WorldWideScience

Sample records for proforce m-4 system

  1. Long-term Timing of the Pulsar Triple System in M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Emmanuel; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Thorsett, Stephen E.; Kramer, Michael; Caballero, Nicolas; Stappers, Benjamin; Lyne, Andrew; Archibald, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Radio pulsars often serve as unique and exquisite probes of gravitational interactions and system-formation mechanisms within different types of orbital systems. In this poster, we summarize ongoing observations and analyses of PSR B1620-26, a pulsar in a hierarchical triple system that is composed of a 191-day "inner" orbit with a white dwarf and a ~60 year "outer" orbit with a Jupiter-mass planet; this triple system is embedded within the M4 globular cluster. Our expanding data set spans 26 years since the pulsar's discovery and has used the following facilities for data collection: the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope; the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope; the 76-m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory; the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array; and the 140-m and 43-m NRAO radio telescopes at Green Bank, West Virginia.The lack of outer-orbital coverage has so far prevented a full, time-explicit model of the system, but we argue that a robust pulsar-timing solution of both orbits and third-body perturbations will be available in the next few years when the orbit reaches its point of inflection. This new and unique information will help derive inertial and geometric properties of the system, and help shed further light on the nature and evolution of the planetary companion.

  2. Binary-binary interactions and the formation of the PSR B1620-26 triple system in M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Mcmillan, Steve; Hut, Piet

    1995-01-01

    The hierarchical triple system containing the millisecond pulsar PSR B1620-26 in M4 is the first star system ever detected in a globular cluster. Such systems should form in globular clusters as a result of dynamical interactions between binaries. We propose that the triple system containing PSR B1620-26 formed through an exchange interaction between a wide primordial binary and a pre-existing binary millisecond pulsar. This scenario would have the advantage of reconciling the approximately 10(exp 9) yr timing age of the pulsar with the much shorter lifetime of the triple system in the core of M4.

  3. Influence of hybridization in the magnetic circular X-ray dichroism at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M; deGroot, FMF; Dias, AM; Kappler, JP; Schulte, O; Felsch, W; Krill, G

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  4. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second. PMID:23202040

  5. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM cortex-M4 processor and 3D look-up tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-10-22

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  6. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tresanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6 processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  7. Muscarinic M1 and M4 receptor subtypes in normal and patjhological conditions in the central nervous system : Studies on human and animal tissues using subtype selective ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta, Ezra

    2003-01-01

    Snake venoms from different mamba species contain toxins that bind to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). The toxins MT-1 (selective for M1 after iodination), M1 toxin-1 (also known as MT7, selective for MI) and M4 toxin-1 (also known as MT3, selective for M4 receptors) were isolated and used to study M1 and M4 receptor subtypes in normal and pathological conditions. The pharmacological profile of M1 toxin-1 was determined in functional assays using cloned human M1- ...

  8. Compartmentalized expression of zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4, homologues of the Drosophila ten(m)/odd Oz gene, in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, M; Kikuchi, Y; Hirate, Y; Aoki, M; Okamoto, H

    1999-09-01

    Zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4 encode proteins highly similar to the product of Drosophila pair-rule gene ten(m)/odd Oz (odz). Their products contain eight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that resemble mostly those of the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin. During segmentation period, ten-m3 is expressed in the somites, notochord, pharyngeal arches, and the brain, while expression of ten-m4 is mainly restricted to the brain. In the developing brain, ten-m3 and ten-m4 expression delineates several compartments. Interestingly, ten-m3 and ten-m4 show expression patterns complementary to each other in the developing forebrain and midbrain along both rostrocaudal and dorsoventral axes, depending on developmental stages and locations.

  9. Allosteric effects of four stereoisomers of a fused indole ring system with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and acetylcholine at M1-M4 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareno, S; Birdsall, B; Fukazawa, T; Gharagozloo, P; Hashimoto, T; Kuwano, H; Popham, A; Sugimoto, M; Birdsall, N J

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that brucine and some analogues allosterically enhance the affinity of ACh at muscarinic receptor subtypes M1, M3 or M4. Here we describe allosteric effects at human M1-M4 receptors of four stereoisomers of a pentacyclic structure containing features of the ring structure of brucine. All compounds inhibited 3H-NMS dissociation almost completely at all subtypes with slopes of 1, with similar affinity values at the 3H-NMS-occupied receptor to those estimated from equilibrium assays, consistent with the ternary complex allosteric model. Compound 1a showed positive cooperativity with H-NMS and small negative or neutral cooperativity with ACh at all subtypes. Its stereoisomer, 1b, showed strong negative cooperativity with both 3H-NMS and ACh across the subtypes. Compound 2a was positive with 3H-NMS at M2 and M4 receptors, neutral at M3 and negative at M1 receptors; it was negatively cooperative with ACh at all subtypes. Its stereoisomer, 2b, was neutral with 3H-NMS at M1 receptors and positive at the other subtypes; 2b was negatively cooperative with ACh at M1, M3 and M4 receptors but showed 3-fold positive cooperativity with ACh at M2 receptors. This latter result was confirmed with further 3H-NMS and 3H-ACh radioligand binding assays and with functional assays of ACh-stimulated 35S-GTPgammaS binding. These results provide the first well characterised instance of a positive enhancer of ACh at M2 receptors, and illustrate the difficulty of predicting such an effect.

  10. Influence of hybridization in the Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism at the Ce-M4,5 absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M.; de Groot, F.M.F.; Dias, A.-M.; Kappler, J.-P.; Schulte, O.; Felsch, W.; Krill, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M*,s absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  11. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, Ian B. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  12. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Schober

    Full Text Available Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S. Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  13. Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART)

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, E.L. van den; Schouten, T E; Kok, T.; Hoenkamp, E.C.M.; Chang, E Y; Hanjalic, A; Sebe, N.

    2006-01-01

    The prototype of an online Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART) system is introduced, which provides entrance to the digitized collection of the National Gallery of the Netherlands (the Rijksmuseum). The current online system of the Rijksmuseum is text-based and requires expert knowledge concerning the work searched for, else it fails in retrieving it. M4ART extends this system with querying by an example image that can be uploaded to the system or can be selected through browsing the collect...

  14. Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART)

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Thijs; Meijler, A.; Franken, A.; van den Broek, Egon; Hoenkamp, Eduard; Schouten, Theo; Petiet, Peter; Vuurpijl, Louis

    2005-01-01

    The prototype of an online Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART) system is introduced, which provides entrance to the digitized collection of the National Gallery of the Netherlands (the Rijksmuseum). The current online system of the Rijksmuseum is text-based and requires expert knowledge concerning the work searched for, else it fails in retrieving it. M4ART extends this system with querying by an example image that can be uploaded to the system or can be selected through browsing the collect...

  15. Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Chang, E.Y.; Hanjalic, A.; Kok, Thijs; Schouten, Theo E.; Sebe, N.; Hoenkamp, Eduard

    2006-01-01

    The prototype of an online Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART) system is introduced, which provides entrance to the digitized collection of the National Gallery of the Netherlands (the Rijksmuseum). The current online system of the Rijksmuseum is text-based and requires expert knowledge concerning

  16. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  17. Preparing the E-ELT M4 optical test .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariani, G.; Briguglio, R.; Xompero, M.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F. M.; Riccardi, A.; Tintori, M.; Gallieni, D.; Andrighettoni, M.; Biasi, R.

    The design of the interferometric test of the adaptive M4 Unit of E-ELT, a deformable six petals 2.4 m mirror, will be described. The actual baseline follows a macro-stitching approach, where each segment is separately flattened and co-phased to the other petals. The optical test setup for the single shell consists in a Newtonian system, with a 1.5 m parabolic mirror as main collimator. A 0.6 m reference flat mirror is foreseen to verify the alignment of the interferometric cavity. A Demonstration Prototype of the final M4 Unit, a 222 actuators, two shells deformable mirror, has been produced by Microgate and A.D.S. International. Results of the optical measurement campaign performed in INAF on the prototype mirror are reported.

  18. Enhanced self-administration of alcohol in muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cour, Cecilie; Sørensen, Gunnar; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna

    2015-01-05

    Modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is known to alter alcohol-drinking behavior. It is not known if muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have similar effects. The muscarinic M4 receptor is highly expressed in the brain reinforcement system and involved in regulation of cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission. Here we investigate, for the first time, the role of the M4 receptor in alcohol consumption using M4 knockout (M4(-/-)) and wild-type (M4(+/+)) mice. Experimentally naïve M4(-/-) and M4(+/+) mice were trained to orally self-administer 5%, 8% and 10% alcohol in 60min sessions, 6 days/week, after having undergone a standard sucrose fading training procedure on a fixed ratio schedule. The mice were further subjected to an extinction period followed by a 1 day reinstatement trial. M4(-/-) mice consumed more alcohol at 5% and 8% compared to their M4(+/+) littermates. The highest alcohol concentration used (10%) did not immediately result in divergent drinking patterns, but after 4 weeks of 10% alcohol self-administration, baseline levels as well as a pattern of M4(-/-) mice consuming more alcohol than their M4(+/+) controls were re-established. Moreover, the M4(-/-) mice displayed a reduced capacity to extinguish their alcohol-seeking behavior. Taken together, alcohol consumption is elevated in M4(-/-) mice, indicating that the M4 receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The M4 receptor should be further explored as a potential target for pharmacological (positive allosteric modulators or future agonists) treatment of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Leiter, Lorene M; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-02

    In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

  20. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshimizu Hisatsugu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system (CNS, the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

  1. Explantation of the novel Ahmed glaucoma valve M4 implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanda D; Pro, Michael J; Fudemberg, Scott J; Moster, Marlene R

    2015-02-01

    To report a series of cases involving Ahmed Glaucoma Valve M4 (AGV) explantation and to discuss the surgical technique to remove the drainage device. Four cases were identified that presented with AGV M4 postoperative complications necessitating tube shunt removal. Three patients presented with conjunctival erosion and 1 patient with persistent diplopia. AGV M4 implants were removed successfully between 1.5 and 9 months after implantation. Successful explantation of the AGV M4 novel implant was achieved in all cases without intraoperative or postoperative complications. If necessary, AGV M4 explantation can be successfully performed in the early postoperative period.

  2. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Wess, Jürgen; Woldbye, David P D; Wortwein, Gitta; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M(4) receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here we investigated for the first time the involvement of M(4) receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine using chronic intravenous cocaine self-administration in extensively backcrossed M(4) receptor knockout (M(4) (-/-)) mice. We evaluated acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naïve mice. Both cocaine self-administration and food-maintained operant behavior were evaluated under fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine-induced hyperactivity were evaluated. M(4) (-/-) mice earned significantly more cocaine reinforcers and reached higher breaking points than their wild-type littermates (M(4) (+/+)) at intermediate doses of cocaine under both FR 1 and PR schedules of reinforcement. Under the PR schedule, M(4) (-/-) mice exhibited significantly higher response rates at the lowest liquid food concentration. In accordance with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M(4) (-/-) mice compared to M(4) (+/+) mice. Our data suggest that M(4) receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment of drug addiction.

  3. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Jeon, Jongrye; Thomsen, Morgane; Sager, Thomas N; Mørk, Arne; Woldbye, David P D; Wess, Jürgen; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-04-20

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinical studies indicate that the M(4) muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype (mAChR) modulates the activity of the dopaminergic system and that this specific mAChR subtype is involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. A specific neuronal subpopulation that expresses M(4) mAChRs together with D(1) dopamine receptors seems to be especially important in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors. Using mutant mice that lack the M(4) mAChR only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1-M4-KO), we investigated the role of this neuronal population in the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced climbing. Interestingly, the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in the two models were almost completely abolished in D1-M4-KO mice, suggesting that M(4) mAChRs colocalized with D(1) dopamine receptors are centrally involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. This is consistent with the hypothesis that activation of the M(4) mAChR represents a potential target for the future medical treatment of psychosis.

  4. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M4 -/- mice compared to M4 +/+ mice. Conclusions Our data suggest that M4 receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment...... of drug addiction...

  5. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinical...... studies indicate that the M(4) muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype (mAChR) modulates the activity of the dopaminergic system and that this specific mAChR subtype is involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. A specific neuronal subpopulation that expresses M(4) mAChRs together...... with D(1) dopamine receptors seems to be especially important in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors. Using mutant mice that lack the M(4) mAChR only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1-M4-KO), we investigated the role of this neuronal population in the antipsychotic-like effects...

  6. Long term (2004-2013) correlation analysis among SSTAs (Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies) and Earthquakes (M>4) occurrence over Greece: examples of application within a multi-parametric system for continuous seismic hazard monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Coviello, Irina; Eleftheriou, Alexander; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Makris, John P.; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; vallianatos, filippos

    2015-04-01

    Real-time integration of multi-parametric observations is expected to significantly contribute to the development of operational systems for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH) and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast. However a very preliminary step in this direction is the identification of those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of major earthquakes. In this paper one of these parameter (the Earth's emitted radiation in the Thermal Infra-Red spectral region) is considered for its possible correlation with M≥4 earthquakes occurred in Greece in between 2004 and 2013. The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to preliminarily define, and then to identify, Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in 10 years (2004-2013) of daily TIR images acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Taking into account physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation among TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the correlation analysis process. The analysis shows that more than 93% of all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (M≥4) earthquakes time and location of occurrence with a false positive rate smaller than 7%. Achieved results, and particularly the very low rate of false positives registered on a so long testing period, seems already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST approach and RETIRA index) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to time-Dependent Assessment of

  7. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dtsz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dtsz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. M4SF-17LL010302072: The Roles of Diffusion and Corrosion in Radionuclide Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balboni, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010302072) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030207 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030208. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion

  9. M4SF-17LL010302072: The Roles of Diffusion and Corrosion in Radionuclide Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balboni, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, Cindy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010302072) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030207 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030208. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  10. Message from the 3M4SE 2014 Workshop Chairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The Fifth International Workshop on Models and Model-driven Methods for Service Engineering -3M4SE 2014- aims at helping the convergence of research on model-driven development and practical application of the model-driven approach in the area of enterprise computing and service engineering. The

  11. Electronic structure and crystallographic properties of skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13 (M=Co, Ru, and Rh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślebarski, A.; Goraus, J.

    2013-10-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13 intermetallic compounds with M=Co, Ru, and Rh have been investigated. A subtle structural transition from a simple cubic phase (Yb3Rh4Sn13-type structure) to the superlattice variant at TD˜160 K has been evidenced by x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and specific-heat data. Recently, a high charge density between metal M and Sn atoms was calculated for Ce3Rh4Sn13 and Ce3Co4Sn13. The strong charge accumulation implies a strong M-Sn2 covalent bonding interaction. In consequence, a local distortion of the trigonal Sn prisms around metal M can modify the electronic structure of the system. The main goal of this report is to study the electronic structure in the family of RE3M4Sn13, where RE=Ce or La above and below TD. We show that the Sn 4d x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra have the complex structure, which can be interpreted as a result of different charge distribution around Sn atoms. The shape of the 4d Sn lines is also temperature dependent, which we attribute to the local distortion of the Sn2 cages in RE3M4Sn13.

  12. M4SF-17LL010301071: Thermodynamic Database Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Physical & Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC

    2017-09-05

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010301071) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number M4SF-17LL01030107. The DR Argillite Disposal R&D control account is focused on the evaluation of important processes in the analysis of disposal design concepts and related materials for nuclear fuel disposal in clay-bearing repository media. The objectives of this work package are to develop model tools for evaluating impacts of THMC process on long-term disposal of spent fuel in argillite rocks, and to establish the scientific basis for high thermal limits. This work is contributing to the GDSA model activities to identify gaps, develop process models, provide parameter feeds and support requirements providing the capability for a robust repository performance assessment model by 2020.

  13. M4 mAChR-mediated modulation of glutamatergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancani, Tristano; Bolarinwa, Caroline; Smith, Yoland; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu

    2014-04-16

    The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is extensively involved in the modulation of motivated behavior. The information conveyed to this subcortical structure through glutamatergic projections from the cerebral cortex and thalamus is processed by the activity of several striatal neuromodulatory systems including the cholinergic system. Acetylcholine potently modulates glutamate signaling in the striatum via activation of muscarinic receptors (mAChRs). It is, however, unclear which mAChR subtype is responsible for this modulatory effect. Here, by using electrophysiological, optogenetic, and immunoelectron microscopic approaches in conjunction with a novel, highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 (ML108) and M4 knockout mice, we show that M4 is a major mAChR subtype mediating the cholinergic inhibition of corticostriatal glutamatergic input on both striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). This effect is due to activation of presynaptic M4 receptors, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in glutamate release from corticostriatal terminals. The findings of the present study raise the interesting possibility that M4 mAChR could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders involving hyper-glutamatergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses.

  14. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna C; Wörtwein, Gitta; Conn, P Jeffrey; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking. We tested the M4-selective positive allosteric modulators VU0152100 and VU0467154 in a drug discrimination assay and a conditioned place preference assay, including extinction and reinstatement of place preference. Specificity of the cocaine discrimination effect was verified using knockout mice lacking either M1 or M4 receptors (M1-/-, M4-/-). We also replicated previous findings in cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and striatal dopamine microdialysis assays. VU0152100 attenuated the discriminative stimulus effect of cocaine in wild-type mice and M1-/- mice, but not in M4-/- mice, without affecting rates of responding. As previously shown with VU0152100, VU0467154 almost eliminated cocaine-induced hyperactivity and striatal dopamine efflux. VU0467154 failed to attenuate acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference, but facilitated extinction and prevented reinstatement of the conditioned place preference. These findings further support the notion that M4 receptors are promising targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction, by showing that results can be replicated using distinct ligands, and that in addition to blocking reinforcing effects of cocaine relevant to ongoing drug taking, M4 positive allosteric modulators can also attenuate subjective and conditioned effects relevant to relapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. An allosteric enhancer of M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Dencker; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M(4) acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in the regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M(4) receptors could...... be a novel target for modulating psychostimulant effects of cocaine....

  16. [The role of M4-subtype of cholinoreceptors in acethilinecholine vasoconstriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievsky, D D; Reshetnyak, V K

    2013-01-01

    In experiments on rats using high frequency ultrasonic measurement technique and selective M4-cholinoreceptor antagonist tropicamide it was shown that i/v injection of the cholinolitic block agent in large doses exceeding of its selective threshold (1 mg/kg) causes pronounced inhibition of the cardiovascular system in rats. Severe transitory hypotension and bradycardia are developed, general vascular resistance, minute cardiac output, are decreased. The block of M4-cholinoreceptors with smaller doses of tropicamide (0.1-0.001 mg/kg) causes transitory dose-depended effect on hemodynamic--system blood pressure and vascular resistance, pulse, minute cardiac output, as soon as velocity of aortic blood flow, strike cardiac output are increased on the contrary. The following decrease the dose of the high selective M4-cholinolitic antagonist (0.0001 mg/kg) reveals that its negative chronotropic effect are not detected practically but tropicamide vessel action (decrease of system blood pressure and vascular resistance) are preserved distinctly. The obtained data are discussed in aspect of the possible involvement of M4-muscarinic receptor subtype in acetylcholine-induced vasoconstriction in rats.

  17. CEH-28 activates dbl-1 expression and TGF-ß signaling in the C. elegans M4 neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalpana; Ray, Paramita; Okkema, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    M4 is a multifunctional neuron in the C. elegans pharynx that can both stimulate peristaltic contractions of the muscles in the pharyngeal isthmus and function systemically to regulate an enhanced sensory response under hypoxic conditions. Here we identify a third function for M4 that depends on activation of the TGF-ß family gene dbl-1 by the homeodomain transcription factor CEH-28. dbl-1 is expressed in M4 and a subset of other neurons, and we show CEH-28 specifically activates dbl-1 expression in M4. Characterization of the dbl-1 promoter indicates that CEH-28 targets an M4-specific enhancer within the dbl-1 promoter region, while expression in other neurons is mediated by separate regulatory sequences. Unlike ceh-28 mutants, dbl-1 mutants do not exhibit M4 synaptic and signaling defects. Instead, both ceh-28 and dbl-1 mutants exhibit morphological defects in the g1 gland cells located adjacent to M4 in the pharynx, and these defects can be partially rescued by M4-specific expression of dbl-1 in these mutants. Identical gland cell defects are observed in sma-6 and daf-4 mutants defective in the receptor for DBL-1, but they are not observed in sma-2 and sma-3 mutants lacking the R-Smads functioning downstream of this receptor. Together these results identify a novel neuroendocrine function for M4 and provide evidence for an R-Smad-independent mechanism for DBL-1 signaling in C. elegans. PMID:24690231

  18. Allosteric modulation of the muscarinic M4 receptor as an approach to treating schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W Y; McKinzie, D L; Bose, S; Mitchell, S N; Witkin, J M; Thompson, R C; Christopoulos, A; Lazareno, S; Birdsall, N J M; Bymaster, F P; Felder, C C

    2008-08-05

    Current antipsychotics provide symptomatic relief for patients suffering from schizophrenia and related psychoses; however, their effectiveness is variable and many patients discontinue treatment due to side effects. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is still unclear, a leading hypothesis implicates an imbalanced dopaminergic system. Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors regulate dopamine levels in key areas of the brain involved in psychosis, with the M(4) subtype emerging as a key regulator of dopaminergic hyperactivity. Unfortunately, no selective small molecule tools exist to provide pharmacological validation of this hypothesis. Here, we describe the discovery of a small molecule modulator, LY2033298, that is highly selective for human M(4) receptors by virtue of targeting an allosteric site on this receptor. Pharmacological assays confirmed the selectivity of LY2033298 for the M(4) receptor and revealed the highest degree of positive allosteric enhancement of ACh potency thus far identified. Radioligand binding assays also show this compound to directly potentiate agonist binding while having minimal effects on antagonist binding. Mutational analysis identified a key amino acid (D(432)) in the third extracellular loop of the human M(4) receptor to be critical for selectivity and agonist potentiation by LY2033298. Importantly, LY2033298 was active in animal models predictive of clinical antipsychotic drug efficacy indicating its potential use as a first-in-class, selective, allosteric muscarinic antipsychotic agent.

  19. Targeting glutathione S-transferase M4 in Ewing sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeng eZhuo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor. Although the 5-year survival rate of localized disease approaches 75%, the prognosis of metastatic and/or therapy-resistant disease remains dismal despite the wide use of aggressive therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4 in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. GSTM4 is required for oncogenic transformation and mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing analyses of Ewing sarcoma cells and combined our results with publicly-available datasets to demonstrate that GSTM4 is a major GST specifically expressed in Ewing sarcoma. Pharmacological inhibition of GSTM4 activity using a pan GST inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio hexanol (NBDHEX, significantly limited cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation of Ewing sarcoma cells. Moreover, combined use of NBDHEX and etoposide synergistically increased cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for GSTM4 as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that GSTM4 limits apoptosis owing to its ability to interact with Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1 and inhibit signaling via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase axis. To exploit our observation that GSTM4 expression is specifically up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma, we tested the effect of a GSTM4-activated anti-cancer agent, O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonylpiperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K, on tumor growth and survival. We found that JS-K robustly decreased Ewing sarcoma cell viability and xenograft tumor growth, and improved overall survival of xenograft mice. Our data suggest that GSTM4 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of high GSTM4-expressing Ewing sarcoma. Strategies that combine standard chemotherapy with agents that inhibit GSTM4, or that are activated by GSTM4, or that block GSTM4

  20. Symplectic linearization of singular Lagrangian foliations in M4

    OpenAIRE

    Currás-Bosch, Carlos; Miranda, Eva

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the singular Lagrangian foliation of a 2-degree of freedom integrable Hamiltonian system, is symplectically equivalent to the linearized foliation in a neighbourhood of a non-degenerate singular orbit.

  1. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  2. Crystal Structures of the M1 and M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, David M.; Sun, Bingfa; Feng, Dan; Nawaratne, Vindhya; Leach, Katie; Felder, Christian C.; Bures, Mark G.; Evans, David A.; Weis, William I.; Bachhawat, Priti; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Sexton, Patrick M.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muscarinic M1–M5 acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that regulate many vital functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In particular, the M1 and M4 receptor subtypes have emerged as attractive drug targets for treatments of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, but the high conservation of the acetylcholine-binding pocket has spurred current research into targeting allosteric sites on these receptors. Here, we report the first crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors bound to the inverse agonist, tiotropium. Comparison of these structures to each other, as well as the previously reported M2 and M3 receptor structures, reveals differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that contribute to a role in drug selectivity at this important receptor family. We also report identification of a cluster of residues that form a network linking the orthosteric and allosteric sites of the M4 receptor, which provides new insight into how allosteric modulation may be transmitted between the two spatially distinct domains. PMID:26958838

  3. Getting ready for the real data-taking with M4

    CERN Multimedia

    Giuseppe Mornacchi

    M4 (Milestone 4), the fourth global commissioning period, took place from August 23rd to September 3rd. As for M3, this run included almost all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, with only the Pixels and Cathode Strip Chambers missing, but featured more detector hardware, new releases of offline and online software and many new functions. These are outlined below. The more mature state of systems integration called for a different organization of M4 with respect to M1-M3: following a 2-day setup time, we spent the rest of M4 running formal shifts: two shifts a day (9:00 to 17:00 and 17:00 to 24:00) with a full crew during week days, that is 13 control room desks staffed by at least one shifter each, and a single shift (9:00 to 17:00) with reduced crew of 5-7 people during weekends. While most of the time was dedicated to combined running with cosmics muons, four of the day shifts were dedicated to more technical issues such as: high rate (many kHz) runs, tests related to synchronization (Bunch Counter Reset and Eve...

  4. Butyric acid tolerance of rice mutant M4 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydromorphic soils have a low drainage capacity and are used mainly for the cultivation of irrigated rice.This condition favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the response of rice mutants to the phytotoxicity caused by butyric acid under anaerobic conditions. Theexperiment consisted of four treatments arranged in a randomized block design. Plants of 40 families were grown in ahydroponic system and the measured variables were root length and length of aerial part (LAP, number of roots (NR androot dry matter (RDM and aerial part dry matter (DMAP. The analysis of variance was performed, the relative performancecalculated and linear regressions were fitted. Only the treatment effect for NR and effect of interaction for LAP were notsignificant. Root length was most affected by the acid and the regressions expressed positive as well as negative effects for acidtolerance in the mutant families.

  5. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  6. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  7. M4FT-16LL080302052-Update to Thermodynamic Database Development and Sorption Database Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC; Atkins-Duffin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Global Security

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080302052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number FT-16LL08030205. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  8. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte; Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael; Noetzel, Meredith J; Lamsal, Atin; Niswender, Colleen M; Daniels, J Scott; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Byers, Frank W; Wess, Jürgen; Duggan, Mark E; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-10-15

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. An allosteric enhancer of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David P. D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Wess, Jürgen; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M4 acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M4 receptors could be a novel target for modulating psychostimulant effects of cocaine. Objectives For the first time, we here addressed this issue by investigating the effects of a novel selective positive allosteric modulator of M4 receptors, VU0152100, on cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice. Methods To investigate the effect of VU0152100 on the acute reinforcing effects of cocaine, we use an acute-cocaine self-administration model. We used in vivo microdialysis to investigate whether the effects of VU0152100 in the behavioral studies were mediated via effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission. In addition the effect of VU0152100 on cocaine-induced hyperactivity and rotarod performance was evaluated. Results We found that VU0152100 caused a prominent reduction in cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion, and cocaine-induced striatal dopamine increase, without affecting motor performance. Consistent with these effects of VU0152100 being mediated via M4 receptors, its inhibitory effects on cocaine-induced increases in striatal dopamine were abolished in M4 receptor knockout mice. Furthermore, selective deletion of the M4 receptor gene in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons resulted in a partial reduction of the VU0152100 effect, indicating that VU0152100 partly regulates dopaminergic neurotransmission via M4 receptors co-localized with D1 receptors. Conclusions These results show that positive allosteric modulators of the M4 receptor deserve attention as agents in the future treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:22648127

  10. Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rifleman Shooter Handedness Eye to Aim Weapon Corrective Glasses 1 2, 2012 M4 Expert Right Right Yes 2 10, 2012 M4 Sharpshooter Left Left No 3 9...perhaps the use of a vertical grip should be left to the discretion of each user. 15. SUBJECT TERMS vertical grip, M4 carbine, shooting performance...use, and the vertical grips and plastic forward rail covers for use on the M4 carbines. viii INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction and

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-4 - Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. 1.401(m)-4 Section 1.401(m)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(m)-4 Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. ...

  12. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that spe......BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis....... As previously shown with VU0152100, VU0467154 almost eliminated cocaine-induced hyperactivity and striatal dopamine efflux. VU0467154 failed to attenuate acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference, but facilitated extinction and prevented reinstatement of the conditioned place preference. CONCLUSIONS......: These findings further support the notion that M4 receptors are promising targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction, by showing that results can be replicated using distinct ligands, and that in addition to blocking reinforcing effects of cocaine relevant to ongoing drug taking, M4 positive allosteric...

  13. A Deep X-ray Study of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David

    2015-08-01

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries.We have also learned that not all X-ray sources in a globular cluster are dynamically formed. Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of low-density clusters have shown that the magnetically active main-sequence binaries in those clusters are largely primordial, but few clusters have been observed deeply enough in X-rays to uncover a substantial fraction of these binaries.We report on the results of deep Chandra observations of M4 that were motivated, in part, to uncover a nearly complete census of its active binaries. These observations reach X-ray luminosities below 1029 erg/s, a sensitivity that should detect ~90% of the active main-sequence binary population. We detect ~100 X-ray sources within the half-light radius of M4 and characterize their nature by investigating their optical counterparts (or lack thereof) in deep Hubble Space Telescope observations. We compare the populations of X-ray sources in M4 to other well-studied clusters.

  14. IgE-Api m 4 Is Useful for Identifying a Particular Phenotype of Bee Venom Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, B; Serrano, P; Moreno, C

    Different clinical behaviors have been identified in patients allergic to bee venom. Compound-resolved diagnosis could be an appropriate tool for investigating these differences. The aims of this study were to analyze whether specific IgE to Api m 4 (sIgE-Api m 4) can identify a particular kind of bee venom allergy and to describe response to bee venom immunotherapy (bVIT). Prospective study of 31 patients allergic to bee venom who were assigned to phenotype group A (sIgE-Api m 4 Api m 4 ≥0.98 kU/L), treated with purified aqueous (PA) extract. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk, severity of preceding sting reaction, exposure to beekeeping, and immunological data (intradermal test, sIgE/sIgG4-Apis-nApi m 1, and sIgE-rApi m 2-Api m 4 were analyzed. Systemic reactions (SRs) during bVIT build-up were analyzed. Immunological and sting challenge outcomes were evaluated in each group after 1 and 2 years of bVIT. Phenotype B patients had more severe reactions (P=.049) and higher skin sensitivity (P=.011), baseline sIgE-Apis (P=.0004), sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.0004), and sIgG4-Apis (P=.027) than phenotype A patients. Furthermore, 41% of patients in group B experienced SRs during the build-up phase with NA; the sting challenge success rate in this group was 82%. There were no significant reductions in serial intradermal test results, but an intense reduction in sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.013) and sIgE-Api m 4 (P=.004) was observed after the first year of bVIT. Use of IgE-Api m 4 as the only discrimination criterion demonstrated differences in bee venom allergy. Further investigation with larger populations is necessary.

  15. Discovery of novel N-substituted oxindoles as selective m1 and m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Takaaki; Enomoto, Takeshi; Takai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoko; Konishi, Yasuko; Uruno, Yoshiharu; Tojo, Kengo; Suwa, Atsushi; Matsuda, Harumi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Sakai, Mutsuko; Kitamura, Atsushi; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Kiyoshi, Akihiko

    2013-02-14

    Activation of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors is thought to play an important role in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, discovery of selective agonists for these receptors has been a challenge, considering the high sequence homology and conservation of the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site among muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. We report in this study the discovery of novel N-substituted oxindoles as potent muscarinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists selective for M1 and M4 over M2, M3, and M5. Among these oxindoles, compound 1 showed high selectivity for the M1 and M4 receptors with remarkable penetration into the central nervous system. Compound 1 reversed methamphetamine- and apomorphine-induced psychosis-like behaviors with low potency to extrapyramidical and peripheral side effects.

  16. Antipsychotic-induced catalepsy is attenuated in mice lacking the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Schmidt, Lene S; Dencker, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    of the striatum, suggesting a role for muscarinic M4 receptors in the motor side effects of antipsychotics, and in the alleviation of these side effects by anticholinergics. Here we investigated the potential role of the muscarinic M4 receptor in catalepsy induced by antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone...

  17. The determination of safety of Muhanse M4 ® , a traditional herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhanse M4® is a traditional herbal preparation that has been in use in Tanzania for the past 17 years to improve the quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS. This study was carried out to determine the safety of the extract Muhanse M4® in animal models. The qualitative test to identify alkaloids and saponins ...

  18. A Business Case Analysis of the M4/AR-15 Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT A BUSINESS CASE ANALYSIS OF THE M4/AR-15 MARKET By...... market . The market analysis was conducted to fill missing gaps on the M4/AR-15 market size, customer demographics, and supplier base. Data was collected

  19. Modulation of prepulse inhibition through both M(1) and M (4) muscarinic receptors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Wess, Jürgen; Fulton, Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic M(1) and M(4) receptors may participate in schizophrenia's etiology and have been proposed as targets for antipsychotic medications.......Muscarinic cholinergic M(1) and M(4) receptors may participate in schizophrenia's etiology and have been proposed as targets for antipsychotic medications....

  20. The Complete Genome Sequence of Methanobrevibacter sp. AbM4

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, S. C.; Kelly, W J; Li, D; Li, Y.; Altermann, E.; Lambie, S. C.; Cox, F; Attwood, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Methanobrevibacter sp. AbM4 was originally isolated from the abomasal contents of a sheep and was chosen as a representative of the Methanobrevibacter wolinii clade for genome sequencing. The AbM4 genome is smaller than that of the rumen methanogen M. ruminantium M1 (2.0 Mb versus 2.93 Mb), encodes fewer open reading frames (ORFs) (1,671 versus 2,217) and has a lower G+C percentage (29% versus 33%). Overall, the composition of the AbM4 genome is very similar to that of M1 suggesting that the ...

  1. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  2. Enhancement of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated locomotor stimulation in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gomeza, Jesus; Zhang, Lu; Kostenis, Evi; Felder, Christian; Bymaster, Frank; Brodkin, Jesse; Shannon, Harlan; Xia, Bing; Deng, Chu-Xia; Wess, Jürgen

    1999-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1–M5) regulate many key functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Primarily because of the lack of receptor subtype-selective ligands, the precise physiological roles of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes remain to be elucidated. Interestingly, the M4 receptor subtype is expressed abundantly in the striatum and various other forebrain regions. To study its potential role in the regulation of locomotor activity and other central funct...

  3. Paradoxical sleep in mice lacking M3 and M2/M4 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutagny, Romain; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Salvert, Denise; Gomeza, Jesus; Yamada, Masahisa; Wess, Jürgen; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholine is crucial for the regulation of paradoxical sleep (PS) and EEG theta activity. To determine the contribution of individual muscarinic receptors to these events, we analyzed the sleep-waking cycle and EEG activities of mice lacking functional M(3) or M(2)/M(4 )receptors. Daily PS amounts were significantly decreased in M3-/- (-22%) but not in M2/M4-/- mice. Further, the theta peak frequency for PS was significantly increased in both M2/M4-/- and M3-/- mice. This study supports the potential role of M(3) rather than M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptors in the modulation of PS in mice and strengthens the idea that multiple muscarinic receptors contribute to the regulation of the EEG theta activity during PS. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Molecular characterization of a recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase from Lactococcus lactis M4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boon Hooi; Chor Leow, Thean; Foo, Hooi Ling; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2014-01-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172).

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Lactococcus lactis M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hooi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A superoxide dismutase (SOD gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172.

  6. Distinct toxicity of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate to Daphnia magna in M4 medium and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Chen, Xiangjie; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2017-10-17

    Toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied in various culture media. However, these media notably differ from the natural aquatic system, thus the conclusions may be inapplicable for real environment condition. The toxicity and its underlying mechanism of AgNPs in surface waters warrant more investigations. This study investigated the acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, bioaccumulation, and alga-daphnia food chain transfer of citrate-coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs) and Ag+ (from AgNO3) to D. magna in a culture medium (M4) and a surface water sample. Results show that the acute toxicity in the surface water was significantly lower than that in the M4 medium and the toxicity of Ag+ was greatly higher than that of C-AgNPs. The 48h median effect concentration (EC50) of C-AgNPs to D. magna in the M4 medium and the surface water was 110±9.3μg/L and 270±26μg/L, respectively, while that of Ag+ was 1.8±0.7μg/L and 8.0±0.6μg/L, respectively. The released Ag+ contributed to but not dominated the acute toxicity of C-AgNPs. At the EC50 of C-AgNPs, the contribution of released Ag+ was 35.7% and 28.0% to the apparent nanotoxicity in the M4 medium and the surface water sample, respectively. The chronic toxicity of C-AgNPs and Ag+ was also lower in the surface water sample than in the M4 medium as indicated by the significantly higher survival of daphnia in the surface water during the 21d exposure. The daphnia took up less but depurated more Ag in the surface water than in the M4 medium, which could account for the lower toxicity in the surface water. Biological magnification of Ag through the alga-daphnia food chain was not observed. These findings will be helpful for assessing the environmental risk of AgNPs and understanding the mechanism of nanotoxcity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of the NBME advanced clinical examination in EM and the national EM M4 exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson's correlation and random effects linear regression. 305 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (281 and 24, respectively) [corrected].The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.9 (SD-9.82), V1 83.0 (SD-6.39), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70) [corrected]. Pearson's correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.53 (0.43 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.58 (0.41 scaled) [corrected]. The coefficient of determination for V1/ EM-ACE was 0.73 and for V2/EM-ACE 0.71 (0.65 and .49 for scaled scores) [ERRATUM]. The R-squared values were 0.28 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13 scaled), respectively [corrected]. There was significant cluster effect by institution. There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams.

  8. M4GB: An efficient Gröbner-basis algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Makarim (Rusydi); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new efficient algorithm for computing Gröbner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugère's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the

  9. The determination of safety of Muhanse M4® , a traditional herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in animal models. The qualitative test to identify alkaloids and saponins compounds was carried out. The toxicity tests in Swiss albino mice and rats were done according to WHO guidelines of 1993. Muhanse. M4® was dissolved homogeneously in distilled water and was administered both intraperitonially and orally for 14 ...

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptors play a critical role in oxotremorine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation at threonine 75 in isolated medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Huang, Yuqi; Huang, Qing; Zhao, Zhe; Yu, Jianqiang; Wang, Liyun

    2017-05-01

    the striatum, and indicate that M4 receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other relevant central nervous system disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The modulation of fragile X behaviors by the muscarinic M4 antagonist, tropicamide

    OpenAIRE

    Veeraragavan, Surabi; Bui, Nghiem; Perkins, Jennie R.; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Paylor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are G-protein coupled receptors (M1-M5), grouped together into two functional classes, based on their G protein interaction. Although ubiquitously expressed in the CNS, the M4 protein shows highest expression in the neostriatum, cortex, and hippocampus. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies have provided evidence for overactive mAChR signaling in the fragile X knock-out (Fmr1KO) mouse model, and this has been hypothesized to contribute to the ...

  12. The modulation of fragile X behaviors by the muscarinic M4 antagonist, tropicamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraragavan, Surabi; Bui, Nghiem; Perkins, Jennie R; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A; Paylor, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are G protein-coupled receptors (M1-M5), grouped together into two functional classes, based on their G protein interaction. Although ubiquitously expressed in the CNS, the M4 protein shows highest expression in the neostriatum, cortex, and hippocampus. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies have provided evidence for overactive mAChR signaling in the fragile X knock-out (Fmr1KO) mouse model, and this has been hypothesized to contribute to the phenotypes seen in Fmr1KO mice. To address this hypothesis we used an M4 antagonist, tropicamide, to reduce the activity through the M4 mAChR and investigated the behavioral response in the Fmr1KO animals. Data from the marble-burying assay have shown that tropicamide treatment resulted in a decreased number of marbles buried in the wild-type (WT) and in the knockout (KO) animals. Results from the open field assay indicated that tropicamide increases activity in both the WT and KO mice. In the passive avoidance assay, tropicamide treatment resulted in the improvement of performance in both the WT and the KO animals at the lower doses (2 and 5 mg/kg), and the drug was shown to be important for the acquisition and not the consolidation process. Lastly, we observed that tropicamide causes a significant decrease in the percentage of audiogenic seizures in the Fmr1KO animals. These results suggest that pharmacological antagonism of the M4 receptor modulates select behavioral responses in the Fmr1KO mice.

  13. Activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Daniel J; Choi, Derrick L; Conn, P Jeffrey; Rook, Jerri M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are neurological disorders with overlapping symptomatology, including both cognitive deficits and behavioral disturbances. Current clinical treatments for both disorders have limited efficacy accompanied by dose-limiting side effects, and ultimately fail to adequately address the broad range of symptoms observed. Novel therapeutic options for AD and SZ are needed to better manage the spectrum of symptoms with reduced adverse-effect liability. Substantial evidence suggests that activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) has the potential to treat both cognitive and psychosis-related symptoms associated with numerous central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, use of nonselective modulators of mAChRs is hampered by dose-limiting peripheral side effects that limit their clinical utility. In order to maintain the clinical efficacy without the adverse-effect liability, efforts have been focused on the discovery of compounds that selectively modulate the centrally located M1 and M4 mAChR subtypes. Previous drug discovery attempts have been thwarted by the highly conserved nature of the acetylcholine site across mAChR subtypes. However, current efforts by our laboratory and others have now focused on modulators that bind to allosteric sites on mAChRs, allowing these compounds to display unprecedented subtype selectivity. Over the past couple of decades, the discovery of small molecules capable of selectively targeting the M1 or M4 mAChR subtypes has allowed researchers to elucidate the roles of these receptors in regulating cognitive and behavioral disturbances in preclinical animal models. Here, we provide an overview of these promising preclinical and clinical studies, which suggest that M1- and M4-selective modulators represent viable novel targets with the potential to successfully address a broad range of symptoms observed in patients with AD and SZ.

  14. Effect of selective blockade of M4 cholinoreceptors by tropicamide on blood supply in brain, splanchnic azygous organs, and hindlimbs in intact rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievskii, D D; Reshetnyak, V K

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on anesthetized rats carried out with a high-frequency ultrasonic system and tropicamide, a highly selective blocker of M4 cholinoreceptors, showed that the vasodilator effects observed after selective blockade of M4 cholinoreceptors are not organ-specific. Intravenous tropicamide (0.1 μg/kg body weight) transiently decreased systemic BP, elevated the linear and volume fl ow rates, and diminished vascular resistance in common carotid, superior mesenteric, and femoral arteries. At the same time, in most rats (76%) the fl ow rate in the portal vein did not change, while in 25% rats it insignificantly and temporarily increased. The hypothesis on possible involvement of M4 cholinoreceptor structures in cholinergic vasoconstriction is discussed.

  15. The 10830 Å Helium Line Among Evolved Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.

    2015-08-01

    Helium is a pivotal element in understanding the multiple main sequences and extended horizontal branches observed in some globular clusters. Here we present a spectroscopic study of helium in the nearby globular cluster Messier 4 (M4). We have obtained spectra of the chromospheric He i 10830 Å line in 16 red horizontal branch (RHB), red giant branch, and asymptotic giant branch stars. Clear He i absorption or emission is present in most of the stars. Effective temperature is the principal parameter that correlates with 10830 Å line strength. Stars with {T}{eff}\\lt 4450 K do not exhibit the helium line. RHB stars, which are the hottest stars in our sample, all have strong He i line absorption. A number of these stars show very broad 10830 Å lines with shortward extensions indicating outflows as high as 80-100 km s-1 and the possibility of mass loss. We have also derived [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] abundances to see whether these standard tracers of “second generation” cluster stars are correlated with He i line strength. Unlike the case for our previous study of ω Cen, no clear correlation is observed. This may be because the sample does not cover the full range of abundance variations found in M4, or simply because the physical conditions in the chromosphere, rather than the helium abundance, primarily determine the He i 10830 Å line strength. A larger sample of high-quality He i spectra of both “first” and “second” generation red giants within a narrow range of {T}{eff} and luminosity is needed to test for the subtle spectroscopic variations in He i expected in M4.

  16. THE CLUSTER AGES EXPERIMENT (CASE). V. ANALYSIS OF THREE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W.; Pych, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, I. B.; Burley, G. S.; Shectman, S. A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Dotter, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rucinski, S. M., E-mail: jka@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: mnr@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: wk@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: batka@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pych@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: ian@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: burley@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: shec@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com, E-mail: rucinski@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto PO Box 360, Richmond Hill, ON L4C 4Y6 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We use photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binaries V65, V66, and V69 in the field of the globular cluster M4 to derive masses, radii, and luminosities of their components. The orbital periods of these systems are 2.29, 8.11, and 48.19 days, respectively. The measured masses of the primary and secondary components (M{sub p} and M{sub s} ) are 0.8035 {+-} 0.0086 and 0.6050 {+-} 0.0044 M{sub Sun} for V65, 0.7842 {+-} 0.0045 and 0.7443 {+-} 0.0042 M{sub Sun} for V66, and 0.7665 {+-} 0.0053 and 0.7278 {+-} 0/0048 M{sub Sun} for V69. The measured radii (R{sub p} and R{sub s} ) are 1.147 {+-} 0.010 and 0.6110 {+-} 0.0092 R{sub Sun} for V66, 0.9347 {+-} 0.0048 and 0.8298 {+-} 0.0053 R{sub Sun} for V66, and 0.8655 {+-} 0.0097 and 0.8074 {+-} 0.0080 R{sub Sun} for V69. The orbits of V65 and V66 are circular, whereas that of V69 has an eccentricity of 0.38. Based on systemic velocities and relative proper motions, we show that all three systems are members of the cluster. We find that the distance to M4 is 1.82 {+-} 0.04 kpc-in good agreement with recent estimates based on entirely different methods. We compare the absolute parameters of V66 and V69 with two sets of theoretical isochrones in mass-radius and mass-luminosity diagrams, and for assumed [Fe/H] = -1.20, [{alpha}/Fe] = 0.4, and Y = 0.25 we find the most probable age of M4 to be between 11.2 and 11.3 Gyr. Color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting with the same parameters yields an age close to, or slightly in excess of, 12 Gyr. However, considering the sources of uncertainty involved in CMD fitting, these two methods of age determination are not discrepant. Age and distance determinations can be further improved when infrared eclipse photometry is obtained.

  17. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  18. Initial Experience With the New Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Model M4: Short-term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvintal, Victor; Moster, Marlene R; Shyu, Andrew P; McDermott, Katie; Ekici, Feyzahan; Pro, Michael J; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of the new Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) model M4. The device consists of a porous polyethylene shell designed for improved tissue integration and reduced encapsulation of the plate for better intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Medical records of patients with an AGV M4 implantation between December 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were reviewed. The main outcome measure was surgical failure, defined as either (1) IOP21 mm Hg and/or IOP at last follow-up visit, (2) a reoperation for glaucoma, and/or (3) loss of light perception. Seventy-five eyes of 73 patients were included. Postoperative IOP at all follow-up visits significantly decreased from a baseline IOP of 31.2 mm Hg (PIOP increased significantly at 3 months (20.4 mm Hg), 6 months (19.3 mm Hg), and 12 months (20.3 mm Hg) compared with 1 month (13.8 mm Hg) postoperatively (PIOP in the first postoperative month, but IOP steadily increased thereafter. Consequently, failure rates were high after 1 year of follow-up.

  19. Granulocytic Sarcoma by AML M4eo (inv16 after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation without Bone Marrow Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zaenker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS represents a rare type of extramedullar manifestation from the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We report the case of a patient with recurrences of AML M4eo leukaemia in the uterus and the small intestine at 3 and 5 years, respectively, after matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. The patient underwent the withdrawal of immunosuppression, hysterectomy, and local irradiation at first relapse, as well as systemic chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions at second recurrence, inducing a second and third complete remission, respectively. At year six after transplantation, the patient experienced disease progression by meningeosis leukaemia to which she succumbed despite intrathecal chemotherapy. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, awareness for atypical manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma appears prudent, the cellular immunotherapy should aim at immunological disease control.

  20. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced...... PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801...

  1. RHESSI observation of the M4.0 flare on 17 March 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W. Q.; Li, Y. P.; Yu, X. X.; Feng, L.

    The M4.0/SF flare on 17 March 2002 is a good example of the early observations with RHESSI. We presenthard X-ray images, light curves and energy spectra of individual hard X-ray sources, the spatial relationship between the hard X-ray sources and the H α emission regions, and comparisons of light curves observed by RHESSI and GOES. We found that the picture exhibited by RHESSI is consistent with the general cartoon of a solar flare. In particular, we showed that the hard X-ray image spectra could be explained by a power-law electron beam with a lower energy cutoff E c. The derived E c could be as high as 40 keV, larger than the usually value of 20 keV.

  2. Acute abdomen as initial manifestation of M4 - acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalambros, E; Felekouras, E; Karavokyros, I G; Diamantis, T; Androulaki, A; Boutsis, D; Sigala, F; Tsavaris, N; Pangalis, G

    2005-01-01

    Visceral involvement in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) seldom precedes hematological manifestation. We report on a patient with M4 - ANLL presenting with acute abdomen without any evidence of blood disorder. Laparotomy revealed only ileal wall oedema. Postoperative clinical deterioration led to a second-look operation combined with intraoperative endoscopy. Biopsied tissues were diffusely infiltrated by blasts characterised as HLA-DR (+), PGM1 (50% +), MPO (50% +) and CD 34 (-). Bone marrow reconfirmed these findings and showed positivity for CD4 (44%), CD11b (50%), CD11c (42%), CD13 (33%), CD34 (32%), and CD56 (54%). Chemotherapy achieved a complete but short remission. Relapse occurred 7 months later. Immediately after consolidation chemotherapy the profoundly immunosuppressed patient passed away after a lower respiratory tract infection. We discuss the contrast between histology and short disease duration, the unusual presentation and the bad prognosis, and attempt to correlate the clinical course with the coexpression of markers.

  3. The National Emergency Medicine Fourth-year Student (M4) Examinations: Updates and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Corey R; Lawson, Luan; Beeson, Michael; Miller, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Version 1 (V1) of the National Emergency Medicine Fourth-year Student (EM M4) Examination was released in 2011 and revised along with release of V2 in 2012. Each examination contains 50 multiple-choice questions designed to assess knowledge in the EM M4 clerkship curriculum. Development and initial performance data were described previously. To provide updated V1 performance data, describe development and revision of V2, and to compare performance between academic years and examination forms, and within academic years. Examinations are administered at www.saemtests.org with ongoing performance data provided. After 1 year of use, nine questions on V2 were revised, five because of low discriminatory ability and four because of excessive difficulty. Revision or replacement was done in accordance with the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Item Writing Guidelines. Mean scores were compared for V1 between academic years (i.e., July 2011-June 2012 vs. July 2012-June 2013), V2 compared with V1, and for each examination version for early and late test takers. V1 has been administered >10,000 times since its release, and the current form mean is 81.5% (SD 3.7). Average discriminatory value (rpb) is 0.204. V2 has been administered >1500 times, with a mean score of 78.4% (SD 4.4) and average rpb 0.253. V1 and V2 current means differ statistically. Scores from examinees completing V1 or V2 early vs. late in the academic year differ statistically. Performance data for V1 remain stable after 2 years. Revisions of poorly performing questions improved question performance on V2. Questions with low rpb or low pdiff will continue to be revised annually. While examination forms differ statistically, the practical utility of the differences is not defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster DJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Foster, Derrick L Choi, P Jeffrey Conn, Jerri M RookDepartment of Pharmacology and Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD and schizophrenia (SZ are neurological disorders with overlapping symptomatology, including both cognitive deficits and behavioral disturbances. Current clinical treatments for both disorders have limited efficacy accompanied by dose-limiting side effects, and ultimately fail to adequately address the broad range of symptoms observed. Novel therapeutic options for AD and SZ are needed to better manage the spectrum of symptoms with reduced adverse-effect liability. Substantial evidence suggests that activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs has the potential to treat both cognitive and psychosis-related symptoms associated with numerous central nervous system (CNS disorders. However, use of nonselective modulators of mAChRs is hampered by dose-limiting peripheral side effects that limit their clinical utility. In order to maintain the clinical efficacy without the adverse-effect liability, efforts have been focused on the discovery of compounds that selectively modulate the centrally located M1 and M4 mAChR subtypes. Previous drug discovery attempts have been thwarted by the highly conserved nature of the acetylcholine site across mAChR subtypes. However, current efforts by our laboratory and others have now focused on modulators that bind to allosteric sites on mAChRs, allowing these compounds to display unprecedented subtype selectivity. Over the past couple of decades, the discovery of small molecules capable of selectively targeting the M1 or M4 mAChR subtypes has allowed researchers to elucidate the roles of these receptors in regulating cognitive and behavioral disturbances in preclinical animal models. Here, we provide an overview of these promising preclinical and clinical studies, which suggest

  5. Stable expression of human muscle-specific kinase in HEp-2 M4 cells for automatic immunofluorescence diagnostics of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sandra; Paulick, Silvia; Knütter, Ilka; Röber, Nadja; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Küpper, Jan-Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex which is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies causing Myasthenia gravis. While up to 95% of patients with generalized Myasthenia gravis were shown to be positive for acetylcholine receptor-specific autoantibodies, up to 70% of the remaining patients develop autoantibodies against MuSK. Discrimination of the autoantibody specificity is important for therapy of Myasthenia gravis. Recently, the new automatic fluorescence assessment platform AKLIDES has been developed for immunofluorescence-based diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. In order to establish an AKLIDES procedure for the detection of MuSK-specific autoantibodies (anti-MuSK), we developed a recombinant HEp-2 cell clone expressing the human MuSK cDNA. Here we show at the mRNA and protein level that the cell clone HEp-2 M4 stably expresses human MuSK. We provide evidence for a localization of MuSK at the cell membrane. Using cell clone HEp-2 M4 on the AKLIDES system, we investigated 34 patient sera that were previously tested anti-MuSK positive by radioimmunoassay as positive controls. As negative controls, we tested 29 acetylcholine receptor-positive but MuSK-negative patient sera, 30 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient sera and 45 blood donors. HEp-2 M4 cells revealed a high specificity for the detection of MuSK autoantibodies from 25 patient sera assessed by a specific pattern on HEp-2 M4 cells. By using appropriate cell culture additives, the fraction of cells stained positive with anti-MuSK containing sera can be increased from 2-16% to 10-48%, depending on the serum. In conclusion, we provide data showing that the novel recombinant cell line HEp-2 M4 can be used to screen for anti-MuSK with the automatic AKLIDES system.

