WorldWideScience

Sample records for profitable operations environmental

  1. Gigantic environmental profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned

  2. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Operations management: a tool to increase profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvehill, M J

    2001-03-01

    Operations management enables the efficient utilization of the production systems in a business. This paper will address several key elements in the business competency of operations management. Specifically, this discussion will review the components of a material requirement planning system and a "just-in-time" system for inventory control and time management to enable the dentist to monitor a portion of the practice's overhead costs.

  4. Pearl aquaculture-profitable environmental remediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, S; Dunstan, R H; O'Connor, W; Roberts, T; Toia, R

    2004-02-05

    Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, with pearl oysters able to filter water at rates up to 25 lh(-1)g(-1) of dry wt. tissue. Since this process leads to rapid bioaccumulation of recalcitrant pollutants such as heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides and hydrocarbons from impacted sites, it has prompted the widespread use of molluscs as biomonitors to quantify levels of marine pollution. This paper proposes pearl oyster deployment as a novel bioremediation technology for impacted sites to remove toxic contaminants, reduce nutrient loads and lower concentrations of microbial pathogens. Estimates extrapolated from the literature suggest that a modest pearl oyster farm of 100 t oyster material per year could remove 300 kg heavy metals plus 24 kg of organic contaminants via deposition into the tissue and shell. Furthermore, it was estimated that up to 19 kg of nitrogen may be removed from the coastal ecosystem per tonne of pearl oyster harvested. Pearl oysters are also likely to filter substantial amounts of sewage associated microbial pathogens from the water column. Method of cultivation and site selection are the key to minimising negative environmental impacts of bivalve cultivation. Deployment of oysters at sites with high nutrient and contaminant loadings would be advantageous, as these compounds would be removed from the ecosystem whilst generating a value-added product. Future potential may exist for harvesting bio-concentrated elements for commercial production.

  5. Environmental performance, profitability, asset utilization, debt monitoring and firm value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukit, R. Br; Haryanto, B.; Ginting, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growing issue on firm value shows that firm value is not only determined by the firm ability to increase financial profit, but also by the company's concern in maintaining the environmental condition. The industrial development produces waste that pollutes the environment that has potential to serious impact on the next life. In addition to provide financial benefits, companies are increasingly facing pressure to be socially responsible for the survival of the company. However, past findings demonstrate that the effect of environmental performance, profitability, and asset utilization to the firm’s value are still unclear. This study aims to test whether environmental performance, firm profitability and asset utilization can effectively enhance firm value in two different conditions: intensive debt monitoring and less intensive debt monitoring. Sample of companies is taken from the list of Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2013 to 2015. Using multiple regression analysis, discloses that: in intensive monitoring, managers tend to have high firm value when company has high environmental performance and or high profitability and high asset utilization. Monitoring system needs to be intensified especially for companies with the above characteristics.

  6. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  7. Improving health, safety, and profits in extended hours operations (shiftwork).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Alex; Aguirre, Acacia

    2005-01-01

    Circadian Technologies, Inc. (CIRCADIAN) is an international consulting firm that for over 20 yr has helped employees better cope with shiftwork, while ensuring their employers reduce costs and maximize profits. This paper describes two of the methods employed to reduce accidents, absenteeism, and turnover, while improving morale and productivity in extended hour operations (shiftwork). Shiftworkers rarely receive on-the-job training to help them cope better with the rigors of working nights, evenings, and early mornings. A pre- and post-training study by CIRCADIAN demonstrated improvements in health and fatigue indices, and an increase in daytime sleep length. Companies who provide shiftwork lifestyle training also have lower rates of absenteeism and turnover compared to companies that do not provide training. The second intervention described in this paper is a novel method of shift scheduling. There are thousands of potential schedules, so how does a company choose the best schedule for their facility? The answer lies in allowing employees to be involved in the process of selection. This results in a workforce that experiences less fatigue, turnover and absenteeism, and higher morale.

  8. Environmental management and business profitability - a case study of NPCIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, P.M.; Singh, Jitendra

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for the design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants in India for electricity generation. NPCIL presently has fourteen units in commercial operation. Over the last few years, the performance of Indian nuclear power plants have registered a marked improvement. This has been achieved through sustained and systematic efforts to upgrade all aspects of the plant activities on one hand and on the other, development and implementation of latest tools, techniques and management systems to further enhance their effectiveness. In addition, development and implementation of International Standards on Environmental, Safety and Quality Management have been institutionalized for continual improvement. WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) Peer Reviews are also being conducted. The present paper is an attempt to present a case study of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited in view of the changing perceptions on environmental management and overall business plan. (author)

  9. The Depreciation Impact of the Profit and Activity Development Carried out by an Economic Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrota, Gabriela; Chirculescu, Felicia Maria

    2008-01-01

    It's interesting how an economic operator decides to depreciate its depreciable fixed assets, because depreciation is an expense input from the taxable profit in accordance with the laws in force, thus contributing to diminishing the operating profit/loss and implicitly the gross and net earnings, without real impact on profitability and especially without any impact on the self-funding capacity. But the impact given by the depreciation expenses may be influenced by the organization policy...

  10. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  11. Factor analysis of financial and operational performance measures of non-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2009-01-01

    To understand the important dimensions of the financial and operational performance of non-profit hospitals. Secondary data for non-profit US hospitals between 1996 and 2004. I use iterative principal factor analysis of hospitals' financial and operational ratios for each year of the study. For factor interpretation, I use oblique rotation. Financial ratios were created using cost report data from HCRIS 2552-96 available from the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS). I identify five factors--capital structure, profitability, activity, liquidity, and an operational factor--that explain most of the variation in the performance of non-profit hospitals. I also find that capital structure is more important than profitability in determining the performance of these hospitals. The importance of capital structure highlights a significant shift in the organization of the non-profit hospitals' finances.

  12. In California, not-for-profit hospitals spent more operating expenses on charity care than for-profit hospitals spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Erica; Le, Sidney; Hsia, Renee Y

    2015-08-01

    In exchange for sizable tax exemptions, not-for-profit hospitals must engage in activities that meet the Internal Revenue Service's community benefit standard. The provision of charity care-free care to those unable to pay-can help meet that standard. Bad debt, the other form of uncompensated care, cannot be used to meet the standard, although Medicaid shortfalls can. However, the ACA lacks guidelines for providing charity care, and federal law sets no minimum requirements for community benefit activities. Using data from California, we examined whether the levels of charity and uncompensated care provided differed across general acute care hospitals by profit status and other characteristics during 2011-13. The mean proportion of total operating expenses spent on charity care differed significantly between not-for-profit (1.9 percent) and for-profit hospitals (1.4 percent), in contrast to the mean proportion spent on uncompensated care. Both types of spending varied widely across hospitals. Policy makers should consider measures that remove disincentives to meeting the persistent considerable need for charity care-for example, increasing supports to offset rising Medicaid shortfalls resulting from program expansion-and facilitate the tracking of ACA impacts on the distribution of charity care and uncompensated care delivery. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. The effects of for-profit multihospital system ownership on hospital financial and operating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J R; McCue, M J

    1990-11-01

    The financial and operating performance of independent not-for-profit hospitals acquired by US for-profit multi-hospital systems in 10 Southern states between the years 1978 and 1982 was explored. The impact of system ownership on acquired hospitals was investigated by comparing the average financial performance of hospitals in the two years immediately prior to acquisition to the average for 1984 and 1985 and by comparing changes in the performance of acquired hospitals with changes in matched independent facilities. Findings suggest that for-profit multi-hospital systems were able to improve many of the financial and operating problems of acquired facilities. In comparison to independent not-for-profit hospitals, acquired hospitals were found to increase access to long-term debt, make improvements to plant and equipment, improve profitability, and increase efficiency to a greater extent. Prices in acquired hospitals rose more than those in independents and liquidity decreased to a greater extent.

  14. Environmental policy and profitability - Evidence from Swedish industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail; runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of a 'Porter effect' using firm level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. By utilizing a factor demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function which has a technology component dependent upon firm specific effective tax on CO{sub 2}, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a reversed 'Porter effect' in most industrial sectors, specifically energy intensive industries

  15. Operational and environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The responsibility of the DOE Office of Operational and Environmental Safety is to assure that DOE-controlled activities are conducted in a manner that will minimize risks to the public and employees and will provide protection for property and the environment. The program supports the various energy technologies by identifying and resolving safety problems; developing and issuing safety policies, standards, and criteria; assuring compliance with DOE, Federal, and state safety regulations; and establishing procedures for reporting and investigating accidents in DOE operations. Guidelines for the radiation protection of personnel; radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities; an assessment of criticality accidents by fault tree analysis; and the preparation of environmental, safety, and health standards applicable to geothermal energy development are discussed

  16. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM). Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs). Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (-4.68) and positive at NFPs (0.08), meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Study on profits and the financial position of regional grid operators 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Grid operators have a distribution duty and a legal task to take care of a reliable energy network. To carry out the legal tasks it is important that grid operators have sufficient financial means. On the other hand, it is also important that users of energy networks do not pay too much. Chapter 1 addresses the research approach. The results of the first research question on regulated profits are discussed in chapter 2. The findings on the impact of the economic profit on the financial position are described in chapter 3. And finally, the findings on the financial position are described in chapter 4. [nl

  18. The effects of Medicare Health Management Organizations on hospital operating profit in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, John T; Sear, Alan M

    2005-02-01

    Between 1992 and 1997, the number of members enrolled in Medicare Health Management Organizations (HMOs) nationwide in the USA more than doubled. During this period, managed care organizations wielded considerable influence over the health care of a large segment of the Medicare population in Florida. This study examined the impact on operational profit of 148 short-term, acute-care Florida hospitals in this period from Medicare HMO patients, as part of a hospital's payer mix. Three measures of hospital profitability were used: operating profit per actual bed, total operating profit with no adjustment for bed size, and operating margins. The multivariate statistical model employed in this study was a linear mixed model with an autoregressive order one (AR[1]) parametric structure on the covariance matrix. The results of the study indicate that Florida hospitals experienced greater profit pressures from Medicare HMO inpatients than from traditional Medicare inpatients. Further, these hospitals could have experienced positive profit effects with greater traditional Medicare participation and negative financial effects with greater Medicare HMO participation. Additionally, Medicare HMO patients appear to have been admitted to hospitals in worse health condition than those in traditional Medicare. Medicare HMO patients were more likely to have used emergency rooms as the source of admission than traditional Medicare patients. Also, Medicare HMO patients were more likely to have been admitted as emergent cases than traditional Medicare patients. Other research has shown that Medicare HMO patients, at the time of enrolment, are probably healthier than traditional Medicare enrollees, but here they appear to have been admitted to hospitals with higher levels of severity of illness. Explanations are offered for these findings.

  19. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  20. Is profitability a good proxy for efficiency? Evidence from the subsector of tour operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedija Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of tour operators in the Czech Republic in the period 2007-2014 using data envelopment analysis (DEA models and prove the link between economic efficiency and profitability and to find out if profitability is a good proxy for economic efficiency. