WorldWideScience

Sample records for profound beneficial effects

  1. Beneficial effects of human altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2011-11-21

    In this work we review converging evidence from several lines of research which suggests that altruism in humans can be intrinsically rewarding. Various investigations illustrate how human altruism can have beneficial effects on health and wellbeing. In this contribution we propose a model that includes positive effects of altruism. These beneficial effects lead to significant changes in the dynamics of the system, favouring higher levels of altruism and facilitating abrupt changes towards cooperation. In the present model, social modulation occurs at both individual and collective levels. The potential beneficial role of altruism proposed here may account for its occurrence among non-kin and beyond reciprocity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple

  3. Nanotechnological Inventions and Nanomaterials Produce A Profound Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to increase mechanical strength, coefficient of elasticity, alkali resistance and temperature of products vitrification; to obtain nanostructured coatings with the property of shape memory on the steel; to raise the dynamics of coal burning and its full burnout in the boilers of thermoelectric power station; to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy 10–15% etc. For example, the invention «Epoxy composition for high strength, alkali resistant structures» refers to epoxy composition used as a binder for production of high strength, thermal- and alkali-resistant glass-fiber material which can be applied in the manufacture process of construction reinforcement to strengthen concrete structures. The invention «The method to produce nanostructured reaction foil» can be used to join different materials including metal alloys, ceramics, amorphous materials and elements of microelectronic devices that are sensible to the heating. This process provides decreased labour-output ratio and energy consumption as well as the condition to manufacture foil with specified stored energy and high mechanical properties. The invention «The method of intensification of burning lowreactionary coal in the boilers of thermoelectric power station» refers to the thermal energy and can be implemented at the thermal plants. The increased dynamics of inflaming and burning leads to full burnout of powdered-coal low-reactionary fuel and decreased mechanical underfiring. The specialists may be also interested in the following inventions: fine dispersed organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it; the dispersion of carbon nanotubes; the composition for reinforcement of building structures; the reinforced plate element made of

  4. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  5. EFFECT OF JUMPS IN PROFOUNDNESS ON THE FOOTBALLER REFLECTION

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    Nebojša Đošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment endured one month. For this time 8 trainings and totally 322 jums in profoundness were done with differant altitudes from 42 cm to 105 cm. The complete time of work with time-out between sequences was about 120 minutes. The time-out between the sequences was from 2 ' til 6'. The pause between the training was from 2 to 5 days. The puls after 30 '' from the finishing of the jums in th sequence was from 100 to 140 pulsation in the minute measured by palpation. On the finaly measurement is constated that the two leg jump from place in height was better for 7 cm , and the one leg jump with three footsteps spring was better for 2 cm. This such result indicate on the assumption that the progress must bi greater if the program would be longer , for example two, three months and if this program should be done by footbalers which are active and in the best player years i.e. between 18 -30 year. The author was by this time 40 years old.

  6. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  7. Fitness effects of fixed beneficial mutations in microbial populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, D.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Gerrish, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Beneficial mutations are intuitively relevant to understanding adaptation [1-3], yet not all beneficial mutations are of consequence to the long-term evolutionary outcome of adaptation. Many beneficial mutations - mostly those of small effect - are lost due either to (1) genetic drift [4, 5] or to

  8. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effect...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  9. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  10. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  11. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  12. Beneficial fitness effects are not exponential for two viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Darin R; Beisel, Craig J; Joyce, Paul; Ferris, Martin T; Burch, Christina L; Wichman, Holly A

    2008-10-01

    The distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations is of paramount importance in determining the outcome of adaptation. It is generally assumed that fitness effects of beneficial mutations follow an exponential distribution, for example, in theoretical treatments of quantitative genetics, clonal interference, experimental evolution, and the adaptation of DNA sequences. This assumption has been justified by the statistical theory of extreme values, because the fitnesses conferred by beneficial mutations should represent samples from the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. Yet in extreme value theory, there are three different limiting forms for right tails of distributions, and the exponential describes only those of distributions in the Gumbel domain of attraction. Using beneficial mutations from two viruses, we show for the first time that the Gumbel domain can be rejected in favor of a distribution with a right-truncated tail, thus providing evidence for an upper bound on fitness effects. Our data also violate the common assumption that small-effect beneficial mutations greatly outnumber those of large effect, as they are consistent with a uniform distribution of beneficial effects.

  13. The effects of an environmental "enrichment" program on the behavior of institutionalized profoundly retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, R D

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the effects of procedures designed to "enrich" the physical and social environment of an institutional ward on the "adaptive" and "maladaptive" child, adult, self, and object-directed behaviors of five profoundly retarded ambulatory females. Behavior observed in two treatment conditions, an environment "enriched" with toys and objects and an "enriched" environment coupled with differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior, was compared to behavior occurring in correspo...

  14. Beneficial effects of microbes in nutrient recycling in cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major constraint to agricultural production in Malawi is soil fertility decline. The beneficial effects of microbes in the soil, in sustaining soil productivity are promoted in the country through the introduction of organic matter technologies. However, the effect of using maize stover on long term soil fertility improvement has ...

  15. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SPORT ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  16. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION. Anti-nutritional factors (ANF) ..... and elevated the blood and brain superoxide dismutase activity. Yoshiki and Okubo (1995) ...... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sci. 34: 1-11. Wang B ...

  17. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  18. The effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants for severe-to-profound deafness in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoonhoven, Jelmer; Sparreboom, Marloes; van Zanten, Bert G A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Dreschler, Wouter A; Grolman, Wilko; Maat, Bert

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation compared with unilateral cochlear implantation or bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss. In 2007, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the U.K. conducted a systematic review on cochlear implantation. This study forms an update of the adult part of the NICE review. The electronic databases MEDLINE and Embase were searched for English language studies published between October 2006 and March 2011. Studies were included that compared bilateral cochlear implantation with unilateral cochlear implantation and/or with bimodal stimulation, in adults with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Speech perception in quiet and in noise, sound localization and lateralization, speech production, health-related quality of life, and functional outcomes were analyzed. Data extraction forms were used to describe study characteristics and the level of evidence. The effect size was calculated to compare different outcome measures. Pooling of data was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the studies. As in the NICE review, the level of evidence of the included studies was low, although some of the additional studies showed less risk of bias. All studies showed a significant bilateral benefit in localization over unilateral cochlear implantation. Bilateral cochlear implants were beneficial for speech perception in noise under certain conditions and several self-reported measures. Most speech perception in quiet outcomes did not show a bilateral benefit. The current review provides additional evidence in favor of bilateral cochlear implantation, even in complex listening situations.

  19. Effect of profound normovolemic hypotension and moderate hypothermia on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Bogatzki, S; Syben, R; Bechrakis, N E; Dopjans, D; Spies, C; Welte, M; Schaffartzik, W

    1999-11-01

    Hypotension caused by hypovolemic, hemorrhagic shock induces disturbances in the immune system that may contribute to an increased susceptibility to sepsis. The effect of chemically induced hypotension on circulating cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been investigated yet. In 21 patients scheduled for resection of malignant choroidal melanoma of the eye the perioperative serum levels of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and the adhesion molecules sE-Selectin and sICAM-1 were investigated. Moderate hypothermia of 32 degrees C was induced in all patients. In 14 patients profound hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 35-40 mmHg, hypotension group) was induced by enalapril and nitroglycerin for a mean duration of 71 min. In 7 patients the tumor was not resectable, and hypotension was not induced (controls). We did not detect significant differences in serum levels of cytokines or sE-Selectin perioperatively in patients with profound hypotension compared with controls. In both groups IL-6 serum levels increased significantly and reached a maximum after rewarming (17 +/- 6 and 16 +/- 5 pg/dL, respectively, P < 0.001). IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha did not change perioperatively in both groups. On the first postoperative day sICAM-1 serum levels were significantly increased in both groups (mean increase of 96 and 54 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). We conclude from this study that profound normovolemic arterial hypotension does not seem to have effects on serum levels of circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and sE-Selectin. Perioperative moderate hypothermia may be the reason for the postoperative increase in sICAM-1 levels independent of the blood pressure.

  20. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  1. The Differential Effects of Attentional Focus in Children with Moderate and Profound Visual Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. T. McNamara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been consistently reported that an external focus of attention leads to better motor performance than an internal focus, but no research to date has explored this effect in a population with visual impairments (VI. External focus statements typically reference something in the environment (e.g., target that may be difficult to conceptualize for people with VI since they cannot generate a visual representation of the object of focus. Internal focus statements could be more closely identifiable with proprioception that is not impaired in this population. Recent studies have reported that sighted adults with temporarily obstructed vision are able to receive an external focus benefit when performing discrete tasks (i.e., golf putt and vertical jump, however, it is unclear if those with VI would experience the same benefit. The purpose of this investigation was to compare how an internal focus and external focus impact the balance of children with VI. Eighteen children with VI were grouped into a moderate (n = 11 and a profound VI group (n = 7. Participants completed a familiarization trial, an internal focus trial (i.e., focusing on feet and an external focus trial (i.e., focusing on markers in a counterbalanced order. The moderate VI group had a lower root mean square error while using an external focus (p = 0.04, while the profound VI group did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05. These results suggest that while performing a task reliant on sensory feedback, an external focus benefit may be dependent on the severity of VI. Further research is needed to examine whether external focus statements can be presented in a way that may be more intuitive to those with profound VI. These findings may help to influence how professionals in health-related fields (e.g., physical therapist and physical educators give instructions on motor performance to populations with VI.

  2. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  3. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  4. [Randomized controlled trials terminated prematurely: beneficial therapy effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, L A; Rink, M; Ahyai, S A; Fisch, M; Shariat, S F; Dahm, P

    2013-08-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stopped prematurely for beneficial therapy effects are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the urological literature and often receive great attention in the public and medical media. Urologists who practice evidence-based medicine should be aware of the potential bias and the different reasons why and how early termination of RCTs can and will affect the results. This review provides insights into the challenges clinical urologists face by interpreting the results of prematurely terminated RCTs.

  5. Beneficial effects of rosuvastatin treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Cem; Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozkan, Alev Arat; Uzunhasan, Isil; Kaya, Aysem; Yigit, Zerrin

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effect of 6-month rosuvastatin treatment on blood lipids, oxidative parameters, apolipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Healthy individuals (men aged >40 years and postmenopausal women) with a body mass index ≥ 30 (n = 100) who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria for MetS were included. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased (P < .0001). The change in LDL 1 to 3 subgroups was significant (P = .0007, P < .0001, and P = .006, respectively). Changes in LDL 4 to 7 subgroups were not significant. There was a beneficial effect on oxidized LDL, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and HbA1c. Rosuvastatin significantly increased high-density lipoprotein levels (P = .0003). The oxidant/antioxidant status and subclinical inflammatory state were also beneficially changed. Rosuvastatin had a significant beneficial effect on atherogenic dyslipidemia as well as on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with MetS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the reversibility of acid secretion in profound hypochlorhydria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Sekine, H; Koike, T; Imatani, A; Ohara, S; Shimosegawa, T

    2004-06-01

    Although profound hypochlorhydria is considered to be an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer, long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on its reversibility remains uncertain. To clarify the change in acid secretion after eradication in a long-term follow-up over 5 years in patients with profound hypochlorhydria. Twenty-three H. pylori-positive patients with hypochlorhydria (hypochlorhydria.

  7. Beneficial effects of fresh and fermented kimchi in prediabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min Suk; Jeon, Ja Young; Ha, Eun Suk; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Ja Young; Ok, Chang-Ok; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won-Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2013-01-01

    With the increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, the importance of early intervention in prediabetes has been emphasized. We previously reported that fermented kimchi, a traditional Korean food, reduced body weight and improved metabolic factors in overweight participants. We hypothesized that kimchi and its fermented form would have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in patients with prediabetes. A total of 21 participants with prediabetes were enrolled. During the first 8 weeks, they consumed either fresh (1-day-old) or fermented (10-day-old) kimchi. After a 4-week washout period, they switched to the other type of kimchi for the next 8 weeks. Consumption of both types of kimchi significantly decreased body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. Fermented kimchi decreased insulin resistance, and increased insulin sensitivity, QUICKI and disposition index values (p = 0.004 and 0.028, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased significantly in the fermented kimchi group. The percentages of participants who showed improved glucose tolerance were 9.5 and 33.3% in the fresh and fermented kimchi groups, respectively. Consumption of kimchi had beneficial effects on glucose metabolism-related and anthropometric factors in participants with prediabetes. Fermented kimchi had additional effects on BP and insulin resistance/sensitivity. The percentage of participants who showed improvement in glucose tolerance was high in the fermented kimchi group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of beneficial microorganisms on lowland rice development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascente, Adriano Stephan; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; Lanna, Anna Cristina; de Sousa, Thatyane Pereira; de Souza, Alan Carlos Alves; da Silva Lobo, Valácia Lemes; da Silva, Gisele Barata

    2017-11-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth by increasing phytomass production, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis rates, and grain yield, which can result in higher profits for farmers. However, there is limited information available about the physiological characteristics of lowland rice after treatment with beneficial microorganisms in the tropical region. This study aimed to determine the effects of different beneficial microorganisms and various application forms on phytomass production, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in the lowland rice cultivar 'BRS Catiana' in a tropical region. The experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions utilizing a completely randomized design and a 7 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments consisted of seven microorganisms, including the rhizobacterial isolates BRM 32113, BRM 32111, BRM 32114, BRM 32112, BRM 32109, and BRM 32110 and Trichoderma asperellum pooled isolates UFRA-06, UFRA-09, UFRA-12, and UFRA-52, which were applied using three different methods (microbiolized seed, microbiolized seed + soil drenched with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 days after sowing (DAS), and microbiolized seed + plant spraying with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 DAS) with a control (water). The use of microorganisms can provide numerous benefits for rice in terms of crop growth and development. The microorganism types and methods of application positively and differentially affected the physiological characteristics evaluated in the experimental lowland rice plants. Notably, the plants treated with the bioagent BRM 32109 on the seeds and on seeds + soil produced plants with the highest dry matter biomass, gas exchange rate, and N, P, Fe, and Mg uptake. Therefore, our findings indicate strong potential for the use of microorganisms in lowland rice cultivation systems in tropical regions. Currently, an additional field experiment is in its second year to validate the beneficial result reported

  10. Meditation can produce beneficial effects to prevent cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cardoso, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Coronary heart disease is the major cause of global cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle behaviour contributes as a risk factor: unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial stress. Atherosclerosis pathologic mechanisms involving oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammation and senescence are associated with arterial wall damage and plaque formation. Stress reduction was observed in several types of meditation. After meditation, hormonal orchestration modulates effects in the central nervous system and in the body. All types of meditation are associated with blood pressure control, enhancement in insulin resistance, reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular senescence, independent of type of meditation. This review presents scientific evidence to explain how meditation can produce beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and particularly regarding vascular aspects.

  11. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S

    2009-10-01

    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  12. The beneficial effects of taurine in preventing metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Guo, Junxia; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc. to reduce blood pressure. This review summarizes the data from in vitro, animal and limited human studies of beneficial effects of taurine on obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and addresses the possible metabolic and molecular mechanisms of the prevention of metabolic syndrome by taurine.

  13. Beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, S G; Singh, S K; Goyal, P; Dilbaghi, N; Mishra, D N

    2005-03-01

    The primary role of a diet is not only to provide enough nutrients to fulfill metabolic requirements of the body but also to modulate various functions of the body. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are either beneficial microorganisms or substrates that facilitate the growth of these microorganisms which can be suitably harnessed by the food manufacturers and holds considerable promise for health care industry. Regardless of sufficient health benefits of these, there is a need to carry a multidisciplinary approach on safety evaluation as the conventional toxicological approach has various limitations. This article gives an overview of probiotics and prebiotics, their health effects, mode of action, growth and survival in GIT, quality assurance criteria and safety including future prospects.

  14. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  15. The effects of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Marleen D.; Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the benefits of physical activity in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is an increase in alertness. This study investigated the effect of a power-assisted exercise intervention on alertness and the relationship of this effect to the level of additional motor

  16. Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Raschke

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1α mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans.

  17. Motor interventions in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities: motor, cognitive and social effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, but the specific benefits in children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to

  18. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  19. Beneficial effects of footbaths in controlling spasticity after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Shimozono, Yurika; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2010-07-01

    Footbaths are considered to provide beneficial thermal therapy for post-stroke patients with spasticity, but their anti-spastic effects have not been investigated comprehensively. The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in motor-neuron excitability using F-wave parameters in post-stroke patients with spastic hemiplegia. Subjects’ legs below the knee joint were immersed in water at 41°C and F-wave recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle before, immediately after, and 30 min after thermal treatment. Antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Measurements included F-wave amplitude, F-wave/M-response ratio, changes in modified Ashworth scale (MAS), body temperature and surface-skin temperature. The mean values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before footbath treatment. In post-stroke patients, the mean values of F-wave parameters were significantly reduced after footbath treatment ( P role in decreased spasticity. Surface-skin temperature increased immediately after footbath treatment in both groups and returned to baseline 30 min later. These findings demonstrate that the use of footbaths is an effective nonpharmacological anti-spastic treatment that might facilitate stroke rehabilitation.

  20. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerza Abdul Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states.

  1. The causal effect of profound organizational change when job insecurity is low – a quasi-experiment analysing municipal mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of...

  2. Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötting, Kirsten; Röder, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    The human brain adapts to changing demands by altering its functional and structural properties ("neuroplasticity") which results in learning and acquiring skills. Convergent evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that physical activity facilitates neuroplasticity of certain brain structures and as a result cognitive functions. Animal studies have identified an enhancement of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, angiogenesis and the release of neurotrophins as neural mechanisms mediating beneficial cognitive effects of physical exercise. This review summarizes behavioral consequences and neural correlates at the system level following physical exercise interventions in humans of different ages. The results suggest that physical exercise may trigger processes facilitating neuroplasticity and, thereby, enhances an individual's capacity to respond to new demands with behavioral adaptations. Indeed, some recent studies have suggested that combining physical and cognitive training might result in a mutual enhancement of both interventions. Moreover, new data suggest that to maintain the neuro-cognitive benefits induced by physical exercise, an increase in the cardiovascular fitness level must be maintained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zachar; Maurine Neiman

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution o...

  4. Beneficial Effects of Childhood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T S; Edwards, Caleb; Liu, Jenny L; Walter, Deanna M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2017-03-05

    .  Orthopedic surgeries were pursued by 59% of patients. The most common orthopedic surgeries were hamstring lengthenings (31%), Achilles tendon lengthenings (18%), adductor lengthenings (16%), and derotational osteotomies (16%). Twenty-four percent of all patients later underwent hip surgery and 8% had surgeries on their knees.  Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the beneficial effects of childhood SDR extend to adulthood quality of life and ambulatory function without late side effects of surgery.

  5. A comparison of the effects of four therapy procedures on concentration and responsiveness in people with profound learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Pitcaithly, D; Geelen, N; Buntin, L; Broxholme, S; Ashby, M

    1997-06-01

    This paper is an investigation into the efficacy of four therapeutic treatment procedures increasingly used with people with profound learning disabilities: snoezelen, hand massage/aromatherapy, relaxation, and active therapy (a bouncy castle). In particular, the effects of these procedures on concentration and responsiveness were examined. Eight subjects with profound learning disabilities took part in the study and each subject received each of the treatments. To assess the effects of the treatments, simple concentration tasks were administered and the subjects' responsiveness to each treatment was rated by independent observers. The results suggest that both snoezelen and relaxation had a positive effect on concentration and seemed to be the most enjoyable therapies for clients, whereas hand massage/aromatherapy and active therapy had no or even negative effects on concentration and appeared less enjoyable.

  6. What is profound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound.......Discussing the question, which elements on the path are to be considered profound. While a general view is that the most subtle practises are also the most profound, 'Jig-rten-mgon-po maintains that the most fundamental one's are to be considered the most profound....

  7. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  8. Beneficial effects of Psidium guajava leaf extract on diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Indira, Madambath

    2013-01-01

    Non enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) between reducing sugar and protein results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is believed to play an important role in diabetes associated cardiovascular complications. Thus agents that inhibit the formation of AGEs are believed to have therapeutic potential against diabetic complications. In the present study we evaluated the antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaves (PGEt) by administering the extract into streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Daily administration of the extract for a period of one month significantly decreased the blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine levels in a dose dependent manner. Evaluation of the toxicity markers like SGOT and SGPT revealed the non toxic nature of the extract. Apart from this we evaluated the presence of cardiac isoform of liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, which is a major protein associated with earlier stages of cardiac hypertrophy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the level of this protein decreased significantly in extract treated groups compared to diabetic control. These findings support that the administration of PGEt extract may be beneficial for preventing cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L. (mBME in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg, bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg. The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  10. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    .... Then we will present findings about the short‐ and long‐term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects...

  11. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of UV on Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Spectral Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and

  12. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-04-01

    Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  14. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other be...... beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall....

  15. Effects of early identification and intervention on language development in Japanese children with prelingual severe to profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Norio; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Omori, Kana; Sugaya, Akiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    Early identification and intervention for prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss is supposed to reduce the delay in language development. Many countries have implemented early detection and hearing intervention and conducted regional universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, the benefits of UNHS in later childhood have not yet been confirmed, although language development at school age has a lifelong impact on children's future. Our Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders project attempted to reveal the effects of UNHS and those of early intervention on the development of verbal communication in Japanese children. In this study, 319 children with prelingual bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 4 to 10 years of age, were evaluated with the Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development used as an objective variable. Participation in UNHS and early intervention were used as explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated after adjusting several confounding factors with use of logistic regression analysis. In addition, caregivers' answers were obtained by a questionnaire, and the process of diagnosis with and without UNHS was analyzed retrospectively. Early intervention was significantly associated with better language development (AOR, 3.23; p identification leads directly to early intervention.

  16. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  17. The Remarkable Beneficial Effect of Adding Oral Simvastatin to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease with unpredictable prognosis. Given the immunomodulatory effects of statins, the present study was conducted to determine whether the addition of orally administered simvastatin to the topical betamethasone, a standard antipsoriatic treatment, can produce a more ...

  18. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given ...

  19. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of antinutritional factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples of these natural compounds of plant origin are saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, oxalates, phytates, trypsin (protease) inhibitors, phytohaemagglutinins (lectins), just to mention a few. Emphasis has always been laid on the toxic and anti-nutrient effects of these compounds in the natural state even though ...

  20. Beneficial Effects of Leaf Extracts of Lycoperscon esculentum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at determining the effects of the methanol extracts of the leaves of Lycoperscon esculentum on the wound healing in Wistar rats. Excisional wounds were inflicted on the upper dorsolateral trunk of normal saline (control) and tomato (Lycoperscon esculentum) leaf treated (TLT) adult rats and thereafter ...

  1. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  2. Does fat grafting have any beneficial effects in nerve regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Bloancă1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of our study was to assess the effect of autologous fat graft on nerve regeneration by creating a suitable experimental model. MATERIALS AND METHODS The rat sciatic nerve was used, followed by transaction. Primary neurorrhaphy was made on both hind legs, but a processed fat graft was applied on one side, surrounding the nerve. RESULTS We used histological examination for the followup, at 4 and 10 weeks. The results showed an increased and a more organised neural regeneration on the side where the fat graft was used. CONCLUSIONS The adipose-derived stem cell has clearly demonstrated its capacity to transdifferentiate. However, its specific role in this process is not yet clearly understood. We attempted to explore the blunt effect of this cell on direct neurrorhaphy. We did not observe a categorical differentiation towards Schwann like cell, but mostly an antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effect. Graphical abstract: Technical aspects of fat grafting on neurorrhaphy. REFERENCES 1. Raposio E, Caruana G, Bonomini S, Libondi G. A novel and effective strategy for the isolation of adipose-derived stem cells: minimally manipulated adipose-derived stem cells for more rapid and safe stem cell therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:1406-9. 2. Zack-Williams SDL, Butler PE, Kalaskar DM. Current progress in use of adipose derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration. World J Stem Cells. 2015; 7: 51–64. 3. Zuk PA. The Adipose-derived Stem Cell: Looking Back and Looking Ahead. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1783–1787.

  3. The effects of alcohol on the heart: detrimental or beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, V M

    1997-02-01

    Alcohol abuse is a substantial public health problem, resulting in staggering financial costs and other burdens. Prolonged alcohol abuse leads to cardiomyopathy in a minority of alcohol abusers, but because alcoholism is so widespread, alcohol is the major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. In contrast, substantial evidence now suggests that moderate alcohol consumption has cardioprotective effects. It not only reduces the incidence of fatal ischemic heart disease, but it improves outcome in patients who have other risks for coronary events and go on to have myocardial infarctions. Therefore, physicians' recommendations about alcohol consumption should be as individualized as their patients.

  4. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  5. Beneficial effects of human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, S; Rada, V; Vlkova, E; Bunesova, V

    2014-09-01

    Human milk is the gold standard for nourishment of early infants because it contains a number of bioactive components, such as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The high concentration and structural diversity of HMOs are unique to humans. HMOs are a group of complex and diverse glycans that are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and reach the infant colon as the first prebiotics. N-acetyl-glucosamine containing oligosaccharides were first identified 50 years ago as the 'bifidus factor', a selective growth substrate for intestinal bifidobacteria, thus providing a conceptual basis for HMO-specific bifidogenic activity. Bifidobacterial species are the main utilisers of HMOs in the gastrointestinal tract and represent the dominant microbiota of breast-fed infants, and they may play an important role in maintaining the general health of newborn children. Oligosaccharides are also known to directly interact with the surface of pathogenic bacteria, and various oligosaccharides in milk are believed to inhibit the binding of pathogens and toxins to host cell receptors. Furthermore, HMOs are thought to contribute to the development of infant intestine and brain. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk and, therefore, they are unlikely to mimic some of the structure-specific effects. In this review, we describe how HMOs can modulate gut microbiota. This article summarises information up to date about the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and HMOs, and other possible indirect effects of HMOs on intestinal environment.

  6. Beneficial effect of colchicine in a case of sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, A; Kadish, U

    1986-06-01

    A patient with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosis cholangitis confirmed by liver biopsy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography presented with severely altered liver function tests. A month of steroid treatment for the colitis symptoms had no effect on the liver function tests, and colchicine, 1 mg/day, was added. After 3 months of this combined treatment, improvement of the liver function tests was noted and progressed to complete normalization of all liver function tests at the end of a 2-year period of follow-up. On further follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic and with normal liver function tests for an additional 3 years. Further controlled studies would be worthwhile to evaluate the possibility of treatment of primary sclerosis cholangitis with colchicine with or without steroids.

  7. Beneficial effect of peptides from microalgae on anticancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-05-01

    Biologically active compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically microalgae, cyanobacteria and seaweed. The structural characteristics of these peptides include various unusual amino acid residues, which may be responsible for their properties. Moreover, protein hydrolysates formed by the enzymatic digestion of aquatic and marine by-products are an important source of bioactive peptides. Purified peptides from these sources have been shown to have antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on several human cancer cell lines such as HepG2, HeLa, AGS, and MCF-7. These characteristics imply that the use of peptides from marine sources has potential for the prevention and treatment of cancer, and that they might also be useful as molecular models in anticancer drug research.This review focuses about the anticancer activating of peptides were prepared from microalgae in detail.

  8. Beneficial Physiological Effects With Blackcurrant Intake in Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Myers, Stephen David; Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Cook, Matthew David

    2015-08-01

    Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol · La(-1) OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance.

  9. Mitochondrial bioenergetics decay in aging: beneficial effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by progressive decline in physiological functions, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity to respond to stresses, and increased risk of contracting age-associated disorders. Mitochondria are referred to as the powerhouse of the cell through their role in the oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. These organelles contribute to the aging process, mainly through impairment of electron transport chain activity, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and increased oxidative stress. These events lead to damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays a pivotal role in several mitochondrial bioenergetic processes as well as in mitochondrial-dependent steps of apoptosis and in mitochondrial membrane stability and dynamics. Cardiolipin alterations are associated with mitochondrial bienergetics decline in multiple tissues in a variety of physiopathological conditions, as well as in the aging process. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, is considered an effective protector of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin preserves mitochondrial function by preventing cardiolipin oxidation and this may explain, at least in part, the protective role of this compound in mitochondrial physiopathology and aging. Here, mechanisms through which melatonin exerts its protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with aging and age-associated disorders are discussed.

  10. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  11. [The beneficial effect of physical training in hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Silvia; Dima-Cozma, Corina; Georgescu, T; Turcanu, D; Pandele, G I

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is present in epidemic proportion and is associated with a markedly increased risk of developing numerous cardiovascular disorders. All current treatment guidelines emphasise the role of nonpharmacological interventions, physical activity included, in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. A large number of studies have demonstrated that regular exercise reduces the incidence of hypertension. In addition to preventing hypertension, regular exercise has been found to lower blood pressure (10 mmHg average reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure), improve lipoprotein-lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity. As part of the initial treatment, exercise is recommended for 12 months in patients with stage 1 hypertension, with no other coronary risk factors and no evidence of cardiovascular disease, and for as long as 6 months in those with other risk factor, but not diabetes. In patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease or with stage 2 or 3 hypertension, drug therapy should be initiated first. Dynamic exercise of moderate intensity, 50-75% VO2max, (e.g. brisk walking, cycling) for 50-60 minutes, 3-5 times per week, is preferable to vigorous exercise because it appears to be more effective in lowering blood pressure. In addition to reducing hypertension, physical activity improves other cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Beneficial effect of camel milk in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Dogra, Rutba; Mohta, Niranjana; Tiwari, Raksha; Singhal, Sushma; Sultania, Surender

    2009-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is originally microvascular in nature and is widely considered an important complication of diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of camel milk in controlling diabetic nephropathy. Twenty-four type-1 diabetic patients were randomly recruited from the outpatient diabetic clinic in PBM Hospital, Bikaner, India. All subjects gave their written consent before participation in the study. Patients with any acute metabolic complications were not included in the study. Eligible patients entered a run-in period of 1 month in which they were oriented to achieve the best possible glycemic control through standardized diet, standardized exercise regimen and insulin administration. During this period frequent monitoring of blood sugar was performed to maintain euglycemia. At the end of the run-in period, a base line evaluation was performed, then these patients were given camel milk in addition with usual care for six months. Urine microalbumin and blood sugar was measured twice a week before breakfast and dinner. There was a significant improvement in the microalbuminuria (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p camel milk for 6 months. A significant reduction in the mean dose of insulin for obtaining glycemic control was achieved (41.61 +/- 3.08 to 28.32 +/- 2.66; p camel milk in controlling microalbuminuria levels in type-1 diabetic patients. It was observed that after adding camel milk to the usual regimen an improvement in microalbuminuria was reached (119.48 +/- 1.68 to 22.52 +/- 2.68; p camel milk. The mechanism behind this effect is still unknown.

  13. Profound Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Mutation on Adherence Properties Are Clarified in in vitro Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Velusamy

    Full Text Available Leukotoxin (Ltx is a prominent virulence factor produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral microorganism highly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Ltx compromises host responsiveness by altering the viability of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Previously, we developed a Rhesus (Rh monkey colonization model designed to determine the effect of virulence gene mutations on colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Unexpectedly, an A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (ltxA mutant (RhAa-VS2 failed to colonize in the Rh model. No previous literature suggested that Ltx was associated with A. actinomycetemcomitans binding to tooth surfaces. These results led us to explore the broad effects of the ltxA mutation in vitro. Results indicated that LtxA activity was completely abolished in RhAa-VS2 strain, while complementation significantly (P<0.0001 restored leukotoxicity compared to RhAa-VS2 strain. RT-PCR analysis of ltx gene expression ruled out polar effects. Furthermore, binding of RhAa-VS2 to salivary-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA was significantly decreased (P<0.0001 compared to wild type RhAa3 strain. Real time RT-PCR analysis of the genes related to SHA binding in RhAa-VS2 showed that genes related to binding were downregulated [rcpA (P = 0.018, rcpB (P = 0.02, tadA (P = 0.002] as compared to wild type RhAa3. RhAa-VS2 also exhibited decreased biofilm depth (P = 0.008 and exo-polysaccharide production (P<0.0001. Buccal epithelial cell (BEC binding of RhAa-VS2 was unaffected. Complementation with ltxA restored binding to SHA (P<0.002 but had no effect on biofilm formation when compared to RhAa3. In conclusion, mutation of ltxA diminished hard tissue binding in vitro, which helps explain the previous in vivo failure of a ltxA knockout to colonize the Rh oral cavity. These results suggest that; 1 one specific gene knockout (in this case ltxA could affect other seemingly unrelated genes (such as rcpA, rcpB tadA etc, and 2

  14. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  15. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Benn

    2016-08-01

    Interpretation: Revaccination with live vaccines led to substantial reductions in overall mortality. These findings challenge current understanding of vaccines and may explain the beneficial effects of campaigns with live vaccines.

  16. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF KETO AMINO ACIDS FOR DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Teplan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status is an important predictor of clinical outcome in dialysed patients. Beside decreased serum protein/albumin,lower BMI with decreased muscle mass is the most significant predictor of morbidity and mortality. Keto amino acids (KA represent an additional source for protein anabolism influencing indirectly also carbohydrate and lipid metabolism,Ca-P and acid base balance.Additionaly,by concominant metabolic and hemodynamic effect on residual nefrons, KA can help to slow progression of residual renal function (RRF mainly in peritoneal dialysis patients. We conducted a long-term prospective randomized placebo controlled trial to test whether a modified low-protein diet (LPD with or without keto acids (KA would be safe ,well tolerated and associated with an increase of metabolic status and preservation of RRF in peritoneal dialysis (PD. We evaluated a total of 62 PD patients (32M/30F aged 26-72 yrs with creatinine clearance (Ccr 7.9-5.7 mL/min/1.73m2 for a period of 12 months. All patients were on modified LPD containing 0.8 protein/kg/IBW/day and 135/kJ/kg/IBW/day. LPD was randomly supplemented with KA at dosage of 100 mg/kg/IBW/day (30 patients, Group I while 30 patients (Group II received placebo. We analysed also muscle and fat metabolism by MR spectroscopy (MRS, m.tibialis anterior and imagining (MRI,visceral fat.Patients from Group I were before enrolment on conservative management using LPD + KA (0.6g P + 0.1g KA/kg/IBW/day for longer time (18-48 months, median 28 with good compliance (SGA. Patients from group II were never treated with LPD and KA.All patients were monitored at the beginning of PD and at every 3 months for 12 months.;A neutral or positive long- term nitrogen balance (nPCR in g/kg IBW/day was achieved in Group I (p<0.05 .RRF measured as Ccr remained stable in Group I (6.5 ± 2.18 to 5.9 ± 2.54 ml/min, p=NS,while it decreased in Group II (6.7 ± 2.22 to 3.2 ± 1.44 ml/min, p<0.02.There were no differences in

  17. Glutamatergic modulation of separation distress: profound emotional effects of excitatory amino acids in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normansell, Larry; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Pre-clinical models of brain affective circuits provide relevant evidence for understanding the brain systems that figure heavily in psychiatric disorders. Social isolation and the resulting separation distress contribute to the onset of depression. In this work, the effects of excitatory amino acids (EAA) on isolation-induced distress vocalization (DV) were assessed in young domestic chicks. Both glutamate and quisqualate (QA) produced dose-dependent reductions in DVs, while N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate (KA) increased DVs. Such a differential pattern of responsiveness may indicate the presence of reciprocal or interacting EAA systems in the brain control of separation distress. Administration of either the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) or the broad-spectrum antagonist gamma-d-glutamylglycine (DGG) greatly reduced DVs, as did the antagonist 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB). APV did not attenuate the increase in vocalizations seen after NMDA or KA administration. DGG, however, was able to block the increase in calling produced by either of these agonists, suggesting a KA receptor mechanism. KA treatment inhibited the ability of other chicks, or auditory and somatosensory information, to suppress DVs. KA-treated animals exhibited a hyperemotional behavior pattern during which a variety of motivated behaviors were disrupted including reactions to novel objects, approaching the flock, and foraging. They could not sustain a coherent flock-like social cohesion, but exhibited strong fixed-action patterns of flight interspersed with hiding and crouching behaviors. The evident behavioral changes suggest that glutamatergic synapses directly influence sensory, motor and emotional processes in the brain and may be especially important in the integration of environmental stimuli with emotional central state processes of animals. Considering that unresolved social loss and grief have been deemed to be among the main precipitating causes

  18. The effects of profound hypothermia on pancreas ischemic injury: a new experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Ferro, Oscar Cavalcante; Pantanali, Carlos Andrés; Seixas, Marcel Povlovistsch; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; Claro, Laura Carolina López; Abdo, Emílio Elias; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) has a key role in pancreas surgery and transplantation. Most experimental models evaluate the normothermic phase of the IR. We proposed a hypothermic model of pancreas IR to evaluate the benefic effects of the cold ischemic phase. We performed a reproducible model of hypothermic pancreatic IR. The ischemia was induced in the pancreatic tail portion (1-hour ischemia, 4-hour reperfusion) in 36 Wistar rats. They are divided in 3 groups as follows: group 1 (control), sham; group 2, normothermic IR; and group 3, hypothermic IR. In group 3, the temperature was maintained as close to 4.5°C. After reperfusion, serum amylase and lipase levels, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6), and pancreas histology were evaluated. In pancreatic IR groups, amylase, cytokines, and histological damage were significantly increased when compared with group 1. In the group 3, we observed a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.004) and interleukin 6 (P = 0.001) when compared with group 2. We did not observe significant difference in amylase (P = 0.867), lipase (P = 0.993), and histology (P = 0.201). In our experimental model, we reproduced the cold phase of pancreas IR, and the pancreas hypothermia reduced the inflammatory mediators after reperfusion.