  6. Stable expression of human muscle-specific kinase in HEp-2 M4 cells for automatic immunofluorescence diagnostics of myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra George

    Full Text Available Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex which is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies causing Myasthenia gravis. While up to 95% of patients with generalized Myasthenia gravis were shown to be positive for acetylcholine receptor-specific autoantibodies, up to 70% of the remaining patients develop autoantibodies against MuSK. Discrimination of the autoantibody specificity is important for therapy of Myasthenia gravis. Recently, the new automatic fluorescence assessment platform AKLIDES has been developed for immunofluorescence-based diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. In order to establish an AKLIDES procedure for the detection of MuSK-specific autoantibodies (anti-MuSK, we developed a recombinant HEp-2 cell clone expressing the human MuSK cDNA. Here we show at the mRNA and protein level that the cell clone HEp-2 M4 stably expresses human MuSK. We provide evidence for a localization of MuSK at the cell membrane. Using cell clone HEp-2 M4 on the AKLIDES system, we investigated 34 patient sera that were previously tested anti-MuSK positive by radioimmunoassay as positive controls. As negative controls, we tested 29 acetylcholine receptor-positive but MuSK-negative patient sera, 30 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patient sera and 45 blood donors. HEp-2 M4 cells revealed a high specificity for the detection of MuSK autoantibodies from 25 patient sera assessed by a specific pattern on HEp-2 M4 cells. By using appropriate cell culture additives, the fraction of cells stained positive with anti-MuSK containing sera can be increased from 2-16% to 10-48%, depending on the serum. In conclusion, we provide data showing that the novel recombinant cell line HEp-2 M4 can be used to screen for anti-MuSK with the automatic AKLIDES system.

  7. The M1/M4 preferring agonist xanomeline is analgesic in rodent models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain via central site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Giovanni; Puma, Carole; Yu, Xiao Hong; Gilbert, Annie-Kim; Coupal, Martin; Markoglou, Nektaria; McIntosh, Fraser S; Perkins, Martin N; Laird, Jennifer M A

    2011-12-01

    The role of muscarinic receptor subtype-1 (M1) in chronic pain is unclear. In an attempt to gain an understanding of its role, we have tested xanomeline, an M1/M4-preferring agonist, together with nonselective (scopolamine and pirenzepine), and selective (MT-7 and MT-3) muscarinic receptor (M1 and M4, respectively) antagonists in a number of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Xanomeline potently and effectively reversed tactile allodynia and heat hyperalgesia associated with established neuropathic and inflammatory pain in both rat and mouse models. Scopolamine and pirenzepine completely blocked the analgesic response to xanomeline, confirming that the analgesic effect is mediated by the muscarinic system. The highly selective M1 receptor toxin, MT-7, almost completely abolished the analgesic response to xanomeline when administered supraspinally. However, the highly selective M4 receptor toxin, MT-3, only marginally reversed the analgesia when given supraspinally, and had no effect when given spinally. In conclusion, the data presented show that the nonselective muscarinic agonist xanomeline is analgesic in models of persistent pain and suggest that the activation of supraspinal M1 receptors, and to a lesser extent supraspinal M4 receptors, contributes to that analgesia. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimates of source parameters of M4.9 Kharsali earthquake using waveform modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ajay; Kumar, Naresh

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the computation of time series of the 22 July 2007 M 4.9 Kharsali earthquake. It occurred close to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) where seismic gap exists. The main shock and 17 aftershocks were located by closely spaced eleven seismograph stations in a network that involved VSAT based real-time seismic monitoring. The largest aftershock of M 3.5 and other aftershocks occurred within a small volume of 4 × 4 km horizontal extent and between depths of 10 and 14 km. The values of seismic moment ( M ∘) determined using P-wave spectra and Brune's model based on f 2 spectral shape ranges from 1018 to 1023 dyne-cm. The initial aftershocks occurred at greater depth compared to the later aftershocks. The time series of ground motion have been computed for recording sites using geometric ray theory and Green's function approach. The method for computing time series consists in integrating the far-field contributions of Green's function for a number of distributed point source. The generated waveforms have been compared with the observed ones. It has been inferred that the Kharsali earthquake occurred due to a northerly dipping low angle thrust fault at a depth of 14 km taking strike N279°E, dip 14° and rake 117°. There are two regions on the fault surface which have larger slip amplitudes (asperities) and the rupture which has been considered as circular in nature initiated from the asperity at a greater depth shifting gradually upwards. The two asperities cover only 10% of the total area of the causative fault plane. However, detailed seismic imaging of these two asperities can be corroborated with structural heterogeneities associated with causative fault to understand how seismogenesis is influenced by strong or weak structural barriers in the region.

  9. DEEP NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4: HUNTING FOR BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieball, A. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn (Germany); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Knigge, C. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Allard, F. [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574: CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Richer, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Zurek, D., E-mail: adieball@astro.uni-bonn.de [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster (GC) M4. The best-photometry NIR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending toward the expected end of the hydrogen-burning limit and going beyond this point toward fainter sources. The white dwarf (WD) sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepest NIR CMD of a GC to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from brown dwarf (BD) candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W ≈ 26.5 mag and F160W ≈ 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W ≈ 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical–NIR CMDs. Thus, any faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential BD candidates, since the optical data are not deep enough to detect them. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources that are fainter than the H-burning limit in F110W and for which the optical photometry did not return a counterpart. We found in total five sources for which we did not get an optical measurement. For four of these five sources, a faint optical counterpart could be visually identified, and an upper optical magnitude was estimated. Based on these upper optical magnitude limits, we conclude that one source is likely a WD, one source could be either a WD or BD candidate, and the remaining two sources agree with being BD candidates. No optical counterpart could be detected for just one source, which makes this source a good BD candidate. We conclude that we found in total four good BD candidates.

  10. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae M-4 strain with self-protection transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Li, Jianlong; Yao, Kai; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Kang; Hu, Xinjie; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Liu, Aiping; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-11-01

    A novel filamentous fungus M-4 strain was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as Aspergillus oryzae (Collection number: CGMCC 11645) on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence. M-4 could degrade 80.62 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L-1) within 5 days. 3-PBA degradation occurred in accordance with first-order kinetics. The degradation metabolites of 3-PBA were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated, which indicated that M-4 could effectively degrade the intermediates of 3-PBA. Base on analysis of these metabolites, a novel biochemical pathway for the degradation of 3-PBA was proposed. There exists a mutual transformation between 3-phenoxy-benzyl alcohol and 3-PBA, which was firstly reported about the degradation of 3-PBA and may be attributed to self-protection transformation of M-4; subsequently, 3-PBA was gradually transformed into phenol, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid. The safety of M-4 was evaluated via an acute toxicity test in vivo. The biodegradation ability of M-4 without toxic effects reveals that this fungus may be likely to be used for eliminating 3-PBA from contaminated environment or fermented foods.

  11. ARIEL: Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey. A proposal for the ESA Cosmic Vision M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Ariel Team

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) is a proposal in response to the call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the IR a large population (hundreds to one thousand) of known planets in our Galaxy, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planet exploration and enabling a quantum leap in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The population of planets will include warm and hot gas‑giants, Neptunes and large terrestrial planets. The main ARIEL goal is the determination of the composition, formation and history of these planetary systems In order to fulfill the scientific goals of ARIEL, we propose the development of a 1‑meter class aperture space telescope, passively cooled to 70‑80K, to observe the combined light of stars and their planets, building on the current experience of transit and combined light observations with Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based telescopes. While JWST and EELT will initiate a detailed mid- to high-resolution IR spectroscopic observation of a few tens of planets, this mission will extend the study to a much larger (an order of magnitude difference) representative population of extrasolar planets discovered by ESA GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, NASA Kepler II, TESS and from the ground. The statistical perspective provided by this mission, will allow us to address some of the fundamental questions of the Cosmic Vision programme: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? ls our Solar System unique, rare or very common? How does the Solar System work?

  12. The ARIEL Instrument Control Unit design - For the M4 Mission Selection Review of the ESA's Cosmic Vision Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, M.; Pace, E.; Farina, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Ferrer, J. Colomé; Ribas, I.; Roig, C. Sierra; Bote, L. Gesa; Morales, J. C.; Amiaux, J.; Cara, C.; Augurés, J. L.; Pascale, E.; Morgante, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Pezzuto, S.; Frericks, M.; Zwart, F.; Bishop, G.; Middleton, K.; Eccleston, P.; Micela, G.; Tinetti, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey mission (ARIEL) (Tinetti et al. 2017) is one of the three present candidates for the ESA M4 (the fourth medium mission) launch opportunity. The proposed Payload (Eccleston et al. 2017; Morgante et al. 2017; Da Deppo et al. 2017) will perform a large unbiased spectroscopic survey from space concerning the nature of exoplanets atmospheres and their interiors to determine the key factors affecting the formation and evolution of planetary systems. ARIEL will observe a large number (> 500) of warm and hot transiting gas giants, Neptunes and super-Earths around a wide range of host star types, targeting planets hotter than 600 K to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres. It will exploit primary and secondary transits spectroscopy in the 1.2 - 8μ m spectral range and broad-band photometry in the optical and Near IR (NIR). The main instrument of the ARIEL Payload is the IR Spectrometer (AIRS) (Amiaux et al. 2017) providing low-resolution spectroscopy in two IR channels: C h a n n e l 0 (C H 0) for the 1.95 - 3.90μ m band and C h a n n e l 1 (C H 1) for the 3.90 - 7.80μ m range. It is located at the intermediate focal plane of the telescope (Da Deppo et al. 2016, 2017, 2017) and common optical system and it hosts two IR sensors and two cold front-end electronics (CFEE) for detectors readout, a well defined process calibrated for the selected target brightness and driven by the Payload's Instrument Control Unit (ICU).

  13. Combination of two epitope identification techniques enables the rational design of soy allergen Gly m 4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Heide; Kern, Karolin; Rautenberger, Paul; Spiegel, Holger; Szardenings, Michael; Ueberham, Elke; Lehmann, Jörg; Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Treudler, Regina; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Detailed IgE-binding epitope analysis is a key requirement for the understanding and development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to address food allergies. An IgE-specific linear peptide microarray with random phage peptide display for the high-resolution mapping of IgE-binding epitopes of the major soybean allergen Gly m 4, which is a homologue to the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is combined. Three epitopes are identified and mapped to a resolution of four key amino acids, allowing the rational design and the production of three Gly m 4 mutants with the aim to abolish or reduce the binding of epitope-specific IgE. In ELISA, the binding of the mutant allergens to polyclonal rabbit-anti Gly m 4 serum as well as IgE purified from Gly m 4-reactive soybean allergy patient sera is reduced by up to 63% compared to the wild-type allergen. Basophil stimulation experiments using RBL-SX38 cells loaded with patient IgE are showed a decreased stimulation from 25% for the wild-type Gly m 4 to 13% for one mutant. The presented approach demonstrates the feasibility of precise mapping of allergy-related IgE-binding epitopes, allowing the rational design of less allergenic mutants as potential therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    AChRs are coexpressed with D(1) dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M(4) mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(4) mAChRs only in D(1) dopamine....... Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance....

  15. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M4O4, M4S4 clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendu Datta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M4X4 nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M4X4 clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2. We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M4O4 clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M4S4 clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  16. M4FT-15OR03100415 - Update on COF-based Adsorbent Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This letter report provides an update on activities focused on generating nanoporous adsorbents involving covalent organic frameworks (COF) and zeolitic imidazolium frameworks (ZIF). The adsorbents have been generated and screened in a uranyl-spiked brine (6 ppm U) to understand uranyl-binding behavior. Porous organic polymers (POP) also qualify under this title and are similar to the COF PPN-6 that is discussed herein. Seven COF/POP and one 1 ZIF were synthesized and screened for uranyl adsorption. Seawater screening is on-going via batch testing while flow screening systems are being developed at PNNL.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAILURES IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS EXPOSED IN AGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT M4 OF FALCON STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alice Olavarrieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educational units, in which planimetric surveys were carried out, the collection of fault symptoms, tests in some structural members and finally a general evaluation of damages that allowed identifying their durability and particular recommendations for each school building. As a result, these units of different construction ages were in a better state of conservation, when compared directly to the sample evaluated in 2006 in private multifamily buildings, which were even younger than this sample. It was recommended for all cases that they apply a programmed and technical continuous maintenance system, which goes beyond the systems of paints whose substrate is not properly prepared, resulting in a process of superficial repair and aesthetic ineffective.

  18. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  19. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Milestones, Models and Mappings for Model-Driven Architecture (3M4MDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Almeida, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the European Workshop on Milestones, Models and Mappings for Model-Driven Architecture (3M4MDA) held on 11 July 2006 in Bilbao, Spain, in conjunction with the European Conference on Model Driven Architecture - Foundations and Applications (ECMDA-FA 2006). The

  20. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  1. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  2. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  3. Milestone Report - M4FT-14OR0312022 - Co-absorption studies - Design system complete/test plan complete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this test plan is to describe research that will determine the effectiveness of silver mordenite and molecular sieve beds to remove iodine and water (tritium) from off-gas streams arising from used nuclear fuel recycling processes, and to demonstrate that the iodine and water can be recovered separately from one another.

  4. Clinical and prognostic significance of eosinophilia and inv(16)/t(16;16) in pediatric acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kim; de Haas, Valérie; Bank, Ingrid E M; Beverloo, H Berna; Zwaan, C Michel; Kaspers, Gertjan L

    2017-10-01

    The cytogenetic aberrations inv(16)(p13.1q22)/t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), frequently detected in acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia (FAB type M4eo), are generally considered a prognostically favorable subgroup. M4eo comprises a distinct morphology compared to M4 without eosinophilia (M4eo-) and therefore may be indicative for a different pathogenesis. Morphology and cytogenetic/molecular analyses of a Dutch cohort of pediatric acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) patients were performed and studied in order to analyze the association between the presence of eosinophilia morphology (M4eo+), inv(16)/t(16;16) (inv(16)+), clinical features, and outcome. Of the 119 included patients with available combined morphological and cytogenetic results, 60% had M4eo- without inv(16) (inv(16)-), 10% had M4eo-/inv(16)+, 13% had M4eo+/inv(16)-, and 17% had M4eo+/inv(16)+. M4eo+ was significantly associated with the presence of inv(16)/t(16;16) (P morphology with eosinophilia probably relies on its association with inv(16)/t(16;16). Simultaneous presence of both eosinophilia and inv(16) was not associated with superior outcome in our study. These results may be relevant for risk-group classification and risk-group adapted treatment and underline the importance of accurate cytogenetic analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. HoloMonitor M4: holographic imaging cytometer for real-time kinetic label-free live-cell analysis of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, Mikael; Egelberg, Peter J.; Langberg, Anders; Lindskov, Jens-Henrik; Alm, Kersti; Janicke, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    Live-cell imaging enables studying dynamic cellular processes that cannot be visualized in fixed-cell assays. An increasing number of scientists in academia and the pharmaceutical industry are choosing live-cell analysis over or in addition to traditional fixed-cell assays. We have developed a time-lapse label-free imaging cytometer HoloMonitorM4. HoloMonitor M4 assists researchers to overcome inherent disadvantages of fluorescent analysis, specifically effects of chemical labels or genetic modifications which can alter cellular behavior. Additionally, label-free analysis is simple and eliminates the costs associated with staining procedures. The underlying technology principle is based on digital off-axis holography. While multiple alternatives exist for this type of analysis, we prioritized our developments to achieve the following: a) All-inclusive system - hardware and sophisticated cytometric analysis software; b) Ease of use enabling utilization of instrumentation by expert- and entrylevel researchers alike; c) Validated quantitative assay end-points tracked over time such as optical path length shift, optical volume and multiple derived imaging parameters; d) Reliable digital autofocus; e) Robust long-term operation in the incubator environment; f) High throughput and walk-away capability; and finally g) Data management suitable for single- and multi-user networks. We provide examples of HoloMonitor applications of label-free cell viability measurements and monitoring of cell cycle phase distribution.

  6. A conserved Cys-loop receptor aspartate residue in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop is required for GABAA receptor assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen-yi; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J; Tang, Xin; Macdonald, Robert L

    2008-10-31

    Members of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, which mediate fast synaptic transmission in the nervous system, are assembled as heteropentamers from a large repertoire of neuronal subunits. Although several motifs in subunit N-terminal domains are known to be important for subunit assembly, increasing evidence points toward a role for C-terminal domains. Using a combination of flow cytometry, patch clamp recording, endoglycosidase H digestion, brefeldin A treatment, and analytic centrifugation, we identified a highly conserved aspartate residue at the boundary of the M3-M4 loop and the M4 domain that was required for binary and ternary gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor surface expression. Mutation of this residue caused mutant and partnering subunits to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, reflecting impaired forward trafficking. Interestingly although mutant and partnering wild type subunits could be coimmunoprecipitated, analytic centrifugation studies demonstrated decreased formation of pentameric receptors, suggesting that this residue played an important role in later steps of subunit oligomerization. We thus conclude that C-terminal motifs are also important determinants of Cys-loop receptor assembly.

  7. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  8. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  9. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  10. The role of exochitinase type A1 in the fungistatic activity of the rhizosphere bacterium Paenibacillus sp. M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankiewicz Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect the activity and characterize potentially fungistatic chitinases synthesized by rhizosphere bacteria identified as Paenibacillus sp. M4. Maximum chitinolytic activity was achieved on the fifth day of culturing bacteria in a growth medium with 1% colloidal chitin. Analysis of a zymogram uncovered the presence of four activity bands in the crude bacterial extract. The used three-stage protein purification procedure resulted in a single band of chitinase activity on the zymogram. The purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.5 and temperature 45oC, and thermal stability at 40oC for 4 h. In terms of substrate specificity, it is an exochitinase (chitobiose. The amino acid sequence obtained after mass spectrometry showed similarity to chitinase A1 synthesized by Bacillus circulans. The M4 isolate demonstrated the highest growth inhibiting activity against plant pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Alternaria. Fungistatic activity, although to a somewhat lesser degree, was also demonstrated by purified chitinase. The obtained results confirm the participation of the studied exochitinase in antagonism towards pathogenic molds. However, the lower fungistatic effectiveness of the chitinases points to the synergistic action of different metabolites in biocontrol by these bacteria.

  11. Observations of the Ultraviolet-bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre; Latour, Marilyn; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the UV-bright star Y453 in M4. Model fits to the star’s optical spectrum yield {T}{eff} ˜ 56,000 K. Fits to the star’s FUV spectrum, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal it to be considerably hotter, with {T}{eff} ˜ 72,000 K. We adopt {T}{eff} = 72,000 ± 2000 K and {log}g = 5.7 ± 0.2 as our best-fit parameters. Scaling the model spectrum to match the star’s optical and near-infrared magnitudes, we derive a mass {M}* =0.53+/- 0.24 {M}⊙ and luminosity {log}L/{L}⊙ =2.84+/- 0.05, consistent with the values expected of an evolved star in a globular cluster. Comparing the star with post-horizontal-branch evolutionary tracks, we conclude that it most likely evolved from the blue horizontal branch, departing the asymptotic giant branch before third dredge-up. It should thus exhibit the abundance pattern (O-poor and Na-rich) characteristic of the second-generation (SG) stars in M4. We derive the star’s photospheric abundances of He, C, N, O, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni. CNO abundances are roughly 0.25 dex greater than those of the cluster’s SG stars, while the Si and S abundances match the cluster values. Abundances of the iron-peak elements (except for iron itself) are enhanced by 1-3 dex. Rather than revealing the star’s origin and evolution, this pattern reflects the combined effects of diffusive and mechanical processes in the stellar atmosphere.

  12. Functional interactions of alcohol-sensitive sites in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor M3 and M4 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Salous, Abdelghaffar K; Paul, Jaclyn M; Lamb, Kaitlin A; Dwyer, Donard S; Peoples, Robert W

    2008-03-28

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is an important mediator of the behavioral effects of ethanol in the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated sites in the third and fourth membrane-associated (M) domains of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit that influence alcohol sensitivity and ion channel gating. We investigated whether two of these sites, Phe-637 in M3 and Met-823 in M4, interactively regulate the ethanol sensitivity of the receptor by testing dual substitution mutants at these positions. A majority of the mutations decreased steady-state glutamate EC(50) values and maximal steady-state to peak current ratios (I(ss)/I(p)), whereas only two mutations altered peak glutamate EC(50) values. Steady-state glutamate EC(50) values were correlated with maximal glutamate I(ss)/I(p) values, suggesting that changes in glutamate potency were attributable to changes in desensitization. In addition, there was a significant interaction between the substituents at positions 637 and 823 with respect to glutamate potency and desensitization. IC(50) values for ethanol among the mutants varied over the approximate range 100-325 mm. The sites in M3 and M4 significantly interacted in regulating ethanol sensitivity, although this was apparently dependent upon the presence of methionine in position 823. Molecular dynamics simulations of the NR2A subunit revealed possible binding sites for ethanol near both positions in the M domains. Consistent with this finding, the sum of the molecular volumes of the substituents at the two positions was not correlated with ethanol IC(50) values. Thus, there is a functional interaction between Phe-637 and Met-823 with respect to glutamate potency, desensitization, and ethanol sensitivity, but the two positions do not appear to form a unitary site of alcohol action.

  13. Spectroscopy and Photometry of Multiple Populations along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Yong, D.; Da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Jerjen, H.; Nardiello, D.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Shetrone, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) of the intermediate-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4). Chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ce in AGB stars from high-resolution FLAMES+UVES@VLT spectra are reported for both clusters. Our spectroscopic results have been combined with multiwavelength photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope UV survey of Galactic GCs and ground-based photometry, as well as proper motions derived by combining stellar positions from ground-based images and Gaia DR1. Our analysis reveals that the AGBs of both clusters host multiple populations with different chemical compositions. In M4, we have identified two main populations of stars with different Na/O content lying on distinct AGBs in the {m}{{F}438{{W}}} versus {C}{{F}275{{W}},{{F}}336{{W}},{{F}}438{{W}}} and the V versus {C}{{U},{{B}},{{I}}} pseudo-color-magnitude diagrams. In the more massive and complex GC NGC 2808, three groups of stars with different chemical abundances occupy different locations on the so-called “chromosome map” photometric diagram constructed for AGB stars. The spectroscopic + photometric comparison of stellar populations along the AGB and the red giants of this GC suggests that the AGB hosts stellar populations with a range in helium abundances from primordial to high contents of Y˜ 0.32. By contrast, from our data set, there is no evidence for stars with extreme helium abundance (Y˜ 0.38) on the AGB, suggesting that the most He-rich stars of NGC 2808 do not reach this phase. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 093.D-0789 and 094.D-0455 and on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. The M 4 Core Project with HST - V. Characterizing the PSFs of WFC3/UVIS by focus★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the astrometric Hubble Space Telescope (HST) large program GO-12911, we conduct an in-depth study to characterize the point spread function (PSF) of the Uv-VISual channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), as a necessary step to achieve the astrometric goals of the program. We extracted a PSF from each of the 589 deep exposures taken through the F467M filter over the course of a year and find that the vast majority of the PSFs lie along a 1-D locus that stretches continuously from one side of focus, through optimal focus, to the other side of focus. We constructed a focus-diverse set of PSFs and find that with only five medium-bright stars in an exposure it is possible to pin down the focus level of that exposure. We show that the focus-optimized PSF does a considerably better job fitting stars than the average 'library' PSF, especially when the PSF is out of focus. The fluxes and positions are significantly improved over the 'library' PSF treatment. These results are beneficial for a much broader range of scientific applications than simply the program at hand, but the immediate use of these PSFs will enable us to search for astrometric wobble in the bright stars in the core of the globular cluster M 4, which would indicate a dark, high-mass companion, such as a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole.

  15. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  16. Regulation of M2, M3, and M4 muscarinic receptor expression in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells by carbachol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabadak, Hulya; Aydin, Banu; Kan, Beki

    2011-02-01

    Muscarinic receptors mediate a variety of cellular responses to acetylcholine, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositide and modulation of ion channels. These receptors are relatively abundant in the central nervous system and peripheral parasympathetic nervous system. Many cells express a mixture of muscarinic receptor transcripts. Changes in muscarinic M(2) and M(3) receptor mRNA levels in response to agonist treatment have been reported in cerebellar granule cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, lymphocytes and in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. In this study, we investigated the effects of agonist stimulation on cell proliferation and on the levels of muscarinic receptor expression in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Total RNA and crude membrane fractions were prepared from K562 cells challenged with carbachol (CCh). Muscarinic receptor subtype expression was determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Proliferation and cell viability were evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and BrDU labeling. We showed that CCh-treatment leads to changes in muscarinic M(2), M(3), and M(4) receptor transcripts as well as M(2) and M(3) protein levels. We also found that CCh decreased proliferation of K562 cells in a time dependent manner, an effect prevented by atropine. These results suggest that CCh modulates K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells proliferation through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

  17. Comprehensive photometric study of an extremely low mass ratio deep contact binary in the globular cluster M 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Difu

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive photometric study and an investigation of the orbital period variation of V53 in the globular cluster M 4 are presented. The photometric study reveals that the mass ratio and the contact degree of V53 are q ˜ 0.078 and f ˜ 69%, respectively. The observed variation in the light curve can be explained by adjusting the spot parameters. V53 belongs to extreme mass ratio (q ≤ 0.25), deep contact (f ≥ 50%) binaries, and its mass ratio is close to the minimum mass ratio predicted by theoretical studies, making it a potential object for studying the evolution of binaries and the formation of blue stragglers and FK Com-type stars. The orbital period of V53 shows a long-term decrease at a rate of dp/dt = 5.89(±0.02) × 10-8 d yr-1. This secular period decrease may be caused by the combination of mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive component and an angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. As this mass transfer and angular momentum loss continues, V53 will ultimately evolve into a single fast-rotation star. By studying the statistics of all the contact binaries in globular clusters that have been analyzed, we found a possible correlation between the contact degree and whether or not a contact binary is a blue straggler. A contact binary is likely to become a blue straggler when its fill-out factor is more than 46.25(±2.05)%. More samples should be introduced to confirm this preliminary result in the future.

  18. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-01-01

    Muscarinic M1/M4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (SD) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those...... effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1-/-, M2-/-, M4-/-), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice...... with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M1/M4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the SD effect of cocaine, while M2-preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the SD effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M1...

  19. M4FT-16LL080303052-State of Knowledge for Colloid Facilitated Radionuclide Transport and Update on Actinide Diffusion in Bentonite Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080303052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number FT-16LL080303051 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number FT-16LL080303061. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion. The colloid-facilitated transport effort focused on preparation of a draft manuscript summarizing the state of knowledge and parameterization of colloid-facilitated transport mechanisms in support of reactive transport and performance assessment models for generic crystalline repositories. This draft manuscript is being submitted as a level 3 milestone with LANL as the primary author. LLNL’s contribution to that effort is summarized only briefly in the present report. A manuscript summarizing long-term U(VI) diffusion experiments through bentonite backfill material was recently accepted for publication; the contents of that manuscript are summarized in the present report. The Np(IV) diffusion experiments were started mid-year and are ongoing. The completion of these experiments is planned for early FY17. Our progress in quantifying Np(IV) diffusion in bentonite backfill is summarized in the present report. Our involvement with the NEA TDB project was summarized in a recent Argillite Disposal activity report. It is not included in this report.

  20. Pathogen-induced binding of the soybean zinc finger homeodomain proteins GmZF-HD1 and GmZF-HD2 to two repeats of ATTA homeodomain binding site in the calmodulin isoform 4 (GmCaM4) promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Man Lyang; Lee, Sang Min; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lim, Chae Oh; Hong, Jong Chan; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je; Chung, Woo Sik

    2007-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is involved in defense responses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max), transcription of calmodulin isoform 4 (GmCaM4) is rapidly induced within 30 min after pathogen stimulation, but regulation of the GmCaM4 gene in response to pathogen is poorly understood. Here, we used the yeast one-hybrid system to isolate two cDNA clones encoding proteins that bind to a 30-nt A/T-rich sequence in the GmCaM4 promoter, a region that contains two repeats of a conserved homeodomain binding si...

  1. Allergen chip diagnosis for soy-allergic patients: Gly m 4 as a marker for severe food-allergic reactions to soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneder, M; Bublin, M; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Hawranek, T; Lang, R

    2013-01-01

    Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 are known to induce severe reactions in soy-allergic patients. For birch pollen (BP)-allergic patients, the Bet v 1 homologous allergen Gly m 4 is also a potential trigger of generalized severe reactions upon soy consumption. Therefore, reliable component-resolved diagnosis of soy allergy is needed. IgE reactivity from sera of 20 patients from a BP environment with reported soy allergy was assessed. Skin prick tests (SPT) with BP and soy drink were performed. Specific IgE for BP, soy, Bet v 1 and Gly m 4 was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. In addition, ISAC microarray profiling was performed. Nineteen of 20 patients were BP allergic (positive SPT and/or CAP results for BP extract and Bet v 1). Eighteen soy-allergic patients were tested positive with soy drink in SPT. Soy CAP results were negative in the majority of tests (15/20), whereas 19/20 sera had specific IgE to Gly m 4. In the microarray approach, 14/20 sera displayed Gly m 4-specific IgE, the additional 6 sera had IgE levels below 0.3 ISAC standardized units. The BP-negative serum had Gly m 5- and Gly m 6-specific IgE which correlated with positive soy ImmunoCAP. Soy sensitization detected by SPT and Gly m 4 ImmunoCAP were in good qualitative agreement with ISAC results. Soy ImmunoCAP was only specific for Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 sensitization. Gly m 4 ImmunoCAP has a higher sensitivity than ImmunoCAP ISAC. In this patient cohort, Gly m 4 sensitization was linked to the development of severe and generalized allergic reactions upon soy consumption. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Inhibitory effect of protopanaxatriol ginseng metabolite M4 on the production of corticosteroids in ACTH-stimulated bovine adrenal fasciculata cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Eri; Nakagawa, Saori; Miyate, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Katsuo; Ohta, Shin; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Yamato, Susumu

    2013-04-09

    We investigated the pharmacological effects of saponins isolated from ginseng root and their metabolites, which occur by hydrolysis of the sugar moieties connecting the aglycone of saponins in the digestive tract, on the production of corticosteroids in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells in vitro. The levels of corticosteroids produced from adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated bovine adrenal fasciculata cells were determined under the presence or absence of ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) and their metabolites using fluorometry, gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. An end metabolite of the protopanaxatriol saponins in ginseng, 20(s)-protopanaxatriol (M4), strongly reduced ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. M4 significantly inhibited the production of cortisol induced by different stimuli, alamethicin, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, a membrane-permeable cholesterol. However, it did not affect the production of cortisol by either pregnenolone, a precursor of cortisol synthesis, or cyclic AMP. Furthermore, M4 significantly inhibited the production of pregnenolone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. Results strongly suggest that protopanaxatriol saponins in ginseng are prodrugs metabolized in the digestive tract so that the end metabolite, M4, produces inhibitory activity of corticosteroid production in the adrenal fasciculata cells in vivo. The results also suggest that M4 inhibits the conversion from cholesterol to pregnenolone because the production of pregnenolone was reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Stimulating muscarinic M1/M4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether stimulating M1 and/or M4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine...... extinction from 17.2 sessions to 8.3 using xanomeline or 7.8 using VU0357017 + VU0152100. VU0357017 alone and VU0152100 alone did not significantly modify rates of extinction (12.6 and 14.6 sessions). The effect of xanomeline was fully preserved when administered delayed after or unpaired from extinction...... sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that M1/M4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests...

  4. Plot of the distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data. The estimated background, as well as the expected SM Higgs boson signal for mH = 124.3 GeV (scaled by the signal strength obtained from fits to the data), are also shown. The single-resonant peak at m4l ∼ 90 GeV includes contribu- tions from s-channel Z/γ∗ and t-channel (Z∗/γ∗)(Z∗/γ∗) production.

  5. Mechanistic studies on the reactions of PhS(-) or [MoS(4)](2)(-) with [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) (M = Fe or Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhen; Henderson, Richard A

    2002-08-12

    Kinetic studies, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry, on the reactions of [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) (M = Fe or Co) with PhS(-) to form [M(SPh)(4)](2)(-) are described, as are the reactions between [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) and [MoS(4)](2)(-) to form [S(2)MoS(2)Fe(SPh)(2)](2)(-) or [S(2)MoS(2)CoS(2)MoS(2)](2)(-). The kinetics of the reactions with PhS(-) are consistent with an initial associative substitution mechanism involving attack of PhS(-) at one of the tetrahedral M sites of [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) to form [M(4)(SPh)(11)](3)(-). Subsequent or concomitant cleavage of a micro-SPh ligand, at the same M, initiates a cascade of rapid reactions which result ultimately in the complete rupture of the cluster and formation of [M(SPh)(4)](2)(-). The kinetics of the reaction between [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) and [MoS(4)](2)(-) indicate an initial dissociative substitution mechanism at low concentrations of [MoS(4)](2)(-), in which rate-limiting dissociation of a terminal thiolate from [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-) produces [M(4)(SPh)(9)](-) and the coordinatively unsaturated M site is rapidly attacked by a sulfido group of [MoS(4)](2)(-). It is proposed that subsequent chelation of the MoS(4) ligand results in cleavage of an M-micro-SPh bond, initiating a cascade of reactions which lead to the ultimate break-up of the cluster and formation of the products, [S(2)MoS(2)Fe(SPh)(2)](2)(-) or [S(2)MoS(2)CoS(2)MoS(2)](2)(-). With [Co(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-), at higher concentrations of [MoS(4)](2)(-), a further substitution pathway is evident which exhibits a second order dependence on the concentration of [MoS(4)](2)(-). The mechanistic picture of cluster disruption which emerges from these studies rationalizes the "all or nothing" reactivity of [M(4)(SPh)(10)](2)(-).

  6. Synthesis and oxidation by xanthine oxidase from arthrobacter M-4 of 6-aryl-4(3H)-pteridinones and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, De J.W.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis xanthine oxidase from Arthrobacter M-4 in the form of a cell-free extract or as immobilized cells has been studied with regard to its application In preparative organic chemistry. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity towards azaheterocycles as

  7. QTL list: fnV-M.4 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT96553 Fragaria x ananassa Rosaceae fnV-M.4 Fruit number Fruit number per plant, ...evaluated by counting all harvested fruits and dividing by the number of plants 6 ... 8.53 3.44 ... 10.1007/s00122-011-1624-6 21667037

  8. QTL list: fnII-M.4 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT96557 Fragaria x ananassa Rosaceae fnII-M.4 Fruit number Fruit number per plant,... evaluated by counting all harvested fruits and dividing by the number of plants 6 ... 18.49 3.05 ... 10.1007/s00122-011-1624-6 21667037

  9. The muscarinic receptor antagonist tropicamide suppresses tremulous jaw movements in a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor: possible role of M4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Adrienne J; McLaughlin, Peter J; Burgos, Melissa; Weber, Suzanne M; Salamone, John D

    2007-10-01

    Nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine antagonists have been used for several years as antiparkinsonian drugs. However, there are at least five subtypes of muscarinic receptor (M1-5). Neostriatal M4 receptors have been implicated in aspects of motor function, and it has been suggested that M4 antagonists could be used as treatments for parkinsonism. Currently, there is a lack of highly selective M4 antagonists that readily penetrate the blood brain barrier. Thus, the present studies focused upon the effects of tropicamide, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist with moderate binding selectivity for the M4 receptor subtype. Tremulous jaw movements were used as a model of parkinsonian tremor in these studies, and the effects of tropicamide were compared with those of the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine. Tropicamide suppressed the tremulous jaw movements induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the dopamine antagonist pimozide. Analysis of the dose-response curves indicated that tropicamide showed approximately the same potency as atropine for suppression of pilocarpine-induced jaw movements but was more potent than atropine on the suppression of pimozide-induced jaw movements. In contrast, atropine was more potent than tropicamide in terms of impairing performance on visual stimulus detection and delayed nonmatch-to-position tasks. These studies demonstrate that tropicamide, which currently is used clinically for ophthalmic purposes, can exert actions that are consistent with antiparkinsonian effects. Moreover, the different pattern of effects shown by tropicamide compared to those of atropine on motor vs cognitive tasks could be due to the modest M4 selectivity shown by tropicamide.

  10. Medical Student Performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination and the National Emergency Medicine M4 Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; House, Joseph; Lawson, Luan; Poznanski, Stacey; Morrissey, Thomas K

    2015-11-01

    In April 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released an Advanced Clinical Examination (ACE) in emergency medicine (EM). In addition to this new resource, CDEM (Clerkship Directors in EM) provides two online, high-quality, internally validated examinations. National usage statistics are available for all three examinations, however, it is currently unknown how students entering an EM residency perform as compared to the entire national cohort. This information may help educators interpret examination scores of both EM-bound and non-EM-bound students. The objective of this study was to compare EM clerkship examination performance between students who matched into an EM residency in 2014 to students who did not. We made comparisons were made using the EM-ACE and both versions of the National fourth year medical student (M4) EM examinations. In this retrospective multi-institutional cohort study, the EM-ACE and either Version 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the National EM M4 examination was given to students taking a fourth-year EM rotation at five institutions between April 2013 to February 2014. We collected examination performance, including the scaled EM-ACE score, and percent correct on the EM M4 exams, and 2014 NRMP Match status. Student t-tests were performed on the examination averages of students who matched in EM as compared with those who did not. A total of 606 students from five different institutions took both the EM-ACE and one of the EM M4 exams; 94 (15.5%) students matched in EM in the 2014 Match. The mean score for EM-bound students on the EM-ACE, V1 and V2 of the EM M4 exams were 70.9 (n=47, SD=9.0), 84.4 (n=36, SD=5.2), and 83.3 (n=11, SD=6.9), respectively. Mean scores for non-EM-bound students were 68.0 (n=256, SD=9.7), 82.9 (n=243, SD=6.5), and 74.5 (n=13, SD=5.9). There was a significant difference in mean scores in EM-bound and non-EM-bound student for the EM-ACE (p=0.05) and V2 (p<0.01) but not V1 (p=0.18) of the National EM M4

  11. Co-Metabolic Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid by Co-Culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiayuan; Chi, Yuanlong; Xu, Yingchao; Jia, Dongying; Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The degradation efficiency of organic contaminants and their associated metabolites by co-culture of microbes is mainly limited by toxic intermediates from co-metabolic degradation. In this study, we investigated the degradation of β-cypermethrin (β-CY) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) by co-culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4, as well as the influences of β-CY and 3-PBA metabolites on their degradation and the growth of strains B-1 and M-4. Our results indicated that 100 mg/L β-CY was degraded by 78.85%, and 3-PBA concentration was 0.05 mg/L after 72 h. Compared with using only strain B-1, the half-life (t1/2) of β-CY by using the two strains together was shortened from 84.53 h to 38.54 h, and the yield coefficient of 3-PBA was decreased from 0.846 to 0.001. At 100 mg/L of 3-PBA and gallic acid, β-CY and 3-PBA degradation were only 17.68% and 40.45%, respectively. As the toxic intermediate derived from co-metabolic degradation of β-CY by strain B-1, 3-PBA was efficiently degraded by strain M-4, and gallic acid, as the toxic intermediate from co-metabolic degradation of 3-PBA by strain M-4, was efficiently degraded by strain B-1. These results provided a promising approach for efficient biodegradation of β-CY and 3-PBA.

  12. Diabetic neuropathy enhances voltage-activated Ca2+ channel activity and its control by M4 muscarinic receptors in primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xue-Hong; Byun, Hee Sun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2011-11-01

    Painful neuropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes and remains difficult to treat. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists have a profound analgesic effect on painful diabetic neuropathy. Here we determined changes in T-type and high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs) and their regulation by mAChRs in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. The HVACC currents in large neurons, T-type currents in medium and large neurons, the percentage of small DRG neurons with T-type currents, and the Cav3.2 mRNA level were significantly increased in diabetic rats compared with those in control rats. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M significantly inhibited HVACCs in a greater proportion of DRG neurons with and without T-type currents in diabetic than in control rats. In contrast, oxotremorine-M had no effect on HVACCs in small and large neurons with T-type currents and in most medium neurons with T-type currents from control rats. The M(2) and M(4) antagonist himbacine abolished the effect of oxotremorine-M on HVACCs in both groups. The selective M(4) antagonist muscarinic toxin-3 caused a greater attenuation of the effect of oxotremorine-M on HVACCs in small and medium DRG neurons in diabetic than in control rats. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of M(4), but not M(2), in the DRG were significantly greater in diabetic than in control rats. Our findings suggest that diabetic neuropathy potentiates the activity of T-type and HVACCs in primary sensory neurons. M(4) mAChRs are up-regulated in DRG neurons and probably account for increased muscarinic analgesic effects in diabetic neuropathic pain. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Response to treatment with interferon-alfa in patients with chronic hepatitis C and high titers of -M2, -M4 and -M8 antimitochondrial antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Palma, G; Sánchez Cuenca, J M; Olaso, V; Pina, R; Urquijo, J J; López Viedma, B; Bustamante, M; Berenguer, M; Berenguer, J

    1999-03-01

    The prevalence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in chronic hepatitis C is 2%; titers of AMA are usually low ( 1:160). to undertake a preliminary analysis of the submitochondrial profile of AMA in three patients with chronic hepatitis C and positive AMA titers (> 1:160). we determined antibodies to submitochondrial particles (subtypes) -M2, -M4 and -M8 by ELISA, complement binding (CB) and western immunoblotting with Immunoblot-M2 or WIB-M2 (immunoreactive bands). two patients were positive for mitochondrial subtypes by ELISA (IgG/IgM subclass) and CB (ELISA M2 470/365 in patient 1 and 600/1370 in patient 2; M4 490/1200 in patient 2. CB M2 1:128, M4 1:64, M8 1:64 in patient 1, M2 1:128 in patient 2). Immunoreactive epitopes (bands) were detected with WIB-M2 for 70, 56, 51, 45 and 36-kDa molecules. Interferon-alfa treatment was unsuccessful, with biochemical exacerbation of cholestasis. In contrast, the patient with no submitochondrial particles according to ELISA, CB and WIB-M2 results responded favorable to this drug. these preliminary results suggest that analyses to detect antibodies to submitochondrial particles (-M2, -M4 and -M8 subtypes) and -M2-immunoreactive epitopes in patients with chronic hepatitis C and AMA titers > 1:160 facilitates the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis, and establishes a contraindication for treatment with interferon-alfa despite the presence of HCV infection.

  14. Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96 isolated from maize (Zea mays) rhizoplane increases growth and auxin content in Arabidopsis thaliana via emission of volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Paola; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Altamirano-Hernández, Josué; Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; López-Bucio, José; García-Juárez, Perla; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2017-11-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria stimulate plant growth and development via different mechanisms. In this study, we characterized the effect of volatiles from Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96 isolated from the maize rhizosphere on root and shoot development, and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytostimulation occurred after 4 days of interaction between M4-96 and Arabidopsis grown on opposite sides of divided Petri plates, as revealed by enhanced primary root growth, root branching, leaf formation, and shoot biomass accumulation. Analysis of indole-3-acetic acid content revealed two- and threefold higher accumulation in the shoot and root of bacterized seedlings, respectively, compared to uninoculated plants, which was correlated with increased expression of the auxin response marker DR5::GUS. The auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited primary root growth and lateral root formation in axenically grown seedlings and antagonized the plant growth-promoting effects of M4-96. Analysis of bacterial volatile compounds revealed the presence of four classes of compounds, including ten ketones, eight alcohols, one aldehyde, and two hydrocarbons. However, the abundance of ketones and alcohols represented 88.73 and 8.05%, respectively, of all airborne signals detected, with acetoin being the main compound produced. Application of acetoin had a different effect from application of volatiles, suggesting that either the entire pool or acetoin acting in concert with another unidentified compound underlies the strong phytostimulatory response. Taken together, our results show that B. methylotrophicus M4-96 generates bioactive volatiles that increase the active auxin pool of plants, stimulate the growth and formation of new organs, and reprogram root morphogenesis.

  15. K1M4 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  16. Knockouts reveal overlapping functions of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors and evidence for a local glutamatergic circuit within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Wess, Jürgen; Bickford, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and peduncolopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei regulate reward, arousal, and sensory gating via major projections to midbrain dopamine regions, the thalamus, and pontine targets. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on LDT neurons produce a membrane hyperpolarization and inhibit spike-evoked Ca2+ transients. Pharmacological studies suggest M2 mAChRs are involved, but the role of these and other localized mAChRs (M1--M4) has not been definitively tested. To identify the underlying receptors and to circumvent the limited receptor selectivity of available mAChR ligands, we used light- and electron-immunomicroscopy and whole cell recording with Ca2+ imaging in brain slices from knockout mice constitutively lacking either M2, M4, or both mAChRs. Immunomicroscopy findings support a role for M2 mAChRs, since cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and pedunculopontine tegmental neurons contain M2-specific immunoreactivity. However, whole cell recording revealed that the presence of either M2 or M4 mAChRs was sufficient, and that the presence of at least one of these receptors was required for these carbachol actions. Moreover, in the absence of M2 and M4 mAChRs, carbachol elicited both direct excitation and barrages of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs) in cholinergic LDT neurons mediated by M1 and/or M3 mAChRs. Focal carbachol application to surgically reduced slices suggest that local glutamatergic neurons are a source of these sEPSPs. Finally, neither direct nor indirect excitation were knockout artifacts, since each was detected in wild-type slices, although sEPSP barrages were delayed, suggesting M2 and M4 receptors normally delay excitation of glutamatergic inputs. Collectively, our findings indicate that multiple mAChRs coordinate cholinergic outflow from the LDT in an unexpectedly complex manner. An intriguing possibility is that a local circuit transforms LDT muscarinic inputs from a

  17. The clinical performance of the M4 decision support model to triage women with a pregnancy of unknown location as at low or high risk of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdiwala, S; Guha, S; Van Calster, B; Ayim, F; Mitchell-Jones, N; Al-Memar, M; Mitchell, H; Stalder, C; Bottomley, C; Kothari, A; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2016-07-01

    What are the adverse outcomes associated with using the M4 model in everyday clinical practice for women with pregnancy of unknown location (PUL)? There were 17/835 (2.0%) adverse events and no serious adverse events associated with the performance of the M4 model in clinical practice. The M4 model has previously been shown to stratify women classified as a PUL as at low or high risk of complications with a good level of test performance. The triage performance of the M4 model is better than single measurements of serum progesterone or the hCG ratio (serum hCG at 48 h/hCG at presentation). A prospective multi-centre cohort study of 1022 women with a PUL carried out between August 2012 and December 2013 across 2 university teaching hospitals and 1 district general hospital. All women presenting with a PUL to the early pregnancy units of the three hospitals were recruited. The final outcome for PUL was either a failed PUL (FPUL), intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) or ectopic pregnancy (EP) (including persistent PUL (PPUL)), with EP and PPUL considered high-risk PUL. Their hCG results at 0 and 48 h were entered into the M4 model algorithm. If the risk of EP was ≥5%, the PUL was predicted to be high-risk and the participant was asked to re-attend 48 h later for a repeat hCG and transvaginal ultrasound scan by a senior clinician. If the PUL was classified as 'low risk, likely failed PUL', the participant was asked to perform a urinary pregnancy test 2 weeks later. If the PUL was classified as 'low risk, likely intrauterine', the participant was scheduled for a repeat scan in 1 week. Deviations from the management protocol were recorded as either an 'unscheduled visit (participant reason)', 'unscheduled visit (clinician reason)' or 'differences in timing (blood test/ultrasound)'. Adverse events were assessed using definitions outlined in the UK Good Clinical Practice Guidelines' document. A total of 835 (82%) women classified as a PUL were managed according to the M4 model

  18. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the δM4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Nunez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the δM4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462-463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the δM4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the δM4 TMD.

  19. Large capacity multi-float configurations for the wave energy converter M4 using a time-domain linear diffraction model

    OpenAIRE

    Stansby, Peter; Carpintero Moreno, Efrain; Stallard, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The moored three-float line absorber WEC M4 has been developed to optimise power capture through experiments and linear diffraction modelling. With the progression down wave from small to medium to large floats, the device heads naturally into the wave direction. The bow and mid floats are rigidly connected by a beam and a beam from the stern float is connected to the hinge point above the mid float for power take off (PTO). Increasing the bow to mid float spacing to be more than 50% greater ...

  20. Milestone Report - M4FT-17OR030107025 - Design of a tritium and iodine removal system for use with advanced TPOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    US regulations will require the removal of iodine and tritium, along with other volatile and semi-volatile radionuclides, from the off-gas streams of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Advanced tritium pretreatment (TPT) is an additional head-end operation that could be incorporated within nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. It utilizes nitrogen dioxide (NOR2R) as an oxidant to convert UOR2R to UR3ROR8R prior to traditional aqueous dissolution. Advanced TPT can result in the quantitative volatilization of both tritium and iodine. Up-front removal of iodine is of significant advantage because otherwise it distributes to several unit operations and the associated off-gas streams. The off-gas streams will then require treatment to comply with US regulations. Advanced TPT is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and a kilogram-scale hot cell demonstration with used nuclear fuel (UNF) is planned for fiscal year (FY) 2018.

  1. Growth phase-dependent proteomes of the Malaysian isolated Lactococcus lactis dairy strain M4 using label-free qualitative shotgun proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.

  2. Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan Chen Yap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.

  3. Geometrical Structures of Partially Oxidized Rhodium Cluster Cations, Rh6Om(+) (m = 4, 5, 6), Revealed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Nagata, Toshiaki; Kudoh, Satoshi; Miyajima, Ken; Huitema, Douwe M M; Chernyy, Valeriy; Bakker, Joost M; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2016-11-03

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of Rh6Om(+) (m = 4-10) are obtained in the 300-1000 cm(-1) spectral range using the free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX) via dissociation of Rh6Om(+) or Rh6Om(+)-Ar complexes. The spectra are compared with the calculated spectra of several stable geometries obtained by density functional theory (DFT) structural optimization. The spectrum for Rh6O4(+) shows prominent bands at 620 and 690 cm(-1) and is assigned to a capped-square pyramidal Rh atom geometry with three bridging O atoms and one O atom in a hollow site. Rh6O5(+) displays bands at 460, 630, 690, and 860 cm(-1) and has a prismatic Rh geometry with three bridging O atoms and two O atoms in a hollow site. Rh6O6(+) shows three intense bands around 600-750 cm(-1) and multiple weak bands in the range of 350-550 cm(-1). This species has a prismatic Rh geometry with four bridging O atoms and two O atoms in a hollow site. Considering that Rh6Om(+) (m ≤ 3) adopts tetragonal bipyramidal Rh6 structures, the change at m = 4 to capped bipyramidal and at m = 5 to prismatic geometries results in a reduction of the number of triangular hollow sites. Since NO preferentially binds on a triangular hollow site through the N atom, the geometry change lowers the possibility of NO dissociative adsorption.

  4. An alanine residue in the M3-M4 linker lines the glycine binding pocket of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M W; VanDongen, H M; VanDongen, A M

    1997-02-07

    While attempting to map a central region in the M3-M4 linker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit, we found that mutation of a single position, Ala-714, greatly reduced the apparent affinity for glycine. Proximal N-glycosylation localized this region to the extracellular space. Glycine affinities of additional Ala-714 mutations correlated with side chain volume. Substitution of alanine 714 with cysteine did not alter glycine sensitivity, although this mutant was rapidly inhibited by dithionitrobenzoate. Glycine protected the A714C mutant from modification by dithionitrobenzoate, whereas the co-agonist L-glutamate was ineffective. These experiments place Ala-714 in the glycine binding pocket of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, a determination not predicted by previous structural models based on bacterial periplasmic binding protein homology.

  5. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute and chronic effects of the M1/M4-preferring muscarinic agonist xanomeline on cocaine vs. food choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fulton, Brian S; Caine, S Barak

    2014-02-01

    We previously showed that the M1/M4-preferring muscarinic agonist xanomeline can acutely attenuate or eliminate cocaine self-administration in mice. Medications used to treat addictions will arguably be administered in (sub)chronic or repeated regimens. Tests of acute effects often fail to predict chronic effects, highlighting the need for chronic testing of candidate medications. Rats were trained to lever press under a concurrent FR5 FR5 schedule of intravenous cocaine and food reinforcement. Once baseline behavior stabilized, the effects of 7 days once-daily injections of xanomeline were evaluated. Xanomeline pretreatment dose-dependently (1.8-10 mg/kg/day) shifted the dose-effect curve for cocaine rightward (up to 5.6-fold increase in A 50), with reallocation of behavior to the food-reinforced lever. There was no indication of tolerance, rather effects grew over days. The suppression of cocaine choice appeared surmountable at high cocaine doses, and xanomeline treatment did not significantly decrease total-session cocaine or food intake. In terms of xanomeline's potential for promoting abstinence from cocaine in humans, the findings were mixed. Xanomeline did produce reallocation of behavior from cocaine to food with a robust increase in food reinforcers earned at some cocaine/xanomeline dose combinations. However, effects appeared surmountable, and food-maintained behavior was also decreased at some xanomeline/cocaine dose combinations, suggesting clinical usefulness may be limited. These data nevertheless support the notion that chronic muscarinic receptor stimulation can reduce cocaine self-administration. Future studies should show whether ligands with higher selectivity for M1 or M1/M4 subtypes would be less limited by undesired effects and can achieve higher efficacy.

  7. Overall trends vs. individual trajectories in the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) and metacarpal (2M:4M) ratios during puberty and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, Miroslav; Ingrová, Pavlína; Kozieł, Sławomir; Hupková, Adela; Klíma, Ondřej

    2017-04-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio) can be assumed a valid indicator of sexual differentiation, provided that it is stable once it develops, or eventual changes remain uniform in a respective cohort throughout ontogenesis. The main goal of this study was to determine whether the metacarpal 2M:4M and the digit 2D:4D ratio change during the period of pubertal/adolescent growth. The metacarpals and digits were measured on radiographs of left hands in the sample of 328 individuals (96 pairs of male and 68 pairs of female twins) from the Wrocław Longitudinal Study of Twins (1967-1983). Five consecutive annual measurements were done for each individual within a 4-year-interval somewhere between 7 and 18 years of age. Age-related changes in both ratios were studied using a set of mixed-effects linear models. Three types of correlation coefficients were used for assessment of stability between repeated measurements at different ages. An overall decrease in the average 2M:4M ratio was observed, attributable to a much larger extent to males than to females. On the contrary, a slight overall increase in the average 2D:4D ratio was observed, attributable to a much larger extent to females than to males. The rank order of the ratios remained highly stable within the monitored period (the correlation coefficient mostly ranged between 0.85 and 0.95). In spite of these findings, we recorded significant intraindividual changes in both ratios. In some individuals the 2D:4D ratio can undergo changes comparable to average sex differences and much higher than average age-related changes. Relatively slight overall changes in digit ratio in puberty and adolescence themselves are not inconsistent with the use of the 2D:4D ratio as an indirect marker of prenatal sexual differentiation. Nevertheless, individual changes in the ratios varied substantially in this study and differed from the average trends. Future studies should focus on the nature of interindividual developmental

  8. A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

    1987-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family.

  9. Contribution of Proton Capture Reactions to the Ascertained Abundance of Fluorine in the Evolved Stars of Globular Cluster M4, M22, 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, H. L.; Duorah, K.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of the abundance pattern and also the (anti)correlation present among the elements found in stars of globular clusters (GCs) remains unimproved until date. The proton-capture reactions are presently recognised in concert of the necessary candidates for that sort of observed behaviour in the second generation stars. We tend to propose a reaction network of a nuclear cycle namely carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine (CNOF) at evolved stellar condition since fluorine (^{19}F) is one such element which gets plagued by proton capture reactions. The stellar temperature thought about here ranges from 2× 107 to 10× 107 K and there has been an accretion occuring, with material density being 102 g/cm3 and 103 g/cm3. Such kind of temperature density conditions are probably going to be prevailing within the H-burning shell of evolved stars. The estimated abundances of ^{19}F are then matched with the info that has been determined for a few some metal-poor giants of GC M4, M22, 47 Tuc as well as NGC 6397. As far as the comparison between the observed and calculated abundances is concerned, it is found that the abundance of ^{19}F have shown an excellent agreement with the observed abundances with a correlation coefficent above 0.9, supporting the incidence of that nuclear cycle at the adopted temperature density conditions.

  10. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071: International Collaboration - Radionuclide Interactions and Transport in Geologic Repository Environments - Pu Interaction with Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begg, J D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zavarin, M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    The focus of this project is to investigate radionuclide interactions with natural and engineered materials, specifically the mineral bentonite that will be used in EU repositories and possibly in US high-level waste repository designs. These experiments are designed to develop a mechanistic understanding of Pu interactions with representative mineral substrates under granitic chemical conditions. The sorption/desorption experiments cover a large range of Pu concentrations and will be compared to sorption/desorption experiment with montmorillonite. The experiments are being coordinated with the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) international project led by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and located at the Grimsel Test Site underground research laboratory in Switzerland. Experiments will be completed by 8/15/2014. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071 is a progress report on this effort. The research is addressing the following FEPs/needs identified in the R&D Roadmap: 2.2.09.05 - radionuclide speciation and solubility in host rock; 2.2.09.55 - sorption of dissolved radionuclides in host rock; 2.2.09.59 - colloidal transport in host rock.

  11. The Multiple Continuum Components in the White-Light Flare of 16 January 2009 on the dM4.5e Star YZ CMi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, A. F.; Hawley, S. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Hilton, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The white light during M dwarf flares has long been known to exhibit the broadband shape of a T≈10 000 K blackbody, and the white light in solar-flares is thought to arise primarily from hydrogen recombination. Yet, a current lack of broad-wavelength coverage solar flare spectra in the optical/near-UV region prohibits a direct comparison of the continuum properties to determine if they are indeed so different. New spectroscopic observations of a secondary flare during the decay of a megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi have revealed multiple components in the white-light continuum of stellar flares, including both a blackbody-like spectrum and a hydrogen-recombination spectrum. One of the most surprising findings is that these two components are anti-correlated in their temporal evolution. We combine initial phenomenological modeling of the continuum components with spectra from radiative hydrodynamic models to show that continuum veiling causes the measured anti-correlation. This modeling allows us to use the components' inferred properties to predict how a similar spatially resolved, multiple-component, white-light continuum might appear using analogies to several solar-flare phenomena. We also compare the properties of the optical stellar flare white light to Ellerman bombs on the Sun.

  12. Theoretical perspectives on the structure, electronic, and optical properties of titanosilicates Li2M4[(TiO)Si4O12] (M = K+, Rb+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyu; Ma, Zuju; Sa, Rongjian; Zhang, Yongfan; Wu, Kechen

    2017-06-14

    It is still a challenge to design and synthesize high performance broader ultraviolet non-linear optical (NLO) materials. Two new transition-metal silicates have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their strong phase-matched second harmonic generation (SHG) responses (about 4.5 times higher than KDP). However, the electronic and optical properties underlying the high performance of these materials and consequently, the possibility of designing more efficient silicates for NLO applications are not presently clear. In this study, the geometrical structure and bonding character, electronic structure and optical properties of Li2M4[(TiO)Si4O12] (M = K+, Rb+) crystals have been systematically determined based on the density functional theory. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results indicates that the method and conditions used herein are favorable. A detailed analysis of the precise electronic structure and dipole moments of the two compounds suggests that it is the strong covalent character between Ti(Si) and O and the same orientation alignment of the dipole moment vector of the constituent asymmetric [TiO5]6- square pyramid anion units that result in the large SHG responses for the two compounds. In addition, the unavailable linear and non-linear optical experimental parameters, including dielectric function, optical absorption and birefringence, and all the components of the SHG coefficients are reported for the first time. This investigation unravels the structure-property relationships of titanosilicates and may be significant in terms of providing an efficient strategy towards designing more potential and competitive NLO materials.

  13. Heterogeneity of antimitochondrial antibodies with the M2-M4 pattern by immunofluorescence as assessed by Western immunoblotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, M; Ghadiminejad, I; Bianchi, F B; Baum, H; Bottazzo, G F; Pisi, E

    1988-01-01

    Seventy seven sera with antimitochondrial antibody exhibiting the M2-M4 pattern in immunofluorescence (56 from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 21 from non-primary biliary cirrhosis patients) were studied by the combined use of Western immunoblotting with beef heart mitochondria and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with beef heart submitochondrial particles. Forty seven sera (10 without autoantibodies and 37 with different auto-antibodies) were included as controls. By immunoblotting, seven mitochondrial peptides reacting with antimitochondrial antibody positive sera were detected. These were of molecular weight 74 kD, 58 kD, 55 kD, 52 kD, 51 kD, 46 kD, and 43 kD. All primary biliary cirrhosis sera and 71% of antimitochondrial antibody-positive non-primary biliary cirrhosis sera reacted with one or more of these peptides, while none of the 47 antimitochondrial antibody negative sera reacted in immunoblotting. The 74 kD band was the most frequently detected (84% of primary biliary cirrhosis and 57% of non-primary biliary cirrhosis cases). All the primary biliary cirrhosis sera which failed to react with this peptide, showed a positive reaction with that of molecular weight 52 kD. 67/77 (87%) immunofluorescence antimitochondrial antibody positive sera reacted in the ELISA test (93% of primary biliary cirrhosis and 71% of non-primary biliary cirrhosis cases). All the 47 immunofluorescence antimitochondrial antibody negative sera were confirmed negative by ELISA. The ELISA values correlated with the immunofluorescence titres (p less than 0.05). By comparison of the results obtained by these two techniques, it emerged that the ELISA test (using our preparation of submitochondrial particles) was not able to detect the antibody directed against the mitochondrial peptide of 52 kD, which thus seems to be different from the other specificities. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2453397

  14. Microearthquake detection at 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake source area , the north of the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Yang, H.; Zhou, S.; Yan, C.

    2016-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis in Yunnan area based on continuous seismic data of 38 stations of Qiaojia Network in Xiaojiang Fault from 2012.3 to 2015.2. We use an effective method: Match and Locate (M&L, Zhang&Wen, 2015) to detect and locate microearthquakes to conduct our research. We first study dynamic triggering around the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan. The triggered earthquakes are identified as two impulsive seismic arrivals in 2Hz-highpass-filtered velocity seismograms during the passage of surface waves of large teleseismic earthquakes. We only find two earthquakes that may have triggered regional earthquakes through inspecting their spectrograms: Mexico Mw7.4 earthquake in 03/20/2012 and El Salvador Mw7.3 earthquake in 10/14/2014. To confirm the two earthquakes are triggered instead of coincidence, we use M&L to search if there are any repeating earthquakes. The result of the coefficients shows that it is a coincidence during the surface waves of El Salvador earthquake and whether 2012 Mexico have triggered earthquake is under discussion. We then visually inspect the 2-8Hz-bandpass-filterd velocity envelopes of these years to search for non-volcanic tremor. We haven't detected any signals similar to non-volcanic tremors yet. In the following months, we are going to study the 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake. It occurred only 30km west of the epicenter of the 2014 M6.5 Ludian earthquake. We use Match and Locate (M&L) technique to detect and relocate microearthquakes that occurred 2 days before and 3 days after the mainshock. Through this, we could obtain several times more events than listed in the catalogs provided by NEIC and reduce the magnitude of completeness Mc. We will also detect microearthquakes along Xiaojiang Fault using template earthquakes listed in the catalogs to learn more about fault shape and other properties of Xiaojiang Fault. Analyzing seismicity near Xiaojiang Fault systematically may cast insight on our understanding of the features of

  15. Spectroscopic Properties of Novel Aromatic Metal Clusters: NaM4 (M=Al, Ga, In) and their Cations and Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K; Zhao, C

    2004-03-17

    The ground and several excited states of metal aromatic clusters, namely NaM4 and NaM{sub 4}{sup {+-}} (M=Al, Ga, In) clusters have been investigated by employing complete activespace self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by Multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) computations that included up to 10 million configurations and other methods. The ground states NaM{sub 4}{sup -} of aromatic anions are found to be symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 1}A{sub 1}) electronic states with ideal square pyramid geometries. While the ground state of NaIn4 is also predicted to be a symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) square pyramid, the ground state of the NaAl4 cluster is found to have a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rhombus base and the ground state of NaGa{sub 4} possesses a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rectangle base. In general these structures exhibit 2 competing geometries, viz., an ideal C{sub 4v} structure and a distorted rhomboidal or rectangular pyramid structure (C{sub 2v}). All of the ground states of the NaM{sub 4}{sup +} (M= Al, Ga, In) cations are computed to be C{sub 2v} ({sup 3}A{sub 2}) pyramids with rhombus bases. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, adiabatic electron affinities for the electronic states of NaM{sub 4} (M=Al, Ga, In) and their ions are computed and compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations. On the basis of our computed excited states energy separations, we have tentatively suggested assignments to the observed X and A states in the anion photoelectron spectra of Al{sub 4}Na{sup -} reported by Li et al. The X state can be assigned to a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) rhomboidal pyramid. The A state observed in the anion spectrum is assigned to the first excited state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) of the neutral NaAl{sub 4} with the C{sub 4v} symmetry. The assignments of the excited states are consistent with

  16. Highly-connected, porous coordination polymers based on [M4(μ3-OH)2] (M = Co(II) and Ni(II)) clusters: different networks, adsorption and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Xue, Wei; Lin, Jian-Bin; Lin, Rui-Biao; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2012-04-14

    Two new 3D coordination polymers based on tetranuclear clusters, {[Co(4)(ina)(5)(μ(3)-OH)(2)(H(2)O)(EtOH)]-NO(3)·2EtOH·4H(2)O}(n) (1) (Hina = isonicotinic acid) and {[Ni(4)(ina)(5)(μ(3)-OH)(2)(EtCOO)]·6EtOH·2H(2)O}(n) (2), were obtained by the solvothermal reactions from Hina and different metal salts. The [M(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)] cores act as 7- and 9-connected nodes and are extended through ina linkers to highly-connected frameworks with vmr net for 1 and bct-9-P2(1)/c net for 2. Both the desolvated frameworks display effective gas sorption capacities of N(2) and H(2) with Langmuir surface areas of 546 and 917 m(2) g(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. Magnetic studies show spin canting and spin-glass behaviours with T(g) = 6.0 and 15.0 K for 1 and 2, respectively. The intra- and inter-tetramer coupling interactions and cooperative magnetic correlation greatly influence the bulk magnetic behaviours in this system.

  17. Thermo-hydro-chemical Predictive analysis for the drift-scalepredictive heater test, version 1.0. Milestone Report SPY289M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas; Apps, John; Simmons, Ardyth

    1998-06-30

    This report presents a predictive analysis of the geochemical and isotopic alteration of minerals, fluid, and gas accompanying the underground Drift-Scale Heater Test (DST) begun in December 1997. The aim of this analysis is to incorporate the important geochemical and physical phenomena in a numerical model, using and assessing the current information on pore-water chemistry, mineralogy, thermodynamic and kinetic data, and heater test conditions. This work represents an initial effort to understand the system behavior, and the results should not be used by YMP researchers to provide quantitative estimates of the processes investigated. The DST will operate over a period of eight years; as data are collected the models and understanding of the system will undergo refinement and reevaluation. In overall terms, the object is to provide a better understanding of the coupled thermo-hydrological-chemical (THC) system that could be applied with a higher level of confidence to constrain the behavior of the proposed repository for a period of ten thousand years or more.

  18. Milestones, Models and Mappings for Model-Driven Architecture : European Workshop on Milestones, Models and Mappings for Model-Driven Architecture (3M4MDA), Bilbao, Spain, July 11, 2006. Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Almeida, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the European Workshop on Milestones, Models and Mappings for Model-Driven Architecture (3M4MDA) held on 11 July 2006 in Bilbao, Spain, in conjunction with the European Conference on Model Driven Architecture - Foundations and Applications (ECMDA-FA 2006). The

  19. Resistance to ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through involvement of melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathways in human M4Beu melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Lama; Pinon, Aline [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Limami, Youness [Laboratoire National de Référence (LNR), Université Mohammed VI des Sciences de la Santé, Casablanca (Morocco); Seeman, Josiane; Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloe; Martin, Frederique [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Badran, Bassam [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Simon, Alain [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Liagre, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.liagre@unilim.fr [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France)

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with a continuously growing incidence worldwide and is usually resistant to chemotherapy agents, which is due in part to a strong resistance to apoptosis. Previously, we had showed that B16-F0 murine melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis are able to delay their own death induced by ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound. We had demonstrated that tyrosinase and TRP-1 up-regulation in apoptotic cells and the subsequent production of melanin were implicated in an apoptosis resistance mechanism. Several resistance mechanisms to apoptosis have been characterized in melanoma such as hyperactivation of DNA repair mechanisms, drug efflux systems, and reinforcement of survival signals (PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Raf/MAPK pathways). Otherwise, other mechanisms of apoptosis resistance involving different proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), have been described in many cancer types. By using a strategy of specific inhibition of each ways, we suggested that there was an interaction between melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathway. This was characterized by analyzing the COX-2 expression and activity, the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production. Furthermore, we showed that anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of UA were mediated through modulation of multiple signaling pathways including Akt and ERK-1/2 proteins. Our study not only uncovers underlying molecular mechanisms of UA action in human melanoma cancer cells but also suggest its great potential as an adjuvant in treatment and cancer prevention.

  20. [Analysis of the Decorated Silicate Beads Excavated from Tomb M4 of the Ma-Jia-Yuan Warring States Cemetery, Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-juan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the analysis results of 11 decorated silicate beads samples excavated from Ma Jia-yuan Warring State Cemetery, Gan Su Province with the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, laser Raman spectrometer and X-ray diffraction spectrometer. It is includes 3 types among these samples on the basis of their chemical composition, NaO-CaO-SiO2, PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass system, and glassy faience. The blue part of the NaO-CaO-SiO2 glass sample was colored by Co2+, and Sb2O5 was discovered as opacifier. The results of Laser Raman analysis shows in some circle beads exits Chinese blue and Chinese purple. Combined with the existing research results the early cultural factors and technical exchange reflected from these samples are discussed. It shows that the material and craftsmanship of the beads contained Chinese blue and Chinese purple were affected by Qin Culture. But the composition of the Na-Ca-SiO2 glass eye bead is similar with those excavated from Xin Jiang area. It infers the technology of glass manufacture of the Xi Ron nationality was influenced by the Qin Culture and the grassland nationalities' culture simultaneously. The faience bead composed with the inner core and the outer glassy layer is possible a kind of transitional type between the faience and the real glass. This information offers a new reference for the research of the origin of the glass technology in the ancient China.

  1. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR0312026 - Complete NO and NO2 aging of AgZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Kaara K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walker, Jr, Joseph Franklin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In an off-gas system within a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, any capture material will be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water, NOx gas, or a variety of other constituents that comprise the off-gas stream. For this reason, it is important to understand the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed capture materials. One material under consideration is silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended exposure at 150°C to an air stream containing NO on the iodine capture capacity of the hydrogen reduced form of AgZ designated as Ag0Z. The study was originally also intended to expand on the static NO2 aging studies by exposing Ag0Z to a flowing stream of NO2 for an extended period of time, but those tests were delayed due to NO2 production schedules by the gas vendor. Unreduced silver mordenite has a loading capacity of approximately 25 mg I/g AgZ and that capacity is increased to 100 mg I/g Ag0Z upon reduction. It appears that extended exposure of AgZ to 1% NO at 150°C may not only neutralize the increased capacity gained by reduction, but perhaps degrade the sorbent even further. Loss of 80% of sorbent capacity and surface area was observed after 8 weeks of exposure to a 1% NO stream at 150°C. Investigations continue into the effects of aging by off-gas components on iodine sorbents. Future work will age silver mordenite with streams containing NO2. As the simulated off-gas streams become more complex and more corrosive, the ability of AgZ to withstand conditions present in off-gas streams will be more fully known.

  2. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  3. Estimates of source parameters of M 4.9 M 4.9 M 4.9 Kharsali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001, India. ∗ e-mail: ajaypaul@wihg.res.in. This paper presents .... the boundaries of geological subprovinces having characteristic geology and physiography (Gansser ..... the seismic ray makes an angle io at the focus. The line joining the origin to the recording station.

  4. Deletion of 3'-CBFB gene in association with an inversion (16)(p13q22) and a loss of the Y chromosome in a 2-year-Old child with acute myelogenous leukemia-M4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanian, J R; Huang, Y; Fallon, R

    2000-09-01

    Inversion 16(p13q22) is most commonly associated with acute myelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (M4). In association with this inversion, a proximal deletion at the 16p13 primary arm breakpoint occurs in 20% of cases. We report on a first case of inversion 16 with a distal deletion at the primary arm breakpoint 16q22, detected by using the fluorescent-labeled dual-color probe CBFB.

  5. Unitary tridiagonalization in M(4, C)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    the complex projective space of V = C4, we denote the equivalence class of v ∈ V \\ 0 by [v]. For a [v] ∈ 3. C. , we define W([v]) (or simply W(v) when no confusion is likely) by. W([v]) := C-span(v, Av, A∗v). Since we are assuming thatAandA∗ have no common eigenvectors, we have dim W([v]) ≥. 2 for all [v] ∈ 3. C.

  6. Anti-inflammation of spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound LXM-10 targeting α7 nAChR and M4 mAChR and inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of LXM-10 by intragastric administration in both acute and chronic inflammatory models, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that LXM-10 produced significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA induced arthritis, in which LXM-10 inhibited paw swelling in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ELISA analysis showed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 was decreased by LXM-10. Western blot analysis showed that LXM-10 significantly reduced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 and further blunted phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3. The effects that LXM-10 had shown were attenuated by methyllycaconitine citrate (an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist or tropicamide (an M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist in vivo. In conclusion, the studies showed that intragastric administration of LXM-10 exerted significant anti-inflammation effects in acute and chronic models, which may be attribute to the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, thereby inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway, and ultimately reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines of TNF-α and IL-6.

  7. Anti-Inflammation of Spirocyclopiperazinium Salt Compound LXM-10 Targeting α7 nAChR and M4 mAChR and Inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Qi; Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Yimin; Li, Runtao; Ye, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of LXM-10 by intragastric administration in both acute and chronic inflammatory models, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that LXM-10 produced significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis, in which LXM-10 inhibited paw swelling in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ELISA analysis showed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 was decreased by LXM-10. Western blot analysis showed that LXM-10 significantly reduced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and further blunted phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). The effects that LXM-10 had shown were attenuated by methyllycaconitine citrate (an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) or tropicamide (an M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) in vivo. In conclusion, the studies showed that intragastric administration of LXM-10 exerted significant anti-inflammation effects in acute and chronic models, which may be attribute to the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, thereby inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway, and ultimately reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines of TNF-α and IL-6. PMID:23840548

  8. Precise measurement of αK and αT for the 109.3-keV M 4 transition in 125Te: Test of internal-conversion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Werke, T. A.; Folden, C. M.; Ofodile, K.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2017-06-01

    We have measured the K -shell and total internal conversion coefficients (ICCs), αK and αT, for the 109.3-keV M 4 transition in 125Te to be 185.0(40) and 350.0(38), respectively. Previously this transition's ICCs were considered to be anomalous, with measured values lying below calculated ones. When compared with Dirac-Fock calculations, our new results show good agreement. The αK result agrees well with the version of the theory that takes account of the K -shell atomic vacancy and disagrees with the one that does not. This is consistent with our conclusion drawn from a series of measurements on high multipolarity transitions.

  9. Influence of solvent and weak C-H...O contacts in the self-assembled [Pt2M4{CC(3-OMe)C6H4}8] (M = Cu, Ag) clusters and their role in the luminescence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Belén; Forniés, Juan; Gómez, Julio; Lalinde, Elena; Martín, Antonio; Moreno, M Teresa

    2006-09-18

    New alkynyl complexes [Pt2M4{CC(3-OMe)C6H4}8] (M = Ag 1, Cu 2) have been synthesized and their structures and properties compared to those of related [Pt2M4(CCPh)8] compounds. For the Pt-Ag derivatives, the X-ray structures of the discrete yellow solvate monomer, [Pt2Ag4{CC(3-OMe)C6H4}8].2THF ([1.2THF]), and the dark garnet unsolvated polymeric form, [Pt2Ag4{CC(3-OMe)C6H4}8](infinity) ([1](infinity)), are presented. The yellow form ([1.2THF]) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry of the metal centers with the platinum atoms mutually trans and the four silver atoms in the equatorial plane. Pairs of Ag atoms are weakly bridged by THF molecules [mu-Ag2...O(THF)]. The garnet form ([1](infinity)) has an unprecedented infinite stacked chain of octahedral clusters linked by short Pt...Pt bonds (3.1458(8) A). In both forms, different types of weak C-H...O (OMe) hydrogen bonds are observed. For comparative purposes, we have also provided the crystal structures of the yellow monomer form, [Pt2Ag4-(CCPh)8].CHCl3, and the red dimer form, [Pt2Ag4(CCPh)8]2 (Pt-Pt 3.221(2) A). These clusters display intense photoluminescence in both solution and the solid state, at room temperature and 77 K. The emission observed for the yellow form [1.2THF] in the solid state is assigned to a 3MLM'CT [Pt(d)/pi(CCR) --> Pt(p(z))/Ag(sp)/pi(CCR)] state modified by Pt...Ag, Ag...Ag, and Ag...(THF) contacts. However, in the garnet form [1](infinity) and in 2, the emissions are related to the axial Pt-Pt bonds and are assigned as phosphorescence from a metal-metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (3MMLCT) excited state ([1](infinity)), or an admixture of a metal-metal (Pt-Pt) centered 3(dsigmap(z)sigma) and 3MMLCT excited state (2). For 1, a remarkable quenching and a shift to higher energies in the emission is observed on changing from CH2Cl2 to THF, and for both 1 and 2, the emission spectra at 77 K varies with the concentration, showing their tendency to stack even in glass.

  10. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4 (NGC 6121) USING RR LYRAE STARS. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY AND PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, V. F.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Department of Physics, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Dall' Ora, M.; Coppola, G.; Marconi, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Stetson, P. B. [NRC-Herzberg, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Marengo, M.; Neeley, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Persson, S. E.; Freedman, W.; Madore, B. F.; Monson, A.; Rich, J.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We present new distance determinations to the nearby globular M4 (NGC 6121) based on accurate optical and near-infrared (NIR) mean magnitudes for fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), and new empirical optical and NIR period-luminosity (PL) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations. We have found that optical-NIR and NIR PL and PW relations are affected by smaller standard deviations than optical relations. The difference is the consequence of a steady decrease in the intrinsic spread of cluster RRL apparent magnitudes at fixed period as longer wavelengths are considered. The weighted mean visual apparent magnitude of 44 cluster RRLs is =13.329 ± 0.001 (standard error of the mean) ±0.177 (weighted standard deviation) mag. Distances were estimated using RR Lyr itself to fix the zero-point of the empirical PL and PW relations. Using the entire sample (FU+FO) we found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.35 ± 0.03 ± 0.05 mag and 11.32 ± 0.02 ± 0.07 mag. Distances were also evaluated using predicted metallicity dependent PLZ and PWZ relations. We found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.283 ± 0.010 ± 0.018 mag (NIR PLZ) and 11.272 ± 0.005 ± 0.019 mag (optical-NIR and NIR PWZ). The above weighted mean true distance moduli agree within 1σ. The same result is found from distances based on PWZ relations in which the color index is independent of the adopted magnitude (11.272 ± 0.004 ± 0.013 mag). These distances agree quite well with the geometric distance provided by Kaluzny et al. based on three eclipsing binaries. The available evidence indicates that this approach can provide distances to globulars hosting RRLs with a precision better than 2%-3%.

  11. Mechanism of single metal exchange in the reactions of [M4(SPh)10]2- (M = Zn or Fe) with CoX2 (X = Cl or NO3) or FeCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autissier, Valerie; Henderson, Richard A

    2008-07-21

    The kinetics of the reactions between [Zn4(SPh)10](2-) and an excess of MX2 (M = Co, X = NO3 or Cl; M = Fe, X = Cl), in which a Zn(II) is replaced by M(II), have been studied in MeCN at 25.0 degrees C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy shows that the ultimate product of the reactions is an equilibrium mixture of clusters of composition [Zn(n)M(4-n)(SPh)10](2-), and this is reflected in the multiphasic absorbance-time curves observed over protracted times (several minutes) using stopped-flow spectrophotometry to study the reactions. The kinetics of only the first phase have been determined, corresponding to the equilibrium formation of [Zn3M(SPh)10](2-). The effects of varying the concentrations of cluster, MX2, and ZnCl2 on the kinetics have been investigated. The rate law is consistent with the equilibrium nature of the metal exchange process and indicates a mechanism for the formation of [Zn3M(SPh)10](2-) involving two coupled equilibria. In the initial step binding of MX2 to a bridging thiolate in [Zn4(SPh)10](2-) results in breaking of a Zn-bridging thiolate bond. In the second step replacement of the cluster Zn involves transfer of the bridging thiolates from the Zn to M, with breaking of a Zn-bridged thiolate bond being rate-limiting. The kinetics for the reaction of ZnCl2 with [Zn3M(SPh)10](2-) (M = Fe or Co)} depends on the identity of M. This behavior indicates attack of ZnCl2 at a M-mu-SPh-Zn bridged thiolate. Similar studies on the analogous reactions between [Fe4(SPh)10](2-) and an excess of CoX2 (X = NO3 or Cl) in MeCN exhibit simpler kinetics but these are also consistent with the same mechanism.

  12. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  13. Cosmology from quantum potential in a system of oscillating branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    Recently, some authors proposed a new mechanism which gets rid of the Big Bang singularity and shows that the age of the universe is infinite. In this paper, we will confirm their results and predict that the universe may expand and contract many N fundamental strings decay to N M0-anti-M0-branes. Then, M0-branes join each other and build a M8-anti-M8 system. This system is unstable, broken and two anti-M4-branes, a compactified M4-brane, a M3-brane in addition to one M0-brane are produced. The M3-brane wraps around the compactified M4-brane and both of them oscillate between two anti-M4-branes. Our universe is located on the M3-brane and interacts with other branes by exchanging the M0-brane and some scalars in transverse directions. By wrapping of M3-brane, the contraction epoch of universe starts and some higher order of derivatives of scalar fields in the relevant action of branes are produced which are responsible for generating the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). By oscillating the compactified M4-M3-brane and approaching one of anti-M4-branes, one end of M3-brane glues to the anti-M4-brane and other end remains sticking and wrapping around M4-brane. Then, by getting away of the M4-M3 system, M4 rolls, wrapped M3 opens and expansion epoch of universe begins. By closing the M4 to anti-M4, the mass of some scalars become negative and they make a transition to tachyonic phase. To remove these states, M4 rebounds, rolls and M3 wraps around it again. At this stage, expansion branch ends and universe enters a contraction epoch again. This process is repeated many times and universe expands and contracts due to oscillation of branes. We obtain the scale factor of universe in this system and find that its values only at t →-∞ shrinks to zero. Thus, in our method, the Big Bang is replaced by the fundamental string and the age of universe is predicted to be infinite. Also, when tachyonic states disappear at the beginning of expansion branch, some extra

  14. Fortynine coach seats travelling along the M4 (2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Sowden, T

    2014-01-01

    Curated by Sarah Bodman, Mikhail Pogarsky, Vasily Vlasov, Viktor Lukin. Artists' books speak the international language of art. These books can be understood in almost any corner of the world. Artists, who work in the genre of the artist's book professionally form a large international community. However, the artist's book like any other artform has its own regional and national peculiarities. \\ud \\ud Apart from the language in which the text is presented, there are various historical roots f...

  15. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  16. system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  17. Cosmology from quantum potential in a system of oscillating branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Recently, some authors proposed a new mechanism which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and shows that the age of the universe is infinite. In this paper, we will confirm their results and predict that the universe may expand and contract many times in a system of oscillating branes. In this model, first, N fundamental strings transit to N M0-anti-M0-branes. Then, M0-branes join to each other and build an M8-anti-M8 system. This system is unstable, broken and two anti-M4-branes, a compactified M4-brane, an M3-brane in additional to one M0-brane are produced. The M3-brane wraps around the compactified M4-brane and both of them oscillate between two anti-M4-branes. Our universe is located on the M3-brane and interacts with other branes by exchanging the M0-brane and some scalars in transverse directions. By wrapping of M3-brane, universe contracts and generalized uncertainty principle or GUP emerges. By oscillating the compactified M4-M3-brane and approaching to one of anti-M4-branes, one end of M3-brane glu...

  18. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10 a.m.-4..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. The agenda will include the following: February 9, 2012 Welcome...

  19. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anti-correlations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich

  20. The Army’s M-4 Carbine: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-27

    failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 27 JAN 2009 2. REPORT...Evaluation Nears Conclusion,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, March 19, 2009, p. 12. 13 Information in this section is from Joshua Kucera , “SOCOM Selects New

  1. Conductivity ageing studies on 1M10ScSZ (M4+=Ce, Hf)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The long-term conductivity stability is tested on zirconia based electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The ageing studies have been performed on the samples of ZrO2 co-doped with 10mol% of Sc2O3 and 1mol% MO2, where M = Ce or Hf (denoted respectively 1Ce10ScSZ and 1Hf10Sc......SZ) in oxidising and reducing atmospheres, at 600°C for 3000h. At 600°C, these compositions show initial conductivity of around 9–12mS∙cm−1 in air. After 3000h of ageing, no phase transitions are observed in any of the samples. For the first 1000h, the degradation rate is higher than in the subsequent 2000h......; thereafter, conductivity degrades linearly with time for all samples. In air, the loss in the conductivity is lower than in reducing conditions. The 1Ce10ScSZ shows the highest degradation rate of 3.8%/1000h in wet H2/N2 after the first 1000h of ageing. A colour change of the 1Ce10ScSZ sample from white...

  2. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Simulation for M4 Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of a Marksmanship Training Simulator: Effects of Feedback on Training and Transfer. Unpublished Masters Thesis . School of Psychology, Faculty of...and rifle marksmanship during live and simulator firing with and without caffeine consumption. Technical Report 2003-003. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC...Study of the Indoor Simulated Marksmanship Trainer. Unpublished Masters Thesis . Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. 17. Collier, G. (2010

  3. The Army’s M-4 Carbine: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    can be described as “the probability that an item can perform its intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions” and lethality... Alibi ,” Army Times, December 29, 2007. 29 Information in this section is from a briefing given to CRS by Colt Defense, LLC on July 14, 2009. The Army’s

  4. M4FT-15OR03100421: Status Report on Alkaline Conditioning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the role of alkaline conditioning of polyethylene-fiber adsorbent, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is demonstrated in this report, which is essentially a manuscript prepared for publication in the journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research of the American Chemical Society. The manuscript describes the influence of various parameters involved in adsorbent alkaline conditioning, including base concentration and duration and temperature of conditioning, on the uranium uptake history by the adsorbent. Various solutions have been used to determine the influence of conditioning parameters including (i) a screening solution containing uranyl nitrate at approximately 8 ppm and sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride at concentrations similar to those found in seawater, (ii) seawater spiked with approximately 75 ppb uranium, and (iii) natural seawater. In addition to concentration measurements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy to determine the uranium uptake capacity and kinetics, spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the effect of base treatment on the various chemical bonds of the adsorbent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been employed to determine structural effects of the alkali on the adsorbent. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Alkali conditioning is necessary to prepare the adsorbent for uranium uptake. ICP analysis showed that without alkali conditioning, no appreciable uranium adsorption occurs. 2. FTIR showed that the base converts amidoxime to carboxylate groups. 3. FTIR showed that formation of carboxylate groups is irreversible and reduces the selectivity of the adsorbent toward uranium. 4. NMR showed that alkali conditioning leads also to the formation of cyclic imidedioxime, which is suspected to bind uranium, vanadium, iron, copper, and other metals. 5. Uptake of V, Fe, and Cu follows the same trend as that of uranium. Uptake of Ca, Mg, and Zn ions increases with increasing KOH conditioning time due to formation of carboxylate groups. 6. SEM showed that long conditioning times may also lead to adsorbent degradation. 7. The optimal conditioning parameters are: 0.44 M KOH, 70 C, for 1 hour. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimal values of the parameters involved in preparing amidoxime-based adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. Additional work is still ongoing to provide a complete understanding of the chemistry of base conditioning and its role on the functioning of the adsorbent.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAILURES IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS EXPOSED IN AGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT M4 OF FALCON STATE

    OpenAIRE

    María Alice Olavarrieta; Francisco Chong; Karelia Ramones; Salvatore Garagozzo; Jesús Sánchez; Ernesto Álvarez; Ana Acero; Luis Reinoza

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educatio...

  6. Progress Report on FY15 Crystalline Experiments M4FT-15LL0807052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Begg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Colloid-facilitated plutonium transport is expected to be the dominant mechanism in its migration through the environment. The forms of Pu colloids (intrinsic versus pseudo-colloid) and their stabilities control temporal and spatial scales of Pu transport in the environment. In the present study, we examine the stability of Pu intrinsic colloids freshly prepared in alkaline solution relative to Pu-montmorillonite pseudo-colloids using a dialysis device and modeling approaches. Intrinsic colloids prepared under alkaline conditions were found to be unstable over a timescale of months. The kinetics of multiple processes, including hydrolysis/precipitation of Pu(IV), dissolution of intrinsic colloids in the absence and presence of the clay colloids, transport of dissolved Pu species across the dialysis membrane, and formation of pseudo-colloids were examined. The dissolution of intrinsic colloids was the rate-limiting process in most cases. The apparent intrinsic colloid dissolution rate constants range from 6×10-7 to 1×10- 6 mol·m-2·day-1 and 4×10-6 to 8×10-6 mol·m-2·day-1 at 25 and 80°C, respectively, while the apparent diffusion rate constants for Pu ions crossing the dialysis membrane are >200 times higher. Elevated temperatures enhance dissolution of Pu colloids and the activation energy for the process is estimated to be 28 kJ mol-1. The sorption of Pu to montmorillonite appears to be endothermic as the affinity of Pu for the clay increases with increasing temperature. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of how intrinsic and pseudo-colloids interact with each other kinetically. Although the fact that intrinsic colloids tend to dissolve in the presence of montmorillonite and transform into pseudo-colloids may limit the migration of intrinsic colloids, the thermodynamically more stable pseudo-colloids may play an important role in Pu transport in the environment over significant temporal and spatial scales.

  7. E Durans Strain M4-5 Isolated From Human Colonic Flora Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avram-Hananel, L.; Stock, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of a unique high-butyrate-producing bacterial strain from human colonic flora, Enterococcus durans, in prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: A compartmentalized Caco-2/leukocyte coculture model...... was used to examine the in vitro effects of E durans and its metabolite butyrate on basal and Escherichia coli–stimulated secretion of proinflammatory immune factors (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. A murine model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis was used...

  8. The determination of safety of Muhanse M4® , a traditional herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS. Introduction ... backs of 10 plants. It is believed that the medicines, was used by local ancestors to treat “Lugandaganda” disease, which presented with similar symptoms and signs like .... mobility and recumbency and slow breathing rates.

  9. The definitive guide to ARM Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M4 processors

    CERN Document Server

    Yiu, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the background of the ARM architecture and outlines the features of the processors such as the instruction set, interrupt-handling and also demonstrates how to program and utilize the advanced features available such as the Memory Protection Unit (MPU). Chapters on getting started with IAR, Keil, gcc and CooCox CoIDE tools help beginners develop program codes.  Coverage also includes the important areas of software development such as using the low power features, handling information input/output, mixed language projects with assembly and C, and other advanced topics. Tw

  10. Cosmology from quantum potential in a system of oscillating branes

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Recently, some authors proposed a new mechanism which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and shows that the age of the universe is infinite. In this paper, we will confirm their results and predict that the universe may expand and contract many times in a system of oscillating branes. In this model, first, N fundamental strings transit to N M0-anti-M0-branes. Then, M0-branes join to each other and build an M8-anti-M8 system. This system is unstable, broken and two anti-M4-branes, a compacti...

  11. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  12. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  13. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying

  14. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...

  15. PARENTS' ATTITUDES ON THE INTRODUCTION OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Branko; Cuk, Ljubica; Krzelj, Ivana

    2016-07-24

    We explored parents' views on the introduction of HE into the educational system, as well as differences in the degree of agreement, depending on the gender of the respondents, the school which the children attend and children's age. Examinees in this study were parents (N = 531) of children attending primary and secondary schools in the area of Municipality Livno. The study was conducted by using cross-sectional study and a special questionnaire was created assessing attitudes on the introduction of HE in the education system which contains 26 items. Parents have positively disposed towards the introduction of HE in schools (M = 2.85) if it would be carried out according to previously anticipated and clearly defined literature (M = 3.89), which they should be pre-acquainted with (M = 3.78). They also consider that the lecturers should be exclusively health workers (M = 3.50) and certainly should cover the topics of the quality of human life (M = 4.07), the prevention of addiction (M = 4.03), prevention of bullying (M = 4.14) and the culture of social communication (M = 4.15). Surely the content of the lectures should be adapted to the age of the child and should be adjusted with the principles and values imposed by the religion (M = 3.61). Parents most varied in their views when it comes to the introduction of sex education in schools (M = 2.9, SD = 1.53), however, if the contents would correspond with the age of the child (M = 3.7). There are no gender differences on the issue of the introduction of HE in schools (t = 0.018, DF = 499, p> 0.05), as well as differences between the schools (F = 1.937, DF = 5,520, p> 0.05), nor between children of various age groups (F = 1.667, DF = 2,523, p> 0.05).

  16. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  17. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system.......Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Models and Model-driven Methods for Enterprise Computing (3M4EC 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Andrade Almeida, João; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Steen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in metamodeling and model transformation techniques have led to increasing adoption of model-driven engineering practices. The increase in interest and significance of the model-driven approach has also accelerated its application in the development of large (distributed) IT

  19. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    . To this end, we investigated the effects of xanomeline on the behavior induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Antipsychotic compounds antagonize amphetamine-induced motor unrest and stereotypies in this species. Xanomeline inhibited D-amphetamine-induced motor unrest...... xanomeline was tested in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys, EPS were not observed at the dose range of xanomeline used in the D-amphetamine-apomorphine combination study (0.5-3 mg/kg). However, when xanomeline was tested at 4 mg/kg, moderate dystonia was seen in two out of three monkeys. It is concluded...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  20. ÿþk h u r r a m 4 p r o u d . c d r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ÿþU s e r

    However, the fear of excessive scarring and poor wound healing has curtailed its widespread use for skin incision. The objective of the study is to compare superficial surgical site infection (SSSI) in diathermy and scalpel skin incision in inguinal hernioplasty. Quasi experimental study. Study was conducted at Surgical Unit II, ...

  1. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  2. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  3. The probable quadruple systems FK Aql and FZ Del

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Orbital-period variations of the eclipsing binaries FK Aql and FZ Del are analyzed. For each of the systems, a superposition of two cyclic variations of their orbital periods is found. FK Aql may be a quadruple system that contains two more bodies, besides the eclipsing binary, with masses M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 1.47 M ⊙, and the corresponding periods 15 and 82 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 15 yrs, or with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.30 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 82 yrs. FZ Del may be a quadruple system with the additional componentmasses M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 0.3 M ⊙, with the periods 10.2 and 53.7 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third-body mass M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 10.2 yrs. In both systems, the residual period variations could be due to magnetic cycles of the secondary. The period variations of the eclipsing binary FZ Del could also be due to apsidal motion, together with the influence of a third body or the effects of magnetic activity.

  4. Validation of the M-stage scoring system for digital dermatitis on dairy cows in the milking parlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Jacobs, C; Orsel, K

    2017-02-01

    A high prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD) and the benefits of early topical treatment highlight the need for simple tools for routine DD detection. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of scoring DD lesions using the 5 M-stage scoring system in the milking parlor compared with the trimming chute as the gold standard. Three observers inspected 3,585 cows and 6,991 hind feet from 9 farms in the milking parlor using a mirror (glued to a plastic kitchen spatula) and a headlamp, followed by inspection in a trimming chute within 5 d. Interobserver agreement for scoring DD in various settings was ≥82% (kappa >0.74; weighted kappa >0.76). At trimming chute inspections, 68% of cows had at least 1 DD lesion, 19% had 1 hind leg affected, and 49% had both hind legs affected. Within-herd DD prevalence ranged from 16 to 81% of cows affected. True within-herd prevalence was 2, 6, 0, 36, and 14% for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 lesions, respectively. At the foot level, DD prevalence was the same (58%) in the milking parlor and trimming chute inspection, but distribution of M-stages differed. Milking parlor inspection as a means of identifying the presence of DD lesions had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with positive and negative predictive values of 91 and 89%, respectively. Agreement between milking parlor and trimming chute inspections was 73% (kappa = 0.59, weighted kappa = 0.65) for the 5 M-stage scoring system and 90% (kappa = 0.80) if only the presence of a lesion was noted. Test characteristics varied greatly among M-stages, with the highest sensitivity for detecting M4 (82%) and M2 (62%) lesions, and the lowest for detecting M4.1 (20%), M1 (7%), and M3 (0%) lesions. In the milking parlor, 20% of M2 lesions were misclassified as M4.1, 8% of M4 lesions were misclassified as M0, and 68% of M4.1 lesions were misclassified as M4. The majority (87%) of DD lesions were located between the heel bulbs; 10 and 2% of DD lesions affected the

  5. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys- tems, time-shared systems. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Operating Systems. 1. Objectives and Evolution. M Suresh Babu. In this article we examine the objectives and fun.ctions of operating systems, and then we trace the evolution ...

  6. Bitcoin System

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Lánský

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system co...

  7. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  8. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  9. Role of various subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the development of posthemorrhagic abnormalities in systemic and portal circulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievskii, D D; Reshetnyak, V K

    2012-01-01

    The experiments employing high-frequency ultrasonic technique and selective blockers of M1, M3, and M4 muscarinic cholinergic receptors pirenzepine, 4-DAMP, and tropicamide, respectively, revealed individual roles of these receptors in the development of severe posthemorrhagic hypotension in rats with low or high individual resistance to circulatory hypoxia. The study showed that M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors are involved in shock-limiting and shock-activating processes, respectively, while M3 receptors exert no effect on the course of posthemorrhagic abnormalities in systemic and hepatic portal circulation and on the posthemorrhagic lifespan. Poor resistance of the cardiovascular system to circulatory hypoxia during shock development is considered to be dysregulatory pathology.

  10. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  11. A Situational-Awareness System For Networked Infantry Including An Accelerometer-Based Shot-Identification Algorithm For Direct-Fire Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Figure 2 via Newton’s Second Law, . The first, black force signature is from an M4 with the standard military issue “birdcage” flash hider and is...authentication, where each rifleman uses unique, individually specified movements of the rifle as a password to unlock the system. These are just a few ideas...ggl_earth_map %uses the above variables and Matlab Mapping Tool % Box to generate required coordinates ggl_earth_kmlwrite

  12. A comprehensive assessment of repaglinide metabolic pathways: impact of choice of in vitro system and relative enzyme contribution to in vitro clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, Carolina; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-07-01

    Repaglinide is presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a clinical CYP2C8 probe, yet current in vitro and clinical data are inconsistent concerning the role of this enzyme in repaglinide elimination. The aim of the current study was to perform a comprehensive investigation of repaglinide metabolic pathways and assess their contribution to the overall clearance. Formation of four repaglinide metabolites was characterized using in vitro systems with differential complexity. Full kinetic profiles for the formation of M1, M2, M4, and repaglinide glucuronide were obtained in pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes, human liver microsomes, human S9 fractions, and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Distinct differences in clearance ratios were observed between CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 for M1 and M4 formation, resulting in a 60-fold M1/M4 ratio in recombinant (r) CYP3A4, in contrast to 0.05 in rCYP2C8. Unbound K(m) values were within 2-fold for each metabolite across all in vitro systems investigated. A major system difference was seen in clearances for the formation of M2, which is suggested to be a main metabolite of repaglinide in vivo. An approximately 7-fold higher unbound intrinsic clearance was observed in hepatocytes and S9 fractions in comparison to microsomes; the involvement of aldehyde dehydrogenase in M2 formation was shown for the first time. This systematic analysis revealed a comparable in vitro contribution from CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 to the metabolism of repaglinide (system used. The repaglinide M4 metabolic pathway is proposed as a specific CYP2C8 probe for the assessment of drug-drug interactions.

  13. Biliary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  14. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  15. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  16. Modular control system for embedded applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dostálek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with hardware design of a modular control system intended for embedded applications demanding high computational power while maintaining low cost. The control system central unit is based on 32bit microcontroller MK60DN512 with ARM Cortex-M4 core manufactured by NXP Semiconductor. Module provides all the necessary signals on the two 2-row 40 pin headers and Ethernet communication interface in the form of a small daughter board. It is connected to the mainboard which must always contain 5 V stabilized power supply; other circuits are application specific. In our application the mainboard is equipped with SD card slot, RS232 and RS485 interface which is used for high speed interconnection with up to 15 expansion peripheral modules. This concept enables high flexibility to specific application demands without necessity of redesigning the control system. Controller is freely programmable in C language using any compatible integrated development environment – NXP Kinetis Design Studio, for example. Software development and debugging is simplified by our support program libraries including necessary routines for control and monitoring tasks.

  17. Declarative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Condie, Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Building system software is a notoriously complex and arduous endeavor.Developing tools and methodologies for practical system software engineeringhas long been an active area of research. This thesis explores system softwaredevelopment through the lens of a declarative, data-centric programminglanguage that can succinctly express high-level system specifications and bedirectly compiled to executable code. By unifying specification andimplementation, our approach avoids the common problem o...

  18. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout....

  19. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remove...

  20. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  1. systemic matching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    understanding of scientific concepts,(iv) converted from surface learning to deep learning of chemistry concepts and chemical processes,(v) enhance their abilities to construction, or analysis of a novel systemic diagrams using chemical information, (vi) develop their thinking skills towards systemic thinking. Types Systemic ...

  2. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  3. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  4. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  5. Characterization of biofilm growth and biocide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium phlei using the MBEC assay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardouniotis, E; Huddleston, W; Ceri, H; Olson, M E

    2001-09-25

    The importance of non-tuberculosis mycobacterial biofilm species in medicine, industry and the environment has recently gained attention. Our objectives were to characterize biofilm growth of Mycobacterium phlei M4, as a model of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and to compare biocide susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm organisms. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to observe biofilm morphology. With the exception of Sporicidin and Virkon the minimum bactericidal concentration values for all biocides tested were lower than the MBEC values. The MBEC assay system was seen to produce multiple and reproducible biofilms of M. phlei and to be a useful tool for susceptibility studies.

  6. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  7. Systemic Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    benefits. The first is direct: Cost- effective and rapid recertification is essential to support the development of systems that must adapt to changes...simulations, cyber-physical robotic systems, and extremely large commercial Java programs. An important goal is to develop incrementally compostable ...combinations of models, practices, and tools for obtaining the most cost- and schedule- effective combinations for the assurance of necessary system

  8. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  9. Geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  10. Evaluation of 12-month interval methods for estimating animal-times at risk in a traditional African livestock farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnoff, Matthieu

    2008-06-15

    Demographic parameters are useful for assessing productivity and dynamics of tropical livestock populations. Common parameters are the annual instantaneous hazard rates, which can be estimated by m/T (where m represents the number of the considered demographic events occurred during the year and T the cumulated animal-time at risk). Different approaches are encountered in the literature for computing T from on-farm survey data. One crude approach ("the 12-month interval approach") only uses estimations of herds' sizes at beginning and end of the year and aggregated counts of demographic events over the year. I evaluated the potential biases in using four 12-month interval methods (M1-M4) to estimate T. Biases were evaluated by comparing the 12-month estimates to gold-standard values of T. Data came from long-term herd monitoring on cattle and small ruminants in extensive agro-pastoral systems. Animal-times at risks were correctly estimated in average by methods M1, M2 and M4 (average relative biasesM4 showed equivalent biases. M2 is simple to implement and has the advantage of being applicable for any age-group, although M4 is only applicable for young animals. M3 was highly biased and I do not recommend it. Although accurate in average, 12-month interval methods showed highly variable biases. This variability results from interactions between the dates delimiting the 12-month interval and the distributions of the demographic events over time. This phenomenon is particularly important for the adult-male small ruminants. Based on the bias variability observed in the study, the user of 12-month interval methods has to remember that they only provide approximate results and that they cannot completely replace the gold-standard approaches.

  11. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  12. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  13. Differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Joseph Miller

    1937-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the theory of systems of partial differential equations and the theory of Pfaffian systems so as to exhibit clearly the relations between them. In presenting the theory of Pfaffian systems, the author develops, in detail, the theories of Grassmann algebras and rings with differentiation. In particular, following Grassmann and É. Cartan, he introduces and freely uses what is now known as a ring of differential forms with functional coefficients. In presenting the theory of systems of partial differential equations, the author concentrates on the existenc

  14. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  15. [Complex evaluation of film mammographic imaging systems. 2. Comparison of 18 systems using a signal-noise matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M; Weskamp, P

    1984-06-01

    The concept of the signal-noise matrix with physiological optical noise measurements for defining visibility thresholds provides a quantitative means for comparing film mammographic systems (9). Eighteen such systems were compared. A graded list can be produced relating the integrated signal-noise ratio to area and detail contrast (image quality) and to the required radiation dose (dose efficiency). For this, maximal dose (industrial film) and minimal image quality can be taken into consideration. In this list, in agreement with other publications (12) high resolution film-screen combinations, using industrial film (eg. Cronex 70/screen) come top. In combination with a grid technique, this system achieves a greatly superior image quality. Amongst commercial film-screen systems, only the Trimax mammography system with high resolution screens is comparable. All other commercial systems (single or double coated films) are unsatisfactory with respect to their dose efficiency and image quality. Some industrial films without screens (Mamoray M4) are intermediate between high definition and other commercial systems. Ninety-second, screenless films offered for mammography appear unsuitable for this purpose, both in view of their dose efficiency and image quality.

  16. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  17. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process concept and concurrency are at the heart of modern operating systems (OS). A process is the unit of work in a computer system. A process must be in main memory during execution. To improve the utilization of central processing unit. (CPU) as well as the speed of its response to its users, the computer must ...

  18. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An embedded system is a microprocessor-based system that is incorporated into a device to monitor and control the functions of the components of the device. They are used in many devices ranging from a microwave oven to a nuclear reactor. Unlike personal computers that run a variety of applications, embedded.

  19. Power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  20. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout......., the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  1. Development of a surface conductivity measurement system for ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoda, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hatano, K.; Yazawa, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The surface conductivity measurement system using a micro-four-point probe (M4PP) had been developed for the ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). Since the current distribution in the sample crystals during the current voltage measurement by the M4PP is localized within the depth of several micrometers from the surface, the system is sensitive to the surface conductivity, which is related with the surface superstructure. It was installed in the main chamber of the TEM and the surface conductivity can be measured in situ. The surface structures were observed by reflection electron microscopy and diffraction (REM-RHEED). REM-RHEED enables us to observe the surface superstructures and their structure defects such as surface atomic steps and domain boundaries of the surface superstructure. Thus the effects of the defects on the surface conductivity can be investigated. In the present paper we present the surface conductivity measurement system and its application to the Si(111)-{radical}(3)x{radical}(3)-Ag surface prepared on the Si(111) vicinal surfaces. The result clearly showed that the surface conductivity was affected by step configuration.

  2. Saturn Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  4. Physical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belkind, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a physical system, this book offers a new philosophical interpretation of classical mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. According to Belkind's view the role of physical theory is to describe the motions of the parts of a physical system in relation to the motions of the whole. This approach provides a new perspective into the foundations of physical theory, where motions of parts and wholes of physical systems are taken to be fundamental, prior to spacetime, material properties and laws of motion. He defends this claim with a constructive project, deriving b

  5. The TGF-β/Smad pathway induces breast cancer cell invasion through the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in a spheroid invasion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercinska, Eliza; Naber, Hildegonda P H; Pardali, Evangelia; van der Pluijm, Gabri; van Dam, Hans; ten Dijke, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has opposing roles in breast cancer progression by acting as a tumor suppressor in the initial phase, but stimulating invasion and metastasis at later stages. In contrast to the mechanisms by which TGF-β induces growth arrest, the pathways that mediate tumor invasion are not well understood. Here, we describe a TGF-β-dependent invasion assay system consisting of spheroids of MCF10A1 normal breast epithelial cells (M1) and RAS-transformed (pre-)malignant derivatives (M2 and M4) embedded in collagen gels. Both basal and TGF-β-induced invasion of these cell lines was found to correlate with their tumorigenic potential; M4 showing the most aggressive behavior and M1 showing the least. Basal invasion was strongly inhibited by the TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitor SB-431542, indicating the involvement of autocrine TGF-β or TGF-β-like activity. TGF-β-induced invasion in premalignant M2 and highly malignant M4 cells was also inhibited upon specific knockdown of Smad3 or Smad4. Interestingly, both a broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor and a selective MMP2 and MMP9 inhibitor mitigated TGF-β-induced invasion of M4 cells, while leaving basal invasion intact. In line with this, TGF-β was found to strongly induce MMP2 and MMP9 expression in a Smad3- and Smad4-dependent manner. This collagen-embedded spheroid system therefore offers a valuable screening model for TGF-β/Smad- and MMP2- and MMP9-dependent breast cancer invasion.

  6. Novel ultrasonic distance measuring system based on correlation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gądek K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative method for measuring the time delay of ultrasonic waves. Pulse methods used in the previous studies was characterized by latency. The method of phase correlation, presented in this article is free from this disadvantages. Due to the phase encoding with the use of Walsh functions the presented method allows to obtain better precision than previous methods. The algorithm to measure delay of the reflected wave with the use of microprocessor ARM Cortex M4 linked to a PC has been worked out and tested. This method uses the signal from the ultrasonic probe to precisely determine the time delay, caused by the propagation in medium, possible. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method a part of the measuring system was implemented in LabVIEW. The presented method proved to be effective, as it is shown in presented simulation results

  7. Certification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WaterSense Product Certification System outlines the process and procedures for the product certification to ensure that all WaterSense labeled products meet EPA's criteria for efficiency and performance.

  8. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions ran......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital.......At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range...... and systems. The basis for this theme is the work conducted at the Utzon(x) Research Group at Aalborg University, in combination with the rich tradition and implementation of masonry work in Denmark, which has attracted increasing attention from architectural practitioners and researchers alike. How should...

  9. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need......, cognitive psychology, and semantics. However, machine learning for signal processing plays a key role at all the levels of the cognitive processes, and we expect this to be a new emerging trend in our community in the coming years. Current examples of the use of machine learning for signal processing......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...

  10. Bitcoin System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Lánský

    2017-01-01

    .... Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education...

  11. Septic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  12. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  13. Systems Thinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, Magnus; Shipp, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Systems Thinkers presents a biographical history of the field of systems thinking, by examining the life and work of thirty of its major thinkers. It discusses each thinker's key contributions, the way this contribution was expressed in practice and the relationship between their life and ideas. This discussion is supported by an extract from the thinker's own writing, to give a flavour of their work and to give readers a sense of which thinkers are most relevant to their own interests. \\ud \\...

  14. Alarm System

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTAŞ, H.Haldun; DALDAL, Nihat

    2010-01-01

    Remote management of several home and office appliances is a subject of growing interest and in recent years we have seen many systems providing such controls. In this study, we have developed a cellular phone based home/office remote controller equipped with power controllers, an alarm system, a voice memory and a back-up battery unit. In traditional PSTN based remote controllers, the user always has the possibility of line cuts due to fires or professional burglars cutting the wires before ...

  15. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  16. Systemic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  17. Turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  18. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  19. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  20. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  1. Blackboard Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    knowledge sources and the blackboard. Why can’t I get away with placing a hunk of ground beef, a can of tomato sauce , a box of spaghetti, and bottles of...conjectured about their existence and their whereabouts from other information. 41 . . . ~ . . . . . . Blackboard Systems Nii task is the cocktail

  2. Systems chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Otto, Sijbren

    2008-01-01

    The study of complex mixtures of interacting synthetic molecules has historically not received much attention from chemists, even though research into complexity is well established in the neighbouring fields. However, with the huge recent interest in systems biology and the availability of modern

  3. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  4. Quorum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2017-01-01

    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  5. Decentralized Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    decisions (determining the residence of processes when they were created) in the domain of the .application software rather than the operating system...proposing refinements to the programming langauge EPL. These refinements are described in terms at tLair impact on the sy-ntax of the language and

  6. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...

  7. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...

  8. Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  9. Fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  10. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    consisting of differential equations describing the rate of change of concentration of each of the metabolites can be constructed. Such a system of equations can then be solved to obtain insights about the essentiality of each component. For example, a math- ematical model of glycolysis in T. brucei has been built, based on.

  11. Systems 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    these systems required the existence of a capable and experienced technical workforce. Unfortunately, the demographic time bomb of the baby boomer ...technical workforce. Unfortunately, the demographic time bomb of the baby boomer generation technical workforce created a drought of talent at...decades, with application to defense, healthcare , and energy. This includes proven, successful applications at a significantly smaller scale than

  12. Troubleshooting pneumatic conveying systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, D.

    1991-01-01

    Fault location in pneumatic conveying systems is discussed under the following sections: system throughput problems; types of systems; system component problems; system related problems; and product related problems.

  13. Systems Chronotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innominato, Pasquale F.; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A.; Lévi, Francis A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system–resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and

  14. Mechanized system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordiyenko, N.F.; Borisov, V.V.; Dudchenko, N.I.; Ivanov, I.F.; Kravtsov, V.P.; Malyuga, M.F.; Ostapenko, A.F.; Samoylov, A.V.; Stepanovich, G.Ya.; Tishchenko, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanized system is proposed consisting of a guidance beam, hydraulic supports and a rotating telescopic link between a base component and a hydraulic jack. Accurate system orientation is made possible by joining the anchoring and transfer units together, and by using a guidance beam placed at an incline to the collapsed rock. These anchoring and transfer units which face the upper sections, share a common base and have slide bars, making them capable of shifting lengthwise in the direction of the hydraulic jacks. The lower base section has a clamp-type support for attachment to the guidance beam. This support is made up of 4 link-pivot components capable of rotating on an axis perpendicular to the section axis.

  15. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational...... design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  16. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    , the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout....

  17. Gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  18. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  19. Systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahathya R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma is a rare generalized disorder of connective tissue origin. This condition is predominantly a clinical diagnosis, based on the clinical signs and symptoms. Here is a case report of 26-year-old female patient with the classical features of this disease. This case is reported for its rarity and variable expressivity. This article also reviews the literature of this uncommon condition.

  20. Copernican System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  1. Bioregenerative system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The design course is an eight semester credit multi-disciplinary engineering design course taught primarily to Engineering Science, Aerospace, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering seniors. This year the course project involved the design of the three interrelated loops: atmospheric, liquid nutrient and solid waste management, associated with growing higher plants to support man during long-term space missions. The project is complementary to the NASA Kennedy Space Center Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) project. The first semester the class worked on a preliminary design for a complete system. This effort included means for monitoring and control of composition, temperature, flow rate, etc., for the atmosphere and liquid nutrient solution; disease and contaminant monitoring and control; plant mechanical support, propagation and harvesting; solid and liquid waste recycling; and system maintenance and refurbishing. The project has significant biological, mechanical, electrical and Al/Robotics aspects. The second semester a small number of subsystems or components, identified as important and interesting during the first semester, were selected for detail design, fabrication, and testing. The class was supported by close cooperation with The Kennedy Space Center and by two teaching assistants. The availability of a dedicated, well equipped project room greatly enhanced the communication and team spirit of the class.

  2. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  3. ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning System Updates and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, A. I.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The ElarmS earthquake early warning algorithm has been detecting earthquakes throughout California since 2007. It is one of the algorithms that contributes to CISN's ShakeAlert, a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed for California. Overall, ElarmS performance has been excellent. Over the past year (July 1, 2014 - July 1, 2015), ElarmS successfully detected all but three of the significant earthquakes (M4+) that occurred within California. Of the 24 events that were detected, the most notable was the M6.0 South Napa earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The first alert for this event was sent in 5.1 seconds with an initial magnitude estimate of M5.7. This alert provided approximately 8 seconds of warning of the impending S-wave arrival to the city of San Francisco. The magnitude estimate increased to the final value of M6.0 within 15 seconds of the initial alert. One of the two events that were not detected by ElarmS occurred within 30 seconds of the M6.0 Napa mainshock. The two other missed events occurred offshore in a region with sparse station coverage in the Eureka area. Since its inception, ElarmS has evolved and adapted to meet new challenges. On May 30, 2015, an extraordinarily deep (678km) M7.8 teleseism in Japan generated 5 false event detections for earthquakes greater than M4 within a minute due to the simultaneous arrival of the P-waves at stations throughout California. In order to improve the speed and accuracy of the ElarmS detections, we are currently exploring new methodologies to quickly evaluate incoming triggers from individual stations. Rapidly determining whether or not a trigger at a given station is due to a local earthquake or some other source (such as a distant teleseism) could dramatically increase the confidence in individual triggers and reduce false alerts.

  4. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  5. Linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlès, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  6. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  7. Sterilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  8. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  9. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  10. Modelling the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, L.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bregoli, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Butler, R. C.; Foppiani, I.; Lombini, M.; Patti, M.; Ciliegi, P.

    MAORY is the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Module for the E-ELT. The baseline design assumes six sodium Laser Guide Stars and three Natural Guide Stars for wavefront sensing. Three deformable mirrors, including the telescope adaptive mirror M4, are optically conjugated to different altitudes in the atmosphere to achieve compensation of the atmospheric turbulence effects over an extended Field of View. In preparation for the project phase-B we are analyzing different critical aspects of such a system. We are developing a versatile and modular end-to-end simulation code that makes use of GPUs to obtain high-fidelity modelling of the system performance and, in parallel, a semplified code for the analysis of the effects induced by the temporal variation of the sodium layer where the artificial laser guide stars are generated. An overview of the work in progress will be given.

  11. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  12. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  13. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  14. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  15. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  16. Separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  17. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  18. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  19. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  20. Interculturality and World Literary System(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    kulj, Jola

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Interculturality and World Literary System(s)" Jola Škulj proposes a new framework for studying planetary exchanges of literatures, one that subverts the systemic distinction between centers and peripheries...

  1. Interculturality and World Literary System(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Škulj, Jola

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Interculturality and World Literary System(s)" Jola Škulj proposes a new framework for studying planetary exchanges of literatures, one that subverts the systemic distinction between centers and peripheries...

  2. Into the Crystal Ball. Third World Military Industries: Implications for the Global Arms Transfer System and U.S. National Security Interests,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    U.S. produced almost 4,000 F-4 Phantoms . (Richard M. Saunders, "Standardization: In Search of the Holy Grail," Army Magazine, February 1979, p. 2.) A...apparently being made between third world industrial products. e.C., .nese supq d, a turnkey operation, f-nd:.nq and sup"v.n. a :om=p a.e F-4 m:4- gSF ...34 Baltimore Sun, November 21, l9d2, p.1). The Luftwaffe is now also extending the service lives of its Phantoms by installing new weapon system computers in

  3. Comparison of ground motions estimated from prediction equations and from observed damage during the M = 4.6 1983 Liège earthquake (Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García Moreno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On 8 November 1983 an earthquake of magnitude 4.6 damaged more than 16 000 buildings in the region of Liège (Belgium. The extraordinary damage produced by this earthquake, considering its moderate magnitude, is extremely well documented, giving the opportunity to compare the consequences of a recent moderate earthquake in a typical old city of Western Europe with scenarios obtained by combining strong ground motions and vulnerability modelling. The present study compares 0.3 s spectral accelerations estimated from ground motion prediction equations typically used in Western Europe with those obtained locally by applying the statistical distribution of damaged masonry buildings to two fragility curves, one derived from the HAZUS programme of FEMA (FEMA, 1999 and another developed for high-vulnerability buildings by Lang and Bachmann (2004, and to a method proposed by Faccioli et al. (1999 relating the seismic vulnerability of buildings to the damage and ground motions. The results of this comparison reveal good agreement between maxima spectral accelerations calculated from these vulnerability and fragility curves and those predicted from attenuation law equations, suggesting peak ground accelerations for the epicentral area of the 1983 earthquake of 0.13–0.20 g (g: gravitational acceleration.

  4. İLKÖĞRETİM 4. VE 5. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN İNTERNET KULLANMA DURUMLARI

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Ali; YAŞAR, Şefik

    2003-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, ilköğretim 4. ve 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin İnternet kullanma durumları, öğrencilerin, öğretmenlerin ve anne-babaların görüşlerine dayalı olarak ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma tarama modelinde olup, uygulaması 2001-2002 öğretim yılında Eskişehir il merkezinde Millî Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı İbrahim Karaoğlanoğlu İlköğretim Okulunda gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sürecinde 10 sınıf öğretmeni, 17 öğrenci ve 16 anne-babayla görüşülmüştür. Araştırma verileri, öğrenci, öğretm...

  5. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  6. Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms: experiment and theory Level 4 Milestone M4FT-14LA0804024 Fuel Cycle Research & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Christopher D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center; Kim, Eunja [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goff, George Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kolman, David Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document meets Level 4 Milestone: Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms - experiment and theory. A multiphysics model is introduces that will provide the framework for the quantitative prediction of corrosion rates of metallic waste forms incorporating the fission product Tc. The model requires a knowledge of the properties of not only the metallic waste form, but also the passive oxide films that will be generated on the waste form, and the chemistry of the metal/oxide and oxide/environment interfaces. in collaboration with experimental work, the focus of this work is on obtaining these properties from fundamental atomistic models. herein we describe the overall multiphysics model, which is based on MacDonald's point-defect model for passivity. We then present the results of detailed electronic-structure calculations for the determination of the compatibility and properties of Tc when incorporated into intermetallic oxide phases. This work is relevant to the formation of multi-component oxides on metal surfaces that will incorporate Tc, and provide a kinetic barrier to corrosion (i.e. the release of Tc to the environment). Atomistic models that build upon the electronic structure calculations are then described using the modified embedded atom method to simulate metallic dissolution, and Buckingham potentials to perform classical molecular dynamics and statics simulations of the technetium (and, later, iron-technetium) oxide phases. Electrochemical methods were then applied to provide some benchmark information of the corrosion and electrochemical properties of Technetium metal. The results indicate that published information on Tc passivity is not complete and that further investigation is warranted.

  7. Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test: Fiscal Year 1998 Status Report Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program Deliverable SPU85M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussod, G.Y.; Turin, H.J.; Lowry, W.E.

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the status of the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) and documents the progress of construction activities and site and laboratory characterization activities undertaken in fiscal year 1998. Also presented are predictive flow-and-transport simulations for Test Phases 1 and 2 of testing and the preliminary results and status of these test phases. Future anticipated results obtained from unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport testing in the Calico Hills Formation at Busted Butte are also discussed in view of their importance to performance assessment (PA) needs to build confidence in and reduce the uncertainty of site-scale flow-and-transport models and their abstractions for performance for license application. The principal objectives of the test are to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain, as identified by the PA working group in February 1997. These include but are not restricted to: (1) The effect of heterogeneities on flow and transport in unsaturated and partially saturated conditions in the Calico Hills Formation. In particular, the test aims to address issues relevant to fracture-matrix interactions and permeability contrast boundaries; (2) The migration behavior of colloids in fractured and unfractured Calico Hills rocks; (3) The validation through field testing of laboratory sorption experiments in unsaturated Calico Hills rocks; (4) The evaluation of the 3-D site-scale flow-and-transport process model (i.e., equivalent-continuum/dual-permeability/discrete-fracture-fault representations of flow and transport) used in the PA abstractions for license application; and (5) The effect of scaling from lab scale to field scale and site scale.

  8. Rupture process of the Milan, Kansas Earthquake of November 12, 2014 (M4.9) and Its Relationship to Fluid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, G. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Yeck, W.; McNamara, D. E.; Mueller, C. S.; Boyd, O. S.

    2016-12-01

    From 1974-2012, Kansas had experienced only 15 earthquakes of M>3.0, a rate of less than one earthquake every two years. In 2014 and 2015 the number of earthquakes (M≥3.0) was 108. These events were located almost exclusively in Harper and Sumner counties, a region in southern Kansas where wastewater injection from oil and gas extraction operations had dramatically increased starting about 2010. The largest recorded earthquake in Kansas (Mw 4.9) occurred northeast of Milan on November 12, 2014 in a region previously devoid of such large events. Applying multi-station processing to data from a local seismic network, we are able to detail the rupture process, rupture geometry and stress drop ( 1.7 MPa) of the main shock. The first-month aftershocks define a well-delineated zone which aligns with the NS nodal plane of the USGS/COMCAT focal mechanism. The causative fault plane is inferred to be an extension of the Nemaha fault zone. The first-year aftershocks expand well beyond the original rupture zone. Characteristics of this earthquake that are shared by other earthquakes induced by fluid injection into permeable formations overlying crystalline basement include: (1) the unprecedented occurrence of earthquakes in a previously near-aseismic region; (2) wastewater injection wells in the vicinity (about 10-20 km) of the main-shock epicenter; (3) seismicity following episodes of increased fluid injection; and (4) a geological structure that could be activated by changes in pore pressure and hydraulic connectivity. Pockets of seismicity at the extremities of the rupture zone suggest stress may have been transferred to the ends of the fault implying some seismic hazard remains. In assessing seismic hazard, an empirical formula from the Electric Power Institute (EPRI) that uses felt area to estimate moment magnitude is often applied to historical earthquakes. This earthquake provides an opportunity to test the efficacy of that formula. The earthquake had been felt as far north as Omaha, Nebraska, as far south as Dallas, Texas and as far east as Memphis, Tennessee. Using the felt area derived from reports of the earthquake to the Did You Feel It Program (DYFI) program of the USGS for this earthquake, we find approximate upper and lower bounds of Mw from the formula to be 4.5 and 4.8, respectively, while the measured Mw was 4.9.

  9. H11320_GEO_4M: 4-m ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11320 in Geographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial...

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange of New Na/Nb/M(4+)/O/H(2)O(M=Ti,Zr) Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May

    1999-05-07

    Due to the vast diversity of chemical media in which metal separations are executed, a wide range of ion separation materials are employed. This results in an ongoing effort to discover new phases with novel ion exchange properties. We present here the synthesis of a novel class of thermally and chemically stable microporous, niobate-based materials. Ion exchange studies show these new phases are highly selective for Sr2+ and other bivalent metals.

  11. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  12. 1,3-Propanediammonium m4-1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylato(4–copper(II dihydrate with a microporous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN POLETI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure analysis of the title complex, (H3NC3H6NH3[Cu{C6H2(COO4}]·2H2O, showed that the structure is built up from Cu(II and tetradentate 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate( 4– (btc ions forming a 3D open-framework with two different channels extending parallel to the 110/1,–1,0 and 001 directions. The first,wider channels accommodate 1,3-propanediammonium cations, whereas the second ones are filled with H2O molecules. The Cu(II ions are in a tetrahedrally distorted square-planar environment consisting of four carboxylate O atoms from four different btc ligands. The four uncoordinated O atoms from the same carboxylate groups are placed around Cu(II at longer distances (~2.8Å, forming a distorted sphenoid. The complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cc2m with a = 8.887(1, b = 11.493(2, c = 16.457(3 Å, V = 1680.9(5 Å3 and Z = 4. Final agreement indices are: R1 = 0.0303 for 1012 reflections with I > 2s(I, wR2 = 0.0493 for 1317 independent reflections and 123 refined parameters. The compound was also characterized by IR spectroscopy and TG/DSC analysis.

  13. Path and site effects deduced from merged transfrontier internet macroseismic data of two recent M4 earthquakes in northwest Europe using a grid cell approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Sira, Christophe; Hinzen, Klaus-G.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    The online collection of earthquake reports in Europe is strongly fragmented across numerous seismological agencies. This paper demonstrates how collecting and merging online institutional macroseismic data strongly improves the density of observations and the quality of intensity shaking maps. Instead of using ZIP code Community Internet Intensity Maps, we geocode individual response addresses for location improvement, assign intensities to grouped answers within 100 km2 grid cells, and generate intensity attenuation relations from the grid cell intensities. Grid cell intensity maps are less subjective and illustrate a more homogeneous intensity distribution than communal ZIP code intensity maps. Using grid cells for ground motion analysis offers an advanced method for exchanging transfrontier equal-area intensity data without sharing any personal information. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on the felt responses of two clearly felt earthquakes: the 8 September 2011 ML 4.3 (Mw 3.7) Goch (Germany) and the 22 May 2015 ML 4.2 (Mw 3.7) Ramsgate (UK) earthquakes. Both events resulted in a non-circular distribution of intensities which is not explained by geometrical amplitude attenuation alone but illustrates an important low-pass filtering due to the sedimentary cover above the Anglo-Brabant Massif and in the Lower Rhine Graben. Our study illustrates the effect of increasing bedrock depth on intensity attenuation and the importance of the WNW-ESE Caledonian structural axis of the Anglo-Brabant Massif for seismic wave propagation. Seismic waves are less attenuated - high Q - along the strike of a tectonic structure but are more strongly attenuated - low Q - perpendicular to this structure, particularly when they cross rheologically different seismotectonic units separated by crustal-rooted faults.

  14. Precise measurements of αk for the 346.5 keV M4 transition from ^197Pt^m: A test of internal conversion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J.; Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Hernberg, M.; Goodwin, J. R.; Iacob, V. E.

    2008-10-01

    Precise values for internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) are important in the study of nuclear decay schemes; they are also useful for detector efficiency calibration. A recent survey revealed that few measured ICCs are known to a high precision (˜ 1%); in addition, there is some theoretical uncertainty over how to deal with the atomic vacancy left by the departing electron during the internal conversion process. Texas A&M has previously precisely measured the ICCs for ^193Ir, ^137Ba, and ^134Cs as a test of internal conversion theory; we now consider the ICC for ^197Pt^m as a further test. The ^197Pt^m was produced by thermal neutron activation of separated ^196Pt (97.43% pure). Two separate sources were produced; x-ray and gamma-ray emissions from each source were recorded by a High Purity Germanium Detector (+/- 0.20% absolute efficiency uncertainty). After impurity subtraction and attenuation correction, preliminary results for the αk value for the two sources have now been obtained. The αk from source one is 4.24 (13); the αk from source two is 4.26 (8). While these values are still tentative, the results show agreement with the theory that considers the atomic vacancy.

  15. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  16. Magnetism in a graphene-4 f -3 d hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttmann, Felix; Klar, David; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin; Smekhova, Alevtina; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Caciuc, Vasile; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Michely, Thomas; Wende, Heiko

    2017-02-01

    We create an interface of graphene with a metallic and magnetic support that leaves its electronic structure largely intact. This is achieved by exposing epitaxial graphene on ferromagnetic thin films of Co and Ni to vapor of the rare earth metal Eu at elevated temperatures, resulting in the intercalation of an Eu monolayer in between graphene and its substrate. The system is atomically well defined, with the Eu monolayer forming a (√{3 }×√{3 }) R 30∘ superstructure with respect to the graphene lattice. Thereby, we avoid the strong hybridization with the (Ni,Co) substrate 3 d states that otherwise drastically modify the electronic structure of graphene. This picture is suggested by our x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements which show that after Eu intercalation the empty 2 p states of C atoms resemble more the ones measured for graphite in contrast to graphene directly bound to 3 d ferromagnetic substrates. We use x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co and Ni L2 ,3 and Eu M4 ,5 as an element-specific probe to investigate magnetism in these systems. An antiferromagnetic coupling between Eu and Co/Ni moments is found, which is so strong that a magnetic moment of the Eu layer can be detected at room temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the antiferromagnetic coupling and provide an atomic insight into the magnetic coupling mechanism.

  17. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  18. System of Systems Analytic Workbench - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    System of Systems Analytic Workbench – 2017 Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-112 August 31, 2017 Principal Investigator: Dr. Karen Marais...Sponsor: Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Systems Engineering Report No. SERC-2017-TR-112...Date August 31, 2017 Copyright © 2017 Stevens Institute of Technology, Systems Engineering Research Center

  19. System and Actor Perspectives on Sociotechnical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, J.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the complexity of analyzing and designing sociotechnical systems: systems that involve both complex physical-technical systems and networks of interdependent actors. It is shown that, although a hard system perspective and an actor perspective differ greatly in terms of

  20. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  1. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  2. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  3. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  4. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  5. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  6. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Immune System KidsHealth > For Parents > Immune System Print A A ... lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ...

  7. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System Print A A ... of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  8. Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet What is multiple system atrophy? ... can I get more information? What is multiple system atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  9. Integrated library systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  10. Fractional Multidimensional System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaogang; Lu, Junguo

    2017-01-01

    The multidimensional ($n$-D) systems described by Roesser model are presented in this paper. These $n$-D systems consist of discrete systems and continuous fractional order systems with fractional order $\

  11. Demultiplexing based on frequency-domain joint decision MMA for MDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caili, Gong; Li, Li; Guijun, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a demultiplexing method based on frequency-domain joint decision multi-modulus algorithm (FD-JDMMA) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) system. The performance of FD-JDMMA is compared with frequency-domain multi-modulus algorithm (FD-MMA) and frequency-domain least mean square (FD-LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that FD-JDMMA outperforms FD-MMA in terms of BER and convergence speed in the cases of mQAM (m=4, 16 and 64) formats. And it is also demonstrated that FD-JDMMA achieves better BER performance and converges faster than FD-LMS in the cases of 16QAM and 64QAM. Furthermore, FD-JDMMA maintains similar computational complexity as the both equalization algorithms.

  12. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  13. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  14. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  15. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  16. Expression of non-neuronal cholinergic system in maxilla of rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Xu, Haihua; Che, Xiaoxia

    2014-12-17

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to be a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is also produced in a variety of non-neuronal tissues and cell. The existence of ACh in maxilla in vivo and potential regulation role for osteogenesis need further study. Components of the cholinergic system (ACh, esterase, choline acetyltransferase, high-affinity choline uptake, n- and mAChRs) were determined in maxilla of rat in vivo, by means of Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results showed RNA for CarAT, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase member 20 (Slc25a20), VAChT, OCTN2, OCT1, OCT3, organic cation transporter member 4 (Slc22a4), AChE, BChE, nAChR subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, α7, α10, β1, β2, β4, γ and mAChR subunits M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 were detected in rat's maxilla. RNA of VAChT, AChE, nAChR subunits α2, β1, β4 and mAChR subunits M4 had abundant expression (2(-ΔCt) > 0.03). Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for ACh, VAChT, nAChRα7 and AChE. ACh was expressed in mesenchymal cells, chondroblast, bone and cartilage matrix and bone marrow cells, The VAChT expression was very extensively while ACh receptor α7 was strongly expressed in newly formed bone matrix of endochondral and bone marrow ossification, AchE was found only in mesenchymal stem cells, cartilage and bone marrow cells. ACh might exert its effect on the endochondral and bone marrow ossification, and bone matrix mineralization in maxilla.

  17. Horizontal fall arrest systems: rigid systems vs. flexible line systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, David

    2004-09-01

    There are many types of flexible and rigid systems on the market, both permanent and temporary. This article does not mean to encompass all possible systems or hazards and only intends to give an outline of what at a minimum should be examined to make an educated purchasing decision. In many instances, the buyer will use the same type of horizontal system for all situations. This is a good idea in some cases because it will reduce the need for training on a number of different systems, reduce system compatibility issues, and may reduce costs for installation, supply, and maintenance. This may not be the best idea if the hazard areas differ a great deal; as we have illustrated, one system may not function for all areas and tasks. The rigid system is typically the best solution simply based on the fact the worker won't fall as far as when he is connected to a flexible system, because of the elimination of any dynamic sag and horizontal energy absorber deployment. In any case, where you stop the worker from falling farther, you decrease the chance there may be an incident where the worker is injured. From a cost standpoint, flexible fall arrest systems typically are cheapest. In the end, safety professionals must balance the cost and effectiveness of the system to prevent an injury.

  18. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  19. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  20. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  1. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  2. Triggering system innovation in agricultural innovation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, James A.; Williams, Tracy; Nicholas, Graeme; Foote, Jeff; Rijswijk, Kelly; Barnard, Tim; Beechener, Sam; Horita, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process for stimulating engagement among change agents to develop a shared understanding of systemic problems in the agricultural innovation system (AIS), challenge prevalent institutional logics and identify actions they might undertake to stimulate system innovation.

  3. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  4. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  5. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  6. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  7. The complement system in systemic autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Daha, Mohamed R.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Complement is part of the innate immune system. Its major function is recognition and elimination of pathogens via direct killing and/or stimulation of phagocytosis. Activation of the complement system is, however, also involved in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune diseases. Activation via

  8. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  9. Paradigms of Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems. We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are made of different technologies. This research has been made under the guidance of Dr. Ioan AND ONE, Professor and Director of Research Laboratory.

  10. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  11. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  12. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  13. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  14. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government...... proceeds using actual as well as historical materials inside the framework of recent system theory.  ......Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...

  15. Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0058 Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System Byeong Ho Kang UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA Final Report 05/31/2016...COVERED (From - To) 20 May 2015 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...298 10/26/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-15-1-4061 “ Intrusion Detection Systems with

  16. Collaborative Systems Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  17. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A.A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  18. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  19. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  20. The Trinity System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  1. System Software 7 Macintosh

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    System 7 is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers and was part of the classic Mac OS line of operating systems. It was introduced on May 13, 1991, by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. This is the first real major evolution of the Macintosh system, bringing a significant improvement in the user interface, improved stability and many new features such as the ability to use multiple applications at the same time. "System 7" is the last operating system name of the Macintosh that contains the word "system". Macintosh operating systems were later called "Mac OS" (for Macintosh Operating System).

  2. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  3. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Needs Glasses and Contact Lenses Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth ...

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  5. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  6. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  7. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  8. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  9. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  10. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  11. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  12. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  13. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  14. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  15. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  16. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  17. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  18. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  19. L-system fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  20. SYSTEMS APPROACH FOR CONTEMPORARY COMPLEX TOURISM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Jere Jakulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems approach represents thinking outside the box and is connected to the transformation of common linear approach and thinking. Western society followed rules of classical western science, which form many centuries took analysis as mainstream of thinking and researching. One can find perfect and logical explanation for this. In the past, classical science researched matter and reached optimal results with analysis and analytical thinking. Nowadays more and more scientists research intangible world around matter and cooperate with prevailed, fastest growing service industry such as tourism. Following paper presents systems approach in tourism, which defines wideness, co-dependency among tourism system elements, and "big picture" point of view. In a frame of systems methodology, we will show the importance of systems approach in order to understand complexity in the area of tourism. At once an excellent example of the analytical approach will be shown in so called "the tip of the iceberg" theory, where events represent analytical thinking and structure or base of the iceberg represents systems approach. Complexity of the tourism systems will be explained and a model of a common tourism system developed. We claim that the analysis, in the past, caused technological progress; it caused the development of western science, which we now know it. It led to the discoveries but for dealing with contemporary complex challenges is not sufficient. Today a systems approach is suitable enough for dealing with complex question in the area of tourism and of course in global society.

  1. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  2. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  3. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  4. Hydroponic system design with real time OS based on ARM Cortex-M microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmadja, Wiedjaja; Liawatimena, Suryadiputra; Lukas, Jonathan; Nata, Eka Putra Leo; Alexander, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    Hydroponic is the process of growing plants without soil, plant root flooded or moist with nutrient-rich solutions in inert material. Hydroponics has become a reality for greenhouse growers in virtually all climates. Large hydroponic installations exist throughout the world for growing flowers, vegetables and some short period fruit like tomato and cucumber. In soilless culture, we must maintain stable pH and conductivity level of nutrient solution to make plant grow well, large variation of pH of certain time will poisoned plant. This paper describes development complete automation hydroponic system, from maintaining stable nutrient composition (conductivity and pH), grow light, and monitor plant environment such as CO2, temperature and humidity. The heart of our automation is ARM Cortex-M4 from ST Microelectronic running ARM mbed OS, the official Real Time Operating System (RTOS) for ARM Cortex-M microcontroller. Using RTOS gives us flexibility to have multithreaded process. Results show that system capable to control desired concentration level with variation of less than 3%, pH sensor show good accuracy 5.83% from pH value 3.23-10. Growing light intensity measurement show result 105 μmol/m2/s therefore we need turn on the light at least 17 hours/day to fulfil plant light requirement. RTOS give good performance with latency and jitter less than 15 us, system overall show good performance and accuracy for automating hydroponic plant in vegetative phase of growth.

  5. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    As initially suggested by E. Sontag, it is possible to approximate an arbitrary nonlinear system by a set of piecewise linear systems. In this work we concentrate on how to control a system given by a set of piecewise linear systems defined on simplices. By using the results of L. Habets and J. v...

  6. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  7. Future Optical Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Figure 40: U.S. Multiple System Operator and Telco Carrier Network Infrastructure ......................... 43 Future Optical Communications Systems – vi...access networks deployed today. Future Optical Communications Systems – 43 An OIDA Forum Report Figure 40: U.S. Multiple System Operator and Telco

  8. Riesz spectral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, B.Z.; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study systems in which the system operator, $A$, has a Riesz basis of (generalized) eigenvectors. We show that this class is subset of the class of spectral operators as studied by Dunford and Schwartz. For these systems we investigate several system theoretic properties, like

  9. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  10. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  11. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stones Brain and Nervous System Spleen and Lymphatic System KidsHealth > For Teens > Spleen and Lymphatic System Print A A A What's in this article? ... El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep ...

  12. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  13. Coaches as System Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

  14. Information Systems Security Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  15. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  16. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  18. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  19. Trans-Disciplinary Systems as Complex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, P.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Stjepandic, J; Chen, C.H.; Trappey, A.C.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Wognum, N.

    2017-01-01

    The system concept is a widely-used concept in research and practice. Already in the 50s of the previous century, a community was created to investigate interrelationships between domains and create a theory surpassing and comparing domains. The General Systems

  20. What is systems engineering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T. [comp.] [Arizona Univ. (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  1. Transdisciplinarity Needs Systemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hofkirchner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main message of this paper is that systemism is best suited for transdisciplinary studies. A description of disciplinary sciences, transdisciplinary sciences and systems sciences is given, along with their different definitions of aims, scope and tools. The rationale for transdisciplinarity is global challenges, which are complex. The rationale for systemism is the concretization of understanding complexity. Drawing upon Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s intention of a General System Theory, three items deserve attention—the world-view of a synergistic systems technology, the world picture of an emergentist systems theory, and the way of thinking of an integrationist systems method.

  2. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    We propose a novel and uniform approach to type systems for (process) calculi, which roughly pushes the challenge of designing type systems and proving properties about them to the meta-model of bigraphs. Concretely, we propose to define type systems for the term language for bigraphs, which...... of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models......; and the possibility of modularly adapting the type systems to extensions of the BRS (with new controls). As proof of concept we present a model of a pi-calculus, develop an i/o-type system with subtyping on this model, prove crucial properties (including subject reduction) for this type system, and transfer...

  3. Commercial message bank system; CM banku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The system stores and sends out commercial messages, consisting of moving images or freeze-frame images, at broadcasting stations. Using this system, the need of recording materials with redundancy is dispensed with and the image quality is not degraded after repeated reproduction. The system promptly copes with complicated broadcasting schedule preparation and emergency replacements. A video server VIDEOS{sub TM} of Toshiba Corporation make provided with a flash memory device constitutes the core of the system, and therefore it is superior in random-accessibility and reliability to the hard disk-provided types of other manufacturers. The system enjoys advantage over the products of other makers in terms of image quality since it supports, in addition to compression-free recording, the variable rate compression scheme which is less vulnerable to image quality degradation. It has one input port and six output ports, and records more than 3000 commercial messages in 15 seconds. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Structures and semiotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Georgij Yu

    2007-01-01

    A model of interrelations between various types of mentation and semiotic systems is suggested. The relations of structures, forms, and signs in different mentation processes and their effect on semiotic systems are discussed. Major features of these systems are examined from the viewpoint of simulation of changes in physical objects and human environment. Most are multilateral and are clearly structures of various systems. Their organizing role in semiotic systemity are evinced through the a...

  5. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  6. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  7. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  8. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  9. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  10. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  11. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  12. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  14. Comparative cytogenetics of Carnegiella marthae and Carnegiella strigata (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae and description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leandra Terencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analyses of hatchetfishes Carnegiella marthae and Carnegiella strigata (Gasteropelecidae from the Rio Negro basin were performed using conventional Giemsa staining, silver (Ag -staining and C-banding. The diploid chromosome numbers of both species equaled 2n = 50 but their karyotypes were distinct. We found evidence for sex chromosomes in C. marthae since karyotype of males presented 20 M + 12 SM + 4 ST + 14 A and ZZ ST chromosomes while the females presented 20 M + 12 SM + 4 ST + 14 A and ZW ST chromosomes of distinct size. Conversely, C. strigata presented 4 M + 4 SM + 2 ST + 40 A chromosomes without sex chromosome heteromorphism. Karyotypes of both species had two NOR-bearing SM chromosomes of distinct size indicating the presence of multiple NOR phenotypes. The sex chromosome pair had specific C-banding pattern allowing identification of both Z and W. This heteromorphic system has previously been described for the gasteropelecids.

  15. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  16. Enhanced nurse call systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  17. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  18. Visualization System for Monitoring Data Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Pinho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a Big Data system has a monitoring system for performance evaluation and error prevention. There are some disadvantages in the way that these tools display the information and its targeted approach to physical components. The main goal is to study visual and interactive mechanisms that allow the representation of monitoring data in grid computing environments, providing the end-user information, which can contribute objectively to the system analysis. This paper is an extension of the paper presented at (Pinho and Carvalho 2016 and has the purpose to present the state of the art, carries out the proposed solution and present the achieved goals.

  19. Nonlinearity of colloid systems oxyhydrate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sucharev, Yuri I

    2008-01-01

    The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides - hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties. The polymer-conformational diversity of energetically congenial gel fragments, which continu-ously transform under the effect of, for instance, system dissipation heat, is central to the au-thor's hy

  20. Mathematical representation of electrophoretic mobility in ternary solvent electrolyte systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Jouyban A

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic mobilities of salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine in capillary zone electrophoresis were determined using acetate buffer in mixed solvents containing different concentrations of water, methanol and acetonitrile. Maximum electrophoretic mobilities for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine were observed with water-methanol-acetonitrile ratios of 5:50:45 v/v and 3:60:37 v/v, respectively, and minimum mobilities of both compounds occurred in methanol-acetonitrile ratio of 30:70 v/v. The generated experimental data have been used to evaluate a mathematical model to compute the electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in a ternary solvent electrolyte system. The proposed model is: ln μm =ƒ1 ln μ1+ƒ2 ln μ2+k ƒ3+M1ƒ1 ƒ2+M2 ƒ1ƒ3+M3 ƒ2ƒ3+M4 ƒ1ƒ²1+M5 ƒ²2ƒ3+M6ƒ²2ƒ3+M7ƒ1ƒ2ƒ3. Where μ is the electrophoretic mobility, subscripts m,1, 2 and 3 refer to mixed solvent and solvents 1-3, respectively, f is the volume fraction of the solvent in the mixed solvent system and M1-M7 and K are the model constants calculated by a least squares analysis. The generated experimental data fitted to the model and the back-calculated mobilities were employed to compute the average percentage deviation (APD as an accuracy criterion. The obtained APD for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine are 3.10 and 2.21%, respectively and the low APD values indicate that the model is able to calculate the mobilities within an acceptable error range.

  1. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...... a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly. A full scale hydraulic yaw test rig is available for experiments and tests. The test rig is presented as well as the system schematics of the hydraulic yaw system....

  2. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system.......The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  3. Design of combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    )] This paper addresses an experimentally and theoretically investigation of three different marketed combi systems. Two different combi systems, based on the above mentioned system design, with units where the auxiliary energy supply system is built into the same cabinet as the hot-water tank and one combi...... with constant daily hot water consumption, consumption patterns and space heating demand for all days, and the results are used to validate TrnSys models. Based on simulation models of the combi systems, the thermal behavior is simulated and the thermal performance and the solar fraction of the systems...... simulation models where a number of different design-, control- and consumption parameters are varied....

  4. Identifiability of nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The parameter identifiability problem of deterministic, nonlinear dynamical control systems is studied in the framework of differential geometric systems theory. The relations between nonlinear observability, nonlinear functional expansions and identifiability are investigated and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. In a different approach, by using the uniqueness theorem of nonlinear system realization theory, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for another class of nonlinear systems. These results provide an insight to the identifiability problem of nonlinear systems. The results are illustrated by examples that also show the effectiveness of the conditions obtained. Finally, some possible research topics in this area are suggested.

  5. Microelectronic systems 1 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronic Systems 1 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level 1 unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a basic textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes the reader has little prior knowledge of electronics. The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the concept of systems, to differentiate analogue and digital systems, and to describe the nature of microprocessor-controlled systems. An introduction to programming is

  6. Ubiquitous Annotation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous annotation systems allow users to annotate physical places, objects, and persons with digital information. Especially in the field of location based information systems much work has been done to implement adaptive and context-aware systems, but few efforts have focused on the general...... requirements for linking information to objects in both physical and digital space. This paper surveys annotation techniques from open hypermedia systems, Web based annotation systems, and mobile and augmented reality systems to illustrate different approaches to four central challenges ubiquitous annotation...

  7. Concepts, states, and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Karl Erich

    2000-05-01

    Mathematical System Theory is extended to Conceptual System Theory using Formal Concept Analysis (Wille 1982). States are defined as formal concepts and `points of time' are generalized to `time granules,' interpreted as `pieces' of time needed for the realization of measurements. As a generalization of classical time systems we define conceptual time systems, their state spaces and phase spaces. Time dependent relations among the parts of a conceptual time system are introduced in `relational conceptual time systems.' Applications in psychology and industry, including `conceptual films' are mentioned.

  8. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  9. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  10. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  11. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  12. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  13. Exxon gas system has new dispatching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, C.

    1984-03-01

    Exxon Gas System, Inc., recently began operation of a new gas dispatching center to control its 1500-mile intrastate pipeline system in Texas. The state-of-the-art control system monitors and controls all pipeline-related facilities from the control center in Houston. EGSI's pipeline network delivers gas from producers in South and Northeast Texas to utilities and industrial users in East Texas. From Houston, dispatchers can control flow, operation of compressors, wells and key block valves; and monitor pressures, flow rates and status of equipment such as valves. Data are received through a microwave system and over leased telephone lines from 28 remote terminal units and 200 other input points.

  14. ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning System 2016 Performance and New Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, A. I.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    The ElarmS earthquake early warning system has been detecting earthquakes throughout California since 2007. It is one of the algorithms that contributes to the West Coast ShakeAlert, a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed for the US West Coast. ElarmS is also running in the Pacific Northwest, and in Israel, Chile, Turkey, and Peru in test mode. We summarize the performance of the ElarmS system over the past year and review some of the more problematic events that the system has encountered. During the first half of 2016 (2016-01-01 through 2016-07-21), ElarmS successfully alerted on all events with ANSS catalog magnitudes M>3 in the Los Angeles area. The mean alert time for these 9 events was just 4.84 seconds. In the San Francisco Bay Area, ElarmS detected 26 events with ANSS catalog magnitudes M>3. The alert times for these events is 9.12 seconds. The alert times are longer in the Bay Area than in the Los Angeles area due to the sparser network of stations in the Bay Area. 7 Bay Area events were not detected by ElarmS. These events occurred in areas where there is less dense station coverage. In addition, ElarmS sent alerts for 13 of the 16 moderately-sized (ANSS catalog magnitudes M>4) events that occurred throughout the state of California. One of those missed events was a M4.5 that occurred far offshore in the northernmost part of the state. The other two missed events occurred inland in regions with sparse station coverage. Over the past year, we have worked towards the implementation of a new filterbank teleseismic filter algorithm, which we will discuss. Other than teleseismic events, a significant cause of false alerts and severely mislocated events is spurious triggers being associated with triggers from a real earthquake. Here, we address new approaches to filtering out problematic triggers.

  15. User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A.

    2010-12-01

    As NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and provide customized services that benefit users. As the number of web-based applications continues to grow, data centers and application providers have implemented their own user registration systems and provided new tools and interfaces for their registered users. This has led to the creation of independent registration systems for accessing data and interacting with online tools and services. The user profile information maintained at each of these registration systems is not consistent and the registration enforcement varies by system as well. This problem is in no way unique to EOSDIS and represents a general challenge to the distributed computing community. In a study done in 2007(http://www2007.org/papers/paper620.pd), the average user has approximately 7 passwords for about 25 accounts and enters a password 8 times a day. These numbers have only increased in the last three years. To try and address this, a number of solutions have been offered including Single Sign-On solutions using a common backend like Microsoft Active Directory or an LDAP server, trust based identity providers like OpenID, and various forms of authorization delegation like OAuth or SAML/XACML. This talk discusses the differences between authentication and authorization, the state of the more popular user registration solutions available for distributed use, and some of the technical and policy drivers that need to be considered when incorporating a user registration system into your application.

  16. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  17. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  18. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  19. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  20. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  1. Motivation and reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are

  2. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  3. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  4. Intrusion detection system episteme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Mihályi; Valerie Novitzká; Martina Ľaľová

    2012-01-01

    .... We deal with a simplified model of an intrusion detection system. We model an intrusion detection system as a coalgebra and construct its Kripke model of coalgebraic modal linear logic using powerset endofunctor...

  5. Intensive care alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  6. VT DSL Systems 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT DSL Broadband System dataset (DSL2006) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's DSL broadband system as of 12/31/2006. This data...

  7. VT DSL Systems 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT DSL Broadband System dataset (DSL2007) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's DSL broadband system as of 12/31/2007. This data...

  8. VT Cable Systems 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2005. Numerous cable companies...

  9. VT Cable Systems 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2007) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2007. Numerous cable companies...

  10. Visitor Registration System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Visitor Registration System (VRS) streamlines visitor check-in and check-out process for expediting visitors into USAID. The system captures visitor information...

  11. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  12. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the ... contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of ...

  13. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  14. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It helps ... to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  15. Linux system administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelstein, Tom; Lubanovic, Bill

    2007-01-01

    .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for a Linux System Administrator About This Book How Can We Help? Where Do You Start? Do You Need a Book? Who Needs You? What System Managers Should Know...

  16. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? ...

  17. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  18. Contingent Information Systems Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Schoonhoven, Bram

    1996-01-01

    Situated approaches based on project contingencies are becoming more and more an important research topic for information systems development organizations. The Information Services Organization, which was investigated, has recognized that it should tune its systems development approaches to the

  19. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  20. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top...... and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Different system designs have been tested over longer...... periods in a laboratory. Numeric models of the systems have been developed. The models are verified with measured temperatures and energy quantities. In order to verify the good test results in the laboratory two of the smart SDHW systems have been installed in practice. Measurements will bee carried out...

  1. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  2. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  3. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  4. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carinii) pneumonia Pneumonia - cytomegalovirus Pneumonia Viral pneumonia Walking pneumonia Causes People whose immune system is not working well ... people. They are also more vulnerable to regular causes of pneumonia , which can affect anyone. Your immune system may ...

  5. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  6. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  7. Integrated Reporting Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Integrated Reporting Information System (IRIS) is a flexible and scalable web-based system that supports post operational analysis and evaluation of the National...

  8. Mobile intelligent autonomous systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raol, J. R; Gopal, Ajith K

    2013-01-01

    "Written for systems, mechanical, aero, electrical, civil, industrial, and robotics engineers, this book covers robotics from a theoretical and systems point of view, with an emphasis on the sensor...

  9. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  10. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  11. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  12. A multimedia constraint system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.A. van Hintum; G.J. Reynolds

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems; constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the

  13. Organizing Systemic Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.H. Jaspers (Ferdinand)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSystemic innovation refers to product development activities that involve the change of multiple interdependent components. Unlike autonomous innovation, which refers to components that change independently, systemic innovation is for many firms the norm rather than the exception. This

  14. The Core Knowledge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strat, Thomas M; Smith, Grahame B

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an in-depth description of the Core Knowledge System (CKS)-an integrative environment for the many functions that must be performed by sensor-based autonomous and semi-autonomous systems...

  15. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  18. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  19. Queueing system analysis of multi server model at XYZ insurance company in Tasikmalaya city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajir, Ahmad; Binatari, Nikenasih

    2017-08-01

    Queueing theory or waiting line theory is a theory that deals with the queue process from the customer comes, queue to be served, served and left on service facilities. Queue occurs because of a mismatch between the numbers of customers that will be served with the available number of services, as an example at XYZ insurance company in Tasikmalaya. This research aims to determine the characteristics of the queue system which then to optimize the number of server in term of total cost. The result shows that the queue model can be represented by (M/M/4):(GD/∞/∞), where the arrivals are Poisson distributed while the service time is following exponential distribution. The probability of idle customer service is 2,39% of the working time, the average number of customer in the queue is 3 customers, the average number of customer in a system is 6 customers, the average time of a customer spent in the queue is 15,9979 minutes, the average time a customer spends in the system is 34,4141 minutes, and the average number of busy customer servicer is 3 server. The optimized number of customer service is 5 servers, and the operational cost has minimum cost at Rp 4.323.

  20. Audit Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Alconada, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In the need of renewing their system, the Internal Audit department has given a proposal for building a new one. Taking into consideration the problems of their system they elaborated a requirement's list with the functionalities and features they were expecting from the new management system. This new system would be primarily for the use of the Internal Audit staff but it would also support the follow-up of internal audit recommendations by potentially all CERN staff members.

  1. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increase interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert system is a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology of ...

  2. The Saturn System

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, E. C.; T.C. Owen

    1984-01-01

    Saturn is a giant planet surrounded by numerous rings, many satellites, and a large magnetosphere. Although the Saturn system bears a general resemblance to the Jovian system, it has many unique attributes which provide new insight into the formation and evolution of planetary systems. This introductory chapter provides an overview of the results of recent studies of the Saturn system which are described in detail in the following chapters.

  3. Supertasks and Numeral Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rizza, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Physical supertasks are completed, infinite sequences of events or interactions that occur within a finite amount of time. Examples thereof have been constructed to show that infinite physical systems may violate conservation laws. It is shown in this paper that this conclusion may be critically sensitive to a selection of numeral system. Weaker numeral systems generate physical reports whose inaccuracy simulates the violation of a conservation law. Stronger numeral systems can confirm this e...

  4. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  5. Complex systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems theory is concerned with identifying and characterizing common design elements that are observed across diverse natural, technological and social complex systems. Systems biology, a more holistic approach to study molecules and cells in biology, has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. However, not much appreciation has been granted to the realization that the human cell is an exemplary complex system. Here, I outline general design principles identified in many complex s...

  6. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  7. Power system health analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation.

  8. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  9. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  10. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  11. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  12. Transdisciplinarity Needs Systemism

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Hofkirchner

    2017-01-01

    The main message of this paper is that systemism is best suited for transdisciplinary studies. A description of disciplinary sciences, transdisciplinary sciences and systems sciences is given, along with their different definitions of aims, scope and tools. The rationale for transdisciplinarity is global challenges, which are complex. The rationale for systemism is the concretization of understanding complexity. Drawing upon Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s intention of a General System Theory, three...

  13. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems, robots, space applications, farming, biotech- nology and even medicine. The disciplines of continuous-time and discrete-time sig- nals and systems have become increasingly entwined. Without any doubt, it is advantageous to process conti- nuous-time signals by sampling them. The computer control system for a ...

  14. Systems biology and medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology,. Aruna Asaf ... simple laws. As a result, the most obvious strat- egy for understanding complex natural systems in general was to reduce the system into smaller, sim- pler, and .... networked organization of biological system would emerge ...

  15. Economical space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  16. Beyond Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson, Barry

    1978-01-01

    Management information systems fail because they are based on the assumption that more facts are needed and they overtax computer systems. The alternative proposed here is much smaller (in data banks and dollars) than conventional systems and is designed to aid decision making rather than to build banks of facts. (Author/IRT)

  17. FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

    DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

  18. Contracting for Telecommunications Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Reasons for changing telephone systems at colleges and universities and the preparation and evaluation of requests for proposals (RFP) are discussed. The negotiation and monitoring of the contract are also addressed. It is noted that contracting for a new telecommunications system is extremely complex. Reasons for changing systems include cost…

  19. Intelligent information management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J.S. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Reports are presented from the International Conference on Intelligent Information Management Systems held June 5-7, 1996. Topics are included on information management, database management systems, information technology, and knowledge based systems. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  20. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris