequelae. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient with Profound Hyponatremia and Acute Neurological Symptoms: An Effective Treatment with Fludrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jaal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte abnormality in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. Being usually asymptomatic, hyponatremia may cause symptoms like nausea, fatigue, disorientation, headache, muscle cramps, or even seizures, particularly if severe and rapid decrease of serum sodium levels occurs. Here we report a case of SCLC patient with severe hyponatremia and acute neurological symptoms that developed 2 days after the first course of second-line chemotherapy, most probably due to the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as arginine vasopressin during lysis of the tumour cells. Initial treatment consisted of continuous administration of hypertonic saline that resulted in improvement of patient’s neurological status. However, to obtain a persistent increase in serum sodium level, pharmacological intervention with oral fludrocortisone 0.1 mg twice daily was needed. We can therefore conclude that mineralocorticoids may be used to correct hyponatremia in SCLC patients when appropriate.

  12. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Moeller, Raquel; Zecavati, Nassim; Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Rosa; Aleinikoff, Shoshana; Rennert, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level as well as a profound hypothyro...

  13. Emergency Closed Reduction of a C4/5 Fracture Dislocation with Complete Paraplegia Resulting in Profound Neurologic Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical spinal cord injuries due to traumatic fractures are associated with persistent neurological deficits. Although clinical evidence is weak, early decompression, defined as <24–72 h, has been frequently proposed. Animal studies show better outcomes after early decompression within one hour or less, which can hardly ever be achieved in clinical practice. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old patient was hospitalized after being hit by a shying horse. After diagnosis of C4/5 fracture dislocation and complete paraplegia, she was intubated and sedated with deep relaxation. Emergency reduction was performed at approximately 120 minutes after trauma. Subsequently, a standard anterior decompression, discectomy, and fusion were carried out. She was then transferred to a specialized rehabilitation hospital. Her neurologic function improved from AIS grade A on admission to grade B postoperatively and grade D after four months of rehabilitation. One year after the accident, she was ambulatory without walking aids and restarted horse riding. Discussion and Conclusion. Rarely in clinical practice, decompression of the spine canal can be performed as early as in this case. This case highlights the potential benefit of utmost early reduction in cervical fracture dislocations with compression of the spinal cord.

  14. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  15. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) mice lacking Mucin 1 have a profound defect in tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmer, Dahlia M.; Curry, Jennifer M.; Roy, Lopamudra D.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Schettini, Jorge; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Yong Y.; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2011-01-01

    MUC1 is over expressed and aberrantly glycosolated in >60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The functional role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has yet to be fully elucidated due to a dearth of appropriate models. In the present study, we have generated mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (KC), which are either Muc1-null (KCKO) or express human MUC1 (KCM). We show that KCKO mice have significantly slower tumor progression and rates of secondary metastasis, compared to both KC and KCM. Cell lines derived from KCKO tumors have significantly lower tumorigenic capacity compared to cells from KCM tumors. Therefore, mice with KCKO tumors had a significant survival benefit compared to mice with KCM tumors. In vitro, KCKO cells have reduced proliferation and invasion and failed to respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Further, significantly fewer KCKO cells entered the G2M phase of the cell cycle compared to the KCM cells. Proteomics and western blotting analysis revealed a complete loss of cdc-25c expression, phosphorylation of MAPK, as well as a significant decrease in Nestin and Tubulin α-2 chain expression in KCKO cells. Treatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, abrogated the enhanced proliferation of the KCM cells but had minimal effect on KCKO cells, suggesting that MUC1 is necessary for MAPK activity and oncogenic signaling. This is the first study to utilize a Muc1-null PDA mouse in order to fully elucidate the oncogenic role of MUC1, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21558393

  16. Teacher Dismissal and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichner, Edward C.; Blackstone, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    This article addresses due process requirements in the nonrenewal and dismissal of tenured and nontenured teachers. The Georgia Fair Dismissal Law is used as a basis for discussing the grounds for teacher dismissal. Dismissal grounds discussed are 1) incompetency; 2) insubordination; 3) willful neglect of duties; 4) immorality; 5) inciting,…

  17. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  18. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  19. Dose due to 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    The dose due to 40 K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes 39 K, 40 K and 41 K, two are stable while 40 K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10 9 years; there is 0.0117% 40 K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, 40 K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% 40 K decays to 40 C through β-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV γ-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus γ-rays produced during 40 K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all 40 K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus 40 K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of 40 K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a γ-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to 40 K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to 40 K was measured and related to the amount of 40 K γ-ray activity. (Author)

  20. A vascular mechanism to explain thermally mediated variations in deep-body cooling rates during the immersion of profoundly hyperthermic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; Clark, Mitchell J; Peoples, Gregory E; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the cold-water immersion (14°C) of profoundly hyperthermic individuals induce reductions in cutaneous and limb blood flow of sufficient magnitude to impair heat loss relative to the size of the thermal gradient? What is the main finding and its importance? The temperate-water cooling (26°C) of profoundly hyperthermic individuals was found to be rapid and reproducible. A vascular mechanism accounted for that outcome, with temperature-dependent differences in cutaneous and limb blood flows observed during cooling. Decisions relating to cooling strategies must be based upon deep-body temperature measurements that have response dynamics consistent with the urgency for cooling. Physiologically trivial time differences for cooling the intrathoracic viscera of hyperthermic individuals have been reported between cold- and temperate-water immersion treatments. One explanation for that observation is reduced convective heat delivery to the skin during cold immersion, and this study was designed to test both the validity of that observation, and its underlying hypothesis. Eight healthy men participated in four head-out water immersions: two when normothermic, and two after exercise-induced, moderate-to-profound hyperthermia. Two water temperatures were used within each thermal state: temperate (26°C) and cold (14°C). Tissue temperatures were measured at three deep-body sites (oesophagus, auditory canal and rectum) and eight skin surfaces, with cutaneous vascular responses simultaneously evaluated from both forearms (laser-Doppler flowmetry and venous-occlusion plethysmography). During the cold immersion of normothermic individuals, oesophageal temperature decreased relative to baseline (-0.31°C over 20 min; P immersed in cold rather than in temperate water (P immersion, whereas pronounced constriction was evident during both immersions when subjects were hyperthermic, with the colder water eliciting a greater vascular

  1. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  2. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  4. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  5. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  6. [Long-term clinical course of sequelae in patients with neonatal anoxic encephalopathy resulting in profound mental retardation and motor disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, A; Kubota, M; Fueki, N; Shinozaki, M; Kurata, K; Takei, M; Sakamoto, K

    1993-01-01

    A long-term observation has been made in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females) with severe sequelae of neonatal anoxic encephalopathy. They aged from 8 months to 65 years. All of them had motor disturbances and profound mental retardation. Motor function was improved in 4 patients with aging. In contrast, motor activity deteriorated in 11 cases, of which 4 showed a mental regression. Among them, patients who had originally better motor ability than sitting were likely to deteriorate by uncontrollable epilepsy and/or excessive administration of anticonvulsants. Regression of the patients with worse motor ability like bedridden appeared to attributable hypertonia of muscles and bodily deformation. Fifteen cases showed an exacerbation of general condition which originated predominantly to respiratory distress. Twelve patients died including 6 exacerbated cases. Exacerbation or death may have occurred frequently in specific periods of infancy, adolescence and youth with the patients who showed very low motor function such as bedridden and no locomotion.

  7. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  8. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  9. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  10. Single fatherhood due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of widowed fatherhood in the USA. Fathers whose spouses have died from cancer constitute a potentially vulnerable population as they adjust to their role as sole or primary caregiver while managing their own grief and that of their children. The importance of addressing the psychological needs of widowed fathers is underscored by data showing that father's coping and emotional availability are closely tied to their bereaved children's mental health. Surprisingly, scant attention has been given to the phenomenon of widowed fatherhood with virtually no clinical resources or research studies devoted to fathers who have lost their wives to cancer. This commentary highlights key challenges facing this underserved population of widowers and calls for development of research agendas and clinical interventions for single fathers due to cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  12. APPENDICULAR INVAGINATION DUE TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Kruh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invagination of the vermiform appendix is a very rare occurrence. We summarize epidemiologic and etiologic factors, types of classification, symtomatology, diagnostic features and treatment.Patients and treatment. The authors present 49-years old female with long-standing abdominal pains, who came in our hospital due to acute exacerbation with sever abdominal pain. Because of progressive symptoms and sensitivity in the right-lower abdominal quadrant a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. An anomaly of cecum and the absence of appendix vermiformis have forced us to proceed with laparotomy in McBurnay point. After cecotomy an invaginated gangrenous appendix was found. The histological examination revealed endometriosis.Conclusions. By presenting this extremely rare pathology we also want to emphasize the important role of diagnostic laparoscopy in front of acute abdomen.

  13. The Profound Power of Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of studies show that children's behavior is shaped by relationships in the "social ecology" of family, peers, school, and community. But in recent decades the prevailing scientific dogma was that genes determine destiny. Now it is clear that experience changes genes. For better or worse, environmental experiences including nutrition,…

  14. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe-to-profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with

  16. Depletion of 4-hydroxynonenal in hGSTA4-transfected HLE B-3 cells results in profound changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, Brad; Li Jie; Jeyabal, Prince V.S.; Reddy, Prasada M.R.V.; Yang Yusong; Sharma, Rajendra; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce; Zimniak, Piotr; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that overexpression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase A4-4 (hGSTA4-4) in human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3) leads to pro-carcinogenic phenotypic transformation of these cells [R. Sharma, et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (2004) 1960-1701]. We now demonstrate that hGSTA4-transfection also causes a profound change in the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle control, proliferation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which is consistent with phenotypic changes of the transformed cells. The expression of p53, p21, p16, fibronectin 1, laminin γ1, connexin 43, Fas, integrin α6, TGFα, and c-jun was down-regulated, while the expression of protein kinase C beta II (PKCβII), c-myc, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and TGFβ was up-regulated in transfected cells. These results demonstrate that HNE serves as a crucial signaling molecule and, by modulating the expression of genes, can influence cellular functions

  17. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  19. The anti-neoplastic activity of Vandetanib against high-risk medulloblastoma variants is profoundly enhanced by additional PI3K inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Rogerio B; Ehrhardt, Michael; Velz, Julia; Olschewski, Martin; Goetz, Barbara; Pietsch, Torsten; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2017-07-18

    Medulloblastoma is comprised of at least four molecular subgroups with distinct clinical outcome (WHO classification 2016). SHH-TP53-mutated as well as MYC-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH medulloblastoma show the worst prognosis.Here we present evidence that single application of the multi-kinase inhibitor Vandetanib displays anti-neoplastic efficacy against cell lines derived from high-risk SHH-TP53-mutated and MYC-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH medulloblastoma. The narrow target spectrum of Vandetanib along with a favourable toxicity profile renders this drug ideal for multimodal treatment approaches. In this context our investigation documents that Vandetanib in combination with the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 leads to enhanced cytotoxicity against MYC-amplified and SHH-TP53-mutated medulloblastoma. In line with these findings we show for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma a profound reduction in activity of the oncogenes STAT3 and AKT. Furthermore, we document that Vandetanib and the standard chemotherapeutic Etoposide display additive anti-neoplastic efficacy in the investigated medulloblastoma cell lines that could be further enhanced by PI3K inhibition. Of note, the combination of Vandetanib, GDC-0941 and Etoposide results in MYC-amplified and SHH-TP53-mutated cell lines in complete loss of cell viability. Our findings therefore provide a rational to further evaluate Vandetanib in combination with PI3K inhibitors as well as standard chemotherapeutics in vivo for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma variants.

  20. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P.; Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L.

    1992-01-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R stimulation -R deprivation )/R deprivation where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.)

  1. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  2. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scao, Y; Robier, A; Baulieu, J L; Beutter, P; Pourcelot, L

    1992-01-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and one PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (Rstimulation-Rdeprivation)/Rdeprivation where R = counts in the temporal lobe/whole-brain count. A count increase in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment.

  3. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Farias Moeller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK level as well as a profound hypothyroid state. Muscle biopsy revealed severe muscle necrosis and myositis. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in obtaining an euthyroid state and regain of muscle strength as well as decrease in CK levels. Although rare, hypothyroidism should be considered as a potential cause of rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients undergoing a myopathy workup.

  4. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II--content of the first lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Lexical content is commonly understood to refer to the various categories of words that children produce and has been studied extensively in children with normal hearing. Unlike the hearing child, however, little is known about the word categories that make up the first lexicon of children with hearing loss (HL). Knowledge of the first lexicon is increasingly important, as infants with HL are now being detected through universal newborn hearing screening programs and fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants in before 12 months of age. For these children, emergence of the first spoken words is a major milestone eagerly awaited by parents and one of the first verbal language goals of teachers and therapists working with such children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lexical content of the first 50 and 100 words produced by children with HL and to contrast this with that of a group of hearing children. Lexical content was compared in two groups of children: one group composed of 24 participants with severe profound or profound HL and a second group composed of 16 participants with normal hearing. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All were "switched on" or fitted before 30 months of age. The Diary of Early Language (Di-EL) was used to collect a 100-word lexicon from each participant. All single word and frozen phrase data from each child's Di-EL were allocated to 1 of 15 word types grouped into four word categories (noun, predicate, grammatical, and paralexical), and the results were compared for both groups. The hearing and HL groups showed similar distributions of word categories, with nouns constituting the largest portion of the lexicon followed by predicates and paralexicals. Grammaticals made up the smallest portion of the lexicon. However, several significant differences were evident between the two groups. In both the 50- and 100-word lexicons, the hearing group

  5. Beneficios económicos del implante coclear para la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Peñaranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB, costo-utilidad (CU y costo-efectividad (CE de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group and 38 belonging to the control group who used

  6. The impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding, subjective hearing performance, and tinnitus perception in patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Marino, Roberta; Acharya, Aanand; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise, subjective perception of hearing, and tinnitus perception of adult patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss and to investigate whether duration of deafness and age at implantation would influence the outcomes. In addition, this article describes the auditory training protocol used for unilaterally deaf patients. This is a prospective study of subjects undergoing cochlear implantation for unilateral deafness with or without associated tinnitus. Speech perception in noise was tested using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise test presented at 65 dB SPL. The Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate the subjective perception of hearing with a cochlear implant and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance was measured using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire. Data were collected before cochlear implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Twenty-eight postlingual unilaterally deaf adults with or without tinnitus were implanted. There was a significant improvement in speech perception in noise across time in all spatial configurations. There was an overall significant improvement on the subjective perception of hearing and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance reduced significantly across time. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not influence the outcomes significantly. Cochlear implantation provided significant improvement in speech understanding in challenging situations, subjective perception of hearing performance, and quality of life. Cochlear implantation also resulted in reduced tinnitus disturbance. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not seem to influence the outcomes.

  7. Profound, prelingual nonsyndromic deafness maps to chromosome 10q21 and is caused by a novel missense mutation in the Usher syndrome type IF gene PCDH15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Lance; Merner, Nancy D; Cooke, Sandra; Ives, Elizabeth; Galutira, Dante; Walsh, Vanessa; Walsh, Tom; MacLaren, Linda; Cater, Tracey; Fernandez, Bridget; Green, Jane S; Wilcox, Edward R; Shotland, Lawrence I; Shotland, Larry; Li, Xiaoyan Cindy; Li, X C; Lee, Ming; King, Mary-Claire; Young, Terry-Lynn

    2009-05-01

    We studied a consanguineous family (Family A) from the island of Newfoundland with an autosomal recessive form of prelingual, profound, nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. A genome-wide scan mapped the deafness trait to 10q21-22 (max LOD score of 4.0; D10S196) and fine mapping revealed a 16 Mb ancestral haplotype in deaf relatives. The PCDH15 gene was mapped within the critical region and was an interesting candidate because truncating mutations cause Usher syndrome type IF (USH1F) and two missense mutations have been previously associated with isolated deafness (DFNB23). Sequencing of the PCDH15 gene revealed 33 sequencing variants. Three of these variants were homozygous exclusively in deaf siblings but only one of them was not seen in ethnically matched controls. This novel c.1583 T>A transversion predicts an amino-acid substitution of a valine with an aspartic acid at codon 528 (V528D). Like the two DFNB23 mutations, the V528D mutation in Family A occurs in a highly conserved extracellular cadherin (EC) domain of PCDH15 and is predicted to be more deleterious than the previously identified DFNB23 missense mutations (R134G and G262D). Physical assessment, vestibular and visual function testing in deaf adults ruled out syndromic deafness because of Usher syndrome. This study validates the DFNB23 designation and supports the hypothesis that missense mutations in conserved motifs of PCDH15 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss. This emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in USH1F is similar to that in several other USH1 genes and cautions against a prognosis of a dual sensory loss in deaf children found to be homozygous for hypomorphic mutations at the USH1F locus.

  8. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Kretschmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  9. Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J

    2013-07-01

    Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Finanční due diligence

    OpenAIRE

    Slonka, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Thesis on financial due diligence focuses on the use of due diligence in practice. The aim of this work is to determine the risk for the investor and the calculation of the target company with and without conducting due diligence, thus finding out the added value of due diligence.

  11. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  12. Scope and profoundness of environmental assessments. A study in the frame of environmental impact assessments. Strategic environmental assessment and FFH (fauna-flora-habitat) impact assessment under specific consideration of the conflict wind energy - bird protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    The legal background of environmental impact assessments and the principle regulations and guidelines for this assessment are shortly summarized. The following Issues are discussed in detail: fundamentals of environmental assessments, profoundness and scope in environmental assessments; the conflict wind energy parks and birds.

  13. Evaluating the Quality of the Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff: A Preliminary Application of Three Observation Scales from Parent-Infant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja; Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Affective and reciprocal interactions with others are essential for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), but it is a challenge to assess their quality. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of instruments from parent-infant research to evaluate these interactions. Method: Eighteen videotaped…

  14. Role of vitamin C transporters and biliverdin reductase in the dual pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant effect of biliary compounds on the placental-fetal unit in cholestasis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Maria J.; Castano, Beatriz; Jimenez, Silvia; Serrano, Maria A.; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M.; Marin, Jose J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal cholestasis causes oxidative damage to the placental-fetal unit that may challenge the outcome of pregnancy. This has been associated with the accumulation of biliary compounds able to induce oxidative stress. However, other cholephilic compounds such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and bilirubin have direct anti-oxidant properties. In the present study we investigated whether these compounds exert a protective effect on cholestasis-induced oxidative stress in placenta as compared to maternal and fetal livers, and whether this is due in part to the activation of anti-oxidant mechanisms involving vitamin C uptake and biliverdin/bilirubin recycling. In human placenta (JAr) and liver (HepG2) cells, deoxycholic acid (DCA) similar rates of free radical generation. In JAr (not HepG2), the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability were impaired by low DCA concentrations; this was partly prevented by bilirubin and UDCA. In HepG2, taurocholic acid (TCA) and UDCA up-regulated biliverdin-IXα reductase (BVRα) and the vitamin C transporter SVCT2 (not SVCT1), whereas bilirubin up-regulated both SVCT1 and SVCT2. In JAr, TCA and UDCA up-regulated BVRα, SVCT1 and SVCT2, whereas bilirubin up-regulated only SVCT2. A differential response to these compounds of nuclear receptor expression (SXR, CAR, FXR and SHP) was found in both cell types. When cholestasis was induced in pregnant rats, BVRα, SVCT1 and SVCT2 expression in maternal and fetal livers was stimulated, and this was further enhanced by UDCA treatment. In placenta, only BVRα was up-regulated. In conclusion, bilirubin accumulation and UDCA administration may directly and indirectly protect the placental-fetal unit from maternal cholestasis-induced oxidative stress

  15. Examination of the communication interface between students with severe to profound and multiple intellectual disability and educational staff during structured teaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, K; Smith, C; Kennedy, P; Greenham, C

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with severe to profound and multiple intellectual disability (S-PMID) tend to function at the earlier stages of communication development. Variable and highly individual means of communicating may present challenges to the adults providing support in everyday life. The current study aimed to examine the communication interface between students with S-PMID and educational staff. An in-depth, observational study of dyadic interaction in a class within the secondary part of a special school was conducted. The designated educational level was Key Stage 3 under the National Curriculum of England, which is typically for children from age 11 to 14 years attending a state school. There were four student-teacher dyads in the class. The students had multiple impairments with severely limited communication skills. Video capture of dyadic interaction was conducted during five English lessons and sampled to 2.5 min per dyad per lesson. The video footage was transcribed into standard orthography, detailing the vocal and non-vocal aspects. A coding framework guided by the principles of structural-functional linguistics was used to determine the nature of dyadic interaction, comprising linguistic moves, functions and communicative modalities. The relative contributions of student and teacher to the interaction were examined. Significant differences were found between the students and educational staff on the majority of the measures. The teachers dominated the interaction, occupying significantly more turns than the students. Teacher turns contained significantly more initiations and follow-up moves than the students, who used more response moves. Teacher communication mainly served the functions of requesting and information giving. Feedback and scripted functions were also significantly greater among teacher turns, with only limited occurrence among the students. Self- or shared-expression was greatest among the students. The modalities of speech, touch, singing and

  16. Perinatal Western Diet Consumption Leads to Profound Plasticity and GABAergic Phenotype Changes within Hypothalamus and Reward Pathway from Birth to Sexual Maturity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Paradis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity. We performed a longitudinal follow-up of WD and Control offspring at three critical time periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and focus on investigating the influence of perinatal exposure to palatable diet on (i fat preference, (ii gene expression profile, and (iii neuroanatomical/architectural changes of the mesolimbic dopaminergic networks. We showed that WD feeding restricted to the perinatal period has a clear long-lasting influence on the organization of homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits but not on fat preference. We demonstrated a period specific evolution of the preference for fat that we correlated with specific brain molecular signatures. In offspring from WD fed dams, we observed during childhood the existence of fat preference associated with a higher expression of key gene involved in the dopamine (DA systems; at adolescence, a high-fat preference for both groups, progressively reduced during the 3 days test for the WD group and associated with a reduced expression of key gene involved in the DA systems for the WD group that could suggest a compensatory mechanism to protect them from further high-fat exposure; and finally at adulthood, a preference for fat that was identical to control rats but associated with profound modification in key genes involved in the γ-aminobutyric acid network, serotonin receptors, and polysialic acid–NCAM-dependent remodeling of the

  17. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  18. Consistent errors in first strand cDNA due to random hexamer mispriming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P van Gurp

    Full Text Available Priming of random hexamers in cDNA synthesis is known to show sequence bias, but in addition it has been suggested recently that mismatches in random hexamer priming could be a cause of mismatches between the original RNA fragment and observed sequence reads. To explore random hexamer mispriming as a potential source of these errors, we analyzed two independently generated RNA-seq datasets of synthetic ERCC spikes for which the reference is known. First strand cDNA synthesized by random hexamer priming on RNA showed consistent position and nucleotide-specific mismatch errors in the first seven nucleotides. The mismatch errors found in both datasets are consistent in distribution and thermodynamically stable mismatches are more common. This strongly indicates that RNA-DNA mispriming of specific random hexamers causes these errors. Due to their consistency and specificity, mispriming errors can have profound implications for downstream applications if not dealt with properly.

  19. Christianity, sport and disability: a case study of the role of long-distance running in the life of a father and his son who is congenitally blind and has profound intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Nick J.; Parker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore the role of sport (longdistance running) in the lives of a father and his son who is congenitally blind and has profound intellectual disabilities. Drawing on the works of Jean Vanier, Stanley Hauerwas, Henri Nouwen and John Hull, the major themes explored are relational and religious trust, suffering, sacrificial love, embodiment and blindness. A series of one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with the father (and mother) c...

  20. Acrylamide in bread. Effect of prooxidants and antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Granby, Kit; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    . Increasing the addition of aqueous rosemary extract to 10% did not decrease the acrylamide content further compared to the addition of a 1% extract. The spice dittany showed less effect in wheat buns compared to rosemary and even increased acrylamide formation slightly. The effect of antioxidants...

  1. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... food, such as meat, milk, fruits and vegetables (Butchko et al. 2002). Aspartame .... performed using the Griess method (Green et al. 1982). The .... to formation of nitrogen dioxide and copper-bound hydroxyl radical species ...

  2. Studies on the pro-oxidant chemistry of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    There is currently much interest in the development of functional foods aiming at the prevention of the development of some diseases, for example cancer, by the introduction of selected natural substances at elevated levels into the diet. The rationale for this approach is based especially

  3. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  4. Constitutional Due Process and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses substantive and procedural due process as required by the United States Constitution and interpreted by the Supreme Court, with particular reference to situations arising in educational environments. Covers interests protected by due process requirements, the procedures required, and some special considerations that may apply. (PGD)

  5. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  6. Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.

  7. Turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Barnes, Michael; Parra, Felix I; Belli, Emily; Candy, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic toroidal rotation in a tokamak can be driven by turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flow effects breaking a symmetry of turbulence. In this paper we categorize the contributions due to neoclassical effects to the turbulent momentum transport, and evaluate each contribution using gyrokinetic simulations. We find that the relative importance of each contribution changes with collisionality. For low collisionality, the dominant contributions come from neoclassical particle and parallel flows. For moderate collisionality, there are non-negligible contributions due to neoclassical poloidal electric field and poloidal gradients of density and temperature, which are not important for low collisionality. (paper)

  8. Magnetic topology changes induced by lower hybrid waves and their profound effect on edge-localized modes in the EAST tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Gong, X Z; Gan, K F; Gauthier, E; Wang, L; Rack, M; Wang, Y M; Zeng, L; Denner, P; Wingen, A; Lv, B; Ding, B J; Chen, R; Hu, L Q; Hu, J S; Liu, F K; Jie, Y X; Pearson, J; Qian, J P; Shan, J F; Shen, B; Shi, T H; Sun, Y; Wang, F D; Wang, H Q; Wang, M; Wu, Z W; Zhang, S B; Zhang, T; Zhang, X J; Yan, N; Xu, G S; Guo, H Y; Wan, B N; Li, J G

    2013-06-07

    Strong mitigation of edge-localized modes has been observed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, when lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are applied to H-mode plasmas with ion cyclotron resonant heating. This has been demonstrated to be due to the formation of helical current filaments flowing along field lines in the scrape-off layer induced by LHW. This leads to the splitting of the outer divertor strike points during LHWs similar to previous observations with resonant magnetic perturbations. The change in the magnetic topology has been qualitatively modeled by considering helical current filaments in a field-line-tracing code.

  9. Study on the import dues system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Keun [LG-Caltex Oil Co., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Since October 1979, Korea had implemented a petroleum project fund dues system to actively prepare for unstable international petroleum condition. However, as the size of operating a petroleum project fund was bigger and the influence of government on this fund became powerful, it was inserted in the government tax revenues as a {sup S}pecial account for energy and resource project{sup i}n March 1994 and its name was changed to import dues. In this study, it discusses the facts of import dues system, which exists only in Korea, and its policy directions since this system has been reviewed due to the economic development, liberalization of petroleum industry and inequity between alternative energy sources. 4 tabs.

  10. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  11. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  12. Due diligence duties for an environmental liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, M.

    2000-04-01

    Jurisdiction turned out well to create a basic ruling for due diligence duties. These due diligence duties are high standards for the law of torts (outside of contracts) within the Austrian civil law and represent a liability-extension for the holder of the source of danger. They establish an action for injunction in particular for preventing (further) damages. Therewith due diligence duties get a general sense in the range of a civil law for environmental liability. The responsible holder of a danger zone will therefore influence his way of acting to protect potential victims and the environment. The burden of proof is on the plaintiff (victims) under the Civil Code. Victims have specific sources of danger including high endangering special facilities in their argumentation with the so-called prima-facie-proof or first-appearance-proof. A turning back of the presentation of evidence to the polluter is wrong. The polluter himself has a continuing liability for dangerous activities and his clerks in the case of an extremely high danger of damage. All due diligence duties can be arranged in three areas: in information-, danger-avoidance- and danger-prevention-duties. The determination of range and essence of the duties has to be adjusted to each individual case. The range of the specific danger area is the essential link. The intensity of due diligence duties is increasing with the size of danger in the way of a movable system depending on the protected interest. Due diligence duties have to be kept within reasonable limits with two criterions: necessarity and demand. Proportionality of actions is a third criterion to avoid exaggeration of due diligence duties to obtain an effective protection for victims including the environment. (author)

  13. The profound effects of patient arm positioning on organ doses from CT procedures calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and deformable phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; George Xu, X.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent 'raised' and 'lowered' postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97-32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from -15.01 to -11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube

  14. Profound morphological changes in the erythrocytes and fibrin networks of patients with hemochromatosis or with hyperferritinemia, and their normalization by iron chelators and other agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheresia Pretorius

    Full Text Available It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH, as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF. Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators. These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded ('free' iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise.

  15. Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale

  16. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  17. Paraneoplastic cushing syndrome due to wilm's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizan, M.; Anwar, S.; Hameed, A.; Manzoor, J.; Saleem, M.; Mehmood, Q.; Ali, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, alongwith histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed. (author)

  18. Conducting financial due diligence of medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louiselle, P

    1995-12-01

    Many healthcare organizations are acquiring medical practices in an effort to build more integrated systems of healthcare products and services. This acquisition activity must be approached cautiously to ensure that medical practices being acquired do not have deficiencies that would jeopardize integration efforts. Conducting a thorough due diligence analysis of medical practices before finalizing the transaction can limit the acquiring organizations' legal and financial exposure and is a necessary component to the acquisition process. The author discusses the components of a successful financial due diligence analysis and addresses some of the risk factors in a practice acquisition.

  19. Environmental impact due to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact due to nuclear power plants is smaller than that due to fossil-fired power plants. The risks of the nuclear power plant operation are determined by the quantity and the probability of the release of radioactive materials. According to the value, the risks of normal operation can be compared to the accident risks. An attempt should be made to effectively reduce the remaining risk at unfavourable sites with the emphasis on accidents with larger effects than design basis accidents. (orig./LH) [de

  20. Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Sid, A.; Bendib, K.

    1997-01-01

    A new Weibel source due to the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is presented. It has been shown that in homogeneous plasmas, this mechanism may drive strong collisionless Weibel modes with growth rates of order of γ∼10 11 s -1 and negligible group velocities. In the laser-produced plasmas, for short laser wavelengths (λ L 10 14 W/cm 2 ), this Weibel source is most efficient as the ones due to the heat flux and the plasma expansion. The useful scaling law of the convective e-foldings, with respect to the laser and the plasma parameters, is also derived. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Breast abscess due to Actinomyces europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W A; Pinheiro, A M; Jahns, B; Bögli-Stuber, K; Droz, S; Zimmerli, S

    2011-06-01

    Actinomyces europaeus was first described in 1997 as a new species causing predominantly skin and soft-tissue infections. Mastitis due to A. europaeus is an unusual condition. This article reports a case of primary breast abscess caused by A. europaeus in a postmenopausal woman.

  2. Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

    In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100μm),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

  3. Six questions about translational due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Evan

    2010-04-28

    To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors.

  4. Contract Law, Due Process, and the NCAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jaffe D.; Chapman, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The NCAA has enjoyed almost total freedom from judicial scrutiny of its rules, procedures, and official acts in large part because of its private nature as an unincorporated association. The function of the NCAA, California State University, Hayward v NCAA, and due process of the student-athlete are discussed. (MLW)

  5. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... An infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at the time of delivery. ...

  6. [Severe, subacute axonal polyneuropathy due to hypophosphatemia].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, J.J.J. van; Abdo, W.F.; Deurwaarder, E. den; Zwarts, M.J.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2010-01-01

    A 46-year-old man receiving tube feeding because of anorexia and weight loss developed progressive neurological symptoms initially resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome. Eventually axonal neuropathy due to severe hypophosphatemia was diagnosed. Hypophosphatemia can be caused by the so-called refeeding

  7. Supraventricular Tachycardia Atackt Due to Losewieght Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important health problem. Treatment of obesity includes diet, exercise and drugs. Some of these drugs are out of prescription. Advers effects of these drugs have not been known. In this report; we present a case with supraventricular tachycardia attack due to loseweight drug containing mangostana (mango, hibiscus, citrus mate, L-karnitin, guarana.

  8. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due date determined? • What is postterm pregnancy? • What causes a postterm pregnancy? • What are the risks associated with postterm pregnancy? • ... longer than 42 weeks is called “postterm.” What causes a postterm pregnancy? The causes of postterm pregnancy are unknown, but ...

  9. Craniopharyngioma with hyperprolactinaemia due to a prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, T; Clark, J D; Stewart, S

    1986-01-01

    A case is presented in which a histologically proven prolactin secreting pituitary macroadenoma was associated with a large suprasellar craniopharyngioma. The pre-operative prolactin concentration was 8180 mU/l. Although hyperprolactinaemia up to 3000 mU/l in patients with a craniopharyngioma is usually due to stalk compression, greater values may indicate an associated prolactinoma. Images PMID:3794737

  10. Nuclear potentials due to pion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillota, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The two, three and four nucleon potentials due to the exchange of pions can be accurately calculated by means of chiral symmetry. The comparison of the dynamical content of these potentials allow us to understand the geometrical origin of the hierarchy existing among them. (Author) [pt

  11. Internal dosimetric evaluation due to uranium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguilar Juan; Delgado Avila Gustavo

    1991-01-01

    The present work has like object to carry out the internal dosimetric evaluation to the occupationally exposed personnel, due to the inhalation of aerosols of natural uranium and enriched in the pilot plant of nuclear fuel production of the National Institute of Nuclear Research

  12. Spinal cord compression due to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Matushita, J.P.K.; Silva, M.A.F. da; Koch, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 20 patients with medullary compression syndrome due to lesions not related to the central nervous system is presented. Plain films of the spine and myelography are made to determine the level of osseous involvement, the level of the spinal block and to planning radiotherapy. (Author) [pt

  13. Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barre's syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still ...

  14. Freight economic vulnerabilities due to flooding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extreme weather events, and flooding in particular, have been occurring more often and with increased severity over the past decade, and there is reason to expect this trend will continue in the future due to a changing climate. Flooding events can u...

  15. Due diligence responsibilities of the professional geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Whether in the role of independent consultant or company employee, a geologist has certain professional obligations in the evaluation of an oil and gas submittal from a third party. 'Due diligence' is the term used to describe the analysis of an investment opportunity. Due diligence involves a multidisciplinary examination of both the technical and business aspects of a submittal. In addition to the obvious geological considerations, prospect evaluations should include relevant details about the specific technical documentation reviewed, information sources, and how the data were verified. Full disclosure of ownership, technical risks, and negative aspects of the prospect should be included along with the positive elements. After the geological analysis is completed, the economic merits of the prospect should be analyzed, incorporating all lease burdens and terms of participation into the calculations. Estimated exploration, development, and operating costs, together with projected annual production, cash flow, and reserves must be examined as to their reasonableness. Finally, the due diligence review should include a thorough check on the reputation, financial condition, technical and managerial expertise, and prior track record of the operator. Bank, trade, legal, and prior partner references should be contacted. The successful professional geologist in today's competitive world must have multidisciplinary skills. A solid background in geology and geophysics, a basic understanding of the principles of petroleum engineering and economics, and the wits of a private eye are needed for good due diligence work

  16. Dysphagia due to diffuseidiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease isa form of degenerative arthritiswith unique spinal and extra spinal manifestations. Dysphagia due to DISH is uncommon but when present DISH should be suspected. Surgical decompression can relieve some of the symptoms. We report a case of a 60 ...

  17. Recurrent poststernotomy mediastinitis due to histoplasmosis: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the first case of surgical site infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum. A 4 year-old presented with recurrent thoracotomy surgical site infection (SSI) requiring multiple debridements until the correct diagnosis was performed. This case illustrates the critical role of histopathology in early recognition of ...

  18. [Treatment of macroglossia due to acromegaly].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, K.; Berge, S.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Meijer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 61-years-old woman had macroglossia due to acromegaly with complaints of dyspneu at a lying sleeping position and complaints of speech and dysphagia. At the age of 55 years she was diagnosed with acromegaly induced by a adenoma of the pituitary gland, which had been removed surgically. The

  19. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  20. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  1. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  2. Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism due to Urinary Tract Infection in Infancy: A Report of 4 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is an uncommon but life-threatening occurrence. In the first weeks of life, this scenario is often associated with aldosterone deficiency due to salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia. However, alternative diagnoses involving inadequate mineralocorticoid secretion or action must be considered, particularly for infants one month of age or older. We report four infants who presented with profound hyponatremia accompanied by urinary tract infection, ultimately leading to the diagnosis of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. Our cases provide support for the idea that the renal tubular resistance to aldosterone is due to urinary tract infection itself rather than to underlying urinary tract anomalies typically found in these infants. Awareness of this condition is important so that serum aldosterone, urine sodium, and urine cultures may be obtained immediately in any infant presenting with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in whom a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not found. Adequate replacement with intravenous saline and antibiotic therapy is sufficient to correct sodium levels over 24–48 hours.

  3. 'Non-vocalization': a phonological error process in the speech of severely and profoundly hearing impaired adults, from the point of view of the theory of phonology as human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Orly; Tobin, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    'Non-vocalization' (N-V) is a newly described phonological error process in hearing impaired speakers. In N-V the hearing impaired person actually articulates the phoneme but without producing a voice. The result is an error process looking as if it is produced but sounding as if it is omitted. N-V was discovered by video recording the speech of two groups, profoundly and severely hearing impaired adults in four elicitation tasks of varying difficulty, and analysing 2065 phonological error processes (substitutions, omissions, and N-V) according to 24 criteria resulting in 49,560 data points. Results, which are discussed in view of the theory 'Phonology as Human Behaviour' (PHB), indicate that: (a) The more communicative the error process was; the more effort was made for its production and the more frequent its distribution; (b) The easier the elicitation task was, the more frequent the use of communicative error processes; c) The more difficult the elicitation task was, the more frequent the use of the relatively less communicative and easier to produce error processes; and d) The process of N-V functioned like a communicative error process for the group of profoundly hearing impaired adults.

  4. Physicians in transition: practice due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy E

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of healthcare is changing rapidly. That landscape is now a business model of medicine. That rapid change resulting in a business model is affecting physicians professionally and personally. The new business model of medicine has led to large healthcare organizations hiring physicians as employees. The role of a physician as an employee has many limitations in terms of practice and personal autonomy. Employed physicians sign legally binding employment agreements that are written by the legal team working for the healthcare organization. Thus physicians should practice due diligence before signing the employment agreement. "Due diligence" refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement with another party. That reasonable person should seek expertise to represent his or her interests when searching a balanced agreement between the physician and organization.

  5. POET: Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Kaloyan

    2014-08-01

    POET (Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides) calculates the orbital evolution of a system consisting of a single star with a single planet in orbit under the influence of tides. The following effects are The evolutions of the semimajor axis of the orbit due to the tidal dissipation in the star and the angular momentum of the stellar convective envelope by the tidal coupling are taken into account. In addition, the evolution includes the transfer of angular momentum between the stellar convective and radiative zones, effect of the stellar evolution on the tidal dissipation efficiency, and stellar core and envelope spins and loss of stellar convective zone angular momentum to a magnetically launched wind. POET can be used out of the box, and can also be extended and modified.

  6. Sciatica due to pelvic hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sciatica is defined as pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. The most common reason of sciatica is radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia. Other causes can be congenital, acquired, infectious, neoplastic, or inflammatory. The piriformis syndrome is another cause. The pain starts in an insidious manner when the cause of sciatica is an extraspinal tumor. It is intermittent at first but a constant and progressive pain that does not decrease with position or rest gradually develops in all patients. The possibility of an intraabdominal or pelvic mass should always be considered and the relevant tests requested when the cause of the sciatica cannot be explained. We present an 83-year-old male who presented with non-traumatic and non-vascular lumbosacral plexopathy due to a large hematoma in the left adductor muscle following the use of warfarin sodium.

  7. Band magnetism due to f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.B.; Trainor, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Specific heat data illustrate several types of itinerant or band magnetism in actinide intermetallic compounds. The results show ferromagnetic spin fluctuations in UAl 2 with T/sub sf/ equals 25K, itinerant antiferromagnetism in NpSn 3 with T/sub N/ equals 9.5K and itinerant ferromagnetism in NpOs 2 with T/sub C/ equals 7.9K. Specific heat studies of dilute U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/Al 2 show the theoretically predicted modifications due to impurity scattering in a spin fluctuation system. For NpSn 3 it is possible to show the BCS nature of the transition due to the gap formation

  8. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Namrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. Case Presentation: A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Conclusion: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  9. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Ghobrial, Peter; Liron, Pantanowitz

    2010-09-17

    There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Transport due to ion pressure gradient turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Turbulent transport due to the ion pressure gradient (or temperature drift) instability is thought to be significant when etasub(i)=d(ln Tsub(i))/d(ln n)>1. The invariance properties of the governing equations under scale transformations are used to discuss the characteristics of this turbulence. This approach not only clarifies the relationships between earlier treatments but also, in certain limits, completely determines the scaling properties of the fluctuations and the consequent thermal transport. (author)

  11. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Bacria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against noise.

  12. Dose due to {sup 40}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: edmundoej@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dose due to {sup 40}K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K and {sup 41}K, two are stable while {sup 40}K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10{sup 9} years; there is 0.0117% {sup 40}K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, {sup 40}K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% {sup 40}K decays to {sup 40}C through {beta}-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV {gamma}-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus {gamma}-rays produced during {sup 40}K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all {sup 40}K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus {sup 40}K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of {sup 40}K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a {gamma}-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to {sup 40}K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to {sup 40}K was measured and related to the amount of {sup 40}K {gamma}-ray activity. (Author)

  13. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  14. External exposure due to natural radiation (KINKI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A field survey of exposure rates due to natural radiation has been conducted throughout the Kinki district of Japan during both September and October 1973. In each location, measurements of exposures at one to fifteen sites, one of where contained 5 stations at least, were made. A total of 143 sites were measured. Observations were made using a spherical ionization chamber and several scintillation surveymeters. The spherical plastic ionization chamber of which inner diameter and wall thickness are 200 mm and 3 mm (acrylate) respectively has adequate sensitivity for field survey. The chamber was used as a standard of apparatus, but it is difficult to use the apparatus in all locations only by the apparatus, so that a surveymeter with a NaI(Tl) 1''phi x 1'' scintillator was used for regular measurements. Two types of surveymeters, the one with a 2''phi x 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the other with a 3''phi x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator, were used as auxiliary devices. Both the chamber and the surveymeter were used in 20 sites and their readings were compared for drawing a relationship between them. Practically the direct reading of the surveymeter were reduced into the corresponding value of the plastic chamber through the relationship of linear proportion. Systematic error at calibration ( 60 Co) and reading error (rodoh) of the plastic chamber were within +-6% (maximum over all error) and within +-3.5% (standard error for 6μ R/hr) respectively. Reading error of the surveymeter is about +-3% (standard error for 6μ R/hr). Measurements in open bare field were made at one meter above the ground and outdoor gamma-rays exposure rates (μ R/hr) were due to cosmic rays as well as terrestrial radiation, as it may be considered that the contribution of fallout due to artificial origin was very small. (J.P.N.)

  15. Pneumonia due to Enterobacter cancerogenus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tülin; Baran, Gamze; Buyukguclu, Tuncay; Sezgin, Fikriye Milletli; Kaymaz, Haci

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter cancerogenus (formerly known as CDC Enteric Group 19; synonym with Enterobacter taylorae) has rarely been associated with human infections, and little is known regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of this organism. We describe a community-acquired pneumonia case in a 44-year-old female due to E. cancerogenus. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism was performed by the automatized VITEK 2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The clinical case suggests that E. cancerogenus is a potentially pathogenic microorganism in determined circumstances; underlying diseases such as bronchial asthma, empiric antibiotic treatment, wounds, diagnostic, or therapeutic instruments.

  16. Traumatic oesophageal perforation due to haematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Brandt, Bodil

    2014-01-01

    . Three explanations postulated to be the cause for late perforation which might be due to esophageal wall ischemia from pressure built up between the hematoma, azygos vein and the lower part of thoracic trachea; or could be an immediate rupture walled-off until the patient became symptomatic......; or the intramural hematoma gradually lysed and causing late perforation. CONCLUSION: Although extremely rare, an oesophageal haematoma and late complications must be considered in patients on anti-coagulant therapy following blunt thoracic trauma and complaining only of chest pain....

  17. Particle transport due to magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Electron current fluctuations are measured with an electrostatic energy analyzer at the edge of the MST reversed-field pinch plasma. The radial flux of fast electrons (E>T e ) due to parallel streaming along a fluctuating magnetic field is determined locally by measuring the correlated product e B r >. Particle transport is small just inside the last closed flux surface (Γ e,mag e,total ), but can account for all observed particle losses inside r/a=0.8. Electron diffusion is found to increase with parallel velocity, as expected for diffusion in a region of field stochasticity

  18. Questa è la storia di due ragazzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questa è la storia di due ragazzi per i quali le speranze di riuscita in una professione artistica come quella dell’attore - già difficile per chiunque - in percentuale erano una su dieci. Forse zero. E invece ce l’hanno fatta: uno a Parigi, l’altro a Roma. Entrambi di colore, entrambi di umili origini, arrivati in Europa come tanti, centinaia di migliaia, nel loro caso non da clandestini. Le storie di Bakary e Federico mostrano come il talento e la fortuna possano vincere le avversità, l’emarginazione, i pregiudizi.

  19. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  20. Lasing without inversion due to cooling subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhmuratov, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    The new possibility of inversionless lasing is discussed. We have considered the resonant interaction of a two-level system (TLS) with photons and the adiabatic interaction with an ensemble of Bose particles. It is found out that a TLS with equally populated energy levels amplifies the coherent light with Stokes-shifted frequency. This becomes possible as photon emission is accompanied by Bose particles excitation. The energy flow from the TLS to the photon subsystem is realized due to the Bose subsystem being at finite temperature and playing the cooler role. The advantage of this new lasing principle is discussed. It is shown that lasing conditions strongly differ from conventional ones

  1. Bronchopleural cutaneous fistula due to Eikenella corrodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Sun; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the subject and to report on and discuss a case of bronchopleural cutaneous fistula due to Eikenella corrodens. A 16-year-old girl was brought to our hospital with fever and blood-tinged sputum 2 weeks prior to her admission. She suffered from neurologic sequelae of herpetic encephalitis and had been bed-ridden since 5 years of age. A longitudinal paraspinal soft mass had been noted in the previous week by her mother. She had been given oral feeding despite frequent choking for the past few years. On palpation, the mass can be squeezed to follow the least resistance of subcutaneous space longitudinally extending to the lower thoracic region. Chest computed tomography scan revealed right lower lobe necrotizing pneumonitis and a pleuro-cutaneous fistula leading to the subcutaneous air locules. A protracted course of antibiotics was prescribed and subcutaneous air trapping decreased in size over 8 weeks. Eikenella corrodens has increasingly been implicated as a potential causative pathogen in pleuropulmonary infections. Pleuro-cutaneous fistula and abscess formation complicating empyema and necrotizing pneumonitis due to E. corrodens infection have not been reported. A bulging thoracic subcutaneous lesion waxes and wanes with respiration suggest the possibility of a pleruo-cutaneous fistula. Treatment of Eikenella empyema using antibiotics without surgical decortication requires a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy.

  2. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  3. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus due to ifosfamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Cakar, Mustafa; Onal, Ibrahim K; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Akoglu, Hadim; Aksoy, Sercan; Erman, Mustafa; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2006-02-01

    To report 2 cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) following infusion of ifosfamide. Two patients who received ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy developed NCSE. One woman received ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2 (1 h infusion on days 1-5); confusion, lethargy, and speech deterioration developed on day 3. The second patient developed similar symptoms on day 3 of treatment with 2500 mg/m2. Both patients responded to intravenous administration of diazepam 10 mg and were given levetiracetam as maintenance therapy. The severity and presentation of central nervous system toxicity due to ifosfamide varies greatly and involves a spectrum ranging from subclinical electroencephalogram changes to coma. NCSE, an epileptic disorder in which typical convulsive activity is absent, has previously been reported in only 4 patients receiving ifosfamide. Levetiracetam may be used for maintenance antiepileptic therapy after diazepam administration. Among the many presentations of ifosfamide neurotoxicity, clinicians should consider NCSE as a possible explanation for changes in consciousness in a patient receiving this agent. An objective causality assessment by use of the Naranjo probability scale revealed that NCSE due to ifosfamide was probable.

  4. Road Accident due to a Pancreatic Insulinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Amilcare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Trastulli, Stefano; Barberini, Francesco; Corsi, Alessia; Cacurri, Alban; Renzi, Claudio; Anastasio, Fabio; Battista, Francesca; Pucci, Giacomo; Noya, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor, typically sporadic and solitary. Although the Whipple triad, consisting of hypoglycemia, neuroglycopenic symptoms, and symptoms relief with glucose administration, is often present, the diagnosis may be challenging when symptoms are less typical. We report a case of road accident due to an episode of loss of consciousness in a patient with pancreatic insulinoma. In the previous months, the patient had occasionally reported nonspecific symptoms. During hospitalization, endocrine examinations were compatible with an insulin-producing tumor. Abdominal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed us to identify and localize the tumor. The patient underwent a robotic distal pancreatectomy with partial omentectomy and splenectomy. Insulin-producing tumors may go undetected for a long period due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, and may cause episodes of loss of consciousness with potentially lethal consequences. Robot-assisted procedures can be performed with the same techniques of the traditional surgery, reducing surgical trauma, intraoperative blood loss, and hospital stays. PMID:25816027

  5. [In-hospital mortality due to stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Lucci, Federico; Pujol Lereis, Virginia; Ameriso, Sebastián; Povedano, Guillermo; Díaz, María F; Hlavnicka, Alejandro; Wainsztein, Néstor A; Ameriso, Sebastián F

    2013-01-01

    Overall mortality due to stroke has decreased in the last three decades probable due to a better control of vascular risk factors. In-hospital mortality of stroke patients has been estimated to be between 6 and 14% in most of the series reported. However, data from recent clinical trials suggest that these figures may be substantially lower. Data from FLENI Stroke Data Bank and institutional mortality records between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Ischemic stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria and hemorrhagic stroke subtypes were classified as intraparenchymal hematoma, aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, arterio-venous malformation, and other intraparenchymal hematomas. A total of 1514 patients were studied. Of these, 1079 (71%) were ischemic strokes,39% large vessels, 27% cardioembolic, 9% lacunar, 14% unknown etiology, and 11% others etiologies. There were 435 (29%) hemorrhagic strokes, 27% intraparenchymal hematomas, 30% aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, 25% arterio-venous malformation, and 18% other intraparenchymal hematomas. Moreover, 38 in-hospital deaths were recorded (17 ischemic strokes and 21 hemorrhagic strokes), accounting for 2.5% overall mortality (1.7% in ischemic strokes and 4.8% in hemorrhagic strokes). No deaths occurred associated with the use of intravenous fibrinolytics occurred. In our Centre in-hospital mortality in patients with stroke was low. Management of these patients in a Centre dedicated to neurological diseases along with a multidisciplinary approach from medical and non-medical staff trained in the care of cerebrovascular diseases could, at least in part, account for these results.

  6. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...... be provided with sonic internal structure realizing such a velocity- or force-friction dependence. For demonstration of a ratchet mechanism of this type, an experimental setup (gadget) that converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation has been built and experiments...... with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion, In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments, Despite the setup being...

  7. Degradation of insulating ceramics due to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Radiation-induced electrical degradation was investigated on single crystal alumina under 2.2 MeV electron irradiation with a dose rate of 5.7 x 10{sup 5} Gy/s and an electrical field of 1.6 x 10{sup 5} V/m at 773 K. After irradiation, electrical resistivity both on the surface and in the bulk decreased in the temperature range of 300 to 773 K. Substantial resistivity decreased from the initial value due to the irradiation, the degradation ratio was much smaller than the case of poly-crystalline specimens. On the other hands, surface resistivity decreased with increasing temperature for measurement with an abrupt change by 4 orders of magnitude around 600 K, and it showed thermal hysteresis. (author)

  8. Fuel bundle movement due to reverse flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, N N; Akalin, O [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    When a break occurs in the inlet feeder or inlet header, the rapid depressurization will cause the channel flow to reverse forcing the string of bundles to accelerate and impact with upstream shield plug. A model has been developed to predict the bundle motion due to the channel flow reversal. The model accounts for various forces acting on the bundle. A series of five reverse flow, bundle acceleration experiments have been conducted simulating a break in the inlet feeder of a CANDU fuel channel. The model has been validated against the experiments. The predicted impact velocities are in good agreement with the measured values. It is demonstrated that the model may be successfully used in predicting bundle relocation timing following a large LOCA (loss of coolant). (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Dysphagia due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely, it causes dysphagia, hoarseness, dyspnea, snoring, stridor, and laryngeal edema. Herein, we present a patient with DISH causing dysphagia. A 70-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of sore throat, dysphagia, and foreign body sensation. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a leftward-protruding posterior wall in the hypopharynx. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bony mass pushing, anteriorly, on the posterior hypopharyngeal wall. Ossification included an osseous bridge involving 5 contiguous vertebral bodies. Dysphagia due to DISH was diagnosed. His symptoms were relieved by conservative therapy using anti-inflammatory drugs. However, if conservative therapy fails and symptoms are severe, surgical treatments must be considered.

  10. Acute Paraplegia due to Thoracic Hematomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Akpınar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraspinal intramedullary hemorrhage is a rare entity with the acute onset of neurologic symptoms. The etiology of idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia (ISH is unknown, and there are few published case reports. Hematomyelia is mostly associated with trauma, but the other nontraumatic etiologies are vascular malformations, tumors, bleeding disorders, syphilis, syrinx, and myelitis. MRI is a good choice for early diagnosis. Hematomyelia usually causes acute spinal cord syndrome due to the compression and destruction of the spinal cord. A high-dose steroid treatment and surgical decompression and evacuation of hematoma are the urgent solution methods. We present idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia of a previously healthy 80-year-old male with a sudden onset of back pain and paraplegia.

  11. Fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguayo, F.J.; Martinez Almagro, A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven cases are presented of postmenopausal women with a total of 37 fractures due to insufficient pelvic girdle: 15 located in sacrum, ten in the pubic rami, four in ilium proximal to the sacroiliac joint, three in iliac fossa, two in iliac tuberosity and three in the public body. Eight of the patients were diagnosed over a period of six years when seeking medical attention for bone pain. The other three were diagnosed retrospectively among a group of 33 cancer patients (the majority having having breast cancer) who presented positive pelvic radionuclide bone scan. CT was superior to conventional radiology in detecting fractures of this type, especially those of sacrum and ilium. Radionuclide bone scan was highly sensitive but its specificity was low, requiring back-up radiology and above all CT to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to other types of lesions, especially metastases. (Author) 14 refs

  12. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  13. Amplitude growth due to random, correlated kicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.; Mills, F.

    1989-03-01

    Historically, stochastic processes, such as gas scattering or stochastic cooling, have been treated by the Fokker-Planck equation. In this approach, usually considered for one dimension only, the equation can be considered as a continuity equation for a variable which would be a constant of the motion in the absence of the stochastic process, for example, the action variable, I = ε/2π for betatron oscillations, where ε is the area of the Courant-Snyder ellipse, or energy in the case of unbunched beams, or the action variable for phase oscillations in case the beam is bunched. A flux, /Phi/, including diffusive terms can be defined, usually to second order. /Phi/ = M 1 F(I) + M 2 ∂F/∂I + /hor ellipsis/. M 1 and M 2 are the expectation values of δI and (δI) 2 due to the individual stochastic kicks over some period of time, long enough that the variance of these quantities is sufficiently small. Then the Fokker-Planck equation is just ∂F/∂I + ∂/Phi//∂I = 0. In many cases those where the beam distribution has already achieved its final shape, it is sufficient to find the rate of increase of by taking simple averages over the Fokker-Planck equation. At the time this work was begun, there was good knowledge of the second moment for general stochastic processes due to stochastic cooling theory, but the form of the first moment was known only for extremely wideband processes. The purposes of this note are to derive an expression relating the expected single particle amplitude growth to the noise autocorrelation function and to obtain, thereby, the form of M 1 for narrow band processes. 4 refs

  14. A Profound Survey on Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Mahant; Bharat Choudhary; Abhishek Kesharwani; Kalyani Singh Rathore

    2012-01-01

    Swarm Intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The inspiration often comes from nature, especially biological systems. The expression was introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. SI systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents or boids interacting locally with one another and their environment. T...

  15. Technology for profounds; Technik fuers Tiefgruendige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, Astrid

    2013-05-15

    The entire planning of offshore wind farms is based on a reliable preliminary exploration of the sea bed. Thus, researchers have developed a new method with which the sea bed can be inspected much more accurate than before. For this, the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (Bremerhaven, Federal Republic of Germany) has developed a preliminary exploration procedure that examines the sedimentary structure by means of sound waves. Compared to conventional methods, this preliminary exploration procedure has two advantages: (1) A special air pressure pulser (airgun) is used as a special air pressure pulse. The airgun produces air bubbles that are pumped into the water exercising pressure and thus producing an acoustic signal; (2) The reflected acoustic signals are recorded not only by a single detector, but also by 60 hydrophones that are pulled at a tube behind the boat.

  16. Profound Sinoatrial Arrest Associated with Ibrutinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Mathur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ibrutinib is a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK inhibitor approved for second-line treatment for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Ibrutinib use has been linked to increased incidence of atrial fibrillation and hypertension in multiple studies. Other forms of cardiac toxicities have also been reported in isolated case reports. Bradycardia and asystole have not been associated with ibrutinib use in the past. Case Report. We present a case of a 76-year-old female with no prior cardiac history, who initiated treatment with ibrutinib for relapsing mantle cell lymphoma and was noted to have symptomatic bradycardia, greater than 20 second long pauses on her cardiac monitor requiring placement of a permanent pacemaker. Conclusion. This is the first case associating bradycardia and asystole with tyrosine kinase inhibitor use. Irreversible inhibition of certain cardioprotective tyrosine kinases has been a growing topic of research in oncology therapeutics.

  17. Teacher Burnout: Stylish Fad or Profound Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teacher burnout has significant impact on the quality of education and on teacher job satisfaction. Its causes include job stress and organizational structures or professional relationships. Reduction of burnout may come from such strategies as increased teacher role differentiation, greater teacher support, and improved…

  18. Profound improvements of isolated microspores culture techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of sampling stages, physical conditions (like temperature), culture conditions, embryo long-distance transportation methodology and plantlet regeneration on isolated microspores from donor plants in field. Results indicated that if microspores were sampled in bud stage instead of blooming stage to ...

  19. Pediatric ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Mohandas, Surath

    2014-10-01

    Dengue infection is an important arboviral infection in southeast Asia, especially in India. Neurological manifestations of dengue are increasingly recognized. We report an ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis in an 8-year-old child. We present a girl with a short febrile illness followed by episodic severe headache, with gradually progressive hemiparesis and visual impairment. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarctions in the anterior and posterior circulation. The magnetic resonance angiogram revealed irregular narrowing of bilateral middle cerebral arteries, right anterior cerebral artery, left posterior cerebral, and bilateral vertebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis. Her dengue serology was strongly positive for immunoglobulin M with 68.9 panbio units. The rest of the evaluation for pediatric stroke was unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous followed by oral corticosteroids and recovered totally with resolution of vasculitis on magnetic resonance angiogram over the next 3 months. This child illustrates possible immune-mediated vasculitis caused by dengue infection which is rather a rare presentation in a child who subsequently recovered well. One should consider dengue in childhood strokes in endemic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Network overload due to massive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p pt , pf is large and the giant component of the network is still present. Exactly at pt, the function pf(p ) undergoes a first-order discontinuity. We find that the line pt(α ) ends at a critical point (pc,αc) , in which the cascading failures are replaced by a second-order percolation transition. We find analytically the average betweenness of nodes with different degrees before and after the initial attack, we investigate their roles in the cascading failures, and we find a lower bound for pt(α ) . We also study the difference between localized and random attacks.

  1. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  2. Epileptic seizures due to multiple cerebral cavernomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cavernous angiomas are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are present in 0.4−0.9 % of people, and represent around 5% of all cerebrovascular malformations. They can be single or multiple, and sporadic or familial. The presence of multiple lesions is more frequent in familial cavernomatosis. Ten to 30 % are associated with familial clustering. Case report. We presented the case of a 43-year-old man, admitted to the Emergency Department due to unprovoked seizure during the wide awake and everyday activities. Neurological examination was with no focal signs. A 32-channel standard digital EEG was without any significant changes of normal baseline activity. After sleep deprivation EEG showed multifocal, bilateral and asymmetric polyspikes and sharpwaves activity. Hyperventilation induced generalized epileptiform discharges. MRI scan demonstrated multiple small cavernous angiomas. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated a delayed memory impairment. Neurosurgery treatment was not recommended, and the therapy with valproate 1 250 mg/day had an excellent efficacy with no singnificant adverse effects. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with multiple cavernomatosis highlights the importance of neuroradiological examination in adult patients with the first epileptic seizure but with no focal neurological signs. .

  3. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  4. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  5. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  6. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  7. Catatonia due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Pinto Cabral Júnior Rabello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Discuss neuropsychiatric aspects and differential diagnosis of catatonic syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a pediatric patient. Methods Single case report. Result A 13-year-old male, after two months diagnosed with SLE, started to present psychotic symptoms (behavioral changes, hallucinations and delusions that evolved into intense catatonia. During hospitalization, neuroimaging, biochemical and serological tests for differential diagnosis with metabolic encephalopathy, neurological tumors and neuroinfections, among other tests, were performed. The possibility of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, steroid-induced psychosis and catatonia was also evaluated. A complete reversal of catatonia was achieved after using benzodiazepines in high doses, associated with immunosuppressive therapy for lupus, which speaks in favor of catatonia secondary to autoimmune encephalitis due to lupus. Conclusion Although catatonia rarely is the initial clinical presentation of SLE, the delay in recognizing the syndrome can be risky, having a negative impact on prognosis. Benzodiazepines have an important role in the catatonia resolution, especially when associated with parallel specific organic base cause treatment. The use of neuroleptics should be avoided for the duration of the catatonic syndrome as it may cause clinical deterioration.

  8. Electrical injuries due to theft of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curinga, Giuseppe; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Scherer, Sandra Saja; Masellis, Alessandro; Gherardini, Giulio; Brancato, Renato; Conte, Francesco; Bistoni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the theft of copper, mainly from electrical wires, is becoming a more frequent crime as the value of this metal rises. We have collected all the data from the Burn Centre of the Hospital of Palermo, Italy, from 1992 to 2007. Over the last two decades, we assisted to a dramatic increase of patients admitted to our hospital, reporting burn injuries while attempting to steal it in dangerous conditions. The circumstances of the injury, the clinical management of the case, and the long-term consequences are presented and discussed. We found that the electrical burn related to the theft of copper is often a life-threatening event because of the high-voltage electrical current passing through the patients. Patients, due to the type of activity, often requiring physical effort, were generally young and healthy. From a review of the literature on the subject, we have noticed that theft of copper is not reported as an important risk factor for electrical burns. Our report clearly shows that theft of copper-related electrical injury is becoming more frequent in the community and should be added as a "new" risk factor. The already high incidence reported here may actually be lower than the actual incidence because many patients tend not to come to the hospital because of the risk of being prosecuted by the police.

  9. Decreased pain sensitivity due to trimethylbenzene exposure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, often using the Hill criteria and weight of evidence determinations to integrate data from multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses. The following hazard identification case study applies qualitative as well as meta-analytic approaches to trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers exposure and the potential neurotoxic effects on pain sensitivity. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated, after consideration of multiple confounding factors, in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates that TMBs are likely to be a neurotoxic hazard. The pain sensitivity studies included in the present analyses initially seem discordant in their results: effects on pain sensitivity are seen immediately after termination of exposure, appear to resolve 24 hours after exposure, and then reappear 50 days later following foot-shock. Qualitative consideration of toxicological and toxicokinetic characteristics of the TMB isomers suggests that the observed differences between studies are due to testing time and can be explained through a complete consideration of the underlying biology of the effect and the nervous system as a whole. Meta-analyses and –regressions support this conclus

  10. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  11. Sepsis due to clostridium septicum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foga, M.M.; McGinn, G.J.; Kroeker, M.A.; Guzman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is an unusual anaerobic, gram-positive, gas-producing bacillus, which has been identified as a cause of fulminant rapidly fatal infection in humans. Infection with C. septicum usually occurs in patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy, or patients with a nonmalignant hematological disorder such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. C. septicum infection most commonly involves the abdomen, and a recent review article has identified 164 cases in the medical literature describing the abdominal findings in this disease. Intracranial manifestation of C. septicum infection are less common and include meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation and pneumocephalus. There have been only 12 documented cases in the English literature describing central nervous system lesions associated with C. septicum. We present a case report of a 56-year-old man in whom septicemia due to C. septicum developed as a complication of Crohn's disease. To our knowledge, there has never been a previous report of C. septicum sepsis related to underlying Crohn's disease. Our case is also remarkable in that an intracerebral gas collection developed at the site of a mycotic infarct related to C. septicum bacteremia, Intracranial, intraparenchymal gas formation related to anaerobic infection is extremely rare; to our knowledge, this radiological finding related to C. septicum sepsis has been described in only 1 previous case report in the medical literature. We also describe the intra-abdominal manifestations of C. septicum sepsis that occurred in this patient as well as the associated radiographic and pathologic findings. (author)

  12. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  13. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Endothelial damage due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dei Cas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

  15. Urinary retention due to herpes virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, T; Yasuda, K; Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Uchiyama, T; Minamide, M; Ito, H

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention is uncommon in patients with herpes zoster and anogenital herpes simplex. Seven patients (four men, three women) with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 35-84) with urinary retention due to herpes zoster (n = 6) or anogenital herpes simplex (n = 1) were studied. Six patients had unilateral skin eruption in the saddle area (S2-4 dermatome) and one patient with herpes zoster had a skin lesion in the L4-5 dermatome. All patients had detrusor areflexia without bladder sensation, and two of them had inactive external sphincter on electromyography at presentation. Clean intermittent catheterization was performed, and voiding function was recovered in 4-6 weeks (average, 5.4) in all patients. Urodynamic study was repeated after recovery of micturition in three patients, and they returned to normal on cystometrography and external sphincter electromyography. Acute urinary retention associated with anogenital herpes infection has been thought to occur when the meninges or sacral spinal ganglia were involved, and, in conclusion, this condition may be considered to be reversible.

  16. Particle resuspension due to human walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mana, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, during normal operations in controlled areas, workers could be exposed to radioactive aerosols (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). One of the airborne contamination sources is particles that are initially seeded on the floor and could be removed by workers while they are walking. During the outage of EDF nuclear facilities, there is a resuspension of some radionuclides in aerosol form (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). Since the number of co-activity will increase in reactors buildings of EDF, it becomes important to understand particle resuspension due to the activity of the operators to reduce their radiation exposure. The purpose of this Ph.D thesis is to quantify the resuspension of particles due to the progress of operators on a contaminated soil. Thus, the approach is to combine an aerodynamic resuspension model with numerical calculations of flow under a shoe, and then to characterize experimentally some input parameters of the model (particle diameter, adhesion forces, shoes motion). The resuspension model Rock'n'Roll proposed by Reeks and Hall (2001) was chosen because it describes physically the resuspension mechanism and because it is based on the moment of forces applied to a particle. This model requires two input parameters such as friction velocity and adhesion forces distribution applied on each particle. Regarding the first argument, numerical simulations were carried on using the ANSYS CFX software applied to a safety shoe in motion (digitized by 3D CAO); the mapping of friction velocity shows values of about 1 m.s -1 for an angular average velocity of 200 degrees.s -1 . As regards the second parameter, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements were carried out with alumina and cobalt oxide particles in contact with epoxy surfaces representative of those encountered in EDF power plants. AFM provides the distribution of adhesion forces and reveals a much lower value than what can be calculated theoretically using JKR model (Johnson

  17. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  18. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  19. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  20. Subjeans Condensations due to a Thermal Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, R.; Valio, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las observaciones recientes muestran que las nubes moleculares no son homogeneas, sino que tienen condensaciones. Se observa que estas condensaciones estan libres gravitacionalmente. C6mo se forman estas condensaciones? Sugerimos explicar estas conden sac jones como debidas a que la inestabilidad termica ayuda a la gravedad. Se estudi6 una funci5n de enfriamiento por gramo de la forma general A p T , en donde p y T son la densidad y la temperatura. Estamos interesados en el valor maximo de para la cual el colapso ocurre. Se estudiaron varios mode- los. Nuestros resultados indican que los valores de comparables con aquellos sugeridos por la literatura (1 son suficientes para provocar el colapso de masas inferiores a la masa de Jeans por medio de inestabilidad termica, ayudada por gravedad y asi se forman las condensaciones libres gravitacionalmente. ABSTRACT: Recent observations show that molecular clouds are not homogeneous, but clumpy. Some clumps are observed to be gravitationally unbound. How did these clumps then form? We suggest explaining these condensation as due to thermal instability aiding gravit y The cooling function per gram studied is of the general form A p T,where pand T are the density and temperature, respectively. We are interested in the maximum value of for which collapse still occurs. Various models are studied. Our results indicate that values comparable to those suggested in the literature (1 < %< 2) are sufficient to trigger the collapse of subjeans masses by thermal instability, when aided by gravity, and form the observed gravitationally unbound clumps. Keq o : HYDRODYNAMICS - INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

  1. Diabetes due to recurrent pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Chakrabarti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia associated with hyperparathyroidism (HPT is not very common. We herein report a case of a 21-year-old woman, who presented with acute pancreatitis. She had a past history of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Subsequent evaluation revealed hypercalcemia (serum calcium: 12.6 mg/dL; low phosphate (2.9 mg/dL with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH, 156.7 pg/mL and HbA1c (6.9%. Diagnosis of primary HPT (PHPT was made. Recurrent pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia may have resulted in diabetes mellitus.

  2. River flooding due to intense precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2014-01-01

    River stage can rise and cause site flooding due to local intense precipitation (LIP), dam failures, snow melt in conjunction with precipitation or dam failures, etc. As part of the re-evaluation of the design basis as well as the PRA analysis of other external events, the likelihood and consequence of river flooding leading to the site flooding need to be examined more rigorously. To evaluate the effects of intense precipitation on site structures, the site watershed hydrology and pond storage are calculated. To determine if river flooding can cause damage to risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSC), water surface elevations are analyzed. Typically, the amount and rate of the input water is determined first. For intense precipitation, the fraction of the rainfall in the watershed drainage area not infiltrated into the ground is collected in the river and contributes to the rise of river water elevation. For design basis analysis, the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is evaluated using the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) based on the site topography/configuration. The peak runoff flow rate and water surface elevations resulting from the precipitation induced flooding can then be estimated. The runoff flow hydrograph and peak discharge flows can be developed using the synthetic hydrograph method. The standard step method can then be used to determine the water surface elevations along the river channel. Thus, the flood water from the local intense precipitation storm and excess runoff from the nearby river can be evaluated to calculate the water surface elevations, which can be compared with the station grade floor elevation to determine the effects of site flooding on risk-significant SSCs. The analysis needs to consider any possible diversion flow and the effects of changes to the site configurations. Typically, the analysis is performed based on conservative peak rainfall intensity and the assumptions of failure of the site drainage facilities

  3. Dysregulated mitophagy and mitochondrial organization in optic atrophy due to OPA1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyan; Ashley, Neil; Diot, Alan; Morten, Karl; Phadwal, Kanchan; Williams, Andrew; Fearnley, Ian; Rosser, Lyndon; Lowndes, Jo; Fratter, Carl; Ferguson, David J P; Vay, Laura; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Moroni, Isabella; Bianchi, Stefania; Lamperti, Costanza; Downes, Susan M; Sitarz, Kamil S; Flannery, Padraig J; Carver, Janet; Dombi, Eszter; East, Daniel; Laura, Matilde; Reilly, Mary M; Mortiboys, Heather; Prevo, Remko; Campanella, Michelangelo; Daniels, Matthew J; Zeviani, Massimo; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Simon, Anna Katharina; Votruba, Marcela; Poulton, Joanna

    2017-01-10

    To investigate mitophagy in 5 patients with severe dominantly inherited optic atrophy (DOA), caused by depletion of OPA1 (a protein that is essential for mitochondrial fusion), compared with healthy controls. Patients with severe DOA (DOA plus) had peripheral neuropathy, cognitive regression, and epilepsy in addition to loss of vision. We quantified mitophagy in dermal fibroblasts, using 2 high throughput imaging systems, by visualizing colocalization of mitochondrial fragments with engulfing autophagosomes. Fibroblasts from 3 biallelic OPA1(-/-) patients with severe DOA had increased mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted cells due to decreased levels of OPA1 protein. Similarly, in siRNA-treated control fibroblasts, profound OPA1 knockdown caused mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mtDNA, impaired mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial mislocalization. Compared to controls, basal mitophagy (abundance of autophagosomes colocalizing with mitochondria) was increased in (1) biallelic patients, (2) monoallelic patients with DOA plus, and (3) OPA1 siRNA-treated control cultures. Mitophagic flux was also increased. Genetic knockdown of the mitophagy protein ATG7 confirmed this by eliminating differences between patient and control fibroblasts. We demonstrated increased mitophagy and excessive mitochondrial fragmentation in primary human cultures associated with DOA plus due to biallelic OPA1 mutations. We previously found that increased mitophagy (mitochondrial recycling) was associated with visual loss in another mitochondrial optic neuropathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Combined with our LHON findings, this implicates excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, dysregulated mitophagy, and impaired response to energetic stress in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial optic neuropathies, potentially linked with mitochondrial mislocalization and mtDNA depletion. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc

  4. Extreme lateral approach in a case of acute-onset quadriplegia due to high cervical neurenteric cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Agrawal; Anushree, Agrawal; Patir, Rana; Sehgal, A D

    2007-01-01

    Spinal neurenteric cysts are very rare intradural developmental lesions, predominantly localized anterior to the cervical cord and arising from misplaced endodermal cells in the 3rd week of embryonic life. An acute onset of symptoms can occur due to hemorrhage, but has not as yet been reported in relation to infection in the cyst. We report an 18-year-old male who presented with a rapid onset of respiratory distress and quadriplegia over a period of 6 h requiring intubation and ventilatory support. There was no respiratory effort with a dense sensory level from the neck. MRI of the cervical spine revealed an intradural extramedullary ventrally located cystic lesion at the C(2-3) level. There was no evidence of systemic infection elsewhere in the body. The lesion was radically excised using an extreme lateral approach as it provided excellent visualization of the cyst, thus permitting safe dissection without retraction of the cord. The cyst was tense and the contents turbid, thick, creamy and mucinous without any evidence of fresh or altered blood. Histopathological examination confirmed the cyst to be a neurenteric cyst. The cystic fluid, which was sent for culture, grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first documented case of rapid neurological deterioration due to infection in a neurenteric cyst. In spite of an early effective surgical management, outcome was poor due to the rapid and profound neurological deficit. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  6. When children with profound multiple disabilities are hospitalized: A cross-sectional survey of parental burden of care, quality of life of parents and their hospitalized children, and satisfaction with family-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Bea; Spirig, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess parental burden of care, satisfaction with family-centered care, and quality of life (HRQoL) of parents and their hospitalized children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), and determine the relationship among these factors. A cross-sectional study using printed questionnaires and qualitative questions was undertaken at a Swiss University Children's Hospital. The 117 parents (98 mothers, 19 fathers) studied indicated a substantial impact on burden of care and parental health-related quality of life. Significant correlations with the hospitalized children's well-being were rs = .408 for burden of care and rs -.368 for quality of life. Qualitative results showed parents struggling to safeguard their children and worrying most about the children's well-being. Health professionals need to be aware of parental burden and that the perception of the children's well-being and the parents' efforts determine their support needs. Easing parents' burden and fostering confidence in the hospitalized children's well-being requires coordination of care provided by advanced nurse specialists, with an institutional framework that clarifies parental collaboration. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points - An international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhringer, F.K.; Rex, C.; Sielenkamper, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex (Org 25969), a novel, selective relaxant binding agent, was specifically designed to rapidly reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for the reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade...... was evaluated. Methods: A total of 176 adult patients were randomly assigned to receive sugammadex (2, 4, 8, 12, or 16 mg/kg) or placebo at 3 or 15 min after high-dose rocuronium (1.0 or 1.2 mg/kg) during propofol anesthesia. The primary endpoint was time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.......9. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed using acceleromyography. Results: Sugammadex administered 3 or 15 min after injection of 1 mg/kg rocuronium decreased the median recovery time of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 in a dose-dependent manner from 111.1 min and 91.0 min (placebo) to 1.6 min and 0.9 min (16 mg...

  8. 34 CFR 674.41 - Due diligence-general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due diligence-general requirements. 674.41 Section 674... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.41 Due diligence—general requirements. (a) General. Each institution shall exercise due diligence in collecting...

  9. 21 CFR 60.36 - Standard of due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard of due diligence. 60.36 Section 60.36... TERM RESTORATION Due Diligence Petitions § 60.36 Standard of due diligence. (a) In determining the due diligence of an applicant, FDA will examine the facts and circumstances of the applicant's actions during...

  10. The prognosis of retinal detachment due to lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, W E; Morse, P H

    1978-09-01

    In a series of 553 consecutive retinal detachments, 29% (120) were due to lattice degeneration. Forty-five percent of these were due to atrophic holes in the lattice degeneration and 55% were due to tears caused by traction posterior to or at the end of a patch of lattice. In phakic patients, retinal detachments due to atrophic holes were most common in young myopes. Detachments due to traction tears were seen in older, less myopic patients. The incidence of massive periretinal proliferation was less (5%) in detachments due to lattice degeneration than in detachments not due to lattice degeneration (6.5%).

  11. Impact of unilateral conductive hearing loss due to aural atresia on academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, Bradley W; Krook, Kaelyn; Gray, Lincoln C

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of unilateral conductive hearing loss secondary to aural atresia on elementary school children's academic performance. Case control survey and review of audiometric data. One hundred thirty-two surveys were mailed to families of children with aural atresia, and 48 surveys were sent to families of children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) to identify rates of grade retention, use of any resource, and behavioral problems. Audiometric data of the cohort were tabulated. Of the 40 atresia patients, none repeated a grade, but 65% needed some resources: 12.5% currently use a hearing aid, 32.5% use(d) a frequency-modulated system in school, 47.5% had an Individualized Education Plan, and 45% utilized speech therapy. Compared to the unilateral SNHL group and a cohort of children with unilateral SNHL in an earlier study, children with unilateral atresia were less likely to repeat a grade. Children in both unilateral atresia and SNHL groups were more likely to utilize some resource in the academic setting compared to the unilateral SNHL children in the prior study. Unilateral conductive hearing loss due to aural atresia has an impact on academic performance in children, although not as profound when compared to children with unilateral SNHL. The majority of these children with unilateral atresia utilize resources in the school setting. Parents, educators, and health care professionals should be aware of the impact of unilateral conductive hearing loss and offer appropriate habilitative services. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Family-centredness of professionals who support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: validation of the Dutch 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP-PIMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L G; van der Putten, Annette A J; Post, Wendy J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-07-01

    A Dutch version of the 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP) was developed to determine the extent to which professionals apply the principles of family-centred care in the rehabilitation of children with physical disabilities. However, no data were available on the reliability and construct validity of this instrument when it comes to supporting people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This study aimed to validate an adapted version of the Dutch MPOC-SP for assessing the family-centred behaviours of professionals who support this group (MPOC-SP-PIMD). A total of 105 professionals took part in the study. A Mokken scale analysis was conducted to determine whether the instrument satisfied the assumptions of both monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity. Loevinger's scalability coefficient (H) was used for the scalability of the entire scale and of each item separately. Rho was calculated as a measure of the internal consistency of the scales. The analyses resulted in two scales: a nine-item scale interpreted as 'Showing Interpersonal Sensitivity', with H=.39 and rho=.76, and a seven-item scale interpreted as 'Treating People Respectfully', with H=.49 and rho=.78. A validated version of the MPOC-SP-PIMD, suitable for supporting people with PIMD, consists of a subset of two scales from the original Dutch MPOC-SP. This instrument can be used to compare the family-centredness of professionals with parent's expectations and views. This information can be used in practice to match the support to the needs of the parents and family of the child with PIMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems due to icing of overhead lines - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, D.G.; Pon, C.J.; Krishnasamy, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    A companion paper describes uncertainties in overhead line design due to the variability of ice and wind loads. This paper reviews two other effects due to icing; conductor galloping and torsional instability, which require further study. (author)

  14. RISE OF MOBILITY PROGRAMS IN GERMANY DUE TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poppe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning has come to the front position of the educational agenda in many countries of the world – the knowledge society, learning society, learning organization and so forth are the common terms now in the 21st century. The terms come into view in countless publications of the European Union and of many other countries in and outside the European Community. The learning society is one of the products of globalisation and knowledge, learning and education are intertwined with global capitalism. Education is considered as a servant to global capitalism, enabling trans-boundary companies to gather more effectively in the knowledge society. Learning has become to a central task in governmental education policy in many countries and it is being treated as investment – adding value to human and social capital, resulting in employability and then in work, which makes an even greater distribution to the economy, rather than being treated as a natural human process that results in the improvement of people as human beings. Profound changes are taking place as a result of globalisation that is affecting the whole of the educational institution. The objective of this contribution is to present Germany on its way to a knowledge society by examining the past and the present situation of Germany concerning mobility and furthermore mobility programs.

  15. Disrupted cortical function underlies behavior dysfunction due to social isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takase, Kenkichi; Nakajima, Waki; Tada, Hirobumi; Ohya, Daisuke; Sano, Akane; Goto, Takahisa; Hirase, Hajime; Malinow, Roberto; Takahashi, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects neonatal brain circuit formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. These effects led to defects in whisker-dependent behavior in juvenile animals. These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. PMID:22706303

  16. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part I--the time period taken to acquire first words and first word combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Increasing numbers of infants and young children are now presenting to implantation centers and early intervention programs as the impact of universal newborn hearing screening programs is felt worldwide. Although results of a number of studies have highlighted the benefit of early identification and early fitting of hearing devices, there is relatively little research on the impact of early fitting of these devices on first language milestones. The aim of this study was to investigate the early spoken language milestones of young children with hearing loss (HL) from two perspectives: first, the acquisition of the first lexicon (i.e., the first 100 words) and second, the emergence of the first word combinations. Two groups of participants, one comprising 24 participants with profound HL and a second comprising 16 participants with normal hearing, were compared. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All of these were "switched-on" or fitted before 30 months of age and half at words and any word combinations produced while reaching this single-word target. Acquisition of single words was compared by using the time period (in days) taken to reach several single-word targets (e.g., 50 words, 100 words) from the date of production of the first word. The emergence of word combinations was analyzed from two perspectives: first, the time (in days) from the date of production of the first word to the emergence of the first word combinations and second, the size of the single-word lexicon when word combinations emerged. The normal-hearing group required a significantly shorter time period to acquire the first 50 (mean words than the HL group. Although both groups demonstrated acceleration in lexical acquisition, the hearing group took significantly fewer days to reach the second 50 words relative to the first 50 words than did the HL group. Finally, the hearing group produced word combinations

  17. Temporal and spatial changes in the copepod community during the 1974-1998 spring seasons in the Kuroshio region; a time period of profound changes in pelagic fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    The long-term change (1974-1998) of the pelagic copepod community in the Kuroshio region, western Pacific was examined in archival samples collected both day and night in April/May in a time period of profound changes in the pelagic fish populations. A total of 162 adult copepod species was found. The community analysis based on species composition and abundance of adult copepods identified five assemblages (A-E) by cluster analysis. These assemblages were distributed in the north-frontal area of the Kuroshio Current within the slope area (A), the Kuroshio axis area (B), the subtropical area (C, D), and the coastal area within the slope area (E), indicating that such diverse communities were formed to correspond with the gradual change in the oceanic environment across the Kuroshio Current. The abundance of copepods in the north-frontal area of the Kuroshio Current (A) was 1.6 times greater than that of the other assemblages. Kuroshio/subtropical species were abundant in the assemblage, suggesting that these species that were transported from the Kuroshio and/or subtropical regions increased in the slope region. Abundance and species richness of two assemblages (C, D), which were found in the subtropical areas were higher at night (C) than during the day (D), suggesting that diel vertical migration of copepods is one of the most important factors affecting changes in the community. Furthermore, a generalized additive model revealed that the most dominant subtropical/Kuroshio species increased in years in which the Kuroshio Current flowed further south, with the Kuroshio axis located far from the Japanese coast. In contrast, the model showed that the lower latitude of the Kuroshio axis positioned negatively affected coastal-dominant species, such as Paracalanus parvus sensu lato (s.l.). These results indicate that onshore-offshore shifts of the Kuroshio axis caused by Kuroshio meandering was an important factor involved in the inter-annual change in the copepod

  18. 9 CFR 124.33 - Standard of due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of due diligence. 124.33 Section 124.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Diligence Petitions § 124.33 Standard of due diligence. (a) In determining the due diligence of an applicant...

  19. Common Bile Duct Perforation Due to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razman Jarmin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.

  20. Common Bile Duct Perforation Due to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Razman Jarmin; Shaharin Shaharuddin

    2004-01-01

    A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.

  1. 8 . TOTAL THRUST ON EARTH-RETAlNING STRUCTURES DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various surcharges along retaining walls may include vehicle loads ... be developed from ice formation due to pore water freezing. ... Figure 1 Lateral pressure against rigid wall due to ... value for the case of a line load is due to the effect.

  2. A comparison of due-date selection rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, K.R.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    1981-01-01

    In sequencing and scheduling models it is usually assumed that due dates represent exogeneous information. In many practical settings, however, due dates can be discretionary, or at least negotiable. Relatively few studies have incorporated discretionary due dates, and even then the rules proposed

  3. Evolution and failure of liquid bridges between grains due to evaporation and due to extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueckel, T.; Mielniczuk, B.; Said El Youssoufi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Evolution and rupture of liquid bridges between glass spheres during liquid evaporation and during mechanical extension was examined. The latter type of the tests has been widely studied, while a number of pertinent measurements during transient evaporation have not yet been reported. Also the resultant total capillary forces were measured and geometrical characteristics (curvature radii)were recorded with a photo camera and high-speed camera and subsequently digitalized. The obtained results reveal substantial differences in geometry of liquid bridges during extension and evaporation. On the other hand, evaporation and extension of liquid bridgelead to a similar qualitative response in terms of the pressure within the liquid bridge, starting with a significant suction, which initially somewhat increases during evaporation to reach a maximum, followed by a rapid monotonic decrease until zero, to become a sizable positive pressure prior to rupture. Extension same pattern is followed, except that there is no initial suction increase. Hence, in both cases, rupture consistently occurs at a positive fluid pressure. The pressure evolution is a simple resultant of the evolution of radii of curvature, with the neck radius becoming smaller than meridian radius. In terms of resultant capillary force, as the area of the bridge cross-section decreases with the square of the neck radius, the pressure difference is almost entirely negative, in part also due to surface tension component. Nevertheless, the suction decreases nearly monotonically during both processes. Rupture during evaporation of the bridges occurs most abruptly for larger separations, as early as after 25% volume evaporated. It is seen as a bifurcation of the geometry of equilibrium, as demonstrated on a movie with 27, 000 shots per second. The evolution of a bridge between three spheres exhibits a centrally located thin film instability with a circular hole growing within 1/3000th of a second. All these findings

  4. Severe Cushing’s syndrome due to small cell prostate carcinoma: a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Elston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH is associated with a variety of tumours most of which arise in the thorax or abdomen. Prostate carcinoma is a rare but important cause of rapidly progressive CS. To report a case of severe CS due to ACTH production from prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma and summarise previous published cases. A 71-year-old male presented with profound hypokalaemia, oedema and new onset hypertension. The patient reported two weeks of weight gain, muscle weakness, labile mood and insomnia. CS due to ectopic ACTH production was confirmed with failure to suppress cortisol levels following low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests in the presence of a markedly elevated ACTH and a normal pituitary MRI. Computed tomography demonstrated an enlarged prostate with features of malignancy, confirmed by MRI. Subsequent prostatic biopsy confirmed neuroendocrine carcinoma of small cell type and conventional adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Adrenal steroidogenesis blockade was commenced using ketoconazole and metyrapone. Complete biochemical control of CS and evidence of disease regression on imaging occurred after four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. By the sixth cycle, the patient demonstrated radiological progression followed by recurrence of CS and died nine months after initial presentation. Prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare cause of CS that can be rapidly fatal, and early aggressive treatment of the CS is important. In CS where the cause of EAS is unable to be identified, a pelvic source should be considered and imaging of the pelvis carefully reviewed.

  5. Multiorgan Failure and Refractory Lactic Acidosis due to Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with No Animal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Pena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative coccobacillus pathogenic to animals. It can cause infection in humans by a bite, scratch, or lick from a cat or dog. P. multocida can cause a variety of infections in humans, including cellulitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, and septic shock. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. He denied exposure to cats, dogs or other pets. He had severe respiratory distress requiring ventilator support, profound septic shock requiring multiple vasopressors, severe lactic acidosis, and renal failure requiring emergent hemodialysis. Blood cultures confirmed the presence of P. multocida. The patient subsequently died of cardiopulmonary arrest due to multiorgan failure with refractory shock. Conclusion. P. multocida septicemia can lead to septic shock. Early identification of this organism may decrease mortality. Although our patient had no known cat or dog exposure, physicians should enquire about a history of animal exposure when a patient presents with an infection with no obvious cause.

  6. Hygienic estimation of population doses due to stratospheric fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hygienic estimation of external and internal irradiation of the USSR population due to stratospheric global fallouts of fission products after nuclear explosions and weapon tests, is carried out. Numerical values which characterize the dose-effect dependence in the case of radiation of marrow, bone tissue and whole body are presented. Values of mean individual and population doses of irradiation due to global fallouts within 1963-1975, types of injury and the number of mortal cases due to malignant neoplasms are presented. A conclusion is made that the contribution of radiation due to stratospheric fallouts in the mortality due to malignant neoplasms is insignificant. Annual radiation doses, conditioned by global fallouts within the period of 1963-1975 constitute but several percent from the dose of radiation of the natural radiation background. Results of estimation of genetic consequences of irradiation due to atmospheric fallouts are presented

  7. Observed and modeled multi-year evaporation from three field-scale experiments using water balance and Penman-Monteith methods: Profound effect of material type and wind exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. E.; Fretz, N.; Bay, D.; Mayer, K. U.; Smith, L.; Beckie, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    2, and greatly overestimated observed evaporation for Pile 3. The depth of the soil layer which is susceptible to evaporation, Ze, was calibrated from the base-case value of Ze= 0.10 m to values of Ze= 0.27 m (Pile 1), Ze= 0.05 m (Pile 2), and Ze= 0.02 m (Pile 3) to provide a good fit with observed evaporation. It is hypothesized that the Pile 3 calibration of Ze = 0.02 m is less physically realistic than accounting for preferential flow directly. A possible approach would be to modify the FAO-PM formulation by including a coefficient of preferential flow, KPF, on days that exceed a specified threshold daily precipitation, Pi,TH. The results highlight the profound effect of material type on evaporation from waste rock. Fine-grained, relatively homogeneous materials tend to follow traditional evaporation patterns both on the crowns and slopes of waste rock piles. Coarser-grained and more heterogeneous waste rock can have higher or lower evaporation than expected.

  8. Magnetic Generation due to Mass Difference between Charge Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shi; Dan, JiaKun; Chen, ZiYu; Li, JianFeng

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of spontaneous magnetization due to the "asymmetry in mass" of charge carriers in a system is investigated. Analysis shows that when the masses of positive and negative charge carriers are identical, no magnetization is predicted. However, if the masses of two species are different, spontaneous magnetic field would appear, either due to the equipartition of magnetic energy or due to fluctuations together with a feedback mechanism. The conditions for magnetization to occur are ...

  9. Prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, C J; Clarke, T C; Spencer, R C

    1994-01-01

    A case of postoperative prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is described. Difficulties in isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this organism are discussed.

  10. Intestinal Necrosis due to Giant Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Ali; Duran, Fulay Yilmaz; Cengiz, Fevzi; Duran, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal pathologies due to ovarian cyst are observed rarely. Although a limited number of cases in neonatal and adolescent periods have been observed, no adult case has been reported in the literature. Two mechanisms are involved in intestinal complications due to ovarian cysts: torsion due to adhesion or compression of giant ovarian mass with a diameter of 9-10 cm. We report here a terminal ileum necrosis case due to compression by an ovarian cyst with 11 × 10 × 7 cm size in an 81-year-ol...

  11. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determinate the relationship between oxidative stress with psychological disturbances, low self-esteem, depressive mood and anxiety, and quality of life in the postmenopausal women. We carried out a cross-sectional study with101 premenopausal and 101 postmenopausal women from Mexico City. As markers of oxidative stress we measured plasma lipoperoxide levels, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and total antioxidant status. We calculate a stress score as global oxidative stress status, with cut-off values for each parameter; this score range from 0 to 6, representing the severity of markers modifications. All the women were rated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales, and the WHO Quality of Life-brief. The postmenopausal women with low quality of life in the WHO Quality of Life-brief and their subscales had higher stress score compared with premenopausal women with high quality of life (p Life-brief scores (r = -0.266, p Life-brief, after adjusted for pro-oxidant factors. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales scores also contribute to increase lipoperoxides levels, but not significant. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in postmenopausal women with psychological disturbances and low quality of life.

  12. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroij, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, B.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males

  13. 38 CFR 4.58 - Arthritis due to strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthritis due to strain... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.58 Arthritis due to strain. With service incurred lower extremity amputation or shortening, a disabling arthritis, developing in...

  14. A case of injection abscess due to salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, injection abscess due to Salmonella typhi has not been reported earlier. A patient with fever of unknown origin was diagnosed as suffering from typhoid fever, administered a course of ceftrioxone but patient developed an injection abscess due to S.typhi, abscess was drained and patient was started on ciprofloxacin to which he responded favourably.

  15. 22 CFR 226.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of amounts due. 226.73 Section 226.73 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements § 226.73 Collection of amounts due. (a...

  16. Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes due to spin-fluctuation scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, S.M.; Scalapino, D.J.; Bulut, N.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes associated with spin-fluctuation scattering are calculated. A Berk-Schrieffer interaction with an irreducible susceptibility given by a BCS form is used to model the quasiparticle damping due to spin fluctuations. Results are presented for both s-wave and d-wave gaps. Also, quasiparticle lifetimes due to impurity scattering are calculated for a d-wave superconductor

  17. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  18. Earliness-tardiness scheduling around almost equal due dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The just-in-time concept in manufacturing has aroused interest in machine scheduling problems with earliness-tardiness penalties. In particular, common due date problems, which are structurally less complicated than problems with general due dates, have emerged as an interesting and fruitful field

  19. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  20. Electrical injuries due to railway high tension cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, M; Kay, S

    1985-08-01

    We have noted a large number of young boys being admitted to our Unit with burns due to railway high tension cables. On review of these cases we have noted: most of the burns were due to arcing, there is a high level of ignorance among the population at risk. We propose some ways of preventing these injuries.

  1. 28 CFR 70.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 70.73 Section 70.73 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements § 70.73 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any...

  2. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  3. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  4. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically

  5. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resner, Kathryn; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Hale, Cindy; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Blum, Alex; Sebestyen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes 210 Pb and 137 Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of

  6. Scope and limitations of due process in administrative proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carvajal Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain in a better way the scope of Due Process in Administrative Law as a legal norm whose respect is essential to all government agencies, three points of view (formal, structural and material are proposed. Those items seem useful to understand “Administrative Due Process” in all its dimensions: as a constitutional norm developed by the enactment of laws and decrees; as a principle inspiring some conducts and new norms; and as an objective and subjective fundamental right. On the other hand, it is shown that Administrative Due Process is not an absolute rule because in some cases its full application is subject to normative relativism. Two opposite trends can be perceived at this point: in the first place, government agencies usually do not act the same way judges do, so Administrative Due Process should be distinguished from Judicial Due Process; therefore, it could actually have a more restricted scope. In the second place, some administrative authorities are nowadays playing a role more or less similar to what judges do. This means that new procedural guarantees will be claimed. In any case, admitting valid limitations to Administrative Due Process leads to the quest of the limits of these limitations. The application of the rule of Due Process cannot be totally suppressed; its scope cannot be completely reduced. This is the result of its fundamental nature as a legal norm that ensures justice and equity in all administrative procedures, and proscribes random decisions.

  7. Single machine scheduling with slack due dates assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Hu, Xiangpei; Wang, Xuyin

    2017-04-01

    This paper considers a single machine scheduling problem in which each job is assigned an individual due date based on a common flow allowance (i.e. all jobs have slack due date). The goal is to find a sequence for jobs, together with a due date assignment, that minimizes a non-regular criterion comprising the total weighted absolute lateness value and common flow allowance cost, where the weight is a position-dependent weight. In order to solve this problem, an ? time algorithm is proposed. Some extensions of the problem are also shown.

  8. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  9. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma ... pling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave field. This is ... To describe fully ionized plasma where the interac-.

  10. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies due to unusual vascular causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Jayashri; Escolar, Diane; Ryan, Monique; Darras, Basil; Jones, H. Royden

    Four cases of pediatric sciatic neuropathies due to unusual vascular mechanisms are reported. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies were seen after umbilical artery catheterization, embolization of arteriovenous malformation, meningococcemia, and hypereosinophilic vasculitis. Electrophysiologic studies

  11. [Reversible first-degree atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Aksüyek Savaş; Amasyalı, Basri

    2017-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism often causes tachyarrhythmia. Reversible atrioventricular block caused by hyperthyroidism is rare occurrence. Presently described is a case of atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism and recovery after antithyroid treatment.

  12. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Atomic displacements; density functional theory; Kanzaki method. ... pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. ... Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and ...

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  14. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    namic response of anisotropic continuum has received the attention of ... linear theory of micropolar elasticity and bending of orthotropic micropolar ... medium due to time harmonic concentrated load, the continuum is divided into two half-.

  15. 1860 E NUOVOMONDO: DUE DIVERSE “STORIE” DI SUBALTERNI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Nuovomondo (2006) di Emanuele Crialese condividono ben poco: corrono quasi settanta ... variazioni di significato. Qui lo si vuole utilizzare nel senso ormai classico a esso dato dalla ... Il realismo è, infatti, alla base delle due pellicole, ma il ...

  16. Transport due to ion temperature gradient mode vortex turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.

    1991-01-01

    The ion energy transport due to an ensemble of nonlinear vortices is calculated in the test particle approximation for a strongly turbulent plasma. A diffusion coefficient proportional to the root of the stationary turbulence level is obtained. (au)

  17. A Patient Developed Painful Muscle Cramps due to Overeating Mangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman had a habit to eat a mango every night before sleep and experienced muscle cramps during sleep. Her muscle cramps may be resulted from potassium overload due to overeating mangos.

  18. Estimating Global Burden of Disease due to congenital anomaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Breidge; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the estimates of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to congenital anomaly for Europe by comparing infant mortality data collected by EUROCAT registries with the WHO Mortality Database, and by assessing the significance of stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal...... the burden of disease due to congenital anomaly, and thus declining YLL over time may obscure lack of progress in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention....

  19. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  20. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.