  19. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Patrizia; Giuglietti, Marta; Baglioni, Antonella; Verdolini, Norma; Murgia, Nicola; Piccirilli, Massimo; Elisei, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite adequate therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Drug-resistant epilepsy is even more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability. As a result, several non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to improve quality of life in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. A number of studies have demonstrated that music can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges. In particular, Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy as well. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on seizure frequency in institutionalized epileptic subjects with profound/severe intellectual disability. Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 21.6 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a cross-over design; they listened to Mozart K448 once a day for six months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the listening period and both baseline and control periods. During the music period, none of the patients worsened in seizure frequency; one patient was seizure-free, five had a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and the remaining showed minimal (N=2) or no difference (N=4). The average seizure reduction compared to the baseline was 20.5%. Our results are discussed in relation to data in the literature considering differences in protocol investigation. Music may be considered a useful approach as add-on therapy in some subjects with profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy and can provide a new option for clinicians to consider, but further large sample, multicenter studies are needed to better understand the characteristics of responders and non-responders to this type of non

  20. Cost of Adaptation and Fitness Effects of Beneficial Mutations in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Zhang, Tianyi; Kassen, Rees

    2011-01-01

    Adaptations are constructed through the sequential substitution of beneficial mutations by natural selection. However, the rarity of beneficial mutations has precluded efforts to describe even their most basic properties. Do beneficial mutations typically confer small or large fitness gains? Are their fitness effects environment specific, or are they broadly beneficial across a range of environments? To answer these questions, we used two subsets (n = 18 and n = 63) of a large library of mutants carrying antibiotic resistance mutations in the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens whose fitness, along with the antibiotic sensitive ancestor, was assayed across 95 novel environments differing in the carbon source available for growth. We explore patterns of genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions and ecological specialization among the 18 mutants initially found superior to the sensitive ancestor in one environment. We find that G×E is remarkably similar between the two sets of mutants and that beneficial mutants are not typically associated with large costs of adaptation. Fitness effects among beneficial mutants depart from a strict exponential distribution: they assume a variety of shapes that are often roughly L shaped but always right truncated. Distributions of (beneficial) fitness effects predicted by a landscape model assuming multiple traits underlying fitness and a single optimum often provide a good description of the empirical distributions in our data. Simulations of data sets containing a mixture of single and double mutants under this landscape show that inferences about the distribution of fitness effects of beneficial mutants is quite robust to contamination by second-site mutations. PMID:21868607

  1. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.

  2. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.

  3. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  4. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sona; Seetharaman, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  5. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona John

    Full Text Available Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  6. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    Potatoes are cultivated in Southwest Greenland without the use of pesticides and with limited crop rotation. However, despite the fact that plant-pathogenic fungi are present in the Greenlandic potato soils, no severe disease outbreaks, such as late blight, have been observed. In this PhD project......, a number of beneficial fungal-inhibiting bacteria were isolated from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive potato soil in Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Especially one bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, showed high antifungal activity against ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and oomycetes, and it was able......5 were identified and their antifungal as well as anticancer potentials were elucidated. Furthermore, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on bacterial communities in the Greenlandic potato soils was studied in addition to beneficial rhizobacteria and their production of bioactive compounds....

  7. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer...

  8. The Hands with Eyes and Nose in the Palm: As Effective Communication Alternatives for Profoundly Deaf People in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutswanga, Phillipa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences and testimonies of people with profound deafness, the study qualitatively explored the use of the hands with eyes and nose in the palm as communication alternatives in the field of deafness. The study was prompted by the 27 year old lady, Leah Katz-Hernandez who is deaf who got engaged in March 2015 as the 2016…

  9. The False-Friend Effect in Three Profoundly Deaf Learners of French: Disentangling Morphology, Phonology and Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Three profoundly deaf individuals undertook a low-frequency backward lexical translation task (French/English), where morphological structure was manipulated and orthographic distance between test items was measured. Conditions included monomorphemic items (simplex), polymorphemic items (complex), items whose French morphological structure…

  10. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  11. Normalization of Institutional Mealtimes for Profoundly Retarded Persons: Effects and Noneffects of Teaching Family-Style Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study evaluated a program for teaching family-style mealtime skills to four profoundly retarded institutionalized adolescents. The program used forward chaining with a less-to-more intrusive prompting sequence and contingent reinforcement to teach the skills. (Author/DB)

  12. Multi-Sensory Rooms: Comparing Effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference Environment on the Behavior of Adults with Profound Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N = 27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were…

  13. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  14. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Beneficial therapeutic effects of vitamin C on recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Ianniello, Francesca; Bianchi, Virginia; Quintarelli, Fabio; Cammerata, Michela; Quattrocchi, Enrica; Terranova, Gloria M; Miggiano, Giacinto A; Casale, Manuele

    2016-11-17

    To demonstrate whether supplementation of vitamin C has a beneficial effect in the prevention of recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Moreover, we evaluate the main risk factors that predispose to the development of this disease. Sixty children have been enrolled in the study and randomized into two groups: the control group (G1 n = 33) and the group at risk of recurrent RTIs (G2 n = 27). To G2 group was administered every day 100% orange juice with the content of vitamin C 70 mg. Significant reduction in the incidence rate of RTIs (episodes pre-treatment: 182-6.75 episodes/child, after-treatment: 71-2.62 episodes/child, P vitamin C had a beneficial effect in our group of children with recurrent RTIs, reducing the number of infective episodes.

  16. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Mechanism of beneficial effect of tantalum in hot corrosion of nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analyses were used to examine a prominent NaTaO3 pattern formed in a number of nickel-base superalloys. It is found that a beneficial effect of tantalum with respect to hot corrosion attack arises from the ability of Ta2O5 to tie up Na2O and prevent the formation of a molten Na2MoO4 phase.

  18. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore....... In a quasi-experimental study two doses before and after 9months compared with one dose of MV after 9months of age reduced mortality by 59% (25-81%). BCG-revaccination significantly enhanced BCG's effect against overall child mortality in two RCTs. In a natural experiment study of OPV campaigns over a 13......-year-period in Guinea-Bissau, each additional dose of OPV was associated with a 13% (4-21%) reduction in mortality rate. The beneficial NSEs of smallpox vaccination for survival increased significantly with the number of smallpox vaccination scars. INTERPRETATION: Revaccination with live vaccines led...

  19. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  20. Intestinal Innate Antiviral Immunity and Immunobiotics: Beneficial Effects against Rotavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Julio; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria Guadalupe; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RV), which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now, it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RV infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and striking secretion of proinflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RV diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics) to protect against intestinal infections, such as those caused by RVs, is among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics and their beneficial impact on RV infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RV infections.

  1. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  2. Effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from beneficiated low-grade manganese ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, Bambang; Noegroho, Adi; Ferdian, Deni; Nurjaman, Fajar

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is known to have a large low-grade manganese ore reserve. Nevertheless, it could not be used optimally in producing ferromanganese due to their low Mn/Fe ratio. In this present study, the beneficiation process had been applied to the low-grade manganese ore. Reduction roasting was conducted to this manganese ore at 700°C for an hour and then continued with low-intensity magnetic separation. This process had improved the Mn/Fe ratio from 1.39 to 6.11. The effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from this beneficiated low-grade manganese ore had been investigated clearly in this experiment by using mini submerged arc furnace (SAF). Several basicities for 0.7 and 1.0, was used and it was controlled by the addition of limestone in this smelting process. From this experiment, the ferromanganese containing 60% Mn was obtained from smelting the beneficiated low-grade manganese ore with the optimum basicity 0.7.

  3. Beneficial effects of exercise training after myocardial infarction require full eNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van Haperen, Rien; Soullié, Thomas; Tempel, Dennie; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2010-06-01

    Exercise training attenuates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). It could be speculated that these effects of exercise are mediated by increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that eNOS plays a critical role in the exercise-induced amelioration of LV dysfunction after MI. MI or sham was induced in eNOS(-/-), eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice. After 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running (approximately 7 km/day in all groups) or sedentary housing, global cardiac function was determined in vivo and (immuno)histochemistry was performed to assess cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, capillary density and apoptosis in remote myocardium. At baseline eNOS(-/-) mice had higher mean aortic pressure compared to eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice, but had normal global cardiac function. MI resulted in marked LV remodeling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a reduction in capillary density, increased fibrosis and apoptosis, as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction to the same extent in all genotypes. In eNOS(+/+) MI mice exercise abolished fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote myocardium, attenuated LV systolic dysfunction and ameliorated pulmonary congestion. These beneficial effects were lost in eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice, while LV systolic dysfunction and pulmonary congestion in eNOS(+/-) mice were exacerbated by exercise. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of exercise after MI on LV remodeling and dysfunction depend critically on endogenous eNOS. The observation that the lack of one eNOS allele is sufficient to negate all beneficial effects of exercise, strongly suggests that exercise depends on full eNOS expression. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d’El-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  5. Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Aslan, Alp; Holterman, Christoph; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-01-01

    Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an imagination task supposed to induce a change in mental context, whereas the other half performed a counting task which does not induce such context change. Following presentation of a second list, memory for the original list's target items was tested, either with or without preceding retrieval of the list's nontarget items. Consistent with previous work, preceding nontarget retrieval impaired target recall in the absence of the context change, but improved target recall in its presence. In particular, there was a positive relationship between WMC and the beneficial, but not the detrimental effect of memory retrieval. On the basis of the view that the beneficial effect of memory retrieval reflects context-reactivation processes, the results indicate that individuals with higher WMC are better able to capitalise on retrieval-induced context reactivation than individuals with lower WMC.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing the growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts given high (cow dung)- and low (straw)-nutrient diets. There were no differences in worm growth or the number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured of their symbionts when grown on the low-nutrient diet. Thus, Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, or total hydrolyzable amino acid content, which strongly questions the hypothesized role of the symbionts in nitrogen recycling for the host. PMID:20511426

  7. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of a physical treatment modality in patients with intermittent claudication. During this treatment a major part of the skin surface is subjected to intermittent suction and pressure. In a previous, preliminary study the authors found a beneficial effect...... of this treatment in intermittent claudication. The study included 34 patients with moderate, stable intermittent claudication. Twenty-two patients participated in a double-blinded, randomized trial comparing the effects of 25 treatments to 25 placebo applications given over a period of two months. Twelve patients...... administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....

  8. Beneficial effects of Nrf2 overexpression in a mouse model of Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Austin, Elizabeth V; Rockney, Danica E; Jacka, Elizabeth M; Hagemann, Tracy L; Johnson, Delinda A; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Messing, Albee

    2012-08-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by dominant mutations in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by protein inclusions called Rosenthal fibers within astrocyte cell bodies and processes, and an antioxidant response mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2. We sought to test whether further elevation of Nrf2 would be beneficial in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Forcing overexpression of Nrf2 in astrocytes of R236H GFAP mutant mice decreased GFAP protein in all brain regions examined (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord) and decreased Rosenthal fibers in olfactory bulb, hippocampus, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Nrf2 overexpression also restored body weights of R236H mice to near wild-type levels. Nrf2 regulates several genes involved in homeostasis of the antioxidant molecule glutathione, and the neuroprotective effects of Nrf2 in other neurological disorders may reflect restoration of glutathione to normal levels. However, glutathione levels in R236H mice were not decreased. Nrf2 overexpression did not change glutathione levels or ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (indicative of oxidative stress) in olfactory bulb, where Nrf2 dramatically reduced GFAP. Depletion of glutathione through knock-out of the GCLM (glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit) also did not affect GFAP levels or body weight of R236H mice. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of Nrf2 are not mediated through glutathione.

  9. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  10. Beneficial and adverse effects of testosterone on the cardiovascular system in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruige, Johannes B; Ouwens, D Margriet; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The widespread use of T therapy, particularly in aging males, necessitates knowledge of the relationship between T and the cardiovascular system. The review is based on a 1970 to 2013 PubMed search with terms related to androgens in combination with cardiovascular disease, including T, dihydrotestosterone, trial, mortality, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, blood pressure, endothelial function, dyslipidemia, thrombosis, ventricular function, and arrhythmia. Original articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and relevant citations were screened. Low T has been linked to increased blood pressure, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, as well as to impaired left ventricular function. On the one hand, a modest association is suggested between low endogenous T and incident cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular mortality, implying unrecognized beneficial T effects, residual confounding, or a relationship with health status. On the other hand, treatments with T to restore "normal concentrations" have so far not been proven to be beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease; neither have they definitely shown specific adverse cardiovascular effects. The cardiovascular risk-benefit profile of T therapy remains largely evasive in view of a lack of well-designed and adequately powered randomized clinical trials. The important knowledge gap as to the exact relationship between T and cardiovascular disease would support a cautious, restrained approach to T therapy in aging men, pending clarification of benefits and risks by adequately powered clinical trials of sufficient duration.

  11. Unravelling the beneficial role of microbial contributors in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    The field of allelopathy is one of the most fascinating but controversial processes in plant ecology that offers an exciting, interdisciplinary, complex, and challenging study. In spite of the established role of soil microbes in plant health, their role has also been consolidated in studies of allelopathy. Moreover, allelopathy can be better understood by incorporating soil microbial ecology that determines the relevance of allelopathy phenomenon. Therefore, while discussing the role of allelochemicals in plant-plant interactions, the dynamic nature of soil microbes should not be overlooked. The occurrence and toxicity of allelochemicals in soil depend on various factors, but the type of microflora in the surroundings plays a crucial role because it can interfere with its allelopathic nature. Such microbes could be of prime importance for biological control management of weeds reducing the cost and ill effects of chemical herbicides. Among microbes, our main focus is on bacteria--as they are dominant among other microbes and are being used for enhancing crop production for decades--and fungi. Hence, to refer to both bacteria and fungi, we have used the term microbes. This review discusses the beneficial role of microbes in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds. The review is mainly focused on various functions of bacteria in (1) reducing allelopathic inhibition caused by weeds to reduce crop yield loss, (2) building inherent defense capacity in plants against allelopathic weed, and (3) deciphering beneficial rhizospheric process such as chemotaxis/biofilm, degradation of toxic allelochemicals, and induced gene expression.

  12. In vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on plant pathogens, beneficial microbes and crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Banik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based chemicals are effectively used as antimicrobials in agriculture. However, with respect to its nanoparticulate form there has been limited number of studies. In this investigation, in vitro tests on effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs against plant pathogenic fungi, oomycete, bacteria, beneficial microbes Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium spp., and wheat seeds were conducted. Integration of CuNPs with non-nano copper like copper oxychloride (CoC at 50 mg/L concentration each recorded 76% growth inhibition of the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi in vitro compared to the control. CuNPs also showed synergistic inhibitory effect with CoC on mycelial growth and sporulation of A. alternata. Pseudomonas syringae was inhibited at 200 mg/L of CuNPs. CuNPs were not significantly biocidal against Rhizobium spp. and Trichoderma harzianum compared to CoC. Evaluation of the effect of CuNP on wheat revealed that rate of germination of wheat seeds was higher in presence of CuNPs and CoC compared to control. Germination vigor index, root length, shoot dry weight and seed metabolic efficiency of wheat were negatively affected. At low concentration, CuNPs promoted the growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis fabae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, F.oxysporum f.sp. melonis, Alternaria alternate and P. syringae, and sporulation of T. harzianum. Synergistic effect of CuNPs and CoC in inhibiting P. cinnamomi offers a possibility of developing new fungicide formulation for better control of the oomycetes. Non-biocidal effect of CuNPs against beneficial microbes indicates its potential use in the agri-ecosystem.

  13. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O 2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO 2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O 2 ) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance

  14. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A S; Omotoso, Gabriel O; Enaibe, B U; Akinola, O B; Tagoe, C N B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. THE ANIMALS USED FOR THE STUDY WERE GROUPED INTO THREE: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  16. Beneficial Effects of an Integrated Psychostimulation Program in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarria, Marta; Alegret, Montserrat; Valero, Sergi; Morera, Amèrica; Guitart, Marina; Cañabate, Pilar; Moreno, Mariola; Lara, Susana; Diego, Susana; Hernández, Joan; Tantinyá, Natàlia; Vera, Maribel; Hernández, Isabel; Becker, James T; Ruíz, Agustín; Boada, Mercè; Tárraga, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    The existing pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can only slow the progression of symptoms or delay admission to long-term care facilities. The beneficial effects of non-drug treatments are poorly studied. To describe the effects of an Integrated Psychostimulation Program (IPP) in patients with mild-moderate AD treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; and to identify factors related to greater benefit of the IPP. 206 patients (mean age = 75.9 years; MMSE = 19.6) were evaluated before starting the IPP and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later. Measures included: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Subscale of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), Rapid Disability Rating Scale (RDRS-2), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Patients remained cognitively stable (MMSE/ADAS-Cog) for more than 6 months and significantly worsened at 9-month and 12-month follow-ups, without clinically significant functional changes (RDRS-2) or psychiatric symptoms(NPI-Q). The mean annual change on MMSE and ADAS-Cog were 2.06 and 3.56 points, respectively, lower than the annual decline demonstrated previously in similar patients (2.4 and 4.5, respectively). 42.7% of patients maintained or improved global cognitive scores between baseline and 12-month follow-up. The patients who maintained cognitive functions were older than those who did not (77.5 versus 74.7 years). The IPP may be an effective treatment to maintain cognition, functionality, and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients pharmacologically treated, and older age seems to increase beneficial effects of IPP.

  17. Beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, Sara; Antoniazzi, Franco; Maffeis, Claudio; Minuz, Pietro; Fava, Cristiano

    2015-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients mainly derived from fish and seafood but present also in vegetables such as nuts and seed-oils. Some epidemiological and clinical studies indicate a protection of ω-3 FA against cardiovascular disease and a favourable effect on cardiovascular risk factors control in adults. The evidences of their effects in children and adolescents are scanty but a possible beneficial role, especially for insulin sensitivity and blood pressure control, has been proposed. In this review we want to focus especially on the evidences, which could justify the assumption of ω-3 in children and adolescents, and to underline the aspects which need further investigation. Mechanisms through which ω-3 FA act are manifolds and still a matter of investigation: beside their interaction with ion channel and their influence on plasma membrane fluidity, probably the main effect is acting as competitor for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with respect to ω-6 FA. Thus, they can modulate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators, which likely exert a protective action. Another suggestive hypothesis is that their beneficial effect is not dependent only on the intake of ω-3 FA, but also on the complex interaction between different nutrients including ω-3 and other FAs with polymorphisms in genes involved in ω-3 FA modulation. This complex interaction has seldom been explored in children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to investigate all these points in order to find a better collocation of ω-3 FA on the available armamentarium for preventive, possibly individualized, medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  19. Potential beneficial effects of oral administration of isoflavones in patients with chronic mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUI, JIANHUA; GAO, LIANG; YANG, HAIJUN; WANG, FULING; JIANG, CHUNHUA; GAO, YUQI

    2014-01-01

    Soy isoflavones (Ifs), which are natural phytoestrogens, have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that genistein, the most active component of Ifs, inhibits pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia in male Wistar rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ifs on right ventricular and pulmonary hemodynamics in individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Twenty-eight male patients living on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (5,200 m) who were suffering from CMS were treated orally with Ifs (20 mg, twice daily) for 45 days. Physiological and plasma biochemical indices, hematology and echocardiography were investigated. It was observed that 45 days of treatment with Ifs significantly increased blood oxygen saturation and markedly decreased the CMS score and heart rate (all P<0.05) of the subjects. Following treatment with Ifs, hematocrit (P<0.05), hemoglobin concentration (P<0.01) and plasma levels of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) were significantly decreased, while plasma levels of nitric oxide (P<0.01) and the plasma activity of nitric oxide synthase (P<0.01) and superoxide dismutase (P<0.01) were markedly increased compared with the respective values obtained prior to treatment with Ifs. The echocardiography results showed that Ifs significantly decreased the main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), right ventricular end-diastolic anteroposterior diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular end-diastolic trans diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular anterior wall (P<0.01) and right ventricular outflow tract (P<0.01). These results indicate the potential beneficial effects of Ifs in the reduction of excessive erythrocytosis, the alleviation of oxidative damage and the amelioration of right ventricular index and pulmonary hemodynamics in CMS. PMID:24348805

  20. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Resistance to the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes: Are Some Individuals Programmed to Fail?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephens, Natalie A; Sparks, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Context: Exercise benefits most, but not all, individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The beneficial effects are well studied, but why some individuals do not respond favorably to exercise training is largely unexplored...

  2. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., "love of those who are like themselves"), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members' future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members' future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support.

  3. Breast milk cell components and its beneficial effects on neonates: need for breast milk cell banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kaingade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal breastfeeding has been a stated policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health Organization as well as UNICEF. Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infants owing to its colossal nutritional values. However, the presence of various cellular components of breast milk have been gaining more attention in recent years since the first discovery of mammary stem cells in 2007, thereby providing a ray of hope not only for growth and immunity of the neonate but also an insight into its regenerative applicability. In this relation, this article summarizes the cell components of breast milk that have been identified to date. It highlights the beneficial effects of these cells for term and preterm delivered infants along with the need for breast milk and its cell banking.

  4. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (phamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (phamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xueming; Jin, Kaimin

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has documented the beneficial effect of Tai Chi, but most of the studies focused on elders and patients with specific health conditions. The aim of the study was to test whether Tai Chi can help to improve self-concept in adolescents with a longitudinal study. The sample comprised 160 students from a Chinese middle school; half of students formed the experimental group and the rest formed the control group. A 1-year Tai Chi intervention was delivered in 60-minute sessions, five times a week. Both groups were instructed to complete the measure of self-concept at the beginning and end of the intervention. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of good behaviour, intellectual and school status, popularity and anxiety in the experimental group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Tai Chi intervention could improve self-concept in adolescents. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Beneficial effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Darányi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN solutions were deposited on quartz plates by spin coating to yield 2–3 µm thick PAN films. The films were decomposed at 1000°C in N2 atmosphere into electrically conducting carbonaceous coatings. When the precursor solution contained cobalt (0.2 g Co-acetate per 1 g PAN and/or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, 2 mg MWCNT per 1 g PAN the specific electrical resistance of the product film dropped from the original 492 Ω·cm-1 value down to 46 Ω·cm-1. By excluding all other possibilities we came to the conclusion that the beneficial effect of carbon nanotubes is related to their catalytic action in the final graphitization of condensed nitrogen-containing rings into graphitic nanocrystallites.

  7. Trichurs suis ova theraphy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, A.; Bager, P.; Garde, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment with ...... not change. CONCLUSIONS: In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment...... with TSO in relapsing MS. METHODS: The study was an open-label, magnetic resonance imaging assessor-blinded, baseline-to-treatment study including ten patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Median (range) age was 41 (24-55) years, disease duration 9 (4-34) years, Expanded Disability Status...

  8. Vascular dysfunction in obesity: Beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Christine da Silva Sponton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world and several risk factors for developing CVD have been pointed out, including obesity and physical inactivity. Endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory disorders plays an important role in the onset of vascular complications in obesity. In addition, it is well established that aerobic exercises promote beneficial effects on CVD by increasing nitric oxide (NO production or its bioavailability in human and experimental models. The interest in exercise studies increased significantly, with promising results. Considering the importance of this field, the purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the animal studies that investigated the physiological mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in obesity and how aerobic exercise training influenced these alterations.

  9. Beneficial effects of increased lysozyme levels in Alzheimer's disease modelled in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Linnea; Bergkvist, Liza; Nath, Sangeeta; Kielkopf, Claudia; Janefjord, Camilla; Helmfors, Linda; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Li, Hongyun; Nilsberth, Camilla; Garner, Brett; Brorsson, Ann-Christin; Kågedal, Katarina

    2016-10-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD. A similar pattern was seen at protein levels of lysozyme in human AD brain and CSF, but this lysozyme pattern was not seen in a tau transgenic mouse model. Lysozyme was demonstrated to be beneficial for different Drosophila melanogaster models of AD. In flies that expressed Aβ1-42 or AβPP together with BACE1 in the eyes, the rough eye phenotype indicative of toxicity was completely rescued by coexpression of lysozyme. In Drosophila flies bearing the Aβ1-42 variant with the Arctic gene mutation, lysozyme increased the fly survival and decreased locomotor dysfunction dose dependently. An interaction between lysozyme and Aβ1-42 in the Drosophila eye was discovered. We propose that the increased levels of lysozyme, seen in mouse models of AD and in human AD cases, were triggered by Aβ1-42 and caused a beneficial effect by binding of lysozyme to toxic species of Aβ1-42 , which prevented these from exerting their toxic effects. These results emphasize the possibility of lysozyme as biomarker and therapeutic target for AD. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Beneficial effects of extracts from Lucilia sericata maggots on burn wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Haixu; Yang, Qiaoli; Ma, Tao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jialin; Wei, Guo; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Mu, Fei; Lin, Rui; Wen, Aidong; Xi, Miaomiao

    2017-11-01

    Lucilia sericata maggots have beneficial properties; however, their protective effects on burn wounds have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a deep second‑degree burn rat model was used to investigate the burn wound healing properties of aqueous extract of maggots (MAE). The anti‑inflammatory, antioxidative and antibacterial activities were examined. In addition, the protein expression levels of Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) were detected by western blotting. The findings of the present study revealed that MAE treatment increased burn wound healing and hydroxyproline content in the burn‑treated rats. A total of seven compounds (MAE‑P1‑P7) were separated from MAE and a comparative study was performed to identify the major active component. The results demonstrated that MAE‑P6 exerted greater antibacterial activity compared with the other compounds. MAE‑P6 treatment reduced tissue levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, MAE‑P6 increased the expression levels of VEGFA and reduced NF‑κB expression through Akt, which was verified by treatment with the Akt‑specific inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the beneficial effects of MAE on burn wound healing were due to its antibacterial, antioxidative and anti‑inflammatory activities. MAE‑P6 reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines via the Akt/NF‑κB signaling pathway, and regulated angiogenesis and vasopermeability via the Akt/VEGFA pathway.

  11. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, K G; Rajamohan, T

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of consumption of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on various lipid parameters in comparison with copra oil (CO). In addition, the preventive effect of polyphenol fraction (PF) from test oils on copper induced oxidation of LDL and carbonyl formation was also studied. After 45 days of oil feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats, several lipid parameters and lipoprotein levels were determined. PF was isolated from the oils and its effect on in vitro LDL oxidation was assessed. VCO obtained by wet process has a beneficial effect in lowering lipid components compared to CO. It reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues. The PF of virgin coconut oil was also found to be capable of preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with reduced carbonyl formation. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of virgin coconut oil in lowering lipid levels in serum and tissues and LDL oxidation by physiological oxidants. This property of VCO may be attributed to the biologically active polyphenol components present in the oil.

  12. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hachul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  13. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, Maya P; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Wong, Man L; Heldt-Hansen, Hans P; Workman, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2011-04-23

    Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition. © 2011 Piddocke et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition.

  15. GROWTH HORMONE ABOLISHES BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF CALORIE RESTRICTION IN LONG-LIVED AMES DWARF MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH–IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways. PMID:25152388

  16. Sesame oil consumption exerts a beneficial effect on endothelial function in hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Lykka, Maritta; Mantzouratou, Pigi; Skalidi, Sofia; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Papamichael, Christos; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sesame oil on endothelial function and to detect the underlying mechanisms, both in the postprandial state and after long-term consumption. We enrolled 30 hypertensive men in a two-phase study. In the first phase, 26 volunteers consumed 35 g of either sesame oil or control oil. Endothelial function, inflammatory activation and nitric oxide syntase (NOS) inhibition was assessed after a 12-hour fast and 2 hours after consumption of an oil-containing standardized meal. In the second phase, 30 volunteers consumed 35 g of sesame oil or control oil daily for 2 months and the above-mentioned parameters were assessed at baseline, 15, 30 and 60 days. Endothelial function was estimated by endothelium-dependent FMD (flow-mediated dilatation) of the brachial artery. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) improved significantly both after acute (p = 0.001) and long-term sesame oil consumption (p = 0.015, p = 0.005 and p = 0.011 for 15, 30 and 60 days respectively). Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) levels decreased significantly after only 60 days of daily sesame oil intake (p = 0.014). By contrast, no changes were observed in the control group in either phase of the study. This is the first study to show that sesame oil consumption exerts a beneficial effect on endothelial function and this effect is sustained with long-term daily use.

  17. Beneficial lactobacilli: effects on the vaginal tract in a murine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Santos, Viviana; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fatima

    2012-11-01

    Vaginal probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria with activity towards pathogenic microorganisms that cause urogenital tract infections have been proposed as a valid strategy for their prophylaxis and therapy. A murine experimental model was set up to evaluate the colonization capability of beneficial human lactobacilli and their effects on the mouse vaginal mucosa and innate immune cells. Five Lactobacillus strains were intravaginally inoculated into previously estrogenized BALB/c mice. The significance of the effects observed in the vaginal tract was determined by analysis of variance using the general linear model. The numbers of viable vaginal lactobacilli were significantly higher at proestrous-estrous than those at the metaestrous-diestrous phase and decreased markedly on the days after inoculation. Lactobacilli inoculation did not cause cytological or histological modifications of the murine vaginal tract. Moreover, the intravaginal administration of Lactobacillus salivarius CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos culture collection) 1328 and Lactobacillus gasseri CRL 1263 did not affect the amounts of granulocytes and macrophages present in vaginal washings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that vaginal lactobacilli did not produce adverse effects on the murine vaginal tract. Therefore, they could be proposed as safe probiotic candidates to promote a balanced microbiota in the urogenital tract.

  18. Beneficial paracrine effects of adipocytes from obese rats on cultured endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Jenkins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to test the hypothesis that adipocytes from obese rats would exert pro-atherogenic paracrine effects on cultured endothelial cells compared to adipocytes from lean rats, and that the adverse obesity-associated paracrine effects of adipocytes would be more pronounced in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were harvested from 32-wk old obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated for 24 h with media conditioned with LETO subcutaneous adipocytes (LSA, OLETF subcutaneous adipocytes (OSA, LETO epididymal adipocytes (LEA, and OLETF epididymal adipocytes (OEA. The amount of key adipokines secreted by ATs was measured in the supernatant fluid with ELISA and mRNA levels of a number of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes were assessed in treated endothelial cells via quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to adipocytes from other depots, secretion of leptin and TNFα was highest and vaspin secretion was lowest from OEA. However, endothelial cells treated with OEA conditioned media exhibited lower expression of several pro-atherogenic genes. These data suggest that adipocytes isolated from obese visceral adipose tissue secrete some as-yet unidentified factor(s that confers a beneficial effect on transcription of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes of endothelial cells.

  19. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia D. Kappel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.

  20. Do antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients

  1. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  2. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Mi Han,1 In Phyo Hong,1 Soon Ok Woo,1 Sung Nam Chun,2 Kwan Kyu Park,3 Young Mee Nicholls,4 Sok Cheon Pak5 1Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanju, 2Dong Sung Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, Seoul, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, South Korea; 4Manuka Doctor Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. Keywords: bee venom, wrinkle, area, count, depth

  3. Effectiveness of a nurse-led preadmission intervention for parents of children with profound multiple disabilities undergoing hip-joint surgery: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a family-centered care (FCC) intervention provided by an advanced practice nurse (APN) for parents of children with profound disabilities undergoing surgery. In a quasi-experimental design, we used the MPOC-20 to assess satisfaction with FCC and interviews to identify potential mechanisms for improving satisfaction. There was a positive effect on the MPOC-20 domain "general information," albeit with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.35). The interviewed parents expected additional support. Emphasis should be placed on providing comprehensive care coordination by an experienced APN. Shared care management is crucial in improving FCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  6. Polyhydroxy Fullerenes (Fullerols or Fullerenols): Beneficial Effects on Growth and Lifespan in Diverse Biological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M.; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF. PMID:21637768

  7. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols): beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  8. Dietary Polyphenols as Modulators of Brain Functions: Biological Actions and Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and to improve cognitive function. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of polyphenols, they are still mistakenly regarded as simply acting as antioxidants. However, recent evidence suggests that their beneficial effects involve decreases in oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increases in protective signaling and neurohormetic effects leading to the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin-FoxO pathway, the NF-κB pathway, and the Nrf-2/ARE pathway. Together, these processes act to maintain brain homeostasis and play important roles in neuronal stress adaptation and thus polyphenols have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:22701758

  9. Dietary Polyphenols as Modulators of Brain Functions: Biological Actions and Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Beneficial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vauzour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and to improve cognitive function. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of polyphenols, they are still mistakenly regarded as simply acting as antioxidants. However, recent evidence suggests that their beneficial effects involve decreases in oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increases in protective signaling and neurohormetic effects leading to the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin-FoxO pathway, the NF-κB pathway, and the Nrf-2/ARE pathway. Together, these processes act to maintain brain homeostasis and play important roles in neuronal stress adaptation and thus polyphenols have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies.

  10. Beneficial effects of caffeine in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Cyril; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Derisbourg, Maxime; Leboucher, Antoine; Demeyer, Dominique; Carrier, Sébastien; Schneider, Marion; Hamdane, Malika; Müller, Christa E; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2014-09-01

    Tau pathology found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial in cognitive decline. Epidemiologic evidences support that habitual caffeine intake prevents memory decline during aging and reduces the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. So far, experimental studies addressed the impact of caffeine in models mimicking the amyloid pathology of AD. However, in vivo effects of caffeine in a model of AD-like tauopathy remain unknown. Here, we evaluated effects of chronic caffeine intake (0.3 g/L through drinking water), given at an early pathologic stage, in the THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model of progressive AD-like tau pathology. We found that chronic caffeine intake prevents from the development of spatial memory deficits in tau mice. Improved memory was associated with reduced hippocampal tau phosphorylation and proteolytic fragments. Moreover, caffeine treatment mitigated several proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers found upregulated in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 animals. Together, our data support that moderate caffeine intake is beneficial in a model of AD-like tau pathology, paving the way for future clinical evaluation in AD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Stefano; Iacuzzo, Francesco; Tomasi, Nicola; Cortella, Giovanni; Manzocco, Lara; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Mimmo, Tanja; Scampicchio, Matteo; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Cesco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Soil-less cultivation of horticultural crops represents a fairly recent innovation to traditional agriculture which has several advantages including higher water-use efficiency. When plants are grown with this system, their roots come in contact with nutrients solely via the hydroponic solution. Although its beneficial effects have been widely demonstrated, silicon (Si) is mostly omitted from the composition of nutrient solutions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the beneficial effect of Si addition to hydroponic solution on quali-quantitative aspects of edible production of two cultivars of corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.) grown in soil-less floating system. Impacts on shelf life of this food were also studied. Results show that the supply of Si increased the edible yield and the quality level reducing the nitrate concentration in edible tissues. This result might be attributed to changes either in the metabolism (such as the nitrate assimilation process) or to the functionality of root mechanisms involved in the nutrient acquisition from the outer medium. In fact, our results show for the first time the ability of Si to modulate the root activity of nitrate and Fe uptake through, at least in part, a regulation of gene expression levels of the proteins involved in this phenomenon. In addition, the presence of Si decreased the levels of polyphenoloxidase gene expression at harvest and, in post-harvest, slowed down the chlorophyll degradation delaying leaf senescence and thus prolonging the shelf life of these edible tissues. In conclusion, data showed that the addition of Si to the nutrient solution can be a useful tool for improving quali-quantitatively the yield of baby leaf vegetable corn salad as well as its shelf life. Since the amelioration due to the Si has been achieved only with one cultivar, the recommendation of its inclusion in the nutrient solution does not exclude the identification of cultivars suitable for this

  12. Beyond Synchrony: Joint Action in a Complex Production Task Reveals Beneficial Effects of Decreased Interpersonal Synchrony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

      A variety of joint action studies show that people tend to fall into synchronous behavior with others participating in the same task, and that such synchronization is beneficial, leading to greater...

  13. Potential Beneficial Effects of Probiotics on Human Migraine Headache: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xi-Jian; Kaye, Alan D; Sun, Yong-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that migraine headache is often associated with concomitant gastrointestinal diseases. There is a higher prevalence of headaches in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. These associations between migraine and gastrointestinal disorders suggest a potential link to a bidirectional modulation of gut microbiota and brain function. The underlying working mechanistic links between migraine and gastrointestinal diseases may include increased intestinal epithelial permeability and inflammation. This review presents an overview of the relationship between gut microbiota and brain function, especially with regard to migraine headache. Literature review. Anesthesia and Operation Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital. The present investigation included a PubMed search using the following terms: migraine headache, gut microbiota, brain function, and probiotics. In this literature review, we mainly discussed the relationship between gut microbiota and brain function, especially with regard to migraine headache. The potential effects of probiotics supplement on migraine headache were also included. There is limited evidence from clinical studies of the positive effects of probiotics in patients with migraine headache. Large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with migraine headache. Similar to migraine headache, disorders of the brain involving depression and anxiety have been demonstrated to be associated with increased gut permeability. An improvement in gut microbiota and reduction of inflammation can have positive effects on strengthening gut and brain function. Moreover, it can be inferred that probiotics may have a beneficial effect on the frequency and severity of migraine headache attacks. Large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled studies are warranted in the future to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety

  14. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Nam Seong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste, gochu-jang (red pepper paste, fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05. The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05. Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages.

  15. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Alves Freitas Afiune

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes.Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group: non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed.The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI and coronary artery risk index (CRI, and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group.Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  16. Beneficial effect of aspirin on renal function post-cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrah, Rabin; Izhar, Uzi

    2003-12-01

    Urine thromboxane, plasma creatinine, and creatinine clearance were determined perioperatively in 20 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Ten patients took aspirin until the day of surgery, and 10 discontinued aspirin at least one week before surgery. A significant increase in urine thromboxane following establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass was observed only in the control group. Plasma creatinine increased in the control group on the 1st postoperative day (from 81.9 +/- 13.2 to 97.6 +/- 13.2 micromol.L(-1), p = 0.02) and decreased next day to the preoperative level (82.7 +/- 9 micromol.L(-1), p = 0.03). In the aspirin group, creatinine remained unchanged on the 1st postoperative day (89.4 +/- 14.2 vs. 87.2 +/- 7.7 micromol.L(-1), p = 0.6), and increased significantly on the 2nd day (101.4 +/- 8.5 micromol.L(-1), p = 0.01). The aspirin group had higher creatinine levels (p < 0.0001) and lower creatinine clearance (60.2 +/- 16.5 vs. 82 +/- 25.7 mL.min(-1), p < 0.0001) than the control group on the 2nd postoperative day. A significant positive correlation was seen between urine thromboxane and creatinine on day 2 in both groups (r = 0.6). Aspirin administrated before coronary surgery may have a beneficial effect on renal function, probably mediated by its antiplatelet activity and thromboxane inhibition.

  17. Beyond Synchrony: Joint Action in a Complex Production Task Reveals Beneficial Effects of Decreased Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wallot

    Full Text Available A variety of joint action studies show that people tend to fall into synchronous behavior with others participating in the same task, and that such synchronization is beneficial, leading to greater rapport, satisfaction, and performance. It has been noted that many of these task environments require simple interactions that involve little planning of action coordination toward a shared goal. The present study utilized a complex joint construction task in which dyads were instructed to build model cars while their hand movements and heart rates were measured. Participants built these models under varying conditions, delimiting how freely they could divide labor during a build session. While hand movement synchrony was sensitive to the different tasks and outcomes, the heart rate measure did not show any effects of interpersonal synchrony. Results for hand movements show that the more participants were constrained by a particular building strategy, the greater their behavioral synchrony. Within the different conditions, the degree of synchrony was predictive of subjective satisfaction and objective product outcomes. However, in contrast to many previous findings, synchrony was negatively associated with superior products, and, depending on the constraints on the interaction, positively or negatively correlated with higher subjective satisfaction. These results show that the task context critically shapes the role of synchronization during joint action, and that in more complex tasks, not synchronization of behavior, but rather complementary types of behavior may be associated with superior task outcomes.

  18. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization.

  19. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  1. Effects of soil regeneration methods on beneficial mesofauna in a spring triticale field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TWARDOWSKI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine possible changes in the abundance and species diversity of soil dwelling springtails (Collembola and mites (Acari due to different conditioners and soil regeneration methods applied on a spring triticale (xTriticosecale field. The experiment was conducted in 2008-2009 at the Swojec Agricultural Experimental Station in Wroclaw. Different methods of soil regeneration were used including mustard cropping as green manure, soil conditioners, i.e. EM (Effective Microorganisms and Rosahumus. These treatments were cultivated in conventional and zero-tillage system. Zero-tillage system, due to plant residues was treated as a soil regeneration method. Soil samples for mesofauna analysis were taken twice per season when plants were at the tillering stage (22-25 BBCH and during inflorescence emergence (BBCH 51-55. Springtails and mites were extracted from the soil using Tullgren funnels. The studied organisms were significantly more numerous in the zero-tillage cropping system in comparison to conventional tillage system, what is positive for soil quality. The distinct preference of mites Astigmata to the zero-cropping system was noted. Depending on the tillage system, different preferences of mesofauna groups to soil conditioners were found. Zero-tillage cropping is most useful soil regeneration method for beneficial mites and springtails preservation.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  3. Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery. PMID:25960740

  4. Beneficial effects of melatonin in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Ekaterina A; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi; Muraleva, Natalia A; Logvinov, Sergey V; Yanshole, Lyudmila V; Kolosova, Nataliya G; Stefanova, Natalia A

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin synthesis is disordered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of AD, suitable animal models are needed. The OXYS rats are an experimental model of accelerated senescence that has also been proposed as a spontaneous rat model of AD-like pathology. In the present study, we demonstrate that disturbances in melatonin secretion occur in OXYS rats at 4 months of age. These disturbances occur simultaneously with manifestation of behavioral abnormalities against the background of neurodegeneration and alterations in hormonal status but before the signs of amyloid-β accumulation. We examined whether oral administration of melatonin could normalize the melatonin secretion and have beneficial effects on OXYS rats before progression to AD-like pathology. The results showed that melatonin treatment restored melatonin secretion in the pineal gland of OXYS rats as well as the serum levels of growth hormone and IGF-1, the level of BDNF in the hippocampus and the healthy state of hippocampal neurons. Additionally, melatonin treatment of OXYS rats prevented an increase in anxiety and the decline of locomotor activity, of exploratory activity, and of reference memory. Thus, melatonin may be involved in AD progression, whereas oral administration of melatonin could be a prophylactic strategy to prevent or slow down the progression of some features of AD pathology.

  5. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  6. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Yogasanas and Pranayama in limiting the Cognitive decline in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari; Archana, Rajagopalan; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Rajesh, P

    2017-01-01

    Out of many complications that were observed in type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment is the most neglected. The aim of the present study is to assess the cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and to observe the role of yogasanas and pranayama in ameliorating the cognitive decline. Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited in the study, 34 of them did specific yogasanas and pranayama (test group) for six months and the remaining age and sex matched 34 subjects were recruited as (control group) who were not on any specific exercise regimen. Glycaemic index was estimated by measuring the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration with Bio-Rad apparatus and cognition was assessed by using Addenbrook's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), which is a neuropsychological battery. Data was analysed with unpaired student t test. P valuecognitive scores in the test group when compared with the control group. In test group six months practice of yogasanas and pranayama has also significantly brought down the high glycaemic values which were observed in the control group. These findings allow the study to conclude that regular practice of yogasanas and pranayama has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in type 2 diabetic subjects by stabilizing blood glucose.

  8. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K.; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. Extent to which difference in mortality between immunised and unimmunised children could be explained by prevention of measles disease. RESULTS--Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy (range 44-100%). Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. PMID:7647643

  9. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    Potatoes are cultivated in Southwest Greenland without the use of pesticides and with limited crop rotation. However, despite the fact that plant-pathogenic fungi are present in the Greenlandic potato soils, no severe disease outbreaks, such as late blight, have been observed. In this PhD project......, a number of beneficial fungal-inhibiting bacteria were isolated from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive potato soil in Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Especially one bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, showed high antifungal activity against ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and oomycetes, and it was able......, the fairly new technology, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) combined with genome mining were conducted to detect, identify and characterize antifungal compounds produced by P. fluorescens In5. Novel bioactive compounds from P. fluorescens In...

  10. Profound effect of profiling platform and normalization strategy on detection of differentially expressed microRNAs--a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanhild U Meyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate normalization minimizes the effects of systematic technical variations and is a prerequisite for getting meaningful biological changes. However, there is inconsistency about miRNA normalization performances and recommendations. Thus, we investigated the impact of seven different normalization methods (reference gene index, global geometric mean, quantile, invariant selection, loess, loessM, and generalized procrustes analysis on intra- and inter-platform performance of two distinct and commonly used miRNA profiling platforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included data from miRNA profiling analyses derived from a hybridization-based platform (Agilent Technologies and an RT-qPCR platform (Applied Biosystems. Furthermore, we validated a subset of miRNAs by individual RT-qPCR assays. Our analyses incorporated data from the effect of differentiation and tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment on primary human skeletal muscle cells and a murine skeletal muscle cell line. Distinct normalization methods differed in their impact on (i standard deviations, (ii the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, (iii the similarity of differential expression. Loess, loessM, and quantile analysis were most effective in minimizing standard deviations on the Agilent and TLDA platform. Moreover, loess, loessM, invariant selection and generalized procrustes analysis increased the area under the ROC curve, a measure for the statistical performance of a test. The Jaccard index revealed that inter-platform concordance of differential expression tended to be increased by loess, loessM, quantile, and GPA normalization of AGL and TLDA data as well as RGI normalization of TLDA data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We recommend the application of loess, or loessM, and GPA normalization for miRNA Agilent arrays and qPCR cards as these normalization approaches showed to (i effectively reduce standard deviations, (ii increase sensitivity

  11. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Trejo, Ehécatl Miguel Ángel; Arellano Buendía, Abraham Said; Sánchez Reyes, Omegar; García Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Arguello García, Raúl; Loredo Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio Alonso, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy. PMID:28926934

  12. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue Guo

    Full Text Available Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression.Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn.The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management.Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the

  13. ACTH has beneficial effects on stuttering in ADHD and ASD patients with ESES: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2017-02-01

    Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Trejo, Ehécatl Miguel Ángel; Arellano Buendía, Abraham Said; Sánchez Reyes, Omegar; García Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Arguello García, Raúl; Loredo Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio Alonso, Horacio

    2017-09-16

    Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N -acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy.

  15. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD, reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C, CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral (CKDA, and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg (CKDL. After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG, increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1 and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  17. Simultaneous presence of endogenous retrovirus and herpes virus antigens has profound effect on cell-mediated immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Christensen, Tove; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Retroviruses have been suggested as possible pathogenic factors in multiple sclerosis (MS), supported by the observation that endogenous retroviruses are activated in MS patients. Different members of the herpes family of which several are neurotropic have also been suggested as factors in MS...... pathogenesis. Further, interactions between retroviruses and herpes viruses have been implied in the development of MS. The objective of the study was investigation of cell-mediated immune responses of MS patients to retrovirus and herpes virus antigens, particularly antigen combinations, with analyses...... retrovirus HERV-H and herpes virus antigens resulted in highly increased cellular immune responses among both the MS patients and healthy subjects. The increase was synergistic in character in most samples. Very pronounced effects were obtained using HHV-6A and HSV-1 antigens. Blast transformation assays...

  18. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  19. Blocking the interleukin 2 (IL2)-induced systemic autophagic syndrome promotes profound antitumor effects and limits toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Michael T; Buchser, William J; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States in those dying under the age of 85. Although cancer is increasingly controlled as a chronic disease, true cures of patients with metastatic epithelial malignancies have rarely been obtained with currently available systemic therapies. For example, administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2), enhancing cytolytic immune cell proliferation and delivery, promotes complete antitumor responses in IL2 promotes both T-cell and NK cell induction of immune cell-mediated autophagy (iC-MA) in tumor targets. We have demonstrated that HMGB1 is detected at high levels in the serum of IL2-treated mice with translocation to the cytoplasm from the nucleus in the liver, consistent with HMGB1's release in response to stress, and ability to sustain autophagy. Limiting autophagy in mice with coadministration of chloroquine (CQ) diminishes serum levels of HMGB1, cytokines (IFNG and IL6 but not IL18), and autophagic flux, attenuating weight gain, enhancing DC, T-cell and NK cell numbers, and promoting long-term tumor control in a murine hepatic metastases model. Autophagy (programmed cell survival) is a metabolic process associated with promotion of late cancer growth. In tumor cell lines, CQ treatment limits ATP production through inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and promotion of apoptosis. CQ increases autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II levels in tumor cells, associated with increased annexin V(+)/PI(-) cells, cleaved-PARP, cleaved-CASP3, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These observations, limiting toxicity and prolonging antitumor effects, with a combination of IL2 and autophagy inhibition in murine models are now being tested by the Cytokine Working Group in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that [i]P. agglomerans[/i] occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the [i]Plasmodium[/i] parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-[i]Plasmodium[/i] effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic

  1. Beneficial effects of retinoic acid on extracellular matrix degradation and attachment behaviour in follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, B.; Schröder van der Elst, J. P.; van der Pluijm, G.; Goslings, B. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastasised follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is limited, necessitating the search for new treatment options. Beneficial effects of retinoids have been suggested in thyroid cancer and the present study was performed to investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on

  2. Insights Into The Beneficial Effect Of Caloric/ Dietary Restriction For A Healthy And Prolonged Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani ePallavi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, new evidence has kept pouring in about the remarkable effect of caloric restriction (CR on the conspicuous bedfellows- aging and cancer. Through the use of various animal models, it is now well established that by reducing calorie intake one can not only increase life span but, also, lower the risk of various age related diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells are believed to be more dependent on glycolysis for their energy requirements than normal cells and, therefore, can be easily targeted by alteration in the energy-metabolic pathways, a hallmark of CR. Apart from inhibiting the growth of transplantable tumors, CR has been also shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous, radiation and chemically induced tumors. The question regarding the potentiality of the anti-tumor effect of CR in humans has been in part answered by the resistance of a cohort of women, who had suffered from anorexia in their early life, to breast cancer. However, human research on the beneficial effect of CR is still at an early stage and needs further validation. Though the complete mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of CR is far from clear, the plausible involvement of nutrient sensing pathways or IGF-1 pathways proposed for its anti-aging action cannot be overruled. In fact, cancer cell lines, mutant for proteins involved in IGF-1 pathways, failed to respond to CR. In addition, CR decreases the levels of many growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative markers that are deregulated in several cancers.In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect of CR, describing experiments done in vitro in tumor models and in vivo in mouse models in which the tumor was induced by means of radiation or chemical exposure, expressing oncogenes or deleting tumor suppression genes. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms of CR anti-tumor action. Lastly, we argue the necessity of gene expression studies in cancerous versus

  3. Rat liver mitochondrial membrane characteristics and mitochondrial functions are more profoundly altered by dietary lipid quantity than by dietary lipid quality: effect of different nutritional lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Manar; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Chabi, Béatrice; Crouzier, David; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Cristol, Jean Paul; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Coudray, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Dietary lipids are known to affect the composition of the biological membrane and functions that are involved in cell death and survival. The mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are membrane protein complexes whose function depends on the composition and fluidity of the mitochondrial membrane lipid. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of different nutritional patterns of dietary lipids on liver mitochondrial functions. A total of forty-eight Wistar male rats were divided into six groups and fed for 12 weeks with a basal diet, lard diet or fish oil diet, containing either 50 or 300 g lipid/kg. The 30 % lipid intake increased liver NEFA, TAG and cholesterol levels, increased mitochondrial NEFA and TAG, and decreased phospholipid (PL) levels. SFA, PUFA and unsaturation index (UI) increased, whereas MUFA and trans-fatty acids (FA) decreased in the mitochondrial membrane PL in 30 % fat diet-fed rats compared with 5 % lipid diet-fed rats. PL UI increased with fish oil diet v. basal and lard-rich diets, and PL trans-FA increased with lard diet v. basal and fish oil diets. The 30 % lipid diet intake increased mitochondrial membrane potential, membrane fluidity, mitochondrial respiration and complex V activity, and decreased complex III and IV activities. With regard to lipid quality effects, β-oxidation decreased with the intake of basal or fish oil diets compared with that of the lard diet. The intake of a fish oil diet decreased complex III and IV activities compared with both the basal and lard diets. In conclusion, the characteristics and mitochondrial functions of the rat liver mitochondrial membrane are more profoundly altered by the quantity of dietary lipid than by its quality, which may have profound impacts on the pathogenesis and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. Beneficial effects of serial contractions on muscle performance after a brief period of rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lara A; Parro, Justin J; Gabriel, David A

    2014-08-01

    The study investigated potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of performing serial contractions for increasing muscle performance. Thirteen men performed maximal isometric dorsiflexion contractions to a limited amount of fatigue. The recovery pattern was monitored over 15 min. Force, surface electromyography (sEMG) of the agonist and antagonist, and skin temperature were observed. Evoked potentials were elicited. Force decreased to 206 ± 40 N and recovered to 243 ± 55 N (102 % of initial value). While full recovery is noteworthy, it was not significant (p = 0.24). Surface EMG root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude did not fully recover: tibialis anterior (219 ± 46 versus 242 ± 63 μV, 91 %) and soleus (13 ± 5 versus 16 ± 6 μV, 82 %). The result was an 11 % decrease in the co-activation ratio during recovery. Tibialis anterior and soleus mean power frequency (MPF) "over-recovered" to 117 % (144 ± 25 versus 124 ± 27 Hz) and 118 % (80 ± 14 versus 68 ± 11 Hz) of initial value, respectively. Peak rate of force development (RFD) during recovery was 146 % of initial (743 ± 246 versus 509 ± 271 N). Skin temperature increased 0.6 °C over the test session. Potentiation was not present during recovery, as assessed by twitch force. The return of force to initial values, rather than a persistent decrement was a result of several mechanisms operating simultaneously. The sEMG data indicate an increase in conduction velocity, while an increase in peak RFD suggests contraction-induced facilitation of ATPase pump activity. However, alterations in muscle coordination were observed as a reduction in antagonist co-activity.

  5. Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldsgaard, A; Bager, P; Garde, E; Åkeson, P; Leffers, A M; Madsen, C G; Kapel, C; Roepstorff, A; Thamsborg, S M; Melbye, M; Siebner, H; Søndergaard, H B; Sellebjerg, F; Sørensen, P Soelberg

    2015-11-01

    An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment with TSO in relapsing MS. The study was an open-label, magnetic resonance imaging assessor-blinded, baseline-to-treatment study including ten patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Median (range) age was 41 (24-55) years, disease duration 9 (4-34) years, Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.5 (1-5.0), and number of relapses within the last two years 3 (2-5). Four patients received no disease modifying therapy, while six patients received IFN-β. After an observational period of 8 weeks, patients received 2500 ova from the helminth Trichuris suis orally every second week for 12 weeks. Patients were followed with serial magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examinations, laboratory safety tests and expression of immunological biomarker genes. Treatment with Trichuris suis orally was well-tolerated apart from some gastrointestinal symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 6 new or enlarged T2 lesions in the run-in period, 7 lesions in the early period and 21 lesions in the late treatment period. Two patients suffered a relapse before treatment and two during treatment. Eight patients developed eosinophilia. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors did not change. In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect. © The Author(s), 2015.

  6. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Phlippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Heloise; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-09-07

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n= 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet (D, n=66) for 6 months. After 2 months of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation (Sham). Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for eight additional weeks or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 weeks resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes, and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean- but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  7. Bio-beneficiation of kaolin and feldspar and its effect on fired ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The porcelain prepared with these biobeneficiated minerals was compared to that prepared with non-beneficiated one. Physico-mechanical properties of porcelain were distinctly improved by using biobeneficiated kaolin and feldspar, without affecting the individual mineralogical compositions of kaolin and feldspar.

  8. A power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities living in a residential facility : A pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien W.M.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Waninge, Aly; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a twenty-week power-assisted exercise intervention in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of this intervention.

  9. Impact of viral infections on hematopoiesis: From beneficial to detrimental effects on bone marrow output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pascutti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the bone marrow (BM to generate the copious amounts of blood cells required on a daily basis depends on a highly orchestrated process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs. This process can be rapidly adapted under stress conditions, such as infections, to meet the specific cellular needs of the immune response and the ensuing physiological changes. This requires a tight regulation in order to prevent either hematopoietic failure or transformation. Although adaptation to bacterial infections or systemic inflammation has been studied and reviewed in depth, specific alterations of hematopoiesis to viral infections have received less attention thus far. Viruses constantly pose a significant health risk and demand an adequate, balanced response from our immune system, which also affects the BM. In fact, both the virus itself and the ensuing immune response can have a tremendous impact on the hematopoietic process. On one hand, this can be beneficial: it helps to boost the cellular response of the body to resolve the viral infection. But on the other hand, when the virus and the resulting anti-viral response persist, the inflammatory feedback to the hematopoietic system will become chronic, which can be detrimental for a balanced BM output. Chronic viral infections frequently have clinical manifestations at the level of blood cell formation and we summarize which viruses can lead to BM pathologies, like aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, lymphoproliferative disorders and malignancies. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, we address specific effects of acute and chronic viral infections on blood cell production. As such, we distinguish four different levels in which this can occur: 1. direct viral infection of HSPCs, 2. viral recognition by HSPCs, 3. indirect effects on HSPCs by inflammatory mediators and 4. the role of the BM microenvironment on

  10. Beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 injection on nitric oxide -related dilation of the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaeva, Larisa P; Gorodetskaya, Evgeniya A; Ruuge, Enno K; Kalenikova, Elena I; Medvedev, Oleg S

    2017-01-05

    This study examined whether coenzyme Q10 can improve nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilatation in the rat aorta after pre-incubation or intravenous administration. In initial experiments, intact isolated aortic rings were incubated with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. In further experiments, coenzyme Q10 was administered intravenously in anesthetized rats, then in 2h aorta was isolated. In both cases, after preliminary preparation the isolated aortic rings were tested for acetylcholine-induced NO-dependent relaxation. Acetylcholine elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephine precontracted aortic rings. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine were markedly potentiated after pre-incubation with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. The maximum relaxant responses (%) were significantly increased from 64.1±5.3 (control) to 89.8±3.0 and 83.6±3.0 (coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine, respectively). pD2 (-lgEC50) value in control study was 5.81±0.28, after pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine were 7.59±0.16 and 7.26±0.32, respectively. There was no difference between coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine groups. After intravenous administration, the relaxant responses to acetylcholine were significantly increased in coenzyme Q10-treated group (94.2±2.0) compared with controls (68.1±4.4). pD2 values were also different between control and treatment groups (5.79±0.29 vs. 8.14±0.65, respectively). Thus, coenzyme Q10 improved NO-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta in magnitude close to the effects of L-arginine - substrate for eNOS. Our data first show that exogenous coenzyme Q10 through intravenous administration is able to improve rapidly NO-dependent vasodilation in rat aorta, likely due to accumulation of coenzyme Q10 in the vessel wall. Improvement of endothelial function can contribute, at least in part, to beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ahmet; Guner, Beyhan; Çırak, Musa; Çelik, Derya; Hergünsel, Oya; Bedirhan, Sevim

    2016-10-01

    Background Single-session hypnosis has never been evaluated as a premedication technique in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of clinical hypnotherapy on perioperative anxiety, pain perception, sedation, and necessity for ventilator assistance in patients undergoing CABG. Methods Double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed. Forty-four patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received preprocedural hypnosis by an anesthesiologist. Patients in group B (control) had only information on the surgical intervention by the same anesthesiologist. State-Trait-Anxiety Index-I (STAI-I) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed preoperatively in both groups. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) were evaluated on 0th, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 24th hours, postoperatively. Postoperative anxiety level, analgesic drug consumption, and duration of ventilator assistance and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also documented. Results When anxiety and depression levels were compared, significantly lower STA-I and BDI values were detected in group A after hypnotherapy (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). Significantly less total doses of remifentanil (34.4 ± 11.4 vs. 50.0 ± 13.6 mg) and morphine (4.9 ± 3.3 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7 mg) were administered in group A in the postoperative period. Ventilator assistance duration (6.8 ± 2.0 vs. 8.9 ± 2.7 hours) was also shorter in group A when compared with that in group B (p = 0.007). Conclusion Hypnosis session prior to surgery was an effective complementary method in decreasing presurgical anxiety, and it resulted in better pain control as well as reduced ventilator assistance following CABG surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval: Recall Specificity of the Detrimental but Not the Beneficial Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Dobler, Ina M.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas…

  13. Beneficial effects of non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells upon patients with idiopathic osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunological arguments and historical examples have shown that treatment with cord blood for non-hematopoietic activities, such as growth factor production and stimulation of angiogenesis, may not require matching or immune suppression. Methods To study the benefit of blood mononuclear cell therapy, 8 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis were given intermittent treatments with non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells for 3 months. Morning fasting samples were collected for measuring urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and insulin-like growth factor 1 during one-year study. Results Clinical response was striking. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 significantly increased in all patients at 3 months compared with baseline values, from 264.1 ± 107.0 to 384.4 ± 63.1 ng/mL (P = 0.002, with a tendency to return to baseline values at 12 months (312.9 ± 75.5 ng/mL, P = 0.083. In contrast, differences in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen were not significant at 3 (P = 0.765, P = 0.057 or 12 months (P = 0.889, P = 0.122. A beneficial effect on bone density was observed in all patients at the lumbar spine. The mean bone mineral density calculated during therapy (0.6811 ± 0.1442 g/cm2 tended higher than baseline values (0.6239 ± 0.1362 g/cm2, P  Conclusions The findings indicate that for these patients with idiopathic osteoporosis, treatment with cord blood mononuclear cells led to a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, which favors the increase in bone mineral density.

  14. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

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    Dias de Macedo LD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liliane Dias E Dias de Macedo,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 João Bento-Torres,1,2 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Daniel Clive Anthony,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodegeneration and Infection, Institute of Biological Sciences, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Federal University of Pará, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Para, Belem, Para, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UKAbstract: We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI. In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old. Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly

  15. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Shekari, L.; m.m Kamelmanesh; M. Mozafarian; F Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aluminum (Al), cobalt (Co), sodium (Na), selenium (Se), and silicon (Si) are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se defici...

  16. Dominance effects of deleterious and beneficial mutations in a single gene of the RNA virus ϕ6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Joseph

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of dominance stems from studies of deleterious mutations. From these studies we know that most deleterious mutations are recessive, and that this recessivity arises from a hyperbolic relationship between protein function (i.e., protein concentration or activity and fitness. Here we investigate whether this knowledge can be used to make predictions about the dominance of beneficial and deleterious mutations in a single gene. We employed a model system--the bacteriophage φ6--that allowed us to generate a collection of mutations in haploid conditions so that it was not biased toward either dominant beneficial or recessive deleterious mutations. Screening for the ability to infect a bacterial host that does not permit infection by the wildtype φ6, we generated a collection of mutations in P3, a gene involved in attachment to the host and in phage particle assembly. The resulting collection contained mutations with both deleterious and beneficial effects on fitness. The deleterious mutations in our collection had additive effects on fitness and the beneficial mutations were recessive. Neither of these observations were predicted from previous studies of dominance. This pattern is not consistent with the hyperbolic (diminishing returns relationship between protein function and fitness that is characteristic of enzymatic genes, but could have resulted from a curve of increasing returns.

  17. Bilateral parietal lesions disrupt the beneficial effects of prism adaptation: evidence from a patient with optic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striemer, Christopher; Blangero, Annabelle; Rossetti, Yves; Boisson, Dominique; Rode, Gilles; Salemme, Romeo; Vighetto, Alain; Pisella, Laure; Danckert, James

    2008-05-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) alleviates some neglect symptoms, however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. One brain area that may be important in generating these beneficial effects is the superior parietal lobe (SPL), a region not typically damaged in neglect, and known to be important for attention, visuomotor control, and eye movements. We examined the effects of rightward PA on covert attention in CF, a patient with bilateral SPL lesions, compared to a group of controls (N = 26) who underwent sham adaptation. In contrast to previous work in neglect, there was no reduction in CF's leftward disengage deficit, or rightward attentional bias following PA. These results suggest that the SPL plays an important role in generating the beneficial after-effects of prisms on attention.

  18. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  19. Beneficial effect of carbon-PVA colloid additives for lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Akiya; Oho, Hidehiko; Sano, Mitsuru; Brodd, Dorothy; Brodd, Ralph

    Based on the previous success of adding ultra-fine carbon-PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) colloid solution to restore performance of weak batteries, a large scale test programme of practical batteries including those used in forklift, golf cart, taxi cab, truck and bus applications from 150 companies was carried out. More than 95% of the tested batteries exhibited excellent recovery in performance parameters including the specific gravity (S.G.), voltage and operation time (Ah capacity). The work reported here includes basic research studies to understand better the beneficial action of the carbon-PVA colloid additive.

  20. Beneficial effects of prolonged blood pressure control after carotid artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang A

    2017-01-01

    positive correlations between the mean or maximal SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS and SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS (β =0.20±0.07, P=0.0067 and β =0.47±0.10, P<0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: As compared to medical treatment alone, CAS may provide significant beneficial effect on long-term BP control 1 year post-CAS. Furthermore, SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS may predict the SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS. Keywords: carotid artery stenosis, hemodynamics, cerebral autoregulation, baroreflex, post-stenting hypotension, antihypertensive agents

  1. Effect of some insecticides on acetylcholinesterase from beneficial insects: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsik, Andras; Francis, Frédéric; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-01-01

    In vitro enzyme activity of head homogenates from adults of Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia originated from different habitats in Belgium (wheat, barley, rye, set-aside fields and experimental orchard, uncultivated area) were investigated in presence of insecticide active ingredients. Using the procedure of Ellman, I50 (M) and Ki (M-1 min-1) values were established. The beneficial insects showed the least susceptibility to diazinon and the differences between their measured values were not remarkable. Paraoxon was extremely toxic to the AChE of F. auricularia but Ch. carnea and C. septempunctata were similarly more tolerant to this organophosphate. In the case of malaoxon earwig and green lacewing AChEs were much more sensitive than AChE of the ladybird beetle. Measuring the carbaryl inhibition, F. auricularia was the least tolerant. The susceptibility of ladybird AChE differed highly from that of both species. According to the measured values, the green lacewing was less tolerant than the ladybird beetle but more tolerant compared with the common earwig. Summarizing our biochemical results, the order of susceptibility of beneficial insects to insecticides investigated was the following F. auricularia > Ch. carnea > C. septempunctata.

  2. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chuanyin; Zhao, Na; Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  3. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  4. The beneficial effects of sounds on attentional blink performance: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranczioch, Cornelia; Thorne, Jeremy David

    2015-08-15

    Auditory information can affect the processing of visual information. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to characterize the temporal dynamics of this interaction in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task that created an attentional blink (AB), that is, a profound deficit in detecting or identifying the second of two visual targets embedded in an RSVP stream. When a sound preceded the second target, T2, by 250ms or was played simultaneously with T2, T2 identification accuracy increased to a comparable degree. Sound-related modulations of the visual response to T2 emerged from around 140ms when the sound preceded T2, and from around 100ms when the sound was played simultaneously with T2. Timing and topography of this earliest modulation indicated that it is not related to early sensory areas, but suggest an attentional filter mechanism. Subsequent modulations are compatible with an improvement of early visual processing of T2 and of processes related to target selection both when the sound precedes and when it coincides with T2. For the latter condition our results also indicated processes related to a convergence of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention. We also observed some overlap between neural correlates of sound-related modulations of the visual response and of correct vs. incorrect performance. Thus, external task manipulations and internal factors contributing to performance in the AB may rely on overlapping though not identical mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiolytic effects of swimming exercise and ethanol in two behavioral models: beneficial effects and increased sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several behavioral mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of ethanol or physical exercise on anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute administration of ethanol on swimming exercise in mice, sequentially submitted to the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. In the first experiment, sedentary or physical exercise groups received chronic treatment with ethanol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2 or 4 g ethanol/kg/day by oral gavage for 14 days before the tests. In the second experiment, groups received a single dose of ethanol (ip: 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg, ten minutes before the start of behavioral tests. The present study found an anxiolytic-like effect after chronic ethanol treatment or swimming exercise, evidence of beneficial effects. Moreover, we conclude that exercise can increase behavioral sensitivity to ethanol in acute treatment. The experiments described here show that the effects of ethanol on the behavior displayed in the elevated plus-maze and open-field are not only dose-dependent but also modified by swimming exercise. These results may provide valuable insights into possible molecular mechanisms governing these adaptations.

  6. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  7. Beneficial effects of novel cross-linked hemoglobin YQ23 on hemorrhagic shock in rats and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Tzang, Fei Chuen; Lau, Sze-Hang; Kwok, Sui-Yi; Wong, Bing L; Liu, Liangming

    2017-04-01

    To overcome the problems of previously reported hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, we developed a stabilized nonpolymeric cross-linked tetrameric hemoglobin solution (YQ23). The aims of this study were to investigate the oxygen carrying and releasing properties of this novel hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and to determine whether it has beneficial effects for hemorrhagic shock. Using a hemorrhagic shock model in Sprague-Dawley rats and mini-pigs, we tested the effects of infusing 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 g/kg YQ23 on animal survival, tissue oxygen delivery (DO2) and consumption (VO2), hemodynamics parameters, and liver, renal, and cardiac function. YQ23 infusion increased the survival rate of rats and pigs with severe hemorrhagic shock in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it improved the hemodynamic parameters, cardiac output, DO2 and VO2, and the mitochondrial respiratory function of vital organs. Among the three doses of YQ23, 0.5 gHb/kg YQ23 achieved a similar beneficial effect as whole blood. This study indicated that the novel cross-linked tetrameric hemoglobin YQ23 has good oxygen carrying and releasing properties and exhibits beneficial effects on hemorrhagic shock in rats and pigs by improving the oxygen carrying and delivery function of blood, which maintains organ function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A good read : A study into the use and effects of multi-sensory storytelling; a storytelling method for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brug, Annet

    2015-01-01

    In order to include persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) into our storytelling culture, multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) has been developed. In a multi-sensory book, verbal text is supported by sensory stimuli, the form and content of the book are adjusted to the

  9. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  10. Relabelling Behaviour. The Effects of Psycho-Education on the Perceived Severity and Causes of Challenging Behaviour in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.; Post, W.; Frans, N.; ten Brug, A.; van Es, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence rates of challenging behaviour are high in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Moreover, many of these behaviours are observed daily. Direct support staff report that most challenging behaviour identified has little impact on the person with PIMD and attribute challenging…

  11. Effects of Inservice Teacher Training on Correct Implementation of Assessment and Instructional Procedures for Teachers of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Erin L.; Morgan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A multicomponent training package (live training, video modeling, role playing, and feedback) was used to train teachers to conduct assessment and to instruct students with profound multiple disabilities. Phase 1 of the study involved training seven teachers to conduct assessment in three areas: (a) preference assessment (i.e., identification of…

  12. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  13. Natural sesquiterpene lactones enhance oxacillin and gentamicin effectiveness against pathogenic bacteria without antibacterial effects on beneficial lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Elena; Alva, Mariana; Montanaro, Susana; Bardón, Alicia

    2015-05-01

    This is a report on the synergistic interactions (SIs) between melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones 1-8 from Acanthospermum hispidum DC., and oxacillin or gentamicin, against four pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis; two of them were multi-resistant strains obtained from chronic infectious processes. Our results showed that all associations of 1-8 with antibiotics (ATBs) are more effective than pure ATBs to control pathogenic strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis. The most relevant SIs were observed when the major lactone of A. hispidum, acanthospermal B [5], was combined with gentamicin (protein synthesis inhibitor) against an ex vivo culture of methicillin-resistant S. aureus SAR 1, displaying a significant MIC reduction in 5 (312.5 to 78.1 µg/mL), and gentamicin (120 µg/mL to 3 µg/mL). Compound 4 improved the antibiotic potency of oxacillin (cell wall synthesis inhibitor) against ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis (60 µg/mL to 1.5 µg/mL). It is important to remark that three beneficial lactobacilli were resistant to 1-8 and their mixtures with gentamicin or oxacillin in effective concentrations against pathogenic bacteria. Synergism between ATBs and phytochemicals is a therapeutically helpful concept to improve ATB efficacy and prevent resistance. The present results show that selective SIs occur between melampolides and gentamicin or oxacillin, and open a new field of research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Local Actions, Global Effects? Understanding the Circumstances in which Locally Beneficial Environmental Actions Cumulate to Have Global Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally beneficial actions come in diverse forms and occur in a wide range of settings ranging from personal decisions in households to negotiated agreements between nations. This article draws upon both social and ecological theory to outline, theoretically, the circumstances in which localized actions, undertaken by citizens, should cumulate to have global effects. The beliefs behind these actions tend to be either 'defensive environmentalism' in which actors work to improve their personal, local environments or 'altruistic environmentalism' in which actors work to improve the global environment. Defensive environmental actions such as creating common property institutions, limiting fertility, reducing waste streams, using energy efficient technologies, and eating organic foods have cumulative effects whereas altruistic environmental action often occurs through threshold crossings following a focusing event. Defensive environmentalism expedites altruistic environmentalism by persuading politicians, after focusing events, that rank and file citizens really do want a regime change. The resulting political transformation should, at least theoretically, create a sustainable development state that would promote additional defensive and altruistic environmental actions.

  15. Effect of alternate cooling systems and beneficial use of waste heat on power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.K.; Porter, R.W.

    1978-11-01

    The performance and cost of alternate closed-cycle cooling systems for steam--electric power plants are discussed. Included are cooling ponds, spray canals and mechanical- and natural-draft wet cooling towers. Besides equipment, operational and maintenance costs, loss of generating capacity is determined on a seasonal basis in order to determine life-cycle costs relative to once-through cooling. In addition, two beneficial uses of waste heat are similarly analyzed: once-through discharge of condenser coolant into a municipal water supply and interaction of a conventional cooling system with a wastewater treatment plant. Both typical nuclear- and fossil-fueled power plants are considered throughout. Meteorological and system parameters were taken for the Chicago area as an example. Plant heat rates, availability and unit costs were selected from the literature. A new unified analysis of closed-cycle-cooling system performance is developed in order to facilitate computation of loss of generating capacity. The order of cooling systems in terms of increasing cost is: once-through, pond, natural-draft wet tower, spray canal and mechanical-draft wet tower. Alternatively, once-through discharge into a municipal water supply would save 1 to 2% of power-plant fuel and 14 to 22% of residential water-heater energy. Or, the interactive wastewater plant would save 2 to 15% of treatment costs, favoring larger facilities.

  16. Reclamation of Chinese herb residues using probiotics and evaluation of their beneficial effect on pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Wang, Xin; Chen, Tingtao; Wang, Xiaolei; Tang, Xianyao; Zhang, Rongji; Shen, Liang

    Environmental pollution caused by herb residues and the huge waste of medicinal ingredients contained in herb residues hinder the development of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises. To solve this problem, several probiotics were tested, and Lactobacillus plantarum (HM218749) was finally selected for the reuse of herb residues of Jianweixiaoshi tablets. A mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection was developed to evaluate the anti-H. pylori infection activity of the herb residue fermentation supernatant using a urease activity test, histological imaging, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results demonstrated that the herb residue fermentation supernatant successfully inhibited urease activity, slowed cell infiltration in the gastric area and significantly reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and TNF-α in the treatment group (pherb residue fermentation supernatant was beneficial for the recovery of the disturbed microbiota in the infected model to the normal condition, in which L. gasseri (GU417842.1) and L. johnsonii (HQ828141.1) were dominant in all groups. Therefore, the probiotics exhibited strong potential for the development of herb residues in this study, and the products showed strong potential in curing H. pylori infections. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of native grass cover crops on beneficial and pest invertebrates in Australian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, A; Thomson, L J; Sharley, D J; Penfold, C M; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-06-01

    Indigenous cover crops have the potential to promote an increase in natural enemies providing fortuitous control of pest species and other ecosystem services. We test this idea in a vineyard in south eastern Australia, where reduced water availability because of drought coupled with increased temperatures has generated interest in sustainable alternatives to the exotic perennial cover crops commonly planted. Three endemic perennial cover crops, comprising the grasses Austrodanthonia richardsonii and Chloris truncata and a mix of two saltbushes (Atriplex semibaccata and Atriplex suberecta) were established as cover crops and compared with introduced oats (Avena sativa). Abundance of a range of predators and parasitoids was higher in vines with native cover crops compared with the oat control. In addition, predation levels of sentinel eggs of a common vineyard pest, light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), were increased in the native cover crops. However, the native cover crops also increased the abundance of some potential pest species. Native plants therefore have potential to increase abundance of beneficial invertebrates that assist in pest control, but need to be used carefully to ensure that they do not increase local pest problems.

  18. Healhy Ageing in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities : Promoting Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Helena; Bossink, Leontien; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial, also for people who are characterized by profound intellectual and severe motor disabilities. However, these people are totally dependent on others to participate in physical activities. To date, promoting physical activity in people with these profound disabilities

  19. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  20. Modulation of insulin secretion by feeding behavior and physical activity: possible beneficial effects on obese and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, A R; Machado, U F; Curi, R

    1996-01-01

    The high occurrence of diabetes in aged subjects is well known. In fact, the aging process is accompanied by obesity and presenting increased insulin release and lower peripheral responsiveness to this hormone. A recent study has shown that the changes in glucose utilization and insulin secretion during aging are abolished when obesity is somehow avoided. This fact justifies the effort to define new strategies to avoid the development of obesity during aging. In this review, beneficial effects of balanced diets, high frequency food intake and moderate exercise training on insulin secretion and its effect in rats are presented.

  1. When Lightning Strikes Twice: Profoundly Gifted, Profoundly Accomplished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P

    2016-07-01

    The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) have been much investigated for their toxicity at high doses, little is known about their biological activity at low concentrations. Here we report the biphasic dose response of ND and SiO2-NP in modulating normal human facial skin fibroblasts...... (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentration (up to 0.5 μg/ml) had beneficial effects on FSF1 in terms of increasing their proliferation and metabolic activity. Exposure of FSF1 cells to low levels of NP enhanced their wound healing ability in vitro and slowed down aging during serial...

  3. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  4. Does gratitude always work? Ambivalence over emotional expression inhibits the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The psychological benefit of gratitude has been well demonstrated in previous studies. However, when we examined these studies closely, we found that the moderators were rarely investigated, suggesting that further work is needed to explore the boundaries of gratitude In this regard, the authors have proposed that ambivalence over emotional expression might be a potential moderator that would inhibit the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being. Two studies were conducted to examine our hypothesis. Study 1 consisted of 353 Taiwanese college students who completed the Gratitude Questionnaire-Taiwan version (GQ-T), Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), and one question about subjective happiness. We found that ambivalence over emotional expression significantly moderated the effect of gratitude on happiness. To validate our findings in Study 1, 233 Taiwanese college students were recruited for Study 2, and they completed the GQ-T, AEQ, subjective happiness short-form UCLA loneliness scale, as well as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Both studies demonstrated that ambivalence over emotional expression moderated the relationship between gratitude and well-being indexes. Simply stated, the authors found that across the two independent samples, among students who are high in ambivalence over emotional expression, the beneficial effect of gratitude on subjective happiness was inhibited. However, the moderating pattern for loneliness and depression was contrary to our expectations, indicating that high ambivalence over emotional expression does not inhibit gratitude. Possible explanations and implications for social relationships and emotional expression are discussed.

  5. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of weed harrowing frequency on beneficial arthropods, plants and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    * Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding was...

  7. Structural characteristics and plant-beneficial effects of bacteria colonizing the shoots of field grown conventional and genetically modified T4-lysozyme producing potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Marco-Noales, E.; Velvis, H.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Lopez, M.M.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial protein T4 lysozyme may offer effective control strategies for bacterial pathogens causing severe potato diseases. Apart from this beneficial effect, it is very important to investigate such engineered potatoes carefully for potential adverse

  8. Neurologic music therapy: The beneficial effects of music making on neurorehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    .... These multimodal effects of music making together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate therapy and rehabilitation of neurological disorders...

  9. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  10. Severe sleepiness and excess sleep duration induced by paroxetine treatment is a beneficial pharmacological effect, not an adverse reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Kamishioiri, Yuko; Tanaka, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Shoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Mine, Kazunori

    2013-09-25

    Severe sleepiness and excess sleep duration, "Hypersomnia", induced by paroxetine treatment are generally considered adverse drug reactions, however, our experience indicates that patients with depressive disorder who experience "Hypersomnia" during paroxetine treatment have good clinical response. The aim of this study was to determine if "Hypersomnia" during paroxetine treatment is a beneficial pharmacological effect or an adverse drug reaction, and to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms on individual differences in the occurrence of "Hypersomnia" induced by paroxetine. A consecutive series of 46 Japanese patients with depressive disorder were treated with paroxetine. Patients who complained of great drowsiness or who slept for more than 12-h per day over seven days were identified as having experienced "Hypersomnia". For the clinical improvement rates and genotype distribution of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), serotonin transporter and cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), the group that showed "Hypersomnia" induced by paroxetine treatment and the group that did not show "Hypersomnia" were compared statistically. Patients who experienced "Hypersomnia" (17.4%) showed a significantly higher response rate at two weeks than did patients who did not experience "Hypersomnia" (p=0.0127). No significant association between the occurrence of "Hypersomnia" and genetic polymorphisms was found. We cannot exclude the risk of false positive errors due to the relatively small sample sizes. "Hypersomnia" during paroxetine treatment for depression is a beneficial pharmacological effect, not an adverse drug reaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial Effect of Ultra-Low-Dose Aspirin in Platelet Activity Alterations and Haemorrhage Observed in Experimental Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Eizayaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-dose aspirin has shown a prothrombotic effect in the laser-induced thrombosis model. Several studies of our laboratory have shown a positive effect in rats with two different experimental models of portal hypertension: portal vein ligation, a model with an almost normal liver, and 30 days of bile duct ligation, a model with cirrhosis and presence of ascitis. In both models of portal hypertensive rats, bleeding time was prolonged and thrombi formation, in a laser-induced model of thrombi production, decreased. The hypotheses of the presented studies were that ultra-low-dose aspirin could decrease the bleeding complications in these models and that the mechanism for these effects could act thorough the COX pathway. In different studies, ultra-low dose of aspirin normalized the induced hemorrhage time, thrombi production, and platelet-endothelial cell interaction. The possible beneficial role of these doses of aspirin and mechanism of COX 2 inhibition are discussed.

  12. Cardiovascular and Hepatic Toxicity of Cocaine: Potential Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Graziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS is thought to play an important role in the pharmacological and toxic effects of various drugs of abuse. Herein we review the literature on the mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular and hepatic toxicity of cocaine with special focus on OS-related mechanisms. We also review the preclinical and clinical literature concerning the putative therapeutic effects of OS modulators (such as N-acetylcysteine, superoxide dismutase mimetics, nitroxides and nitrones, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and mitochondriotropic antioxidants for the treatment of cocaine toxicity. We conclude that available OS modulators do not appear to have clinical efficacy.

  13. Beneficial effect of combined aspiration and interstitial laser therapy in patients with benign cystic thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, H; Bennedbaek, F N; Hegedüs, L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined cyst aspiration and ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on recurrence rate and the volume of benign cystic thyroid nodules. 10 euthyroid outpatients with a solitary and cytologically benign partially cystic thyro...

  14. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  15. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  16. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs : seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M.G. de; Bierman, E.P.B.; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Carpentier, P.; Kulig, B.M.; Lallement, G.; Melchers, B.P.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Huygevoort, A.H.B.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order

  17. The beneficial effect of Batroxobin on blood loss reduction in spinal fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Chen, Li; Frary, Charles Edward

    2015-01-01

    . There were no cases of superficial wound infection. None of the subjects died during the study. Conclusions In this study, prophylactic use of Batroxobin provided an effective and cheap method for reducing blood loss without coagulopathy during or after operations. The use of Batroxobin for patients...

  18. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients ...

  19. Beneficial Effects of Isoproterenol and Quinidine in the Treatment of Ventricular Fibrillation in Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dakkak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator has been advocated as the only effective treatment for the management of ventricular fibrillation (VF in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS. However, this device is only useful for terminating VF. Intermittent and/or recalcitrant VF for which lifesaving cardioversion occurs is a problematic situation in this patient population. The immediate use of appropriate antiarrhythmics in the acute setting has proven to be lifesaving. Quinidine has been well established as an effective antiarrhythmic in BrS, while isoproterenol (ISP has had some recognition as well. The addition of drug therapy to prevent the induction of these arrhythmias has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with BrS. It was proven to be especially effective in the presence of early repolarization, evidenced by the reduction or normalization of the early repolarization pattern on ECG. Thus, for the prophylactic management and long term suppression of VF in BrS, further prospective studies should be performed to determine the effectiveness of quinidine and ISP in this patient population.

  20. The beneficial effect of combined administration of vitamins C and E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the progression of kidney damage induced by zinc deficiency in diabetic rats and to evaluate the effect of combined treatment of vitamin E and vitamin C in renal injury by providing protection against deleterious action of zinc deficiency. Female diabetic albino Wistar rats were randomly ...

  1. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  2. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Collino

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO. These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  3. Beneficial effect of annexin A1 in a model of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Alexandre D; Andrade, Teresa Raquel M; Mello, Cláudia B; Ramos, Lisandra; Gil, Cristiane D; Oliani, Sonia M

    2015-05-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa glucocorticoid-regulated protein, is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator effective in terminating acute inflammatory response, and its role in allergic settings has been poorly studied. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the mechanism of action of ANXA1 in intraocular inflammation using a classical model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC). OVA-immunised Balb/c mice, wild-type (WT) and ANXA1-deficient (AnxA1(-/-)), were challenged with eye drops containing OVA on days 14-16 with a subset of WT animals pretreated intraperitoneally with the peptide Ac2-26 (N-terminal region of ANXA1) or dexamethasone (DEX). After 24 h of the last ocular challenge, WT mice treated with Ac2-26 and DEX had significantly reduced clinical signs of conjunctivitis (chemosis, conjunctival hyperaemia, lid oedema and tearing), plasma IgE levels, leukocyte (eosinophil and neutrophil) influx and mast cell degranulation in the conjunctiva compared to WT controls. These anti-inflammatory effects of DEX were associated with high endogenous levels of ANXA1 in the ocular tissues as detected by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, Ac2-26 administration was effective to reduce IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, eotaxin and RANTES in the eye and lymph nodes compared to untreated WT animals. The lack of ANXA1 produced an exacerbated allergic response as detected by the density of the inflammatory cell influx to the conjunctiva and the cytokine/chemokine release. These different effects observed for Ac2-26 were correlated with diminished level of activated ERK at 24 h in the ocular tissues compared to untreated OVA group. Our findings demonstrate the protective effect of ANXA1 during the inflammatory allergic response suggesting this protein as a potential target for new ocular inflammation therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A blessing, not a curse: experimental evidence for beneficial effects of visual aesthetics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshagen, Morten; Musch, Jochen; Göritz, Anja S

    2009-10-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of visual aesthetics on performance. A total of 257 volunteers completed a series of search tasks on a website providing health-related information. Four versions of the website were created by manipulating visual aesthetics (high vs. low) and usability (good vs. poor) in a 2 x 2 between-subjects design. Task completion times and error rates were used as performance measures. A main effect of usability on both error rates and completion time was observed. Additionally, a significant interaction of visual aesthetics and usability revealed that high aesthetics enhanced performance under conditions of poor usability. Thus, in contrast to the notion that visual aesthetics may worsen performance, visual aesthetics even compensated for poor usability by speeding up task completion. The practical and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Kimchi, a Korean Fermented Vegetable Food, on Pathophysiological Factors Related to Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Noh, Jeong Sook; Song, Yeong Ok

    2018-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that is characterized by accumulation of lipids and fibrous elements in large arteries. Its etiology is involved with pathophysiological factors such as lipoprotein oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable side dish made with vegetables and kimchi condiments. To date, numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies have cited the health benefits of kimchi. 3-(4'-Hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid is one of the active compounds of kimchi, and its antioxidant and anti-atherosclerosclerotic effects have been reported. This review presents the laboratory and clinical evidence of the anti-atherosclerotic effects of kimchi based on its lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. Cardiovascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Cocaine: Biomarkers and Possible Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Graziani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. The potential use of modulators of oxidative stress (mitoubiquinone, the short-chain quinone idebenone, and allopurinol in the treatment of cocaine cardiotoxic effects is also suggested to promote further investigations on these potential mitochondria-targeted antioxidant strategies.

  7. The beneficial effect of transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....

  8. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...... with isradipine (254 +/- 55 g). The results indicate that antihypertensive treatment with isradipine as monotherapy may prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy whereas treatment with atenolol as monotherapy does not appear to offer this possibility....

  9. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa eOñatibia-Astibia; Rafael eFranco

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  10. Beneficial Effect of Bupleurum Polysaccharides on Autoimmune-Prone MRL-lpr Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Wen Jiang; Hong Li; Yun-Yi Zhang; Wen Li; Yi-Fan Jiang; Ying-Ye Ou; Dao-Feng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease leading to inflammatory tissue damage in multiple organs. The crude polysaccharides (BPs) isolated from the roots of Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium have anticomplementary activity and immunomodulatory functions on macrophages. To study its potential benefit on SLE, we examined effects of BPs on MRL-lpr mice, which have similar disease features to human SLE. MRL-lpr mice were treated orally with BPs 15, 30, or 60 m...

  11. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Ibañez, Almudena; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Garcia-Sebastian, Maite; Iglesias Gaspar, M Teresa; Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane; Iriondo, Ane; Clerigue, Monserrat; Martinez-Lage, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Bilingualism as a component of cognitive reserve has been claimed to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD-biomarkers has not been investigated. We assessed cognitive performance and CSF AD-biomarkers, and potential moderation effect of bilingualism on the association between age, CSF AD-biomarkers, and cognition. Cognitively healthy middle-aged participants classified as monolinguals (n = 100, nCSF = 59), early (n = 81, nCSF = 55) and late bilinguals (n = 97, nCSF = 52) were evaluated. Models adjusted for confounders showed that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on digits backwards (early-bilinguals p = 0.003), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) (early-bilinguals p = 0.018; late-bilinguals p = 0.004), and Trail Making Test-B (late-bilinguals p = 0.047). Early bilingualism was associated with lower CSF total-tau (p = 0.019) and lower prevalence of preclinical AD (NIA-AA classification) (p = 0.02). Bilingualism showed a moderation effect on the relationship between age and CSF AD-biomarkers and the relationship between age and executive function. We conclude that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve enhancing executive and visual-spatial functions. For the first time, this study reveals that early bilingualism is associated with more favorable CSF AD-biomarker profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effects of finasteride on hepatic and pulmonary immune response after trauma hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunaber, Claudia; Angela, Yenny; Safi, Schabnam; Krettek, Christian; Zeckey, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The literature reveals evidence for a gender specific outcome after major trauma and hemorrhage. Increased levels of male sex hormones such as testosterone and even more dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediate negative effects on the posttraumatic immune response. Pretreatment with finasteride several days before trauma hemorrhage (TH) led to improved outcomes in mice. We hypothesized that finasteride mediates its protective effects also when administered after TH within the resuscitation process. Male C57BL/6N-mice underwent TH (blood pressure: 35 mmHg, 90 min) followed by finasteride application and fluid resuscitation. Plasma cytokines (MIP-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, MCP-3, IL-6), productive capacity of alveolar macrophages (AM) and hepatic Kupffer cells (KC) and systemic DHT levels were determined 4 h and 24 h thereafter. Pulmonary and hepatic infiltration of PMN was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Finasteride treatment resulted in reduced levels of systemic cytokines. This was accompanied by a reduced posttraumatic cytokine secretion of AM as well as Kupffer cells, thereby reducing hepatic distant organ damage as measured by reduced PMN infiltration. Systemic DHT levels were decreased following finasteride treatment. Finasteride exerts salutary effects on the pulmonary and hepatic immune response using a therapeutic approach following TH in mice. Therefore, finasteride might represent a potential agent following multiple trauma and hemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Cian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid” and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR, Toll-like receptors (TLR and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  14. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  15. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  16. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Raúl E; Drago, Silvina R; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2015-08-20

    Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain "cellulose binding domains", phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and "dl-hybrid") and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  17. Beneficial effect of TRAIL on HIV burden, without detectable immune consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett D Shepard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During uncontrolled HIV disease, both TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression are increased. Enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is due to TRAIL receptor up-regulation induced by gp120. As a result of successful antiretroviral therapy TRAIL is down-regulated, and there are fewer TRAIL-sensitive cells. In this setting, we hypothesized that all cells that contain virus, including those productively- and latently-infected, have necessarily been "primed" by gp120 and remain TRAIL-sensitive, whereas uninfected cells remain relatively TRAIL-resistant.We evaluated the immunologic and antiviral effects of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with recombinant TRAIL or an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin as a negative control. Treated cells were then analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry, ELISPOT for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function, and limiting dilution microculture for viral burden. Alterations in the cytokine milieu of treated cells were assessed with a multiplex cytokine assay. Treatment with recombinant TRAIL in vitro reduced viral burden in lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load. TRAIL treatment did not alter the cytokine milieu of treated cells. Moreover, treatment with recombinant TRAIL had no adverse effect on either the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication.TRAIL treatment may be an important adjunct to antiretroviral therapy, even in patients with suppressed viral replication, perhaps by inducing apoptosis in cells with latent HIV reservoirs. The absence of adverse effect on the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients suggests that there is not a significant level of "bystander death" in uninfected cells.

  18. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian; Balzer, Jan; Kleinbongard, Petra; Keen, Carl L; Hollenberg, Norman K; Sies, Helmut; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H; Kelm, Malte

    2006-01-24

    Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits. Endothelial dysfunction, a prognostically relevant key event in atherosclerosis, is characterized by a decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). We show in healthy male adults that the ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with acute elevations in levels of circulating NO species, an enhanced FMD response of conduit arteries, and an augmented microcirculation. In addition, the concentrations and the chemical profiles of circulating flavanol metabolites were determined, and multivariate regression analyses identified (-)-epicatechin and its metabolite, epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide, as independent predictors of the vascular effects after flavanol-rich cocoa ingestion. A mixture of flavanols/metabolites, resembling the profile and concentration of circulating flavanol compounds in plasma after cocoa ingestion, induced a relaxation in preconstricted rabbit aortic rings ex vivo, thus mimicking acetylcholine-induced relaxations. Ex vivo flavanol-induced relaxation, as well as the in vivo increases in FMD, were abolished by inhibition of NO synthase. Oral administration of chemically pure (-)-epicatechin to humans closely emulated acute vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa. Finally, the concept that a chronic intake of high-flavanol diets is associated with prolonged, augmented NO synthesis is supported by data that indicate a correlation between the chronic consumption of a cocoa flavanol-rich diet and the augmented urinary excretion of NO metabolites. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa.

  19. (–)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian; Balzer, Jan; Kleinbongard, Petra; Keen, Carl L.; Hollenberg, Norman K.; Sies, Helmut; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H.; Kelm, Malte

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits. Endothelial dysfunction, a prognostically relevant key event in atherosclerosis, is characterized by a decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). We show in healthy male adults that the ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with acute elevations in levels of circulating NO species, an enhanced FMD response of conduit arteries, and an augmented microcirculation. In addition, the concentrations and the chemical profiles of circulating flavanol metabolites were determined, and multivariate regression analyses identified (–)-epicatechin and its metabolite, epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide, as independent predictors of the vascular effects after flavanol-rich cocoa ingestion. A mixture of flavanols/metabolites, resembling the profile and concentration of circulating flavanol compounds in plasma after cocoa ingestion, induced a relaxation in preconstricted rabbit aortic rings ex vivo, thus mimicking acetylcholine-induced relaxations. Ex vivo flavanol-induced relaxation, as well as the in vivo increases in FMD, were abolished by inhibition of NO synthase. Oral administration of chemically pure (–)-epicatechin to humans closely emulated acute vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa. Finally, the concept that a chronic intake of high-flavanol diets is associated with prolonged, augmented NO synthesis is supported by data that indicate a correlation between the chronic consumption of a cocoa flavanol-rich diet and the augmented urinary excretion of NO metabolites. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (–)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa. PMID:16418281

  20. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  1. Halo and spillover effect illustrations for selected beneficial medical devices and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Kerger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative news media reports regarding potential health hazards of implanted medical devices and pharmaceuticals can lead to a ‘negative halo effect,’ a phenomenon whereby judgments about a product or product type can be unconsciously altered even though the scientific support is tenuous. To determine how a ‘negative halo effect’ may impact the rates of use and/or explantation of medical products, we analyzed the occurrence of such an effect on three implanted medical devices and one drug: 1 intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs; 2 silicone gel-filled breast implants (SGBI; 3 metal-on-metal hip implants (MoM; and 4 the drug Tysabri. Methods Data on IUD use from 1965 to 2008 were gathered from the Department of Health and Human Services Vital and Health Statistics and peer-reviewed publications. Data regarding SGBI implant and explantation rates from 1989 to 2012 were obtained from the Institute of Medicine and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. MoM implant and explantation data were extracted from the England and Wales National Joint Registry and peer-reviewed publications. Tysabri patient data were reported by Elan Corporation or Biogen Idec Inc. Data trends for all products were compared with historical recall or withdrawal events and discussed in the context of public perceptions following such events. Results We found that common factors altered public risk perceptions and patterns of continued use. First, a negative halo effect may be driven by continuing patient anxiety despite positive clinical outcomes. Second, negative reports about one product can spill over to affect the use of dissimilar products in the same category. Third, a negative halo effect on an entire category of medical devices can be sustained regardless of the scientific findings pertaining to safety. Fourth, recovery of a product’s safety reputation and prevalent use may take decades in the U.S., even while these products may

  2. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, R; Mukilan, R

    2016-05-01

    Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students.

  3. [Beneficial effects of renal denervation on pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary artery hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Qingyan; Jiang, Xuejun; Yang, Bo; Dai, Zixuan; Wang, Xiaozhan; Wang, Xule; Guo, Zongwen; Yu, Shengbo; Tang, Yanhong; Hu, Wei; Huang, Congxin

    2015-04-14

    To explore the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on pulmonary vascular remodeling in a model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). According to the random number table, 24 beagles were randomized into control, PAH and PAH+RSD groups (n=8 each). The levels of neurohormone, echocardiogram and dynamics parameters were measured. Then 0.1 ml/kg dimethylformamide (control group) or 2 mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (PAH and PAH+RSD groups) were injected. The PAH+RSD group underwent RSD after injection. At week 8 post-injection, the neurohormone levels, echocardiogram, dynamics parameters and pulmonary tissue morphology were observed. The values of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) in PAH and PAH+RSD groups were both significantly higher than those in control group ((42.8±8.7), (30.8±6.8) vs (23.2±5.7) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and (45.1±11.2), (32.6±7.9) vs (24.7±7.1) mmHg). Meanwhile, the values of RVSP and PASP in PAH group were higher than those in PAH+RSD group (all PRSD group ((46±8) and (67±9) pg/ml) (all PRSD dogs. RSD suppresses pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental PAH. And the effect of RSD on PAH may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels.

  4. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy.

  5. The beneficial effects of antifreeze proteins in the vitrification of immature mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Jo

    Full Text Available Antifreeze proteins (AFPs are a class of polypeptides that permit organismal survival in sub-freezing environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AFP supplementation on immature mouse oocyte vitrification. Germinal vesicle-stage oocytes were vitrified using a two-step exposure to equilibrium and vitrification solution in the presence or absence of 500 ng/mL of AFP III. After warming, oocyte survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage were assessed. Spindle and chromosome morphology, membrane integrity, and the expression levels of several genes were assessed in in vitro matured oocytes. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher and the number of caspase-positive blastomeres was significantly lower in the AFP-treated group compared with the untreated group. The proportion of oocytes with intact spindles/chromosomes and stable membranes was also significantly higher in the AFP group. The AFP group showed increased Mad2, Hook-1, Zar1, Zp1, and Bcl2 expression and lower Eg5, Zp2, Caspase6, and Rbm3 expression compared with the untreated group. Supplementation of the vitrification medium with AFP has a protective effect on immature mouse oocytes, promoting their resistance to chilling injury. AFPs may preserve spindle forming ability and membrane integrity at GV stage. The fertilization and subsequent developmental competence of oocytes may be associated with the modulation of Zar1, Zp1/Zp2, Bcl2, Caspase6, and Rbm3.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Cardiac Structure and Function in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Seok; Park, Sang-Don; Kwon, Sung-Woo; Woo, Seong-Ill; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Park, Keum-Soo; Kwan, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is being considered as a therapeutic option for morbidly obese patients. Data are accumulating showing that this surgical intervention may improve in major cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effects of bariatric surgery on left ventricular (LV) structure and function including LV mechanics in obese patients. Thirty-seven patients (age = 36 ± 10 years; male:female = 11:26) undergoing bariatric surgery were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed before and after at least 1 year of bariatric surgery. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, including tissue Doppler measurements, were measured. LV global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial deformations were assessed utilizing 2D speckle tracking software. Patients decreased body mass index by 11.8 ± 4.7 over 15.6 ± 5.5 months. Bariatric surgery led to significant decreases in left ventricular (LV) size and mass (51.0 ± 3.3 to 49.1 ± 3.4 mm, p bariatric surgery was associated with improved LV structure and function in obese patients, suggesting potential favorable effects of bariatric surgery to prevent future cardiovascular events.

  7. Beneficial effects of rosmarinic acid against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Seifi, Rosa

    2017-07-04

    Alcohol is a severe hepatotoxicant that causes a variety of liver disorders. Rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural phenol, shows some biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of RA (10 mg/kg) against ethanol-induced oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals received ethanol (4 g/kg, i.g.) and (or) RA (10 mg/kg, i.g.) daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, rats were weighed and use for biochemical, molecular, and histopathological examinations. Ethanol increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) and decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (P < 0.01), catalase (P < 0.05), and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.001) compared with control group. RA prevented the prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance induced by ethanol in liver. Furthermore, RA ameliorated the increased liver mass, serum levels of ALT, AST, LDH, TNF-α, and IL-6 in ethanol group. Necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver parenchyma were attenuated by RA treatment. Our findings showed that RA prevents ethanol-induced oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and liver injury in an experimental model of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, RA may be a good candidate to protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity; this deserves consideration and further examination.

  8. Beneficial effect of pramipexole for motor function and depression in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Osamu Kano1,2, Ken Ikeda2, Tetsuhito Kiyozuka2, Konosuke Iwamoto2, Hirono Ito2, Yuji Kawase2, Ryuta Sato2, Toshiki Fujioka2, Yo Araki2, Shigeji Baba2, Yasuo Iwasaki21Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We examined whether pramipexole (PPX can influence depressive scale in normal and mild depressive parkinsonian patients. In an open study of PPX as an add-on to L-dopa therapy or single administration, 36 nondemented outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD were entered first. All were in the stage II or III of Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y. PPX were started at 0.125 mg/day and daily doses were increased to 1.5 mg/day. At 3 months after PPX treatment, patients were re-evaluated. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III, H&Y stage, and freezing of gait questionnaire were compared in patients before and after PPX treatment. These scores were significantly improved after PPX administration. There were no correlations between HAM-D and those motor functions. We suggest that PPX treatment has antidepressant effects in depressive PD patients and also ameliorates HAM-D score in nondepressive PD patients in addition to motor function.Keywords: Parkinson disease, pramipexole, motor function, depression, antidepressant effect

  9. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Mariko; Moriyama, Hiroyuki; Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin.

  10. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Vamvakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Betty Lew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bovine ASM cell proliferation. Using a humanized transgenic mouse strain (huASM-MRC2 expressing the human MRC2 receptor in a SM tissue-specific manner, we have demonstrated that ASM hyperplasia/hypertrophy can occur as early as 15 days after allergen challenge in this mouse model and this phenomenon is preventable with SC-MN treatment. This proof-of-concept study would facilitate future development of a potential asthma therapeutic agent with dual function of anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle remodeling effects.

  12. Beneficial effects of hydroxyapatite on enamel subjected to 30% hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Zhejun; Tong, Hua; Hu, Jiming; Wang, Yining

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on color, microhardness and morphology of human tooth enamel. Forty-eight human dental blocks were obtained from 12 pairs of premolars and were randomly divided into four groups. Group DW was treated with distilled water, group HP with 30% HP, group HA+DW with HA mixed with distilled water and group HA+HP with HA mixed with 30% HP. Baseline and final color measurements and microhardness test were carried out before and after bleaching experiments. Two specimens from each group were selected for morphological investigation after final tests. The DeltaE of group HP and HA+HP were significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000). The percentage microhardness loss of group HA+HP was significantly lower than that of group HP (p=0.047), but significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000). The obvious variation of morphology was only observed on enamel surfaces in group HP. This study suggested that combination of HA and HP was effective in tooth whitening. HA could significantly reduce the microhardness loss of enamel caused by 30% HP and keep enamel surface morphology almost unchanged.

  13. Adhesion molecule increases in sleep apnea: beneficial effect of positive airway pressure and moderation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, V M; Keenan, B T; Jackson, N; Grandner, M A; Maislin, G; Teff, K; Schwab, R J; Arnardottir, E S; Júlíusson, S; Benediktsdottir, B; Gislason, T; Pack, A I

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) may contribute to cardiovascular disease and are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity. The relationship between OSA and obesity in determining ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels, and the effect of treatment, is unclear. Our aim was to study whether positive airway pressure (PAP) usage resulted in changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 after 2 years within 309 OSA patients from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort, and determine how obesity affected such changes. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.4±5.1 kg m(-2); subjects had moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index=45.0±20.2) and 79% were male. There were 177 full PAP users (⩾4 h per night and ⩾20 of last 28 nights), 44 partial (adhesion molecules observed in nonusers after 2 years. For ICAM-1, the largest effect is in the most obese subjects. As OSA and obesity commonly coexist, the usage of PAP to limit increases in adhesion molecules may decrease the rate of progression of OSA-related cardiovascular disease.

  14. Beneficial effect of candesartan and lisinopril against haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kuldeep Singh; Prakash, Atish; Bisht, Rohit; Bansal, Puneet Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia is a serious motor disorder of the orofacial region, resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenia. Candesartan (AT1 antagonist) and lisinopril (ACE inhibitor) has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of candesartan and lisinopril on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative damage in rats. Tardive dyskinesia was induced by administering haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) and concomitantly treated with candesartan (3 and 5 mg/kg p.o.) and lisinopril (10 and 15 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral parameters were assessed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and biochemical parameters were estimated at day 22. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased stereotypic behaviors in rats, which were significantly improved by administration of candesartan and lisinopril. Chronic administration of haloperidol significantly increased oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in the striatum region of the rat's brain. Co-administration of candesartan and lisinopril significantly attenuated the oxidative damage and neuro-inflammation in the haloperidol-treated rat. The present study supports the therapeutic use of candesartan and lisinopril in the treatment of typical antipsychotic-induced orofacial dyskinesia and possible antioxidant and neuro-inflammatory mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2017-09-16

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Elucidating the Beneficial Effect of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate Environment on Lipid Fermentation of Trichosporon dermatis by Method of Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wang, Can; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Shi, Si-Lan; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-04-01

    In present study, the beneficial effect of corncob acid hydrolysate environment on lipid fermentation of Trichosporon dermatis was elucidated by method of cell biology (mainly using flow cytometry and microscope) for the first time. Propidium iodide (PI) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) staining showed that corncob acid hydrolysate environment was favorable for the cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential of T. dermatis and thus made its lipid fermentation more efficient. Nile red (NR) staining showed that corncob acid hydrolysate environment made the lipid accumulation of T. dermatis slower, but this influence was not serious. Moreover, the cell morphology of T. dermatis elongated in the corncob acid hydrolysate, but the cell morphology changed as elliptical-like during fermentation. Overall, this work offers one simple and effective method to evaluate the influence of lignocellulosic hydrolysates environment on lipid fermentation.

  17. Beneficial effect of acupuncture in the management of anxiety related to dental treatment: a set of case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, P; Bundgaard, M; Gordon, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety related to dental treatment is a common phenomenon that has a significant impact on the provision of appropriate dental care. The aim of this case series was to examine the effect of acupuncture given prior to dental treatment on the level of anxiety. METHODS: Eight dentists...... a median BAI score of 26.5 at baseline. The BAI score was assessed before and after the acupuncture treatment. All patients received acupuncture treatment for 5 min prior to the planned dental treatment using the points GV20 and EX6. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in median value of BAI scores...... after treatment with acupuncture (26.5 reduced to 11.5; pacupuncture treatment. Previously this had only been possible in six cases. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture prior to dental treatment has a beneficial effect...

  18. Spirulina platensis Enhances the Beneficial Effect of Exercise on Oxidative Stress and the Lipid Profile in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Mazzola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Spirulina platensis and moderate exercise on oxidative stress and lipid profiles in the rats. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated to the following 10-week treatments, three times a week: exercise (E, 30 min swimming,S. platensis (SP, 26 mg/Kg; exercise andSpirulina (ES; and control (C. Outcomes were Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS in serum and brain, and cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in serum. Rats treated with exercise showed lower brain TBARS than the controls, mostly in association withS. platensis. In the groups E and ES, serum TBARS decreased after intervention. Compared with the controls, both E and ES prevented an increase in cholesterol and reduced triglycerides. Results demonstrated thatS. platensis enhanced the beneficial effect of exercise on oxidative stress and lipid profiles in rats, which might be a promising approach for treating metabolic syndrome in humans.

  19. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrožová, Nikola [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Zálešák, Bohumil [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery (Czech Republic); Ulrichová, Jitka [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Čížková, Kateřina [Palacký University, Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Galandáková, Adéla, E-mail: galandakova.a@seznam.cz [Palacký University, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-15

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  1. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  2. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrožová, Nikola; Zálešák, Bohumil; Ulrichová, Jitka; Čížková, Kateřina; Galandáková, Adéla

    2017-03-01

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  3. Beneficial effect of shot peening on steamside oxidation of 300-series austenitic steels: An electrochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrianský, Václav; Krausová, Aneta; Macák, Jan; Děd, Jiří; Eltai, Elsadig; Hamouda, Abdel Magid

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a protective oxide ensures the good corrosion resistance of austenitic steels in high temperature steam. However after long-term interaction even the protective oxide may tend to exfoliate and cause operational problems. With shot peening believed to be an effective method for mitigating steamside oxidation and exfoliation, we compared oxide layers formed on two materials: AISI 316H with a rugged untreated surface and Super304H with a shot-peened surface. In addition to conventional methods (SEM/EDS, Raman spectroscopy), Mott-Schottky analysis was used to characterize the oxide layers in order to determine the quality of the protective oxide. The oxides formed on Super 304H showed unexpected semiconducting behaviour with a significantly lower charge carrier density, thereby supporting the benefits of shot peening. Our findings extend the knowledge applicable to the design of more efficient coal-fired power plants.

  4. Beneficial effect of Azadirachta indica on advanced glycation end-product in streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; de Jesus Martinez Ortiz, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Both oxidation and hyperglycemia cause increased glycation and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which underlie the complications of diabetes. The goal of this article is to determine the effect of the chloroform extract from leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss; (Meliaceae) (AI) on the formation of glycated protein. Chloroform extract was subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate advanced glycation end-products formation. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose, BSA-methylglyoxal, Amadori-rich protein, glycated hemoglobin, oxidation, and glycation of LDL were determined. Doses of AI of 200 mg/kg/d by oral gavage were administered once daily for 30 d, at streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After this period, renal damage (TBARS), glucose, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and tail tendon collagen were investigated. AI exhibits protective action in BSA against glycation formation, GHb, protein levels, and LDL against glycation and oxidation. The renal glucose level decreases a 3.9 mg/g wet tissue. TBA-reactive substance showed a significant decrease to 1.82 mmol/mg protein. In addition, AI showed inhibitory activity against AGEs formation, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde levels in kidney. Treatment with AI in rat tail tendon produced a reduction in cross-linking of collagen proteins. The antiglycation activities of A. indica were attributed in part to their antioxidant activity. AI alleviated oxidative stress under diabetic conditions through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation prevents the onset renal damage. We found that A. indica is an inhibitor AGE formation, and oxidative stress with a renoprotective effect, which are considered to play important roles in diabetic kidney disease.

  5. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian Kk; Leseman, Daan Lac; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul Hb; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-03-13

    Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 +/- 61 vs 140 +/- 113 mug/m3; particle number 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4 x 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 +/- 1 vs 28 +/- 3 degrees C) and relative humidity (63 +/- 10 vs 64 +/- 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 +/- 10 vs 121 +/- 11 mmHg, P 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 +/- 11.5 vs 61.2 +/- 11.4 ms, P air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  6. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial effects of low-dose aspirin on aortic stiffness in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Panagiota; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitris; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Petrocheilou, Katerina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-12-01

    While treatment with low-dose aspirin has been established as a therapeutic tool for secondary prevention, the role of aspirin on primary prevention remains controversial. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-dose aspirin on aortic stiffness and wave reflections in hypertensive patients. We studied 30 patients with grade I hypertension. Fifteen patients were treated with 160 mg of aspirin and 15 patients with placebo. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections were assessed by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and heart rate-adjusted augmentation index (AIx75), respectively. All measurements were conducted at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment. In the aspirin group, there was a significant reduction in PWV compared to the placebo group (from 8.9±1.5 to 8.5±1.6 m/s for the aspirin group vs from 8.6±1.4 to 8.7±1.6 m/s for the placebo group, net change: -0.5 m/s; p=0.02). AIx75 showed a marginal decrease (from 28.0±5.4 to 26.2±5.0% for the aspirin group vs from 31.2±9.7 to 30.6±9.2% for the placebo group, net change: -1.2%; p=0.06). In conclusion, a 2-week course of aspirin administration has a favorable effect on aortic stiffness and, to a lesser extent, on wave reflections in hypertensive patients. Whether the reduction in arterial stiffness is translated to fewer cardiovascular events needs to be confirmed by future prospective studies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Beneficial effects of adaptive servo-ventilation therapy on albuminuria in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshikazu; Koyama, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hosoya, Tomoki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Short-duration adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy can be effective for heart failure (HF) patients. Albuminuria is recognized as a prognostic marker for HF. We investigated whether short-duration and short-term ASV therapy reduced albuminuria in HF patients. Twenty-one consecutive HF patients were divided into two groups: those who tolerated ASV therapy (ASV group, n=14) and those who did not (non-ASV group, n=7). ASV therapy was administered to enrolled patients for 1 week for 2h per day (1h in the morning and 1h in the afternoon). The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), urinary 24h norepinephrine (NE) excretion, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured before and 1 week after ASV therapy. In the ASV group, but not the non-ASV group, the UACR significantly decreased, together with a decrease in urinary NE and hs-CRP levels. There were significant correlations between the changes in UACR and hs-CRP and between the changes in urinary NE and hs-CRP. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that ASV use was the strongest predictor of decreased UACR. Albuminuria, urinary NE, and hs-CRP levels reduced in HF patients who could receive short-duration and short-term ASV therapy. Anti-inflammatory effects of ASV therapy may partly mediate the reduction of albuminuria. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Myo-Inositol Oxygenase Deficiency in Cisplatin-Induced AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rajesh K; Kondeti, Vinay K; Sharma, Isha; Chandel, Navdeep S; Quaggin, Susan E; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2017-05-01

    Overexpression of the proximal tubular enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) induces oxidant stress in vitro However, the relevance of MIOX to tubular pathobiology remains enigmatic. To investigate the role of MIOX in cisplatin-induced tubular AKI, we generated conditional MIOX-overexpressing transgenic (MIOX-TG) mice and MIOX-knockout (MIOX-/-) mice with tubule-specific MIOX overexpression or knockout, respectively. Compared with cisplatin-treated wild-type (WT) mice, cisplatin-treated MIOX-TG mice had even greater increases in urea, creatinine, and KIM-1 levels and more tubular injury and apoptosis, but these effects were attenuated in cisplatin-treated MIOX-/- mice. Similarly, MIOX-TG mice had the highest and MIOX-/- mice had the lowest renal levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and NADPH oxidase-4 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after cisplatin treatment. In vitro, cisplatin dose-dependently increased ROS generation in LLC-PK1 cells. Furthermore, MIOX overexpression in these cells accentuated cisplatin-induced ROS generation and perturbations in the ratio of GSH to oxidized GSH, whereas MIOX-siRNA or N-acetyl cysteine treatment attenuated these effects. Additionally, the cisplatin-induced enhancement of p53 activation, NF-κB binding to DNA, and NF-κB nuclear translocation in WT mice was exacerbated in MIOX-TG mice but absent in MIOX-/- mice. In vitro, MIOX-siRNA or NAC treatment reduced the dose-dependent increase in p53 expression induced by cisplatin. We also observed a remarkable influx of inflammatory cells and upregulation of cytokines in kidneys of cisplatin-treated MIOX-TG mice. Finally, analysis of genomic DNA in WT mice revealed cisplatin-induced hypomethylation of the MIOX promoter. These data suggest that MIOX overexpression exacerbates, whereas MIOX gene disruption protects against, cisplatin-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effect of aspirin on renal function in patients with renal insufficiency postcardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrah, R; Ehrlich, S; Tshori, S; Sahar, G

    2004-12-01

    Renal function is one of the most important prognostic factors following cardiac surgery. Whether aspirin affects cardiopulmonary bypass related renal injury is investigated in this study. Ninety-four patients with impaired renal function (creatinine = or >1.5 mg/dl) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were categorized into 2 groups according to aspirin administration before surgery. Serum creatinine, urinary output and creatinine clearance along with other perioperative factors were compared between the 2 groups prior to surgery, 24 hours and 48 hours following cardiopulmonary bypass. Creatinine levels increased significantly in the second postoperative day only in the non-aspirin (control) group (3.7+/-1.6 vs 2.9+/-1.7 mg/dl, p=0.03). Aspirin (study) group had lower creatinine levels in day 1 (p=0.03) and day 2 (p=0.001). Furthermore, in the study group creatinine clearance was higher in day 1 (34.3+/-14.3 vs 30.9+/-13.1 ml/min, p=0.01) and in day 2 (32.6+/-13.8 vs 26.4+/-9.8 ml, p<0.0001). Creatinine levels at discharge were elevated compared to the preoperative levels in the control group (p=0.01). However, the study group had lower creatinine levels at discharge (2.6+/-1.4 vs 3.8+/-1.6 mg/dl, p<0.0001). Urinary output was higher in the study group in the first postoperative day compared to the control group (p=0.01). Postoperative bleeding was slightly increased in the study group compared to the control group (760+/-230 ml vs 530+/-210 ml, p=0.01). Continuation of aspirin administration until the day of surgery may have a protective effect against renal injury resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass, with only a negligible increase in bleeding. Possible explanations for this effect are antiplatelet activity of aspirin during cardiopulmonary bypass causing inhibition of vasoconstrictive agents like thromboxane, and improvement of renal perfusion by reducing blood viscosity.

  13. Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z; Keidar, Zohar; Karkabi, Khaled; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effects of smoking cessation on body composition and muscle strength in comparison with continued smoking. Twelve-month longitudinal study of adult smokers conducted in Haifa, Israel. Eighty-one smokers recruited from a smoking cessation programme combining group counselling and varenicline treatment. Measurements were taken at the beginning of the programme and after 12 months. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was measured by handgrip dynamometry and predicted one-repetition maximum tests. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were estimated using questionnaires. Smoking status was determined by urine cotinine. The effect of smoking cessation was assessed using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. Forty-one participants (age 44 ± 12 years) completed all baseline and follow-up measurements (76% continued smokers; 24% quitters). All measures of body composition and muscle strength were increased among quitters when compared with continued smokers. Adjusted differences [95% confidence interval (CI)] between quitters and smokers were: body weight 4.43 kg (1.56-7.31 kg); lean mass 1.26 kg (0.24-2.28 kg); fat mass 3.15 kg (0.91-5.39 kg); bone mineral content 48.76 g (12.06-85.54 g); bone mineral density 0.024 g/cm(2) (0.004-0.043 g/cm(2) ); handgrip strength 3.6 kg (1.12-6.08 kg); predicted one-repetition maximum of chest press 7.85 kg (1.93-13.76 kg); and predicted one-repetition maximum of leg press 17.02 kg (7.29-26.75 kg). Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain mainly through accumulating extra fat, but is also associated with increased muscle mass, muscle strength and bone density. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandalia, M; Garg, A; Lutjohann, D; von Bergmann, K; Grundy, S M; Brinkley, L J

    2000-05-11

    The effect of increasing the intake of dietary fiber on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to follow two diets, each for six weeks: a diet containing moderate amounts of fiber (total, 24 g; 8 g of soluble fiber and 16 g of insoluble fiber), as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and a high-fiber diet (total, 50 g; 25 g of soluble fiber and 25 g of insoluble fiber), containing foods not fortified with fiber (unfortified foods). Both diets, prepared in a research kitchen, had the same macronutrient and energy content. We compared the effects of the two diets on glycemic control and plasma lipid concentrations. Compliance with the diets was excellent. During the sixth week, the high-fiber diet, as compared with the the sixth week of the ADA diet, mean daily preprandial plasma glucose concentrations were 13 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol per liter] lower (95 percent confidence interval, 1 to 24 mg per deciliter [0.1 to 1.3 mmol per liter]; P=0.04) and mean median difference, daily urinary glucose excretion 1.3 g (0.23; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.83 g; P= 0.008). The high-fiber diet also lowered the area under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, which were measured every two hours, by 10 percent (P=0.02) and 12 percent (P=0.05), respectively. The high-fiber diet reduced plasma total cholesterol concentrations by 6.7 percent (P=0.02), triglyceride concentrations by 10.2 percent (P=0.02), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 12.5 percent (P=0.01). A high intake of dietary fiber, particularly of the soluble type, above the level recommended by the ADA, improves glycemic control, decreases hyperinsulinemia, and lowers plasma lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Does warm-up have a beneficial effect on 100-m freestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mario C; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Viana, João L; Barbosa, Tiago M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of warm-up on 100-m swimming performance. Twenty competitive swimmers (with a training frequency of 8.0 ± 1.0 sessions/wk) performed 2 maximal 100-m freestyle trials on separate days, with and without prior warm-up, in a counterbalanced and randomized design. The warm-up distance totaled 1000 m and replicated the swimmers' usual precompetition warm-up strategy. Performance (time), physiological (capillary blood lactate concentrations), psychophysiological (perceived exertion), and biomechanical variables (distance per stroke, stroke frequency, and stroke index) were assessed on both trials. Performance in the 100-m was fastest in the warm-up condition (67.15 ± 5.60 vs 68.10 ± 5.14 s; P = .01), although 3 swimmers swam faster without warm-up. Critical to this was the 1st 50-m lap (32.10 ± 2.59 vs 32.78 ± 2.33 s; P swimming efficiency compared with the no-warm-up condition (stroke index 3.46 ± 0.53 vs 3.14 ± 0.44 m2 · c1 · s1; P swimming performance, a factor that appears to be related to better swimming efficiency in the 1st lap of the race. This study highlights the importance of performing swimming drills (for higher distance per stroke) before a maximal 100-m freestyle effort in similar groups of swimmers.

  16. The Beneficial Effect of Hydrogen on CO Oxidation over Au Catalysts. A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Niemantsverdriet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX. A range of gold surfaces have been selected including the (100, stepped (310 surfaces and diatomic rows on the (100 surface. These diatomic rows on Au(100 are very efficient in H-H bond scission. O2 hydrogenation strongly enhances the surface-oxygen interaction and assists in scission of the O–O bond. The activation energy required to make the reaction intermediate hydroperoxy (OOH from O2 and H is small. However, we postulate its presence on our Au models as the result of diffusion from oxide supports to the gold surfaces. The OOH on Au in turn opens many low energy cost channels to produce H2O and CO2. CO is selectively oxidized in a H2 atmosphere due to the more favorable reaction barriers while the formation of adsorbed hydroperoxy enhances the reaction rate.

  17. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abbasmanthiri, R.; Al-Elewi, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Omani, Saud; Al-Asmary, Saeed; Al-Asmari, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    The potential effect of camel milk (CM) against gentamicin (GM) induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p.), and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of CM significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST) activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent. PMID:25544839

  18. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  19. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  20. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Beneficial effects of neuropeptide galanin on reinstatement of exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Guo, Lili; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-04-01

    Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels. On the other hand, galanin plays an exercise-protective role to inhibit the flexor reflex and prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscles through enhancing response threshold and reducing acetylcholine release. Additionally, elevated galanin levels can boost repair of the exercise-induced damage in exercise-related tissues, including peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, skin, bone, articulation, and ligament. Moreover, elevated galanin levels may serve as effective signals to buffer sport-induced stress and pain via inhibiting nociceptive signal transmission and enhancing pain threshold. This Review deepens our understanding of the profitable roles of galanin in exercise protection, exercise injury repair, and exercise-induced stress and pain. Galanin and its agonists may be used to develop a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Beneficial anti-Parkinson effects of camel milk in Chlorpromazineinduced animal model: Behavioural and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Humera; Najam, Rahela; Mirza, Talat; Sikandar, Bushra

    2016-09-01

    Potential roles of natural products have been identified for preventing or treating various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of camel milk in an animal model of Parkinson's disease and compare it with standard treatment (levodopa + carbidopa combination). 40 Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gram were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I was kept on water and served as normal control, group II served as negative control, treated with chlorpromazine (5mg/kg i.p.), group III was given camel milk (33ml/kg p.o) and group IV the standard combination of levodopa + carbidopa (100+10mg/kg) respectively, 30 minutes after chlorpromazine treatment. All animals were subjected to the drugs treatment for 30 days. Catalepsy was assessed by Bar test on day 21 and day 30 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes interval. On 30th day animals were sacrificed and whole brains were examined for histopathological changes. The results revealed highly significant (pcamel milk on day 21 and 30 in comparison to chlorpromazine. When compared with standard therapy, the results showed that anti-Parkinson's activity of camel milk was significant (pcamel milk reveals intact architecture with mild degenerative changes than chlorpromazine and levodopa + carbidopa treated animals. In conclusion, camel milk possesses anti-Parkinson's activity. However, its long term efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated clinically.

  3. The beneficial effect of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and development ability of immature mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalehoei, Eshrat; Azadbakht, Mehri

    2017-08-01

    Repaglinide is a hypoglycemic drug, causing depolarization of the cell membrane, opening the voltage-gated calcium channels, and then increasing intracellular calcium in the pancreatic B cells by inhibition of the K-ATP-sensitive channels. Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is influenced by different factors such as calcium signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and fertilization ability of mouse oocyte. Immature oocytes were isolated from female Naval Medical Research Institute mice which are 6-8 wk old mechanically and then cultured in 30 μl droplets of T6 medium with different concentrations of repaglinide. The control group did not receive repaglinide (R0). Treatment groups received different concentrations (5, 10, and 100 nM and 1 and 10 μM) of repaglinide (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, respectively). Oocyte in vitro maturation rate was assessed after 24 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using metaphase II oocytes obtained from R0 and R4 treatments. Embryo cleavage rate was calculated at 48 h post-IVF. Chi-square test was used for evaluating difference between control and treatment groups (p vitro oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Montelukast Against Methotrexate-Induced Liver Toxicity: A Biochemical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of montelukast against methotrexate-induced liver damage were investigated. 35 Wistar albino female rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: group I: control; group II: montelukast (ML; group III: methotrexate (Mtx; group IV: montelukast treatment after methotrexate application (Mtx + ML; group V: montelukast treatment before methotrexate application (ML + Mtx. At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues of rats were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and reduced glutathione levels were determined from liver tissues. In addition, the liver tissues were examined histologically. MDA and MPO levels of Mtx group were significantly increased when compared to control group. In Mtx + ML group, these parameters were decreased as compared to Mtx group. Mtx injection exhibited major histological alterations such as eosinophilic staining and swelling of hepatocytes. The glycogen storage in hepatocytes was observed as decreased by periodic acid schiff staining in Mtx group as compared to controls. ML treatment did not completely ameliorate the lesions and milder degenerative alterations as loss of the glycogen content was still present. It was showed that montelukast treatment after methotrexate application could reduce methotrexate-induced experimental liver damage.

  5. Are vaccination models suitable to determine whether probiotics have beneficial health effects in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicholas P; Cripps, Allan W

    2013-03-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has indicated that stimulation of protective antibody titers from vaccination could be used to substantiate a supplement or food health claim on the function of the immune system related to defense against pathogens in healthy individuals. Vaccination allows exposure of the immune system to controlled quantities of antigen and also for assessment of median antibody responses and percentage of responders/non-responders, which provides indication of an integrated immune response to challenge. Probiotic vaccination studies have shown enhanced antibody titers, lower percentages of non-seroconverters and greater percentages reaching minimum cut-off titer values in healthy adults, elderly and children. These results indicate that probiotics are a good candidate to stimulate responses to vaccines and thus, according to EFSA, enhance the function of the immune system related to defense against infection. However, animal research has recently indicated that Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells, recognized suppressors of immune activity, were paradoxically associated with reduced respiratory viral morbidity without compromising viral clearance. These effects conflict with vaccine research findings, which suggest a depletion of Foxp3+ T-regs enhances the immune response. Many probiotics exert anti-inflammatory influence on the immune system and induce T-regs. Given this, caution regarding the applicability of the vaccination model as indicated by EFSA must be exercised. Induction of T-cell immune modulatory pathways may also explain the reduced duration of respiratory illness observed in probiotic clinical studies.

  6. Beneficial effects of dietary soluble fiber supplementation in replacement gilts: Pubertal onset and subsequent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yong; Shi, Xiaolin; Lv, Gang; Hua, Lun; Zhou, Pan; Che, Liangqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soluble fiber supplementation prior to puberty on age at puberty and subsequent reproductive performance of gilts. A total of 136 gilts of similar body weight (BW, 60.59±7.02kg) and age (140±10 days) were fed a control diet (CON) or control diet supplemented with 0.8% soluble fiber (SF) until mating at the third estrus. Circulating concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and estradiol in gilts fed the SF diet were lower than in CON gilts at 205d of age. Compared with CON-fed gilts, the SF-fed gilts attained observed puberty 15.6d earlier (P0.05). However, the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was lower for SF gilts (4.62%) than for CON gilts (11.3%) (Pgilts compared with the CON gilts (P=0.07). In summary, prepubescent dietary soluble fiber supplementation can reduce the age at puberty in gilts and increase their subsequent reproductive performance as sows. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. "Beneficial effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on blood pressure in Hyperandrogenic women "

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    Sotoudeh G

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.

  8. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

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    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  9. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

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    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  10. Diet Modification and Metformin Have a Beneficial Effect in a Fly Model of Obesity and Mucormycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection. Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:25268492

  11. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

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    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  12. Beneficial effects of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel opener on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Mateus Antunes; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonça; Sampietre, Sandra Nassa; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of diazoxide administration on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Wistar male rats underwent partial liver ischemia performed by clamping the pedicle from the medium and left anterior lateral segments for 1 h under mechanical ventilation. They were divided into 3 groups: Control Group, rats submitted to liver manipulation, Saline Group, rats received saline, and Diazoxide Group, rats received intravenous injection diazoxide (3.5 mg/kg) 15 min before liver reperfusion. 4 h and 24 h after reperfusion, blood was collected for determination of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), nitrite/nitrate, creatinine and tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Liver tissues were assembled for mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and histologic analysis. Pulmonary vascular permeability and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also determined. RESULTS: Four hours after reperfusion the diazoxide group presented with significant reduction of AST (2009 ± 257 U/L vs 3523 ± 424 U/L, P = 0.005); ALT (1794 ± 295 U/L vs 3316 ± 413 U/L, P = 0.005); TNF-α (17 ± 9 pg/mL vs 152 ± 43 pg/mL, P = 0.013; IL-6 (62 ± 18 pg/mL vs 281 ± 92 pg/mL); IL-10 (40 ± 9 pg/mL vs 78 ± 10 pg/mL P = 0.03), and nitrite/nitrate (3.8 ± 0.9 μmol/L vs 10.2 ± 2.4 μmol/L, P = 0.025) when compared to the saline group. A significant reduction in liver mitochondrial dysfunction was observed in the diazoxide group compared to the saline group (P < 0.05). No differences in liver MDA content, serum creatinine, pulmonary vascular permeability and MPO activity were observed between groups. Twenty four hours after reperfusion the diazoxide group showed a reduction of AST (495 ± 78 U/L vs 978 ± 192 U/L, P = 0.032); ALT (335 ± 59 U/L vs 742 ± 182 U/L, P = 0.048), and TGF-β1 (11 ± 1 ng/mL vs 17 ± 0.5 ng/mL, P = 0.004) serum levels when compared to

  13. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  14. Evaluation of the Beneficial Effects of rooming-in care, in icteric hospitalized neonates

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    Mohammad Kazemian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rooming-in, motivated by World Health Organization (WHO strategies and baby-friendly hospital policies, is a practice followed in many maternity hospitals of Iran. Mother-infant dyad may easily be damaged by the separation caused by medical and surgical problems, which result in hospital stay. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the rooming-in practice in icteric newborns admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital of Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 220 neonates admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital with the complaint of jaundice. Out of the 220 newborns, 124 cases were assigned into the intervention group (the rooming-in care and 96 neonates were categorized into the control group (the routine-care. The two groups were compared in terms of the length of hospital stay, maternal satisfaction, nursing care time, and hospital stay complications. The data were collected by some trained mid-wives using a validated questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using paired sample t-test through SPSS version 16. Results: According to the results of the study, about 55% of the neonates were male. The neonatal mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 6.6 ±3.7 and 7 ± 3.8 days, respectively. Maternal satisfaction with neonatal care and maternal comfort during hospital stay were significantly higher in the intervention group (P=0.027. Furthermore, the two groups had no significant difference regarding the complications of hospital stay (P=0.655. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study demonstrated, in spite of the similarities of the health issues, nursery essentials, and hospital stay complications between the two groups, the rooming-in was more favorable according to the mothers’ viewpoints.

  15. Increased Sperm DNA Damage in Experimental Rat Varicocele Model and The Beneficial Effect of Varicocelectomy

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    Metin İshak Öztürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele, the abnormal dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexusis commonly seen in infertile patients. In this study, we aim to examine sperm DNAdamage after the creation of experimental varicocele in rats and to observe the changeof this damage after a varicocelectomy.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 adult male Wistar albinorats were divided into three groups. The 10 rats in group 1 underwent a sham operation, anexperimental varicocele was created in both the10 rats in group 2 and the 10 rats in group 3 (atotal of 20 rats. While the rats of group 2 were sacrificed after four weeks, the rats in group 3underwent a varicocelectomy after four weeks and were sacrificed four weeks after the varicocelectomyto observe its effects. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed with a Halomax®kit. The DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI was calculated and the groups were compared accordingto their DFI. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Results: Median sperm DFI was 17.6 (range: 7.6 in the right testicle and 18.3 (range: 6.8in the left testicle in the control group; 30.7 (range: 8.8 in the right testicle and 31.8 (range:9.6 in the left testicle in the varicocele group; 27.1 (range: 8.1 in the right testicle and 28.6(range: 8.9 in the left testicle in the varicocelectomy group. DNA damage in both right andleft testicles was statistically significant between the three groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study show that varicocele leads to increased spermDNA damage and this damage is decreased by varicocelectomy.

  16. Beneficial effects of ellagic acid against animal models of scopolamine- and diazepam-induced cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Farbood, Yaghoub; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Shabani, Sohreh; Mirshekar, Mohammad Ali; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Context In a previous study, it has been shown that ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound found in pomegranate and different berries, prevents cognitive and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments induced by traumatic brain injury in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Objective The present study was conducted to assess the potential of EA as a memory enhancer. Materials and methods The elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) paradigm were used to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Three doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) of EA were administered to animals. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine treatment (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and/or diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Acquisition trials were carried out 30 min after scopolamine treatment and retention trials were performed for 5 min 24 h after the acquisition trials. Results EA at doses 30 and 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) in the EPM and PA tests in mice. Also, EA at doses 30 and 100 mg/kg significantly antagonized the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in EPM test in rats. Moreover, chronic administration of EA at dose 30 mg/kg ameliorated the memory deficit induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrates that ellagic acid is effective in preventing scopolamine- and diazepam-induced cognitive impairments without altering the animals' locomotion. This suggests the potential of EA application as a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly persons.

  17. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

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    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results : The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions : The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability.

  19. Beneficial effect of aligned nanofiber scaffolds with electrical conductivity for the directional guide of cells.

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    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2017-08-10

    Conducting polymer-based scaffolds receive biological and electrical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) or peripheral cells, thereby promoting cell growth and differentiation. Chitin, a natural polymer, is widely used as a scaffold because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to fabricate conductive scaffolds from aligned chitin/polyaniline (Chi/PANi) nanofibers for the directional guidance of cells. Pure chitin and random and aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and by assessing wettability, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity. The diameters of aligned Chi/PANi nanofibers were confirmed to be smaller than those of pure chitin and random nanofibers owing to electrostatic forces and stretching produced by rotational forces of the drum collector. The electrical conductivity of aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~91% higher than that of random nanofibers. We also studied the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) cultured on Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds in vitro using a CCK-8 assay, and found that cell viability on the aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds was ~2.1-fold higher than that on random Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells on aligned nanofiber scaffolds spread in the direction of the aligned nanofibers (bipolar), whereas cells on the random nanofibers showed no spreading (6 h of culture) or multipolar patterns (7 days of culture). These results suggest that aligned Chi/PANi nanofiber scaffolds with conductivity exert effects that could improve survival and proliferation of cells with directionality.

  20. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Sadura-Sieklucka, Teresa; Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Gaszewska, Ewa; Rodkiewicz-Bogusławska, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice - prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability.

  1. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

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    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  2. Beneficial Effect Administration of Vitamin C in Amelioration of Lead Hepatotoxicity

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    Nadia AIT HAMADOUCHE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous human and experimental studies have demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of lipid. Oxidative stress with subsequent lipid peroxidation has been postulated as one mechanism for lead toxicity. The protective action of vitamins C against lead affects lipid hydroperoxide level and liver functions in male rats has been studied. Experiments were performed on male waster rats with body weights of 120-160 g. Male wistar rats were exposed to 3 g/l lead acetate in drinking water for 5 weeks and treated thereafter with vitamin C (500 mg/kg, orally for 28 days. One day after the feeding was over, venous blood samples, under chloroform anesthesia, were collected. The animals were killed by exsanguinations and the liver was excise for determination the metal content and histopathological changes. Similarly, the tissue lipid (lipid peroxidation and the enzyme fraction (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP and glutathione (GSH were also measured in the liver. Metal content in blood and liver was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Administration of lead acetate (3 g/l in drinking water for 5 weeks induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic ALP, ACP and lipid peroxidation. Lead acetate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such SOD, CAT and GSH. Further, there was a significant increase in the levels of lead in blood and liver of animals exposed to lead. However, oral administration of vitamin C at dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the alterations in the previous parameters. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead acetate-exposed group and treatment with vitamin C improved liver histology. The result of this study strongly indicate that vitamin C has got a potent antioxidant

  3. The Beneficial Effect of Suramin on Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

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    Izikki, Mohamed; Mercier, Olaf; Lecerf, Florence; Lubert Guin, Lauriane; Hoang, Eric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Dartevelle, Philippe; Fadel, Elie; Eddahibi, Saadia

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH) can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R), or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R). All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Methods and Results We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. Conclusions RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24143201

  4. The beneficial effect of suramin on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izikki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R, epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R, or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R. All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. CONCLUSIONS: RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  6. The Smn-independent beneficial effects of trichostatin A on an intermediate mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

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    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive loss of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. Trichostatin A (TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with beneficial effects in spinal muscular atrophy mouse models that carry the human SMN2 transgene. It is currently unclear whether TSA specifically targets the SMN2 gene or whether other genes respond to TSA and in turn provide neuroprotection in SMA mice. We have taken advantage of the Smn2B/- mouse model that does not harbor the human SMN2 transgene, to test the hypothesis that TSA has its beneficial effects through a non-SMN mediated pathway. TSA increased the median lifespan of Smn2B/- mice from twenty days to eight weeks. As well, there was a significant attenuation of weight loss and improved motor behavior. Pen test and righting reflex both showed significant improvement, and motor neurons in the spinal cord of Smn2B/- mice were protected from degeneration. Both the size and maturity of neuromuscular junctions were significantly improved in TSA treated Smn2B/- mice. Of interest, TSA treatment did not increase the levels of Smn protein in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or myoblasts obtained from the Smn2B/- mice. In addition, no change in the level of Smn transcripts or protein in the brain or spinal cord of TSA-treated SMA model mice was observed. Furthermore, TSA did not increase Smn protein levels in the hind limb muscle, heart, or liver of Smn2B/- mice. We therefore conclude that TSA likely exerts its effects independent of the endogenous mouse Smn gene. As such, identification of the pathways regulated by TSA in the Smn2B/- mice could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for treating SMA.

  7. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, on cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

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    Akira Ishikawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CyA nephrotoxicity is partly due to some oxidative stress. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, has recently gained attention for its anti-oxidative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of rCoQ10 on a CyA nephrotoxic rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (five animals each. Group 1 received a medium only. Group 2 received 30 mg/kg/day of CyA only. Group 3 received both the same dose of CyA and 600 mg/kg/day of rCoQ10. CyA and rCoQ10 were both given orally for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP, daily urinary albumin secretion (u-Alb, serum creatinine (s-Cr level, and super-oxide anion (SO level in the renal tissue were measured and compared among those three groups. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta was also examined. RESULTS: BPs, u-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 114 ± 3, 132 ± 4, and 129 ± 5 mmHg, 2.6 ± 0.5, 42.1 ± 7.2, and 22.8 ± 3.4 micro-g/day, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, and 224 ± 84, 1251 ± 138, and 512 ± 109 RLU/g kidney respectively. U-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels were significantly ameliorated by rCoQ10. Micro-vacuolar changes and TGF-beta positive deposits in the proximal renal tubular cells of CyA group rats disappeared in those of CyA and rCoQ10 group rats. CONCLUSION: RCoQ10, an antioxidants, may have potential for preventing CyA nephrotoxicity.

  8. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Norman J. Blumenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb. Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5% were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy

  9. Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Michael, Shiju T; Arya, Ramachandran; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Ganesh, Rajesh N; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceace) is a commonly available fruit variety with high medicinal and industrial values. Lemon peel (LP) extract was studied as a potent preventive and curative agent for experimentally induced hyperoxaluric rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and toxicity study were performed for aqueous methanol LP extract. Twenty-four Wistar rats were segregated into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (ethylene glycol (EG) - 0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG + LP extract administration from 0th to 7th week); Group 4: Curative study (EG + LP extract administration from 4th to 7th week). Animals received LP extract daily by oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) for 7 weeks. GC-MS analyses revealed that compound 6 was abundant in the LP extract (32%) followed by compound 1 (∼21%). The LD50 value of LP extract was found to be >5000 mg/kg of body weight. Urolithic rats showed significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate (4.47 ± 0.44 and 18.86 ± 0.55 mg/24 h, respectively) excretion compared with control and experimental rats. Renal function parameters like urea (84 ± 8.5 and 96.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL), creatinine (1.92 ± 0.27 and 1.52 ± 0.22 mg/dL), and urinary protein (2.03 ± 0.02 and 2.13 ± 0.16 mg/24 h) were also reduced by LP extract (p < 0.001) and corroborated with tissue analyses (SOD, catalase, and MDA levels) and histological studies in normal and experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining of THP and NF-κB in urolithic animals showed elevated expression than the control, while LP extract suppressed the expression of these proteins. In conclusion, lemon peel is effective in curing kidney stone disease and also can be used to prevent the disease and its recurrence.

  10. Novel Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol formulation Namisol® has beneficial pharmacokinetics and promising pharmacodynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Linda E; Beumer, Tim L; van Hasselt, Johan G C; Lipplaa, Astrid; Karger, Lennard B; Kleinloog, H Daniël; Freijer, Jan I; de Kam, Marieke L; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Among the main disadvantages of currently available Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) formulations are dosing difficulties due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics. Namisol® is a novel THC formulation, designed to improve THC absorption. The study objectives were to investigate the optimal administration route, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and tolerability of Namisol®. METHODS This first in human study consisted of two parts. Panel I included healthy males and females (n = 6/6) in a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, crossover study with sublingual (crushed tablet) and oral administration of Namisol® (5 mg THC). Based on these results, male and female (n = 4/5) participants from panel I received oral THC 6.5 and 8.0 mg or matching placebo in a randomized, crossover, rising dose study during panel II. PD measurements were body sway; visual analogue scales (VAS) mood, psychedelic and heart rate. THC and 11-OH-THC population PK analysis was performed. RESULTS Sublingual administration showed a flat concentration profile compared with oral administration. Oral THC apparent t1/2 was 72–80 min, tmax was 39–56 min and Cmax 2.92–4.69 ng ml−1. THC affected body sway (60.8%, 95% CI 29.5, 99.8), external perception (0.078 log mm, 95% CI 0.019, 0.137), alertness (−2.7 mm, 95% CI −4.5, −0.9) feeling high (0.256 log mm, 95% CI 0.093, 0.418) and heart rate (5.6 beats min–1, 95% CI 2.7, 6.5). Namisol® was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS Oral Namisol® showed promising PK and PD characteristics. Variability and tmax of THC plasma concentrations were smaller for Namisol® than reported for studies using oral dronabinol and nabilone. This study was performed in a limited number of healthy volunteers. Therefore, future research on Namisol® should study clinical effects in patient populations. PMID:22680341

  11. Small trial finds beneficial effect for MI Paste in preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Sam; Greene, Louise; Borrie, Felicity; Lamont, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    during the trial. These effects were most noticeable on the gingival surfaces. Incisal enamel decalcification index scores were consistently higher than other tooth surfaces, including gingival.

  12. Beneficial effect of Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts on the fitness of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however...

  13. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

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    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  14. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    illustrate that the dietary influence of omega-3 and omega-6 on protein expression is eminent with the proteins directly responsible for catalytic activity in the “Molecular Function” category, totaling 192 proteins, of Gene Ontology designation. In a similar analysis with regard to the “Cellular Localization” category, protein expression changed the most in the sub-categories of “Cytoplasm”, “Membrane”, “Nucleus”, and “Mitochondrion”, totaling 221 proteins. The same analysis with regard to “Biological Process”considering the top four categories, i.e., “Metabolic process”, “Regulation of biological (process”, “Response to stimulus”, and “Transport” also indicated significant alteration of 182 proteins. These results illustrate a robust influence of dietary elements, omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the protein expression in mouse liver.Conclusions: Application of nutritional proteomics to the dietary effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to that of omega-6 on mouse liver revealed; 1 significant number of proteins are altered between the two diets dependent on the classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6, in the diet. The change of protein expression is likely to carry the molecular information that we could possibly decipher, leading to a better understanding of the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory process. The results corroborate the concept and utility of nutritional proteomics that should be developed as a part of functional food studies with regard to other dietary types.Keywords: Nutritional proteomics, functional foods, mass spectrometry, genome database, cellular signaling, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

  15. Evaluation of beneficial and adverse effects of glucocorticoids on a newly developed full-thickness skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Nadja Nicole; Kippenberger, Stefan; Thaçi, Diamant; Mewes, Karsten; Spiegel, Martina; Sättler, Andrea; Schultz, Maike; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August

    2008-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are highly effective compounds widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases; however, they offer distinct adverse effects such as skin thinning in response to long-term topical treatment. Nevertheless it is difficult to deduce the safety of a newly synthesized compound from its structural formula. Efficient assay systems that measure beneficial and adverse effects are needed. In the present study the applicability of a three-dimensional full-thickness skin model (FTSM) is tested to display GC-induced effects regarding anti-inflammation and atrophy. It is shown that topical application of a commercial GC ointment suppresses the ultraviolet (UV)B induced induction of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Addition of purified betamethasone-17-valerate, prednicarbate and clobetasol-17-propionate to the culture medium for 14 days caused a reduction in the number of epidermal cell-layers corresponding to the atrophic risk found in vivo. Similarly, repeated topical application of five GC creams induced epidermal thinning. Evidence is given that the inhibitory effect on keratinocyte proliferation contributes to this effect. Furthermore, dermal thinning was monitored by measuring type I collagen synthesis; a decreased collagen synthesis similar to the in vivo situation is shown. The present study demonstrates the versatility of this FTSM in the validation of effectiveness and safety of GCs.

  16. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. No beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function or quality of life in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    ) increased significantly (50 to 94 nmol/L) compared with placebo (57 to 52 nmol/L). We did not measure any beneficial effects of supplementation with vitamin D compared with placebo regarding well-being, QoL, postural stability, muscle strength, or function. In all patients, we measured marked improvements......, quality of life (QoL), and well-being during treatment with vitamin D or placebo before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in PHPT patients. Design: Randomized placebo controlled trial. Patients: We included 46 PHPT patients, mean age 58 (range 29-77) years and 35 (76%) were women. Interventions: Daily...... around 50 nmol/L did not benefit from vitamin D supplementation concerning muscle strength, muscle function, postural stability, well-being, or quality of life. Independent of preoperative 25OHD levels, PTX improved these parameters....

  18. Photoelectrochemically polymerized polythiophene layers on ruthenium photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells and their beneficial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Han, Sung-Hwan [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Roh, Seung-Jae [Research and Development Division, Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1, Ami-ri, Bubal-eub, Icheon-si, Kyoungki-do 467-701 (Korea); Hyung, Kyung-Hee [Electronic Chemical Materials R and D Center, Cheil Industries Inc., 332-2, Gocheon-Dong, Uiwang-Si, Kyoungki-do 437-711 (Korea); Park, Joonyoung [Amkor Technology Korea, Inc. 280-8, 2-ga, Sungsu-dong, Sungdong-ku, Seoul 133-706 (Korea); Lee, Soo-Hyoung [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Duckjin-dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    Beneficial effects of polythiophen layers on ruthenium (Ru) photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are observed. The thiophene is photoelectrochemically polymerized by the photoexcitation of Ru photosensitizers on TiO{sub 2}. In situ polymerization enables the formation of uniform polythiophene layers on Ru-complexes/TiO{sub 2}. The polythiophene layers have hydrophobic nature and bridge the energy level between Ru-complexes and iodine/iodide, which suppress the recombination reaction and improve the concentration of photoinjected electron in TiO{sub 2} layers. The DSSCs with polythiophene protecting layers shows a power conversion efficiency of 6.01%, which is a 30% increase compared to one without polythiophene layers. (author)

  19. Beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (Rutaceae) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankuzo, Hassan; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Santosa, Rahajoe Imam; Akter, Seikh Farid Uddin; Talib, Norlewati A

    2011-04-26

    Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (curry leaf) is widely used as a nephroprotective agent in kidney's infirmities among diabetics by the traditional practitioners in Malaysia. However, the latter role of curry leaf has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) on diabetes-induced renal damage in vivo with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. Aqueous (AQ) extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) was administered to both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). Animals were divided into six groups (n=6) and treated with variable dose levels of AQ extract (200 and 400mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected, processed and stored at -70°C for the zestimation of serum urea and creatinine, changes in plasma antioxidant capacity by FRAP assay, and glutathione peroxidase levels, in the normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Histological changes of the kidneys of these animals were also evaluated by light microscopy to determine the beneficial effect of the leaves. Daily oral administration of variable dose levels of the AQ extract for 30 days, produced significant dose dependant decrease in serum urea and creatinine levels (pMurraya koenigii (Linn.) as adjuvant, in the treatment of pain disorders related to renal impairments among diabetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Many farms in regions of intensive crop production lack the habitats that historically provided resources to beneficial insects, and this lack has compromised the ability of farmers to rely on natural enemies for pest control. One of the strategies to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial insects is to supply them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources, such as diversifying trap crop systems and plant populations in or around fields include perennials and flowering plants. Trap cropping using insectary plant that attracts beneficial insects as natural enemies, especially flowering plants, made for provision of habitat for predators or parasitoids that are useful for biological control. Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. We observed PTC habitat modification and conventionaly-managed tobacco farms in Purwosari Village, Pasuruan (East Java) to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat modification management prescription (perimeter trap crop using flowering plant Crotalaria juncea) on agroecosystem natural enemies. Field tests were conducted in natural enemies (predator and parasitoid) abundance dynamic and diversity on tobacco field in Purwoasri, Pasuruan. Yellow pan trap, sweep net and hand collecting methods were applied in each 10 days during tobacco growth stage (vegetative, generative until reproductive/harvesting. The results showed that application perimeter trap crop with C. juncea in tobacco fields able to help arthropod conservation of natural enemies on all tobacco growth stages. These results were evidenced the increase in abundance of predators and parasitoids and the increased value of the Diversity Index (H') and Evenness Index (EH) in all tobacco growth phases. Composition of predator and parasitoid in the habitat modification field were more diverse than in the conventional field

  1. Beneficial Effects of HIV Peptidase Inhibitors on Fonsecaea pedrosoi: Promising Compounds to Arrest Key Fungal Biological Processes and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Vanila F.; Kneipp, Lucimar F.; Rozental, Sonia; Alviano, Celuta S.; Santos, André L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the principal etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, a fungal disease whose pathogenic events are poorly understood. Current therapy for chromoblastomycosis is suboptimal due to toxicity of the available therapeutic agents and the emergence of drug resistance. Compounding these problems is the fact that endemic countries and regions are economically poor. Purpose and Principal Findings In the present work, we have investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptidase inhibitors (PIs) on the F. pedrosoi conidial secreted peptidase, growth, ultrastructure and interaction with different mammalian cells. All the PIs impaired the acidic conidial-derived peptidase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, in which nelfinavir produced the best inhibitory effect. F. pedrosoi growth was also significantly reduced upon exposure to PIs, especially nelfinavir and saquinavir. PIs treatment caused profound changes in the conidial ultrastructure as shown by transmission electron microscopy, including invaginations in the cytoplasmic membrane, disorder and detachment of the cell wall, enlargement of fungi cytoplasmic vacuoles, and abnormal cell division. The synergistic action on growth ability between nelfinavir and amphotericin B, when both were used at sub-inhibitory concentrations, was also observed. PIs reduced the adhesion and endocytic indexes during the interaction between conidia and epithelial cells (CHO), fibroblasts or macrophages, in a cell type-dependent manner. Moreover, PIs interfered with the conidia into mycelia transformation when in contact with CHO and with the susceptibility killing by macrophage cells. Conclusions/Significance Overall, by providing the first evidence that HIV PIs directly affects F. pedrosoi development and virulence, these data add new insights on the wide-spectrum efficacy of HIV PIs, further arguing for the potential chemotherapeutic targets for aspartyl-type peptidase produced by this human

  2. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Meng; Cai, Guang-Yan; Bu, Ru; Wang, Wen-Juan; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published. All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI), OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang). The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models. The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR) group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL) group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL) group. Our findings demonstrate for the

  3. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Meng Xu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published.All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI, OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang. The pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models.The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL group.Our findings

  4. Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilonu, M C; Nwafor, I C; Umesiobi, D O; Sedibe, M M

    2017-02-03

    There is a growing need to increase productivity in poultry. Growth hormones and antibiotics have the ability to improve health, weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-producing animals. The growth-promoting antibiotics are administered to poultry to improve the general performance of the chicken. However, the use of the xenobiotic drugs in food-producing animals has been a concern and a sensitive issue of debate for several decades in the EU and many other regional blocks of the world. Consequently, the use of hormones in animal production has been banned in Italy, Denmark and Germany for over 4-5 decades, while Belgium and Greece had never permitted its use for livestock fattening purposes. Bioactive phytochemicals exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and consequently have several beneficial effects on appetite, growth and the immune status of the animal. In South Africa, different species of pumpkin are produced for food due to their high nutrient content. The flesh serves as a traditional food, while the seeds and peels are commonly discarded. Pumpkin seed extract is reported to be useful for immunomodulation, reproductive health, therapeutics over a wide range of disease conditions and stimulates metabolism of accumulated fats. Studies have also shown that pumpkin seeds are a valuable source of protein and fat. Their complexity and extent of bioactivity offers sustainable prospects for natural control of pathogenic/parasitic organisms, stimulate nutrition or enhance resistance to disease infections, and reduce abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids, while increasing serum levels of beneficial lipids. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

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    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Topochemical synthesis of Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at varied Fe/Co ratios: unique intercalation of triiodide and its profound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2011-01-26

    Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at different Fe/Co ratios were synthesized from brucite-like Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) via oxidative intercalation reaction using an excess amount of iodine as the oxidizing agent. A new redoxable species: triiodide (I(3)(-)), promoted the formation of single-phase Co-Fe LDHs. The results point to a general principle that LDHs with a characteristic ratio of total trivalent and divalent cations (M(3+)/M(2+)) at 1/2 may be the most stable in the oxidative intercalation procedure. At low Fe content, e.g., starting from Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (x triiodide and iodide into the interlayer gallery of as-transformed LDH phase, which profoundly impacted the relative intensity ratio of basal Bragg peaks as a consequence of the significant X-ray scattering power of triiodide. In combination with XRD simulation, the LDH structure model was constructed by considering both the host layer composition/charge and the arrangement of interlayer triiodide/iodide. The work provides a clear understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors associated with the oxidative intercalation reaction and is helpful in elucidating the formation of LDH structure in general.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Pre-operative Exercise Therapy in Patients with an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, S; Willigendael, E M; van Sambeek, M R H M; Nienhuijs, S W; Cuypers, P W M; Teijink, J A W

    2015-01-01

    The impact of post-operative complications in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery is substantial, and increases with age and concomitant co-morbidities. This systematic review focuses on the possible effects of pre-operative exercise therapy (PET) in patients with AAA on post-operative complications,aerobic capacity, physical fitness, and recovery. A systematic search on PET prior to AAA surgery was conducted. The methodological quality of the included studies was rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. The agreement between the reviewers was assessed with Cohen's kappa. Five studies were included, with a methodological quality ranging from moderate to good. Cohen's kappa was 0.79. Three studies focused on patients with an AAA (without indication for surgical repair) with physical fitness as the outcome measure. One study focused on PET in patients awaiting AAA surgery and one study focused on the effects of PET on post-operative complications, length of stay, and recovery. PET has beneficial effects on various physical fitness variables of patients with an AAA. Whether this leads to less complications or faster recovery remains unclear. In view of the large impact of post-operative complications, it is valuable to explore the possible benefits of a PET program in AAA surgery.

  8. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  10. Beneficial effect of commercial Rhodiola extract in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment on active avoidance.

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    Vasileva, Liliya V; Getova, Damianka P; Doncheva, Nina D; Marchev, Andrey S; Georgiev, Milen I

    2016-12-04

    Rhodiola rosea L., family Crassulaceae also known as Golden Root or Arctic root is one of the most widely used medicinal plants with effect on cognitive dysfunction, psychological stress and depression. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a standardized commercial Rhodiola extract on learning and memory processes in naive rats as well as its effects in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Sixty male Wistar rats were used in the study. The experiment was conducted in two series - on naive rats and on rats with scopolamine-induced model of impaired memory. The active avoidance test was performed in an automatic conventional shuttle box set-up. The criteria used were the number of conditional stimuli (avoidances), the number of unconditioned stimuli (escapes) as well as the number of intertrial crossings. The chemical fingerprinting of the standardized commercial Rhodiola extract was performed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Naive rats treated with standardized Rhodiola extract increased the number of avoidances during the learning session and memory retention test compared to the controls. Rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment treated with Rhodiola extract showed an increase in the number of avoidances during the learning session and on the memory tests compared to the scopolamine group. The other two parameters were not changed in rats treated with the extract of Rhodiola in the two series. It was found that the studied Rhodiola extract exerts a beneficial effect on learning and memory processes in naive rats and rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The observed effect is probably due to multiple underlying mechanisms including its modulating effect on acetylcholine levels in the brain and MAO-inhibitory activity leading to stimulation of the monoamines' neurotransmission. In addition the pronounced stress-protective properties of Rhodiola rosea L. could also play a role in the improvement of cognitive

  11. Metabolic Surgery Profoundly Influences Gut Microbial-Host Metabolic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia V.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bueter, Marco; Kinross, James; Sands, Caroline; le Roux, Carel W; Bloom, Stephen R.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Marchesi, Julian R.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed worldwide to treat morbid obesity and is also known as metabolic surgery to reflect its beneficial metabolic effects especially with respect to improvement in type 2 diabetes. Understanding surgical weight loss mechanisms and metabolic modulation is required to enhance patient benefits and operative outcomes. Methods We apply a parallel and statistically integrated metagenomic and metabonomic approach to characterize Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effects in a rat model. Results We show substantial shifts of the main gut phyla towards higher levels of Proteobacteria (52-fold) specifically Enterobacter hormaechei. We also find low levels of Firmicutes (4.5-fold) and Bacteroidetes (2-fold) in comparison to sham-operated rats. Faecal extraction studies reveal a decrease in faecal bile acids and a shift from protein degradation to putrefaction through decreased faecal tyrosine with concomitant increases in faecal putrescine and diamnoethane. We find decreased urinary amines and cresols and demonstrate indices of modulated energy metabolism post-RYGB including decreased urinary succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and fumarate. These changes could also indicate renal tubular acidosis, which associates with increased flux of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. A surgically-induced effect on the gut-brain-liver metabolic axis is inferred by increased neurotropic compounds; faecal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Conclusion This profound co-dependence of mammalian and microbial metabolism, which is systematically altered following RYGB surgery, suggests that RYGB exerts local and global metabolic activities. The effect of RYGB surgery on the host metabolic-microbial crosstalk augments our understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bariatric procedures and can facilitate enhanced treatments for obesity-related diseases. PMID:21572120

  12. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin on the In Vitro Maturation of Sheep Oocytes and Its Relation to Melatonin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; He, Changjiu; Ji, Pengyun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Lv, Dongying; Abulizi, Wusiman; Wang, Xuguang; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-04-17

    (1) Background: The binding sites of melatonin, as a multifunctional molecule, have been identified in human, porcine, and bovine samples. However, the binding sites and mechanisms of melatonin have not been reported in sheep; (2) Methods: Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with melatonin at concentrations of 0, 10(-3), 10(-5), 10(-7), 10(-9), and 10(-11) M. Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) were evaluated via immunofluorescence and Western blot. The effects of melatonin on cumulus cell expansion, nuclear maturation, embryo development, and related gene (GDF9, DNMT1, PTX3, HAS2, and EGFR) expression were investigated. The level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were evaluated in oocytes and cumulus, respectively; (3) Results: Both MT1 and MT2 were expressed in oocytes, cumulus cells, and granulosa cells. Melatonin with a concentration of 10(-7) M significantly enhanced the rates of nuclear maturation, cumulus cells expansion, cleavage, and blastocyst. Melatonin enhanced the expression of BMP15 in oocytes and of PTX3, HAS2, and EGFR in cumulus cells. Melatonin decreased the cAMP level of oocytes but enhanced the cGMP level in oocytes and cumulus cells; (4) Conclusion: The higher presence of MT1 in GV cumulus cells and the beneficial effects of melatonin indicated that its roles in regulating sheep oocyte maturation may be mediated mainly by the MT1 receptor.

  13. Potential beneficial effects of a gluten-free diet in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...... children newly diagnosed with T1D were instructed to follow a gluten-free diet. Questionnaires were used to evaluate adherence to the gluten-free diet. Partial remission (PR) was defined by insulin dose-adjusted A1c (IDAA1c) ≤9 or stimulated C-peptide (SCP) >300 pmol/L measured 90 min after a liquid mixed...... meal at the inclusion, six and 12 months after onset. The intervention group was compared with two previous cohorts. Linear mixed models were used to estimate differences between cohorts. Results: After 6 months, more children on a gluten-free diet tended to have SCP values above 300 pmol/L compared...

  14. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Carpenter, R. Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S.; Goldstrohm, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Bowler, Russell P.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading. PMID:25593283

  15. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kasch

    Full Text Available We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance.C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW received HFD from week 15 until week 25.Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring.Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Teucrium polium and Metformin on Diabetes-Induced Memory Impairments and Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in Rats

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    S. Mojtaba Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium and metformin on diabetes-induced memory impairment and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated. Methods. The rats were divided into: (1 Control, (2 Diabetic, (3 Diabetic-Extract 100 (Dia-Ext 100, (4 Diabetic-Extract 200 (Dia-Ext 200, (5 Diabetic-Extract 400 (Dia-Ext 400, and (6 Diabetic-Metformin (Dia-Met. Groups 3–6 were treated by 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract or metformin, respectively, for 6 weeks (orally. Results. In passive avoidance test, the latency to enter the dark compartment in Diabetic group was lower than that of Control group (P<0.01. In Dia-Ext 100, Dia-Ext 200, and Dia-Ext 400 and Metformin groups, the latencies were higher than those of Diabetic group (P<0.01. Lipid peroxides levels (reported as malondialdehyde, MDA, concentration in the brain of Diabetic group were higher than Control (P<0.001. Treatment by all doses of the extract and metformin decreased the MDA concentration (P<0.01. Conclusions. The results of present study showed that metformin and the hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium prevent diabetes-induced memory deficits in rats. Protection against brain tissues oxidative damage might have a role in the beneficial effects of the extract and metformin.

  17. Genetic variants on rat chromosome 8 exhibit profound effects on hypertension severity and survival during nitric oxide inhibition in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Schulz, Angela; Schütten-Faber, Sabrina; Schulte, Leonard; Unland, Johannes; Kossmehl, Peter; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension and mortality is aggravated by nitric oxide inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats. MWF rats carry major albuminuria quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome (RNO) 6 and RNO8; susceptibility of SHRs to L-NAME is enhanced by transfer of RNO6 from MWF rats into the SHR background. Here, we tested whether the sensitivity to L-NAME in SHRs is affected by transfer of RNO8 from MWF rats in consomic SHR-8(MWF) rats. In study 1, we analyzed survival in male SHR and SHR-8(MWF) rats in response to 18 weeks of treatment with either normal drinking water (vehicle-treated) or water containing 20mg/L L-NAME. In study 2, we analyzed blood pressure and renal damage in both strains in response to 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME compared with vehicle-treated groups. In study 1, starting after 6 weeks of treatment with L-NAME, mortality reached 90% in SHRs in contrast with the group of L-NAME treated SHR-8(MWF) rats (P rats survived similar to vehicle-treated rats. In study 2, L-NAME resulted in a more pronounced increase in mean arterial blood pressures in SHRs compared with SHR-8(MWF) rats (216 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 11 mm Hg; P rats after L-NAME treatment (P < 0.05), whereas albuminuria was not different between strains. The blood pressure increase and impaired survival of SHRs in response to nitric oxide inhibition is profoundly influenced by genes on RNO8.

  18. Clinical investigation on the beneficial effects of the Chinese medicinal herb Gushen Pian on sensorineural deafness and tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Suoqiang; Fang, Yaoyun; Yang, Weiyan; Gu, Rui; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Shiming

    2013-11-01

    The objective is to study the therapeutic effects of Gushen Pian on sensorineural deafness according to the Phase II clinical trial protocol, as approved for novel traditional Chinese medicines by Ministry of Health of PRC. This is a double blind study in which 120 patients were allocated randomly into treatment and control groups and an open treatment group (40 cases in each group). Patients in the treatment groups were administrated with Gushen Pian and controls received placebo. Routine examination of blood and urine, hepatic and renal function tests and pure tone audiometry were performed before and after treatment. Clinical symptoms and therapeutic outcomes were compared and evaluated. For double-blind treatment group, the total effective rate of deafness was 42.2% and total relieved rate of deafness was 4.6%; for double-blind control group, the total effective rate of deafness was 18.7% and total relieved rate of deafness was 0%; for simple treatment group, the total effective rate of deafness was 58.7% and total relieved rate of deafness was 6.3%. For double-blind treatment group, the total effective rate of tinnitus was 89.2% and total relieved rate of tinnitus was 59.5%; for double-blind control group, the total effective rate of tinnitus was 30.8% and total relieved rate of tinnitus was 5.1%; for simple treatment group, the total effective rate of tinnitus was 74.3% and total relieved rate of tinnitus was 57.1%. The double-blind treatment showed statistically significant differences from control group. The medication could effectively alleviate aural fullness, dizziness, lassitude of loins and knees, dysphoria with feverish sensation in chest, insomnia, and fatigue, etc. No adverse effect was reported during treatment; no abnormal results were reported in blood, urine, faces, heart function, liver function and kidney function examination. Gushen Pian had beneficial effect on deafness and tinnitus and could effectively alleviate aural fullness, insomnia

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes adaptive plasticity within the spinal cord and mediates the beneficial effects of controllable stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huie, J R; Garraway, S M; Baumbauer, K M; Hoy, K C; Beas, B S; Montgomery, K S; Bizon, J L; Grau, J W

    2012-01-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been characterized as a potent modulator of neural plasticity in both the brain and spinal cord. The present experiments use an in vivo model system to demonstrate that training with controllable stimulation increases spinal BDNF expression and engages a BDNF-dependent process that promotes adaptive plasticity. Spinally transected rats administered legshock whenever one hind limb is extended (controllable stimulation) exhibit a progressive increase in flexion duration. This simple form of response-outcome (instrumental) learning is not observed when shock is given independent of leg position (uncontrollable stimulation). Uncontrollable electrical stimulation also induces a lasting effect that impairs learning for up to 48 h. Training with controllable shock can counter the adverse consequences of uncontrollable stimulation, to both prevent and reverse the learning deficit. Here it is shown that the protective and restorative effect of instrumental training depends on BDNF. Cellular assays showed that controllable stimulation increased BDNF mRNA expression and protein within the lumbar spinal cord. These changes were associated with an increase in the BDNF receptor TrkB protein within the dorsal horn. Evidence is then presented that these changes play a functional role in vivo. Application of a BDNF inhibitor (TrkB-IgG) blocked the protective effect of instrumental training. Direct (intrathecal) application of BDNF substituted for instrumental training to block both the induction and expression of the learning deficit. Uncontrollable stimulation also induced an increase in mechanical reactivity (allodynia), and this too was prevented by BDNF. TrkB-IgG blocked the restorative effect of instrumental training and intrathecal BDNF substituted for training to reverse the deficit. Taken together, these findings outline a critical role for BDNF in mediating the beneficial effects of controllable stimulation on spinal plasticity

  20. Microalgal food supplements from the perspective of Polish consumers: patterns of use, adverse events, and beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Jaśkiewicz, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal food supplements are becoming increasingly popular due to their promising biological effects and high nutritional value, evidenced in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Some products of this kind have, however, raised controversies concerning their safety. At the same time, not much is known about the frequency of adverse events following the use of microalgal supplements, potential factors that may influence them, and general characteristics and behaviours of the consumer group. The present study aimed to fill this gap and surveyed a group of Polish consumers of microalgal products (n = 150) using an online questionnaire. As found, microalgal supplements (Spirulina, Chlorella, and Aphanizomenon) were popular in groups representing lacto-ovo-vegetarianism and veganism and were consumed predominantly for nutritional, immune-boosting, and detoxifying purposes. Their use was rarely discussed with specialists; the Internet constituted the most important source of information regarding these supplements. The most frequently self-reported health-beneficial effects of supplementation included the following: increased immunity, higher vitality, improved hair and skin quality, and better general well-being. Diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, and skin rash were among the most often reported adverse events. Pre-existing medical conditions, namely renal failure and hypothyroidism, but not Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were associated with increased occurrence of side effects. Those individuals who had consulted specialists as to the use of supplements reported adverse events significantly less often. A strikingly high frequency of side effects and very low consumer satisfaction were reported by a group of consumers supplementing Aphanizomenon-based products. In summary, the present study highlights that microalgal consumers may benefit from additional warnings of potential side effects and from consulting a qualified health specialist prior to use.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjeon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI. We have previously shown that melatonin (MT plus exercise (Ex had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.

  2. Beneficial effects of water-soluble chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) tannin extract on chicken small intestinal epithelial cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, M; Gradišnik, L; Trapecar, M; Škorjanc, D; Frangež, R

    2018-02-12

    Feed and water supplementation with powdered hydrolyzable tannins from chestnut represents a valuable alternative strategy to antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we evaluated the effects and safety of a water-soluble form of chestnut tannin (WST) in an in vitro model of chicken small intestinal epithelial cells (CSIEC). A chicken cell culture was established, and WST in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% were tested for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, metabolic activity, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotoxicity, and influence on the epithelia cell cycle. The tested concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.05) greater proliferative effect on CSIEC than the control medium (maximal proliferation at 0.1% WST as determined by optical density measurements). The 0.2% concentration of WST was cytotoxic, causing significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production but with no short-term genotoxicity. Although increasing the concentration caused a decline in the metabolism of challenged cells (the lowest at 0.1% WST), metabolic activity remained higher than that in control cells. The antioxidant potential was 75% better and significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the 0.1% WST cultured cells compared to control. In conclusion, the cultured CSIEC are useful tools in basic and clinical research for the study of intestinal physiology, as they retain physiological and biochemical properties and epithelial morphology close to the original tissue and, in many ways, reflect the in vivo state. Our results indicate that WST exert a beneficial effect on intestinal epithelia, since they: i) stimulate proliferation of enterocytes; ii) increase antioxidative potential; iii) have no genotoxic effect; and iv) do not affect cellular metabolism. Our results reinforce the importance of WST as promising candidates for further evaluation and use in commercial broiler farm production. © 2017

  3. TRB3 gene silencing activates AMPK in adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Song, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Huimin; Wang, Feng; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Ti, Yun

    2017-06-17

    Our previous study had suggested Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) might be involved in metabolic syndrome via adipose tissue. Given prior studies, we sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in adipocytes and adipose tissue with beneficial metabolic effects in obese and diabetic rats. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated to induce insulin resistant adipocytes. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were all fed high-fat (HF) diet. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Compared with control group, in insulin resistant adipocytes, protein levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) and phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)were reduced, TRB3 protein level and triglyceride level were significantly increased, glucose uptake was markedly decreased. TRB3 silencing alleviated adipocytes insulin resistance. With TRB3 gene silencing, protein levels of IRS-1, GLUT4 and p-AMPK were significantly increased in adipocytes. TRB3 gene silencing decreased blood glucose, ameliorated insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue remodeling in diabetic rats. TRB3 silencing decreased triglyceride, increased glycogen simultaneously in diabetic epididymal and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Consistently, p-AMPK levels were increased in diabetic epididymal adipose tissue, and BAT after TRB3-siRNA treatment. TRB3silencing increased phosphorylation of Akt in liver, and improved liver insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero L T; Chung, Chih-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Yang, Chu-Wen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.

  5. Beneficial effects of Centella asiatica aqueous extract against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and essential metal status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Gupta, Richa

    2007-10-01

    The efficacy of an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) was studied in the depletion of arsenic and in the recovery of a few altered biochemical variables in arsenic pre-exposed rats (20 ppm in drinking water for 5 weeks). Exposure to arsenic significantly depleted delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activity in red blood cells. Significant depletion of ALAD activity, GSH level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and catalase (CAT) activities and an increase in TBARS levels in liver tissues was also noted. There was a significant depletion of SOD, CAT and GPx activities in kidneys and an increased TBARS levels in kidney and brain accompanied by increased arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. Treatment with aqueous extract of Centella asiatica provided significant protection against ALAD, GSH and TBARS levels, particularly at doses of 200 and 500 mg. Centella asiatica also provided significant recovery in the inhibited liver ALAD and G6PD activities. Arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues remained uninfluenced after Centella asiatica administration. The present study thus suggests a beneficial effect of Centella asiatica against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but possesses no chelating property.

  6. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

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    C. Bulcão

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  8. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

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    C. Bulcão

    Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  9. Beneficial effects of fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris on cardiotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Houda; Chaari, Fatma; Ghannoudi, Zied; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Ellouz, Semia Chaabouni; Gargouri, Ahmed

    2017-10-25

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a xenobiotic present in the environment, can cause harmful effects on human health. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the cardiopreventive potential of the fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (FCM-LLC) against the toxic effects of acute exposure to CCl4 on heart tissue of mice. Twenty-eight mice's were divided into four groups of seven each: group (C) served as control; group (FCM-LLC) received only 100mgL of FCM-LLC/kg body weight daily for 15days; group (CCl4) was administered by a single dose of CCl4 (10mL/kg in 0.3% olive oil, i.p) at day 14 and group (FCM-LLC+CCl4) pretreated with FCM-LLC and received a single dose of CCl4 on day 14. The exposure to a single dose of CCl4 caused cardiotoxicity expressed by an increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC) levels and in antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and Vitamin C levels) in the CCl4-treated group when compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, treatment with CCl4 significantly elevated the cardiac toxicity markers while increasing of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB) and Troponin I activities. The pre-treatment of experimental mice's with FCM-LLC has allowed an improvement through lowering oxidative stress and attenuating cardiac toxicity. These modifications were further evident through histopathological aspects of the heart. Overall, the present data provide evidence of the beneficial effects of fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp creemoris clearly revealed through the reduction of the CCl4 induced heart oxidative damages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. The beneficial effects of exercise in rodents are preserved after detraining: a phenomenon unrelated to GLUT4 expression

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    De Angelis Kátia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although exercise training has well-known cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits, low compliance with exercise training programs is a fact, and the harmful effects of physical detraining regarding these adaptations usually go unnoticed. We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY. Methods Studied animals were randomized into sedentary, trained (treadmill running/5 days a week, 60 min/day for 10 weeks, 1 week of detraining, and 2 weeks of detraining. Blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (kITT, and GLUT4 (Western blot in heart, gastrocnemius and white fat tissue were measured. Results Exercise training reduced blood pressure (19%, improved insulin sensitivity (24%, and increased GLUT4 in the heart (+34%; gastrocnemius (+36% and fat (+22% in SHR. In WKY no change in either blood pressure or insulin sensitivity were observed, but there was an increase in GLUT4 in the heart (+25%, gastrocnemius (+45% and fat (+36% induced by training. Both periods of detraining did not induce any change in neither blood pressure nor insulin sensitivity in SHR and WKY. One-week detraining reduced GLUT4 in SHR (heart: -28%; fat: -23% and WKY (heart: -19%; fat: -22%; GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius was reduced after a 2-week detraining (SHR: -35%; WKY: -25%. There was a positive correlation between GLUT4 (gastrocnemius and the maximal velocity in the exercise test (r = 0.60, p = 0.004. Conclusions The study findings show that in detraining, despite reversion of the enhanced GLUT4 expression, cardiorespiratory and metabolic beneficial effects of exercise are preserved.

  11. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  12. Royal Jelly Prevents Osteoporosis in Rats: Beneficial Effects in Ovariectomy Model and in Bone Tissue Culture Model

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    Saburo Hidaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX given 0.5% (w/w raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w protease-treated RJ (pRJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w pRJ, OVX given 17β-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD by 24%. Administration of 17β-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w RJ and 0.5–2.0% (w/w pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  13. Beneficial effect of the antioxidant riboflavin on gene expression of extracellular matrix elements, antioxidants and oxidases in keratoconic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Isabella M Y; McGhee, Charles N J; Sherwin, Trevor

    2014-07-01

    Keratoconus manifests as a conical protrusion of the cornea and is characterised by stromal thinning. This causes debilitating visual impairment which may necessitate corneal transplantation. Therapeutic targets related to disease mechanisms are currently lacking, as the pathobiology remains unclear. Many pathological features may be manifestations of defects in wound healing and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated functions. In a wide range of tissue and cell types, antioxidant exposure has beneficial effects on both of these pathways. This study investigated the effect of treatment with the antioxidant riboflavin on wound healing and ROS-associated functions in keratoconus. Stromal cells were isolated from human central keratoconic (n = 3) and normal (n = 3) corneas. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA. The gene expression of 22 genes involved in repair (eight normal and four repair-type extracellular matrix constituents) and ROS-associated processes (eight antioxidants and two ROS-synthesising oxidases) was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This was also performed on keratoconic stromal cells treated in vitro with riboflavin (n = 3). In stromal cells from untreated keratoconic corneas (compared with untreated normal corneas), there was an up-regulation of 7/12 extracellular matrix elements. Four of eight antioxidants and two of two oxidases were also increased. In treated keratoconic corneas (compared with untreated keratoconic corneas), six out of eight normal extracellular matrix constituents were up-regulated and two of four repair-type molecules were reduced. An increase was also observed in seven out of eight antioxidants and there was a diminution in two out of two oxidases. Riboflavin encourages the synthesis of a normal extracellular matrix and reduces reactive oxygen species levels in keratoconus. This supports the occurrence of wound healing and ROS-associated abnormalities in keratoconus

  14. No beneficial effect of general and specific anti-inflammatory therapies on aortic dilatation in Marfan mice.

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    Romy Franken

    Full Text Available AIMS: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. In the FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mouse model, losartan decreases aortic root dilatation. We recently confirmed this beneficial effect of losartan in adult patients with Marfan syndrome. The straightforward translation of this mouse model to man is reassuring to test novel treatment strategies. A number of studies have shown signs of inflammation in aortic tissue of Marfan patients. This study examined the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapies in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the main preventative agent, losartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: To inhibit inflammation in FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mice, we treated the mice with losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 inhibitor, methylprednisolone (corticosteroid or abatacept (T-cell-specific inhibitor. Treatment was initiated in adult Marfan mice with already existing aortic root dilatation, and applied for eight weeks. Methylprednisolone- or abatacept-treated mice did not reveal a reduction in aortic root dilatation. In this short time frame, losartan was the only treatment that significantly reduced aorta inflammation, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling and aortic root dilatation rate in these adult Marfan mice. Moreover, the methylprednisolone-treated mice had significantly more aortic alcian blue staining as a marker for aortic damage. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory agents do not reduce the aortic dilatation rate in Marfan mice, but possibly increase aortic damage. Currently, the most promising therapeutic drug in Marfan syndrome is losartan, by blocking the angiotensin II receptor type 1 and thereby inhibiting pSmad2 signaling.

  15. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome

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    Bianca eDe Filippis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R. This member of the serotonin receptor family – crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes – can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test, spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to two months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.

  16. Beneficial effect of Re on the long-term creep strength of high Cr ferritic heat resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Ryokichi; Tamura, Osam [The Kansai Electric Power Company Inc., Amagasaki (Japan); Miki, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Tsukasa [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Muroran (Japan). Muroran Research Lab.; Ishiguro, Tohru [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Muroran (Japan). Muroran Plant; Murata, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Masahiko [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    9-12%Cr ferritic steels were designed by using the d-electrons concept for the use of steam turbine rotors operated in the USC power plants at the steam temperature of 620 C to 650 C. The crucial issue for the design is to suppress the deterioration of the long-term creep strength by alloying. First, the Re addition was found to give a beneficial effect on the creep strength of a 10%Cr-4%W steel. Then, the creep tests were performed with the six Re-free and 3.5%W ferritic steels to get an optimum Cr content in the range of 8.5% to 11.5%. As a result, it was found that an excess amount of Cr yielded a detrimental effect on the creep properties, and 9%Cr steel was the best in view of the very long-term creep strength tested in the condition of 650 C, 98 MPa. Subsequently, a series of creep tests was conducted with the steels by fixing at 9%Cr, but by varying the W content from 2% to 4% and the Re content from 0% to 0.5%. From the prolonged creep tests and creep rate tests for more than 30,000-40,000 hours, it was shown that the 9Cr-4W without Re steel had the long creep rupture life for more than 32,000 hours at 650 C 0,98 MPa and the 9Cr-4W-0.5Re steel had the longer one for more than 43,000 hours. It was the longest creep rupture life among all the tested steels. (orig.)

  17. The Usefulness of Impedance Cardiography for Predicting Beneficial Effects of Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure

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    Grzegorz Gielerak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is an important part of heart failure (HF treatment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if thoracic fluid content (TFC measured by impedance cardiography (ICG is a useful parameter for predicting the outcome of CR. Methods. Fifty HF patients underwent clinical and noninvasive haemodynamic (TFC assessments before and after 8-week CR. Results. As a result of CR, the patients’ exercise tolerance improved, especially in terms of peak VO2 (18.7 versus 20.8 mL × kg−1 × min−1; P=0.025. TFC was found to identify patients with significantly improved peak VO2 after CR. “High TFC” patients (TFC > 27.0 kOhm−1, compared to those of “low TFC” (TFC < 27.0 kOhm−1, were found to have more pronounced increase in peak VO2 (1.3 versus 3.1 mL × kg−1 × min−1; P=0.011 and decrease in TFC (4.0 versus 0.7 kOhm−1; P<0.00001. On the other hand, the patients with improved peak VO2 (n=32 differed from those with no peak VO2 improvement in terms of higher baseline TFC values (28.4 versus 25.3 kOhm−1; P=0.039 and its significant decrease after CR (2.7 versus 0.2 kOhm−1; P=0.012. Conclusions. TFC can be a useful parameter for predicting beneficial effects of CR worth including in the process of patients’ qualification for CR.

  18. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

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    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  19. Beneficial metabolic effects of rapamycin are associated with enhanced regulatory cells in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Kassem; Taront, Solenne; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Neve, Bernadette; Eury, Elodie; Lobbens, Stéphane; Labalette, Myriam; Duez, Hélène; Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Froguel, Philippe; Wolowczuk, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The "mechanistic target of rapamycin" (mTOR) is a central controller of growth, proliferation and/or motility of various cell-types ranging from adipocytes to immune cells, thereby linking metabolism and immunity. mTOR signaling is overactivated in obesity, promoting inflammation and insulin resistance. Therefore, great interest exists in the development of mTOR inhibitors as therapeutic drugs for obesity or diabetes. However, despite a plethora of studies characterizing the metabolic consequences of mTOR inhibition in rodent models, its impact on immune changes associated with the obese condition has never been questioned so far. To address this, we used a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with and without pharmacologic mTOR inhibition by rapamycin. Rapamycin was weekly administrated to HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice for 22 weeks. Metabolic effects were determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests and by indirect calorimetry measures of energy expenditure. Inflammatory response and immune cell populations were characterized in blood, adipose tissue and liver. In parallel, the activities of both mTOR complexes (e. g. mTORC1 and mTORC2) were determined in adipose tissue, muscle and liver. We show that rapamycin-treated mice are leaner, have enhanced energy expenditure and are protected against insulin resistance. These beneficial metabolic effects of rapamycin were associated to significant changes of the inflammatory profiles of both adipose tissue and liver. Importantly, immune cells with regulatory functions such as regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were increased in adipose tissue. These rapamycin-triggered metabolic and immune effects resulted from mTORC1 inhibition whilst mTORC2 activity was intact. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that controlling immune regulatory cells in metabolic tissues is crucial to maintain a proper metabolic status and, more generally, comfort the need to search for novel

  20. Lack of evidence of a beneficial effect of azathioprine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Spil, Van W.E.; Junius, G.; Dekker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Azathioprine is used as an immunosuppressant in canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), but this potentially toxic and carcinogenic drug has not been proven to be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in outcome and survival of dogs with idiopathic IMHA

  1. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  2. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-

  3. Myocardial overexpression of TIMP3 after myocardial infarction exerts beneficial effects by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing early proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawale, Abhijit; Zhang, Pu; Azad, Abul; Wang, Wang; Wang, Xiuhua; Murray, Allan G; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiomyocytes, adverse extracellular matrix (ECM) and structural remodeling, and left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main regulators of ECM turnover. TIMPs also have MMP-independent functions. TIMP3 levels are reduced in the heart within 24 h of MI in mice. We investigated if overexpression of TIMP3 post-MI limits adverse remodeling and LV dilation and dysfunction. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in 10- to 12-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice, and adenoviral constructs expressing human (h)TIMP3 (Ad-hTIMP3) or no TIMP (Ad-Null) were injected in the peri-infarct zone (5.4 × 107 plaque-forming units/heart, 5 injections/heart). Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography showed improved LV physiology and reduced LV dilation after TIMP3 overexpression compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. Post-MI adverse remodeling was attenuated in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group, as assessed by greater cardiomyocyte density, less infarct expansion, and ECM disruption. TIMP3 overexpression blunted the early rise in proteolytic activities post-MI. A higher density of coronary arteries and a greater number of proliferating endothelial cells were detected in the infarct and peri-infarct regions in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. In vitro three-dimensional angiogenesis assay confirmed that recombinant TIMP3 promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells, although biphasically and in a dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, overexpression of Ad-hTIMP3 at 10-fold higher concentration had no beneficial effects, consistent with antiangiogenic effects of TIMP3 at higher doses. In conclusion, optimal overexpression of TIMP3 can be a promising therapeutic approach to limit adverse post-MI remodeling by dually inhibiting early proteolysis and promoting angiogenesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we report that

  4. A hexadecylamide derivative of hyaluronan (HYMOVIS®) has superior beneficial effects on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and synoviocytes than unmodified hyaluronan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) injection provides symptomatic benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Previously we found superior beneficial effects in a large animal OA model of a hexadecylamide derivative compared with unmodified HA of the same initial molecular weight. The current study sought to define possible molecular mechanisms whereby this enhanced relief of symptoms was occurring. Methods Chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts were isolated from tissues of patients undergoing arthroplasty for knee OA. Monolayer cultures of cells were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL of unmodified HA (500–730 kDa) or a hexadecylamide derivative of HA of the same initial molecular weight (HYADD4®-G; HYMOVIS®) simultaneously or 1 hour before incubation with interleukin (IL)-1beta (2 ng/mL). Cultures were terminated 15 or 30 minutes later (chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts, respectively) for quantitation of phosphorylated-(p)-JNK, p-NFkappaB, p-p38, or at 24 hours for quantitation of gene expression (MMP1 &13, ADAMTS4 &5, TIMP1 &3, CD44, COL1A1 &2A1, ACAN, PTGS2, IL6, TNF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 activity. Results The hexadecylamide derivative of HA had significantly better amelioration of IL-1beta-induced gene expression of key matrix degrading enzymes (MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS5), and inflammatory mediators (IL6, PTGS2) by human OA chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Pre-incubation of cells with the derivatized HA for 1 hour prior to IL-1beta exposure significantly augmented the inhibition of MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS4 and IL6 expression by chondrocytes. The reduction in MMP13 mRNA by the amide derivative of HA was mirrored in reduced MMP-13 protein and enzyme activity in IL-1beta-stimulated chondrocytes. This was associated in part with a greater inhibition of phosphorylation of the cell signalling molecules JNK, p38 and NF-kappaB. Conclusions The present studies have demonstrated several potential key mechanisms whereby the

  5. Beneficial effects of cellular autofluorescence following ionization radiation: hypothetical approaches for radiation protection and enhancing radiotherapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Ionization radiation (IR) is a main part of modern technologies with a double-edge sword manner. Finding the most feasible therapies to reduce adverse effects of IR and also enhancing radiotherapy effectiveness is a debating issue that has been challenged and studied for years. The main aim of the present hypothetical research was to theorize and suggest a new biological radiation protection approach and also increasing radiotherapy outcomes based on cellular autofluorescence following IR. In this hypothesis, we suggested that this cellular autofluorescence can activate some synthetic drugs called photo-activated agents that are injected in human body after radiation exposures scenarios. Photo activated agents can activate biological pathways such as DNA repair and immunostimulation pathways, bystander signals blocking, and so survive cells and tissues. In the other hand, light emitted by cellular response to radiation can be used as like as photodynamic therapy and therefore more cancer cells killing via apoptosis and necrosis. These ideas can be performed in future using more animal and in vivo/in vitro studies and clinical trials. In conclusion, cellular autofluorescence after radiation exposure can be used as a source for activation specific drugs for radiation protection and also radiation therapy effectiveness. These hypothetical therapeutic approaches can be served as personalized therapy based on individual radiosensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  7. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  8. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-04

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with readministration of eptifibatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kimberly N; Schnabel, Joseph G; Rochetto, Richard P; Tanner, Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Case reports of acute profound thrombocytopenia have been reported with eptifibatide, yet the true incidence of this reaction is unknown. We describe a 50-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after readministration of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide was administered through hospital day 3, when it was discontinued in preparation for coronary angiography and PCI; the drug was restarted on day 5. On hospital day 6, she was noted to have a platelet count below 5 x 10(3)/mm,(3) indicating a profound decrease from a baseline of 456 x 10(3)/mm(3) on admission. Eptifibatide, heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel were potential causative agents. Anticoagulation and vancomycin were stopped, and her platelet count increased to 30 x 10(3)/mm(3) on day 7. Subsequent reexposure to heparin and vancomycin yielded no adverse effects. The patient's platelet count increased over the remainder of her hospitalization, and she was discharged home on day 19. Based on clinical presentation and negative heparin platelet factor 4 antibody test, eptifibatide was the most likely cause of thrombocytopenia. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that eptifibatide was the probable cause of thrombocytopenia (score of 5); scores of 1 (possible) or 0 (doubtful) were derived with heparin, vancomycin, and clopidogrel. We conducted a literature search and compiled information from published case reports to describe the pattern of onset and recovery of eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia. In all patients receiving eptifibatide, routine platelet counts should be monitored at baseline and within 2-6 hours after starting the drug.

  10. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B Norgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3 within a few hours of receiving the drug. This case report discusses a patient who developed profound thrombocytopenia within hours of receiving eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient’s thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2–6 hours of eptifibatide administration.Keywords: drug-induced thrombocytopenia, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, thrombocytopenia

  11. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Badgley, Brian T

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (eptifibatide for the first time. The Naranjo algorithm classified the likelihood that this patient's thrombocytopenia was related to eptifibatide as probable. Profound thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but clinically important complication of eptifibatide. This case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring platelet counts routinely at baseline and within 2-6 hours of eptifibatide administration.

  12. Beneficial Effect of Paljeong-san Pharmacopuncture Treatment Combined with Peritoneal Injection on Glycerol-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yeon Lim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine if Paljeong-san extract (PJS treatment exerts beneficial effect against the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rabbits. Material and Method: PJS was selected in the basis of invigorating kidney which can eliminate pathogens. Rabbits were treated with PJS pharmacopuncture on Shin-shu (BL23 point for 5 days right after the injection of 50% concentration of glycerol (5㎖/㎏ body weight. Results and Conclusions: Glycerol injection caused an increase in serum creatinine and BUN level and urine glucose secretion, which were accompanied by a reduction in GFR. PJS Pharmacopuncture treatment combined with peritoneal injection showed beneficial effect on glycerol-induced acute renal failure by inhibition of serum creatinine increase and GFR decrease.

  13. Beneficial Metabolic Effects of 2′,3′,5′-tri-acetyl-N6- (3-Hydroxylaniline) Adenosine in the Liver and Plasma of Hyperlipidemic Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Lian, Zeqin; Jiang, Chunying; Wang, Yinghong; Zhu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical research of hyperlipidemia has been commonly pursued using traditional approaches. However, unbiased metabonomics attempts to explore the metabolic signature of hyperlipidemia in a high-throughput manner to understand pathophysiology of the disease process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a new way, we performed (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N(6)- (3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (WS070117) on plasma and liver ...

  14. Beneficial Effect of Surface Decorations on the Surface Exchange of Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite and Dual Phase Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Søgaard, Martin; Song, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Perovskites within the (La,Sr)(Fe,Co)O3 class of materials show variations in the oxygen stoichiometry depending on temperature and oxygen activity and can potentially be used as catalysts, electrodes in high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors or for oxygen transport membranes....... These perovskites possess a mixed ionic and electronic conductivity (MIEC), which can be highly beneficial for the processes on oxygen electrode surfaces. The oxygen transport through a MIEC is determined by the rate of the oxygen exchange over the gas-solid interface and the diffusivity of oxide ions and electrons...... (or holes) in the bulk. The oxygen exchange process over the surface in general involves several reaction steps, O2 adsorption, dissociation, charge transfer and incorporation of ionic species. The Co-free end member of the material class; LSF (e.g. (La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ) is fairly low cost and chemically...

  15. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Beneficial metabolic effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6- (3-hydroxylaniline adenosine in the liver and plasma of hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical research of hyperlipidemia has been commonly pursued using traditional approaches. However, unbiased metabonomics attempts to explore the metabolic signature of hyperlipidemia in a high-throughput manner to understand pathophysiology of the disease process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a new way, we performed (1H NMR-based metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N(6- (3-hydroxylaniline adenosine (WS070117 on plasma and liver from hyperlipidemic Syrian golden hamsters. Both plasma and liver profiles provided a clearer distinction between the control and hyperlipidemic hamsters. Compared to control animals, hyperlipidemic hamsters showed a higher content of lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate and alanine together with a lower content of choline-containing compounds (e.g., phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, and glycerophosphocholine and betaine. As a result, metabonomics-based findings such as the PCA and OPLS-DA plotting of metabolic state and analysis of potential biomarkers in plasma and liver correlated well to the assessment of biochemical assays, Oil Red O staining and in vivo ultrasonographic imaging suggesting that WS070117 was able to regulate lipid content and displayed more beneficial effects on plasma and liver than simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates the promise of applying (1H NMR metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of WS070117 which may be a good drug candidate for hyperlipidemia.

  17. Nicotine Augments the Beneficial Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-based Therapy in Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Shiva; Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Shahmoradi, Mozhgan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats through immunization with guinea pig spinal cord homogenate (GPSCH) produces a chronic disease with a relapsing pattern such as multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans. In previous studies, the immunomodulatory benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and nicotine have already been determined. Thus, this research was conducted to assess the additional benefits of the combination therapy of MSCs and nicotine in a rat model of MS. EAE was induced by GPSCH and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in female Wistar rats. The therapies were initiated at day 12 post-immunization (p.i.), when the rats developed a neurological disability score. The symptoms were recorded daily until day 33, when the rats were sacrificed. Finally, the splenocytes were evaluated by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production. The therapeutic treatment in the EAE rats with a combination of MSCs and nicotine exhibited a more desirable outcome, causing the regression of the average mean clinical score and neuropathological features to be more favorable than the treatment with either therapy alone. The combination therapy led to a significant reduction in the cumulative disease disability from day 21. For the EAE rats treated with nicotine and MSCs, this period was started from day 22 and 28 p.i., respectively. Besides the increase in the levels of IL-10, the combined therapy significantly reduced the splenocytes production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 as well as TNF-α more profoundly than either of the medications alone. In conclusion, the combination of MSCs and nicotine can be suggested as a promising strategy for further MS therapeutics improvement.

  18. Beneficial microorganisms [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    The web of life depends on microorganisms, a vast network of small and unseen allies that permeate the soil, water, and air of our planet. For people who work with plants, the greatest interest in microorganisms is in the complex communities that are part of the soil. Beneficial microorganisms are naturally occurring bacteria, fungi, and other microbes that play a...

  19. Oleocanthal, a Phenolic Derived from Virgin Olive Oil: A Review of the Beneficial Effects on Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.

  20. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepmala; Dange, Rahul B; Vila, Jorge; Otamendi, Arturo J; Francis, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP) and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC) and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT) for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL)-10), and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  1. Profound thrombocytopenia after primary exposure to eptifibatide

    OpenAIRE

    Norgard, Nicholas; Badgley,Brian

    2010-01-01

    Nicholas B Norgard, Brian T BadgleyUniversity at Buffalo, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist used to reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A minority of patients given eptifibatide develop acute, profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000 cells/mm3) within a few hours of receiving the drug. This c...

  2. Can wheat germ have a beneficial effect on human health? A study protocol for a randomised crossover controlled trial to evaluate its health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rosário, André; Pinheiro, Helder; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Luís Filipe

    2016-11-10

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and diet is an important contributor to CVD risk. Thus, several food derivatives are being investigated for their beneficial impact on reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, either in risk groups or in healthy population as a preventive measure. Wheat germ is a food by-product with high nutritional value, especially as a concentrated source of dietary fibre and essential fatty acids, but its incorporation into the diet has been rare up to now. Previous studies do not clarify the hypothesised potential causal relationship between the consumption of wheat germ and benefits for human health. We are conducting a randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to assess the physiological effects of daily consumption of wheat germ-enriched bread (containing 6 g of wheat germ) compared with non-enriched bread, over a 4-week period with a 15-week follow-up, in a healthy human population. A total of 55 participants (healthy volunteers, aged 18-60) have been recruited from the Porto metropolitan area in northern Portugal. Our aim is to evaluate the health effects of wheat germ on blood cholesterol and triglycerides, postprandial glycaemic response, gastrointestinal function and discomfort, and changes in intestinal microbiota and insulin resistance as secondary outcomes. The study follows the best practices for evaluating health claims in food according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific opinion, namely random allocation, double blinding, reporting methods to measure and maximise compliance, and validated outcomes with beneficial physiological effects as recommended by EFSA. The study has been approved by the Health Ethics Committee of São João Hospital Centre (156-15) and the Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (PCEDCSS-FMUP07/2015). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and

  3. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  4. Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Susanne; Heinken, Thilo; Fartmann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hagl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  6. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile and cytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized trial. Effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Luciana Jesus; Simão, Andrea Name Colado; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Mari, Naiara Lourenço; de Souza, Cínthia Hoch Batista; Dichi, Isaías; Costa, Giselle Nobre

    2016-06-01

    Human studies have shown the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms on the parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other cardiovascular risks, but to our knowledge the effect of Bifidobacterium lactis has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of milk containing the probiotic B. lactis HN019 on the classical parameters of MetS and other related cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-one patients with MetS were selected and divided into a control group (n = 25) and a probiotic group (n = 26). The probiotic group consumed fermented milk with probiotics over the course of 45 d. The effects of B. lactis on lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were assessed in blood samples of the individuals at the baseline and after 45 d. Daily ingestion of 80 mL fermented milk with 2.72 × 10(10) colony-forming units of B. lactis HN019 showed significant reduction in body mass index (P = 0.017), total cholesterol (P = 0.009), and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.008) compared with baseline and control group values. Furthermore, a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.033) and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044) proinflammatory cytokines was observed. These data showed potential effects of B. lactis HN019 in reducing obesity, blood lipids, and some inflammatory markers, which may reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Does Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Have Beneficial Effects on Plasma Homocysteine, Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Poursoleiman

    2018-01-01

    (P = 0.007 and LDLc (P = 0.02, while HDLc and HDLc/LDLc ratio were significantly decreased (P = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively. In both groups, insulin and HOMA-IR were increased, while IS decreased significantly. Βeta-cell function was increased only in OG (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in mean change of any factors. Conclusion: The present study found no beneficial effects of 2 g/day omega-3 supplement for 6 weeks on biomarkers of Hcy, FBG, insulin and lipid profile in th T2D patients.

  9. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gat...

  10. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Agarwal

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL-10, and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  11. The Ultimate Experiment Proving the Beneficial Effect of Low Level Radiation and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant: Serendipity of the Airborne Nuclear Weapons Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Peter

    1997-11-01

    The cancer deaths per 100,000 U.S. population plotted as a function of time (year) over the past 60 years can be represented by a smooth curve except the years 1952-1978 where the data points fall below the smooth curve indicating a reduction of cancer ceaths of a total of 418,000. This anormaly is traced, through the space-time correlation of the mortalities with the 48 States, to the airborne nuclear weapons tests (mostly in Nevada) during that period when 500 nuclear bombs were exploded in air, generating an extra amount of radiation of 30 mrem/year. From this serendipitous experiment we deduce the law of the beneficial effect of low level radiation that a doubling of the background radiation (as in Colorado) will reduce cancer death rate by 24.3%. The actual rate of reduction in Colorado is 25% lower than the national average. Thus the law is verified. In another aspect Kerala,India has a background radiation 20 times higher than normal and it has a life expectancy 10.7 years longer than average India, thus showing the great beneficial affect of low level radiation. Concerning the nuclear power plant safety, the 500 bombs exploded are equivalent to 50 Chernobyl type nuclear plant explosions, the results of which are the reduction of 418,000 cancer deaths. Thus the nuclear industry is absolutely safe under any catastrophic disasters that may befall on the 414 nuclear plant now operating on the earth. The beneficial effects of radiation have been taken advantage of in folklores and health practices in Brazil, Chekoslovakia, Germany and Colorado. These health practices can benefit from the radiation generated from nuclear power and the nuclear waste disposal problem can be solved by turning trashes into treasures.

  12. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  13. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  14. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diets for cancer patients: a realist review with focus on evidence and confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J

    2017-08-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) have gained popularity among patients and researchers alike due to their putative anti-tumor mechanisms. However, the question remains which conclusions can be drawn from the available human data thus far concerning the safety and efficacy of KDs for cancer patients. A realist review utilizing a matrix analytical approach was conducted according to the RAMESES publication standards. All available human studies were systematically analyzed and supplemented with results from animal studies. Evidence and confirmation were treated as separate concepts. In total, 29 animal and 24 human studies were included in the analysis. The majority of animal studies (72%) yielded evidence for an anti-tumor effect of KDs. Evidential support for such effects in humans was weak and limited to individual cases, but a probabilistic argument shows that the available data strengthen the belief in the anti-tumor effect hypothesis at least for some individuals. Evidence for pro-tumor effects was lacking completely. Feasibility of KDs for cancer patients has been shown in various contexts. The probability of achieving an anti-tumor effect seems greater than that of causing serious side effects when offering KDs to cancer patients. Future controlled trials would provide stronger evidence for or against the anti-tumor effect hypothesis.

  15. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling

    2016-01-01

    .... Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes...

  16. Beneficial effects of the Ca2+ sensitizer EMD 57033 in exercising pigs with infarction-induced chronic left ventricular dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); D.B. Haitsma; D. Liem (Djien); N. Heins; R. Stubenitsky (René); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    2001-01-01

    textabstract1. It is unknown how cardiac stimulation by Ca(2+) sensitization modulates the cardiovascular response to exercise when left ventricular (LV) function is chronically depressed following a myocardial infarction. We therefore investigated the effects of EMD 57033 at rest

  17. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...

  18. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  19. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Salas, Christian E; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL's impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space - where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general - and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  20. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A.; Salas, Christian E.; Dockree, Suvi; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions) with an individual (JL) who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close) moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i) rejecting; (ii) starting to take in; and (iii) full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change. PMID:28890703

  1. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  2. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-08-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca(2+) /calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca(2+) -mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular

  3. Hemicrania Continua: Beneficial Effect of Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation in a Patient With a Contraindication for Indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ozan; Straube, Andreas; Schöberl, Florian; Schankin, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary chronic headache disorder, characterized by a continuous and strictly unilateral headache, with possible cranial autonomic symptoms during episodes of pain exacerbation. The unilateral headache generally responds well to indomethacin; however, continuous indomethacin intake is often not tolerated due to severe adverse effects, like hypertension, gastrointestinal discomfort (especially if combined with aspirin), slightly increased risk of vascular events, and bronchial spasms. Therefore, alternative treatment options are desperately needed. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) has been shown to be effective in patients with cluster headache, another trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC), with cranial parasympathetic autonomic activation during the attacks. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  4. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica R. Terrill; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Nair, Keshav V.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Arthur, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/k...

  5. Absence of beneficial effect of intravenous metoprolol given during angioplasty in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); J.J.R.M. Bonnier (Hans); T. Huizer (Tom); R. Ciampricotti (Renzo); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the possible antiischemic effect of metoprolol during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was tested. Electrocardiograms, hemodynamics, and metabolism were studied in 27 patients with a stenosis in the left anterior

  6. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the beneficial effects of systemic interferon beta in mice: implications for rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corr, M.; Boyle, D.L.; Ronacher, L.M.; Lew, B.R.; van Baarsen, L.G.; Tak, P.P.; Firestein, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Interferon beta (IFN beta) therapy is effective in multiple sclerosis and murine models of arthritis. Surprisingly, systemic IFN beta treatment induces only minimal improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To explain this paradox, the authors evaluated the mechanism of IFN beta benefit

  7. Naloxone blocks the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng leaves in models of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Gupta, L K; Bhattacharya, S K

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEMK) leaves (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, orally) on animal models of acute and persistent pain and its modulation by naloxone. Antinociceptive effects were assessed using tail-flick, hot plate and formalin tests in mice. To differentiate between central and peripheral antinociceptive effect of AEMK, naloxone (2 mg/kg) was administered along with the 800 mg/kg dose of extract. Morphine was used as a standard drug. AEMK and morphine significantly increased the tail-flick latency (tfl) and paw licking/jumping latency in tail-flick and hot plate tests, respectively, in comparison to control. Also, in both the tests AEMK and morphine significantly increased the AUC0-120 min. In formalin test, AEMK (400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) and morphine significantly reduced licking time in both early and late phases in comparison to control. Thus, in all three pain models AEMK showed antinociceptive effect, which was blocked by naloxone suggesting the involvement of opioidergic central mechanism.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 and its beneficial effects on gut function and health in production animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous endocrine cell subtypes exist within the intestinal mucosa and produce peptides contributing to the regulation of critical physiological processes including appetite, energy metabolism, gut function, and gut health. The mechanisms of action and the extent of the physiological effects of the...

  9. Transient Beneficial Effects of Excitatory Theta Burst Stimulation in a Patient with Phonological Agraphia after Left Supramarginal Gyrus Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…

  10. Beneficial effects of the Ca2+ sensitizer EMD 57033 in exercising pigs with infarction-induced chronic left ventricular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, D J; Haitsma, D B; Liem, D A; Heins, N; Stubenitsky, R; Verdouw, P D

    2001-01-01

    It is unknown how cardiac stimulation by Ca2+ sensitization modulates the cardiovascular response to exercise when left ventricular (LV) function is chronically depressed following a myocardial infarction. We therefore investigated the effects of EMD 57033 at rest and during exercise and compared these to those of the mixed Ca2+-sensitizer/phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor pimobendan. Pigs were chronically instrumented for measurement of cardiovascular performance. At the time of instrumentation, infarction was produced by coronary artery ligation (MI, n=12). Studies in MI were performed in the awake state, 2 – 3 weeks after infarction. MI were characterized by a lower resting cardiac output (18%), stroke volume (30%) and LVdP/dtmax (18%), and a doubling of LV end-diastolic pressure, compared to normal pigs (N, n=13). In 11 resting MI, intravenous EMD 57033 (0.2 – 0.8 mg kg−1 min−1) increased LVdP/dtmax (57±5%) and stroke volume (26±6%) with no effect on heart rate, LV filling pressure, and myocardial O2-consumption, similar to N. In MI, the effects of EMD 57033 (0.4 mg kg−1 min−1, IV) on stroke volume and LVdP/dtmax were maintained during treadmill exercise up to 85% of maximal heart rate, while heart rate was lower compared to control exercise (all P<0.05). In contrast, the effects of EMD57033 gradually waned in N at increasing intensity of exercise. Compared to N, the cardiostimulatory effects of pimobendan (20 μg kg−1 min−1, IV) were blunted in MI both at rest and during exercise compared to N. In conclusion, the positive inotropic actions of the Ca2+ sensitizer EMD 57033 are unmitigated in resting and exercising MI compared to N, while those of the mixed Ca2+-sensitizer/phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor pimobendan are blunted. PMID:11588109

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells modulate release of matrix proteins from tendon surfaces in vitro: a potential beneficial therapeutic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican, Elaine R; Dudhia, Jayesh; Alves, Ana-Liz; Clements, Lucy E; Plessis, Francois Du; Smith, Roger K W

    2014-05-01

    Injury of tendons contained within a synovial environment, such as joint, bursa or tendon sheath, frequently fails to heal and releases matrix proteins into the synovial fluid, driving inflammation. This study investigated the effectiveness of cells to seal tendon surfaces and provoke matrix synthesis as a possible effective injectable therapy. Equine flexor tendon explants were cultured overnight in suspensions of bone marrow and synovium-derived mesenchymal stems cells and, as controls, two sources of fibroblasts, derived from tendon and skin, which adhered to the explants. Release of the most abundant tendon extracellular matrix proteins into the media was assayed, along with specific matrix proteins synthesis by real-time PCR. Release of extracellular matrix proteins was influenced by the coating cell type. Fibroblasts from skin and tendon appeared less capable of preventing the release of matrix proteins than mesenchymal stems cells. The source of cell is an important consideration for cell therapy.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Activity in Hypothermia and Rewarming: Can RONS Modulate the Beneficial Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Alva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the level necessary to maintain bodily functions. The decrease in temperature may disrupt some physiological systems of the body, including alterations in microcirculation and reduction of oxygen supply to tissues. The lack of oxygen can induce the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals (RONS, followed by oxidative stress, and finally, apoptosis and/or necrosis. Furthermore, since the hypothermia is inevitably followed by a rewarming process, we should also consider its effects. Despite hypothermia and rewarming inducing injury, many benefits of hypothermia have been demonstrated when used to preserve brain, cardiac, hepatic, and intestinal function against ischemic injury. This review gives an overview of the effects of hypothermia and rewarming on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and provides hypothesis for the role of reactive oxygen species in therapeutic hypothermia.

  13. Beneficial effects of apple peel polyphenols on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in high choline-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mengfan; Ren, Daoyuan; Nie, Yan; Yang, Xingbin

    2017-03-22

    This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of Red Fuji apple peel polyphenolic extract (APP) on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed a high choline diet. The mice were fed 3% dietary choline in drinking water for 8 weeks and displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p polyphenolic extract from apple peel might be regarded as a preventive and therapeutic product for the amelioration of HC diet-induced vascular dysfunction and hepatic injury.

  14. Beneficial effects of the melanocortin analogue Nle4-D-Phe7-α-MSH in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; Ehrchen, J; Luger, T A

    2014-01-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a melanocortin peptide that increases skin pigmentation during ultraviolet light-mediated tanning. As α-MSH has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects, we assessed the clinical potential of a superpotent α-MSH analogue, afamelanotide (Nle(4)-D-Phe(7)-α-MSH), in patients with acne vulgaris, the most common inflammatory skin disorder. Afamelanotide (16 mg) was given in a phase II open-label pilot study subcutaneously as a sustained-release resorbable implant formulation to 3 patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. Evaluation included lesion count, adverse effects and patient-reported outcome. Monitoring of laboratory parameters included differential blood counts, electrolytes, urine analysis, and liver and kidney function tests. Skin melanin density was measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. The total number as well as the number of inflammatory acne lesions declined in all patients 56 days after the first injection of afamelanotide. Life quality as measured by Dermatology Life Quality Index likewise improved in all 3 patients 56 days after the first injection of afamelanotide. There were no adverse effects except mild and short-term fatigue in one patient. All patients experienced increased pigmentation especially on the face. Clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters were not detected. Afamelanotide appears to have anti-inflammatory effects in patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. Future trials are needed to confirm the anti-inflammatory action of this melanocortin analogue in patients with acne vulgaris. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling

    2016-01-01

    In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile medi...

  16. The role of muscarinic receptors in the beneficial effects of adenosine against myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine

  17. Microalgal food supplements from the perspective of Polish consumers: patterns of use, adverse events, and beneficial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rzymski, Piotr; Ja?kiewicz, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal food supplements are becoming increasingly popular due to their promising biological effects and high nutritional value, evidenced in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Some products of this kind have, however, raised controversies concerning their safety. At the same time, not much is known about the frequency of adverse events following the use of microalgal supplements, potential factors that may influence them, and general characteristics and behaviours of the consumer group...

  18. Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-01-01

    Background Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. Methods To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8?weeks old) were randomly d...

  19. Potential beneficial effect of some adipokines positively correlated with the adipose tissue content on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Chudek, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. However, in the case of heart failure, obese and overweight patients have a more favourable prognosis compared to patients who have a normal body weight. This phenomenon is referred to as the "obesity paradox," and it is explained by, among others, a positive effect of adipokines produced by adipose tissue, particularly by the tissue located in the direct vicinity of the heart and blood vessels. The favourable effect on the cardiovascular system is mostly associated with adiponectin and omentin, but the levels of these substances are reduced in obese patients. Among the adipokines which levels are positively correlated with the adipose tissue content, favourable activity is demonstrated by apelin, progranulin, chemerin, TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-)α, CTRP-3 (C1q/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related protein), leptin, visfatin and vaspin. This activity is associated with the promotion of regeneration processes in the damaged myocardium, formation of new blood vessels, reduction of the afterload, improvement of metabolic processes in cardiomyocytes and myocardial contractile function, inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis of the myocardium, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atheromatous effects. The potential use of these properties in the treatment of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, as well as in pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension and the limitation of the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardioplegia-requiring cardiosurgical procedures, is studied. The most advanced studies focus on analogues of apelin and progranulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

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    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  1. Beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids in gestational diabetes: consequences in macrosomia and adulthood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Expressive Language, Cognition, and Behaviors in Autism: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Antonucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral and language atypias. Growing body of evidence indicates inflammatory mediators may contribute to the condition. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is naturally occurring and has been available as a nonprescription medical food supplement in Europe since 2008. PEA has been tested in thousands of human subjects without any noted significant side effects. Here we report the first cases of the administration of PEA to two children with autism. Case Presentations. The first 13-year-old male child (Subject 1 presented with a total IgE of 572 IU/mL (nl < 200 and with low mature CD57+ natural killer cell counts (32 cells/µL; nl = 60–300 cells/µL and with significant eczema and allergic stigmata. Expressive language, as measured by mean length of utterance, and overall autism severity as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition, improved significantly. Atopic symptoms diminished. No side effects were reported. The second male child, age 15 (Subject 2, also displayed noticeable and rapid improvements in cognitive, behaviors, and sociability. Conclusion. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for autism condition. Palmitoylethanolamide could be an effective treatment for autism syndrome. We propose appropriate double-blind clinical trials to further explore palmitoylethanolamide efficacy and safety.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Administration of an Oral Formulation of Angiotensin-(1–7 in Infarcted Rats

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    Fúlvia D. Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was evaluated the chronic cardiac effects of a formulation developed by including angiotensin(Ang-(1–7 in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD, in infarcted rats. Myocardial infarction (MI was induced by left coronary artery occlusion. HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 was administered for 60 days (76 μg/Kg/once a day/gavage starting immediately before infarction. Echocardiography was utilized to evaluate usual cardiac parameters, and radial strain method was used to analyze the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers at initial time and 15, 30, and 50 days after surgery. Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate the fibrotic signaling involved in the remodeling process. Once-a-day oral HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 administration improved the cardiac function and reduced the deleterious effects induced by MI on TGF-β and collagen type I expression, as well as on the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers. These findings confirm cardioprotective effects of Ang-(1–7 and indicate HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 as a feasible formulation for long-term oral administration of this heptapeptide.

  4. Beneficial effects of long-term administration of an oral formulation of Angiotensin-(1-7) in infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fúlvia D; Melo, Marcos B; Souza, Leandro E; Irigoyen, Maria Claúdia C; Sinisterra, Rúben D; de Sousa, Frederico B; Savergnini, Sílvia Q; Braga, Vinícius B A; Ferreira, Anderson J; Santos, Robson A S

    2012-01-01

    In this study was evaluated the chronic cardiac effects of a formulation developed by including angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), in infarcted rats. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by left coronary artery occlusion. HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) was administered for 60 days (76 μg/Kg/once a day/gavage) starting immediately before infarction. Echocardiography was utilized to evaluate usual cardiac parameters, and radial strain method was used to analyze the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers at initial time and 15, 30, and 50 days after surgery. Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate the fibrotic signaling involved in the remodeling process. Once-a-day oral HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) administration improved the cardiac function and reduced the deleterious effects induced by MI on TGF-β and collagen type I expression, as well as on the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers. These findings confirm cardioprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) and indicate HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) as a feasible formulation for long-term oral administration of this heptapeptide.

  5. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Nair, Keshav V; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose) and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic). These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions).

  6. Beneficial Effect of Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Ho; Kang, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) induces emotional relaxation in cancer patients and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for breast cancer patients. Overall, 24 breast cancer patients were selected as subjects of the study. Two groups, the MBAT group and control group with 12 patients each, were randomly assigned. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments. To measure depression and anxiety, low scales of the personality assessment inventory (PAI) was used. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30). The treatment results were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that depression and anxiety decreased significantly and health-related quality of life improved significantly in the MBAT group. In the control group, however, there was no significant change. MBAT can be seen as an effective treatment method that improves breast cancer patients׳ psychological stability and quality of life. Evaluation of treatment effects using program development and large-scale research for future clinical application is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Terrill

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic. These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions.

  8. The Beneficial Radioprotective Effect of Tomato Seed Oil Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Damage in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz, Magda K; Ibrahim, Nashwa K; Said, Mahmoud M; Farrag, Mostafa A

    2018-01-16

    Radiation protection research receives intense focus due to its significant impact on human health. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of pretreatment with tomato seed oil (TSO) against gamma radiation-induced damage in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) untreated control; (2) TSO-supplemented; (3) gamma-irradiated; (4) TSO-pretreated and gamma-irradiated. Acute exposure of animals to a single gamma radiation dose (6 Gy) induced oxidative stress in major body organs, altered serum lipid homeostasis, significantly increased serum testosterone and sorbitol dehydrogenase levels, and elicited a systemic inflammation as manifested by the induction of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Oral pretreatment with TSO (1 ml/kg; 3 times/week for 8 weeks) before exposure to gamma radiation protected rats against ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress, restored lipid homeostasis, and suppressed systemic inflammation. Histological findings of target tissues verified biochemical data. The radioprotective ability of TSO was attributed to its content of phytosterols, policosanol, and antioxidants, including lycopene, β-carotene, lutein, and tocopherols. TSO is considered a promising radioprotective agent that can be effectively used to protect the body from the damaging effects of harmful radiation.

  9. Inhibition by soya isoflavones of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function: possible relevance for the beneficial effects of soya intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Serenella; Krauze-Brzósko, Katarzyna; Manarini, Stefano; Martelli, Nicola; Pecce, Romina; Evangelista, Virgilio; Benedetta Donati, Maria; Cerletti, Chiara

    2008-02-01

    Lower CVD incidence is reported in Asian populations consuming soya-containing food. As polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved in the risk of CVD, we investigated the modulatory effect of soya isoflavones on several PMN functions and their molecular mechanisms in vitro. PMN, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with 1 microm- n-formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for superoxide anion production (ferric cytochrome c reduction) and released elastase (chromogenic test). PMN homotypic aggregates stimulated by fMLP or P-selectin in dynamic conditions were detected by optical microscopy. PMN, mixed with thrombin-activated, washed platelets, formed cell aggregates, measured by flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion kinase, was studied by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Genistein, daidzein and equol inhibited superoxide anion production (IC50 0.25 (sem 0.1), 21.0 (sem 4.2) and 13.0 (sem 2.8) microm, respectively); the release of elastase was prevented by genistein (IC50 63 (sem 17) microm). PMN homotypic aggregates, stimulated by fMLP, were significantly reduced (24 (sem 12) and 51 (sem 14) % of control) by 100 microm genistein and equol. P-selectin-induced aggregates were reduced to 19 (sem 6), 44 (sem 10) and 28 (sem 9) % of control by 100 microm genistein, daidzein and equol, respectively. Genistein, daidzein and equol also significantly reduced mixed platelet-PMN aggregates (IC50 4.0 (sem 0.9), 57 (sem 6) and 66 (sem 23) microm, respectively). In PMN challenged by fMLP or P-selectin, activation of Pyk2 was prevented by isoflavones. The cardioprotective effect of soya-containing food might be linked to reduction of PMN activation and PMN-platelet interaction, novel targets for the biological effects of soya isoflavones.

  10. The beneficial effect of oxytocin on avoidance-related facial emotion recognition depends on early life stress experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeser, Melanie; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Hahn, Adam; Gärtner, Matti; Aust, Sabine; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OXT) enhances social cognitive processes. It has also been demonstrated that OXT does not uniformly facilitate social cognition. The effects of OXT administration strongly depend on the exposure to stressful experiences in early life. Emotional facial recognition is crucial for social cognition. However, no study has yet examined how the effects of OXT on the ability to identify emotional faces are altered by early life stress (ELS) experiences. Given the role of OXT in modulating social motivational processes, we specifically aimed to investigate its effects on the recognition of approach- and avoidance-related facial emotions. In a double-blind, between-subjects, placebo-controlled design, 82 male participants performed an emotion recognition task with faces taken from the "Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces" set. We clustered the six basic emotions along the dimensions approach (happy, surprise, anger) and avoidance (fear, sadness, disgust). ELS was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Our results showed that OXT improved the ability to recognize avoidance-related emotional faces as compared to approach-related emotional faces. Whereas the performance for avoidance-related emotions in participants with higher ELS scores was comparable in both OXT and placebo condition, OXT enhanced emotion recognition in participants with lower ELS scores. Independent of OXT administration, we observed increased emotion recognition for avoidance-related faces in participants with high ELS scores. Our findings suggest that the investigation of OXT on social recognition requires a broad approach that takes ELS experiences as well as motivational processes into account.

  11. Beneficial effects of bacteria-plant communication based on quorum sensing molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T; Hartmann, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms play a crucial role in the proper performance and ecological fitness of bacterial populations. Many key physiological processes are regulated in a QS-dependent manner by auto-inducers, like the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in numerous Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, also the interaction between bacteria and eukaryotic hosts can be regulated by AHLs. Those mechanisms gained much attention, because of the positive effects of different AHL molecules on plants. This positive impact ranges from growth promotion to induced resistance and is quite contrasting to the rather negative effects observed in the interactions between bacterial AHL molecules and animals. Only very recently, we began to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning plant responses to AHL molecules. In this review, we gathered the latest information in this research field. The first part gives an overview of the bacterial aspects of quorum sensing. Later we focus on the impact of AHLs on plant growth and AHL-priming, as one of the most understood phenomena in respect to the inter-kingdom interactions based on AHL-quorum sensing molecules. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of the understanding of bacteria-plant interaction for the future agricultural applications.

  12. The effect of altering loading distance on skeleton start performance: Is higher pre-load velocity always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Holdcroft, Danny; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-01-16

    Athletes initiating skeleton runs differ in the number of steps taken before loading the sled. We aimed to understand how experimentally modifying loading distance influenced sled velocity and overall start performance. Ten athletes (five elite, five talent; 67% of all national athletes) underwent two to four sessions, consisting of two dry-land push-starts in each of three conditions (preferred, long and short loading distances). A magnet encoder on the sled wheel provided velocity profiles and the overall performance measure (sled acceleration index). Longer pre-load distances (12% average increase from preferred to long distances) were related to higher pre-load velocity (r = 0.94), but lower load effectiveness (r = -0.75; average reduction 29%). Performance evaluations across conditions revealed that elite athletes' preferred distance push-starts were typically superior to the other conditions. Short loading distances were generally detrimental, whereas pushing the sled further improved some talent-squad athletes' performance. Thus, an important trade-off between generating high pre-load velocity and loading effectively was revealed, which coaches should consider when encouraging athletes to load later. This novel intervention study conducted within a real-world training setting has demonstrated the scope to enhance push-start performance by altering loading distance, particularly in developing athletes with less extensive training experience.

  13. Vineatrol and cardiovascular disease: beneficial effects of a vine-shoot phenolic extract in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Gaillet, Sylvie; Carillon, Julie; Vidé, Joris; Ramos, Jeanne; Izard, Jean-Claude; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-11-07

    We evaluated the effect of the intake of a grapevine-shoot phenolic extract (Vineatrol 30) on early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed a hyperlipidic diet. Golden Syrian hamsters received for 13 weeks either a standard diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or the HF diet plus Vineatrol 30 at 0.04, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/(kg body weight/d). We measured plasma lipids and glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin, as well as liver TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring plasma paraoxonase activity (PON) and liver superoxide anion production (O(2)(•-)). The aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was also determined. In comparison with HF group, we demonstrated that the highest dose of Vineatrol 30 was capable of decreasing AFSA (67%), insulinemia (40%), and leptinemia (8.7%), which were increased by the HF diet. We also showed increased O(2)(•-) production (35%) and a rise in levels of the liver proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (22%) and IL-6 (21%), accompanied by a fall in PON activity (56%) due to the HF diet versus the standard diet. In contrast, except plasma adiponectin levels that are not changed, Vineatrol 30 treatment lowered AFSA (67%), O(2)(•-) production (36%), insulin resistance (42%), leptinemia (9%), liver TNF-α (18%) and IL-6 (15%), while it rose PON activity (29%). These findings demonstrate the preventive effects of polyphenols present in Vineatrol 30 in managing cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Red Yeast Rice on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, and Fatty Liver in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Sung; Lee, Yu Jeung; Chung, Yoon Hee; Nam, Yunsung; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Eon Sub; Hong, Suk Myung; Yang, Yeong Kuk; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a common cause of hyperlipidemia, which is a major coronary risk factor. Previous studies have shown red yeast rice (RYR) effectiveness in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYR on obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mice were randomly separated into five groups: the control group with a normal diet, the high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD without any treatment, and HFD-fed groups supplemented with RYR (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks, 1 g/kg/day for 12 weeks, and 2.5 g/kg/day for 8 weeks). Body weight was recorded twice and food intake thrice weekly. Liver and fat pads were surgically removed and weighed. The levels of lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels were measured. The HFD feeding resulted in obesity, which was associated with increases in body weight, liver weight, fat pad weight, liver enzymes, and plasma leptin levels with the development of hyperlipidemia. RYR prevented weight gain and fat pad weight in mice fed a HFD. RYR alleviated blood lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels, and improved atherogenic index. These findings suggest that RYR has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and hyperlipidemia.

  15. Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tina I; Bingham, Deborah; Chang, Ting Ju; Lee, Chih Cheng; Shi, Jian; Wang, Dongmin; Massa, Stephen; Swanson, Raymond A; Liu, Jialing

    2013-01-01

    Effective recovery from functional impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires appropriate rehabilitation therapy. Multiple pathways are involved in secondary injury and recovery suggesting a role for multimodal approaches. Here, we examined the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory agent minocycline and botulinum toxin (botox)-induced limb constraint with structured physical therapy, delivered alone or in combination, after a severe TBI produced by a controlled cortical impact in rats. Minocycline was administered at 25 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks beginning 1 day after TBI or sham surgery. For constraint/physical therapy, botox-type A was injected into the nonaffected forearm muscle 1 day after injury and 2 weeks of physical therapy commenced at 5 days after injury. Functional evaluations were conducted 8 weeks after injury. Minocycline, either as a monotherapy or as combination treatment with botox/physical therapy significantly reduced impairments of spatial learning and memory in the water maze test, whereas botox/physical therapy reduced forelimb motor asymmetry and improved manual dexterity in the cylinder and vermicelli handling tests, A synergistic effect between the 2 treatments was observed when rats performed tasks requiring dexterity. Inflammation was attenuated in the peri-contusion cortex and hippocampus in all TBI groups receiving mono or combination therapies, though there was no significant difference in lesion size among groups. These data provide a rationale for incorporating anti-inflammatory treatment during rehabilitation therapy.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  17. Zeyheria montana Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as source of antioxidant and immunomodulatory compounds with beneficial effects on intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Sforcin, José Maurício; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Zeyheria montana is a medicinal plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for treating skin affections, ulcers, inflammation and diarrhoea, and as an antisyphilitic and antiblenorrhagic agent, but little is known about its mechanisms of action. Herein, a bio-guided assay was carried out to further evaluate its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, and the possible benefits on experimental intestinal inflammation. Extracts, partitions, fractions and isolated compounds were tested for inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Isolated compounds were tested in vitro for its antioxidant and immunomodulatory action prior to in-vivo evaluation in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat colitis. Two major compounds were identified in the leaf dichloromethane extract: 3'-hydroxy-5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone, which exhibited an antioxidant activity. The compounds protected the colonic glutathione levels in more than 90% despite the absence of protection against the gross macroscopic colonic damage. In addition, the compounds inhibited IL-1ß secretion by macrophages in 91.5% and 72.7% respectively, whereas both reduced IL-6 secretion in about 44.5%. The major active compounds from Z. montana leaves exerted antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, endorsing the use of Z. montana in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, further investigation is still needed regarding medicinal plants and the identification of candidate compounds for the treatment of the inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Beneficial effect of fluoxetine treatment aganist psychological stress is mediated by increasing BDNF expression in selected brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Jing, Ping; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Zhiruo; Ma, Hongxia; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-09-19

    SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is widely used to treat psychological stress related disorders, however the underlying working mechanisms is not fully understood, as SSRIs can rapidly increase the extracellular serotonin levels but it normally takes weeks to reveal their therapeutic effect in the stress-related psychological disorders. Our previous study demonstrated that purely psychological stress without any physic stimuli induces a biphasic change in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which immediately decrease and then gradually increase after the stress; and that the latter BDNF increase in response to the psychological stress involves the activation of serotonin system. To investigate the role of BDNF in the fluoxetine treatment for stress-related psychological disorders, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the brain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were pretreated with fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg or vehicle solution for 14 days, over 24 hour after an acute psychological stress exposure. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of BDNF at different time points in various brain regions after the psychological stress. We found that fluoxetine treatment completely blocked the BDNF decrease induced by the psychological stress, and also enhanced the gradual increase in the expression of BDNF in most of the brain regions except VTA after the psychological stress. The results suggest that the enhancement in BDNF levels induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment mediates the therapeutic effect against psychological stress.

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; de Martino Lee, Maria Lucia; de Castro Monteiro, Carlos Manoel; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; Geloneze, Bruno; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated) with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (Padiposity-associated vascular disease might be attenuated by SAT. Changes in body fat must be evaluated in this group of patients in the early course of survivorship in order to avoid premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, further research as regards the possible protective effect of SAT on vascular disease is warranted.

  20. Beneficial synergistic effect on bio-oil production from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Hong, Yuchun; Wei, Feng; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-12-09

    Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw or wood sawdust at different mixing ratios and the characterization of the obtained bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Synergistic effects were found during co-processing of MSS with biomass for production of bio-oil with higher yield and better fuel properties than those from individual feedstock. The co-liquefaction of MSS/rice straw (4/4, wt) increased the bio-oil yield from 22.74% (bio-oil yield from liquefaction of MSS individually) or 23.67% (rice straw) to 32.45%. Comparable increase on bio-oil yield was also observed for MSS/wood sawdust mixtures (2/6, wt). The bio-oils produced from MSS/biomass mixtures were mainly composed of esters and phenols with lower boiling points (degradation temperatures) than those from individual feedstock (identified with higher heavy bio-oil fractions). These synergistic effects were probably resulted from the interactions between the intermittent products of MSS and those of biomass during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dose-related beneficial and harmful effects of gabapentin in postoperative pain management - post hoc analyses from a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Maria Louise; Wetterslev, Jørn; Mathiesen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    with meta-analyses aimed to explore the beneficial and harmful effects of various doses of gabapentin administered to surgical patients. Materials and methods: Data in this paper were derived from an original review, and the subgroup analyses were predefined in an International Prospective Register...... of Systematic Reviews published protocol: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42013006538). The methods followed Cochrane guidelines. The Cochrane Library’s CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Google Scholar, and FDA database were searched for relevant trials. Randomized clinical trials comparing gabapentin...... clinical trials, with 8466 patients, were included. Sixteen were overall low risk of bias. No consistent increase in morphine-sparing effect was observed with increasing doses of gabapentin from the trials with low risk of bias. Analyzing all trials, the smallest and the highest dose subgroups demonstrated...

  3. Lack of influence of dyspareunia on the beneficial effect of intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David; Bouchard, Céline; Fortier, Michel; Cusan, Leonello; Gomez, José-Luis; Girard, Ginette; Baron, Mira; Ayotte, Normand; Moreau, Michèle; Dubé, Robert; Côté, Isabelle; Labrie, Claude; Lavoie, Lyne; Gilbert, Lucy; Martel, Céline; Balser, John

    2014-07-01

    We have previously observed that intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) improved all domains of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Investigate the influence of moderate/severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) (MSD) at baseline on FSD following prasterone administration. The effect of daily administration of prasterone (0, 3.25 mg, 6.5 mg or 13 mg) for 12 weeks on FSD in 215 postmenopausal women with or without MSD at baseline was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial. Differences were examined on desire, arousal and orgasm. Comparable benefits were observed in women not having MSD (n = 56) vs. those having MSD (n = 159). The benefits over placebo in prasterone-treated women for desire, avoiding intimacy and vaginal dryness as well as for the total sexual domain of the MENQOL (Menopause Specific Quality of Life) questionnaire, ranged between 18.0% and 38.2% with P values of <0.05 or <0.01 except in one out of 12 subgroups. For the arousal/sensation, arousal/lubrication and summary score of the ASF (Abbreviated Sexual Function) questionnaire, in the MSD+ group, improvements of 64.2% (P = 0.01), 118% (P = 0.001) and 31.1% (P = 0.03) were observed over placebo, respectively, while similar differences (58.0%, 67.6% and 32.1%) did not reach statistical significance in the MSD- group having up to only 44 prasterone-treated women compared with 119 in the MSD+ group. No MSD at baseline does not apparently affect the effects of intravaginal prasterone on sexual dysfunction. Knowing the absence of significant effects of estrogens on FSD, the present data suggest that vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and vulvovaginal sexual dysfunction (VVSD) are two different consequences of sex steroid deficiency at menopause which can respond independently. In addition, the present data seriously question the justification of pain being part of FSD as well as the separation of FSD into

  4. Beneficial effect of aliskiren combined with olmesartan in reducing urinary protein excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Takahito; Tsuruta, Yuki; Kojima, Chiari; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Sugiura, Hidekazu; Takei, Takashi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Uchida, Keiko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2012-06-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a therapeutic mainstay in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the renoprotective effect of the novel direct renin inhibitor aliskiren is unknown. We performed a prospective study in 10 CKD patients. All 10 patients with persistent proteinuria (urinary protein-to-creatinin ratio 0.3-3.5 g/g), despite good blood pressure control (150 mg/day aliskiren. Clinical parameters were examined before and after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of treatment. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio significantly decreased by about 40% at 16 weeks from baseline (P = 0.0002), although estimated glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure did not change throughout the study period. Plasma renin activity also decreased significantly from baseline (P = 0.019), although plasma aldosterone concentration did not change. Aliskiren combined with olmesartan reduces proteinuria in CKD patients.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  6. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  7. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  8. Beneficial Effect of Brewers' Yeast Extract on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  9. The Beneficial Effects of ETS-GS, a Novel Vitamin E Derivative, on a Rat Model of Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakane, Yuko; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Yamada, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Shimazaki, Junya; Imamura, Yukio; Ogura, Hiroshi; Jin, Takashi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Crush syndrome is a devastating condition leading to multiple organ failure. The mechanisms by which local traumatic injuries affect distant organs remain unknown. ETS-GS is a novel water-soluble, stable anti-oxidative agent composed of vitamin E derivative. Given that one of the main pathophysiological effects in crush syndrome is massive ischemia-reperfusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the injured extremities would be systemically involved in distant organ damage. We investigated whether ETS-GS could suppress inflammatory response and improve mortality in a rat model of crush injury. Crush injury was induced by compression of bilateral hindlimbs for 6 h followed by release of compression. Seven-day survival was significantly improved by ETS-GS treatment. To estimate anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ETS-GS, serum was collected 6 and 20 h after the injury. ETS-GS treatment significantly dampened the up-regulation of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase in the serum, which were induced by crush injury. Serum levels of interleukin 6 and high mobility group box 1 were significantly decreased in the ETS-GS group compared with those in the control group. Lung damage shown by hematoxylin-eosin staining at 20 h after the injury was ameliorated by the treatment. Ex vivo imaging confirmed that ETS-GS treatment reduced ROS generation in both the lung and the muscle following crush injury. The administration of ETS-GS could suppress ROS generation, systemic inflammation, and the subsequent organ damage, thus improving survival in a rat model of crush injury. These findings suggest that ETS-GS can become a novel therapeutic agent against crush injury.

  10. Beneficial effects montelukast, cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist, on renal damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Otunctemur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introductıon Ureteral obstruction is a common pathology and caused kidney fibrosis and dysfunction at late period. In this present, we investigated the antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of montelukast which is cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO in rats. Mateirıals and Methods 32 rats divided four groups. Group 1 was control, group 2 was sham, group 3 was rats with UUO and group 4 was rats with UUO which were given montelukast sodium (oral 10 mg/kg/day. After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis scoring were determined histopathologically in a part of kidneys; nitric oxide(NO, malondialdehyde(MDA and reduced glutathione(GSH levels were determined in the other part of kidneys. Urea-creatinine levels were investigated at blood analysis. Statistical analyses were made by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results There was no difference significantly for urea-creatinine levels between groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 3 and there was significantly decreasing for tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 4(p<0.005. Also, there was significantly increasing for NO and MDA levels; decreasing for GSH levels in group 3 compared the other groups(p<0.005. Conclusıon We can say that montelukast prevent kidney damage with antioxidant effect, independently of NO.

  11. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ET Willems

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract has been shown to enhance high-intensity intermittent treadmill running. We examined the effects of NZBC extract during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST which involves 5 × 15 min blocks with intermittent 15-m maximal sprints, interspersed by moderate and high-intensity running to simulate team sport activity, and a subsequent run to exhaustion. Thirteen males (age: 22 ± 1 year, V ˙ O 2 max : 50 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in three indoor sessions (T: 24 ± 3 °C, humidity: 52% ± 9%. In the first session, a multistage fitness test was completed to determine peak running speed and estimate V ˙ O 2 max . Participants consumed NZBC extract in capsules (300 mg·day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL (300 mg·day−1 microcrystalline cellulose M102 for seven days in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (wash-out at least seven days. NZBC extract did not affect average 15-m sprint times in each block. NZBC reduced slowing of the fastest sprint between block 1 and 5 (PL: 0.12 ± 0.07 s; NZBC: 0.06 ± 0.12 s; p < 0.05. NZBC extract had no effect on heart rate, vertical jump power, lactate and time to exhaustion (PL: 13.44 ± 8.09 min, NZBC: 15.78 ± 9.40 min, p > 0.05. However, eight participants had higher running times to exhaustion when consuming NZBC extract. New Zealand blackcurrant extract may enhance performance in team sports with repeated maximal sprints.

  12. Beneficial effect of a high number of copies of salivary amylase AMY1 gene on obesity risk in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Benítez, María A; Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loïc; Huyvaert, Marlène; Dechaume, Aurélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; García Mena, Jaime; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S; Falchi, Mario; Cruz, Miguel; Froguel, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in Mexico, affecting one in every three children. Genome-wide association studies identified genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, but a large missing heritability remains to be elucidated. We have recently shown a strong association between a highly polymorphic copy number variant encompassing the salivary amylase gene (AMY1 also known as AMY1A) and obesity in European and Asian adults. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity in Mexican children. We evaluated the number of AMY1 copies in 597 Mexican children (293 obese children and 304 normal weight controls) through highly sensitive digital PCR. The effect of AMY1 copy number on obesity status was assessed using a logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. We identified a marked effect of AMY1 copy number on reduced risk of obesity (OR per estimated copy 0.84, with the number of copies ranging from one to 16 in this population; p = 4.25 × 10(-6)). The global association between AMY1 copy number and reduced risk of obesity seemed to be mostly driven by the contribution of the highest AMY1 copy number. Strikingly, all children with >10 AMY1 copies were normal weight controls. Salivary amylase initiates the digestion of dietary starch, which is highly consumed in Mexico. Our current study suggests putative benefits of high number of AMY1 copies (and related production of salivary amylase) on energy metabolism in Mexican children.

  13. Early Beneficial Effects of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Akt on Cardiac Metabolism after Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecchi, Massimiliano; He, Huamei; Melo, Luis G; Noiseux, Nicolas; Morello, Fulvio; de Boer, Rudolf; Zhang, Lunan; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J; Ingwall, Joanne S

    2010-01-01

    Background Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective therapy to repair cardiac damage after myocardial infarction (MI) in experimental models. However, the mechanisms of action still need to be elucidated. Our group has recently suggested that MSCs mediate their therapeutic effects primarily via paracrine cytoprotective action. Furthermore, we have shown that MSCs overexpressing Akt1 (Akt-MSCs) exert even greater cytoprotection than unmodified MSCs. Thus far, little has been reported on the metabolic characteristics of infarcted hearts treated with stem cells. Here we hypothesize that Akt-MSC administration may influence the metabolic processes involved in cardiac adaptation and repair after MI. Methods and Results MI was performed in rats randomised in four groups: sham group and animals treated with control MSCs, Akt-MSCs or phosphate buffer solution (PBS). High energy metabolism and basal 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) uptake were evaluated on isolated hearts using phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 72 hours and two weeks after MI. Treatment with Akt-MSCs spared phosphocreatine stores and significantly limited the increase in 2-DG uptake in the residual intact myocardium compared to the PBS or the MSC treated animals. Furthermore, Akt-MSC treated hearts had normal pH, whereas low pH was measured in the PBS and MSC groups. Correlative analysis indicated that functional recovery after MI was inversely related to the rate of 2-DG uptake. Conclusion We conclude that administration of MSCs overexpressing Akt at the time of infarction results in preservation of normal metabolism and pH in the surviving myocardium. PMID:19353525

  14. Beneficial effects of a synbiotic supplement on self-perceived gastrointestinal well-being and immunoinflammatory status of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Esther; Viadel, Blanca; Wärnberg, Julia; Carreres, Jose E; Marcos, Ascensión

    2011-01-01

    The use of synbiotics as health promoters is still poorly defined, and human intervention studies are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a commercialized synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and fructooligosaccharides on the self-reported gastrointestinal well-being and the immunoinflammatory status of healthy human subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 20 women and 16 men (25-45 years old) received either three tablets per day of the synbiotic product (2.4 × 10(9) colony-forming units/day) or placebo during 6 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habits were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. In those subjects suffering from any kind of digestive disturbance (mild dyspepsia, flatulence, postprandial bloating, constipation, etc.), improvements in symptoms after product consumption were also evaluated. Blood lymphocyte subsets, phagocytic activity, serum C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and adhesion molecules concentrations were analyzed prior and after treatment. A significant improvement in overall self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habit was found in the synbiotic group. A marginal effect of treatment (analysis of variance P = .050) was observed with L-selectin, which showed a significant decrease in the synbiotic group (P = .019). In addition, basal L-selectin levels correlated with final intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 levels (r = 0.468; P = .050), and basal ICAM-1 levels tended to correlate negatively with final L-selectin concentration (r = -0.457; P = .056). None of these correlations was found in the placebo group. The rest of the immunological parameters studied were not modified by the intervention. In conclusion, consumption of the synbiotic

  15. Beneficial effects of vitamin E isomer supplementation on static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehat, Muhammad Zulfadli; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2010-09-01

    Bone is a specialized connective tissue that functions as the load-bearing structure of the body. Free radicals may affect bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast activity in either the physiological or pathological condition. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been demonstrated to offer protection against osteoporosis and to improve the bone material and structure of animal models. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the effects of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol), delta-tocotrienol (delta-tocotrienol), and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-tocotrienol) on the static and dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters in normal male rats. Thirty-two normal Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 months and weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was supplemented with oral gavages of olive oil (vehicle), whereas the alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol groups were given oral gavages of 60 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol, respectively. The rats were injected twice with calcein to fluorochrome-label the bones. After 4 months of treatment, the rats were killed, and the left femurs were dissected out and prepared for bone histomorphometry. Both the static and dynamic parameters of the vitamin E-treated groups were better than those of the normal control group. Among the vitamin E-treated groups, the tocotrienol groups showed better histomorphometry results compared to the α-tocopherol group, with the γ-tocotrienol group demonstrating the best effects on both sets of parameters. We concluded that vitamin E can promote bone formation in normal rats, with gamma-tocotrienol being the most potent form of vitamin E.

  16. The beneficial effects of protein tyrosine kinase inhibition on the circulatory failure induced by endotoxin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Mohammad; Anvari, Khaleda; Fatehi-Hassanabad, Zahra

    2002-11-01

    Implication of enhanced activity of tyrosine kinases has been established in the pathophysiology of many diseases associated with local (e.g., atherosclerosis) or systemic (e.g., septic shock) inflammation. The main objective of this study was to elucidate whether tyrosine kinase and nitric oxide were involved in endotoxin-induced impairment of vascular responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) in rat isolated mesenteric bed. Therefore, the effects of genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase, and L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, on endotoxin-induced shock were investigated in the thiopental-anesthetized rats. We also studied the effects of endotoxin on the vasoconstrictor responses to SNS in the rat isolated perfused mesenteric bed. Endotoxin injection (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced a marked hypotension and a reduction of the pressor responses elicited by phenylephrine (0.1, 0.3, and 3 microg kg(-1), i.v.). Pretreatment of the rats with either genistein (10 mg kg(-1) i.p., 2 h before endotoxin injection), L-NAME (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.p., 30 min before endotoxin injection), or a combination of both attenuated the hypotension caused by endotoxin. SNS in the rat isolated perfused mesenteric bed caused a frequency-dependent vasoconstrictor response, which was abolished by tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), prazoscin (10(-7) M), and guanethidine (10(-7)M). In mesenteric vascular beds removed from rats injected with endotoxin, the vasoconstrictor responses to SNS were markedly impaired. Although genistein and L-NAME pretreatment attenuated the vascular hyporeactivity to phenylephrine, they did not improve the impaired SNS response of the isolated vascular bed of endotoxin-treated animals. These results indicate that genistein and L-NAME pretreatment prevent the hypotension and the delayed hyporeactivity to phenylephrine induced by endotoxin, but they failed to restore the vascular hyporeactivity to SNS.

  17. Early physiotherapy after injection of botulinum toxin increases the beneficial effects on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, M; Borriello, G; Castri, P; Prosperini, L; Pozzilli, C

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether additional physiotherapy increases botulinum toxin type A effects in reducing spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. A single-blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial with a 12-week study period. Thirty-eight patients with progressive multiple sclerosis affected by focal spasticity and who were observed at the Multiple Sclerosis Centre operating in the S. Andrea Hospital in Rome. For intervention all patients received botulinum toxin type A; the treatment group also received additional physiotherapy to optimize management through passive or active exercise and stretching regimens. To measure objective and subjective level of spasticity, patients were assessed at baseline, 2, 4 and 12 weeks post treatment by Modified Ashworth Scale and visual analogue scale. When compared with the control group, we found a significant decrease of spasticity by Modified Ashworth Scale (P < 0.01 by t-test) in the treatment group at week 2 (2.73 versus 3.22), week 4 (2.64 versus 3.33) and week 12 (2.68 versus 3.33). The mean (%) difference in Modified Ashworth Scale score between baseline and the end of follow-up was -0.95 (26.1) in the treatment group and -0.28 (7.7) in the control group (P < 0.01). The combined treatment proved also to be more effective by visual analogue scale (P < 0.01) at week 4 (6.95 versus 5.50) and at week 12 (7.86 versus 6.56) but not at week 2 (5.18 versus 5.50; P = 0.41). Our data suggest that physiotherapy in combination with botulinum toxin type A injection can improve overall response to botulinum toxin.

  18. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A.P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K.T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M.M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  19. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviero-Miachon AA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon,1,2 Angela Maria Spinola-Castro,1,2 Maria Lucia de Martino Lee,2 Carlos Manoel de Castro Monteiro,3 Antonio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho,4 Antonio Ramos Calixto,5 Bruno Geloneze,5 Gil Guerra-Junior6 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 2Pediatric Oncology Institute – IOP/GRAACC, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 3Private Office, Castro Monteiro, Sao Paulo, 4Division of Cardiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, 5Laboratory of Investigation on Metabolism and Diabetes (LIMED, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, 6Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional stud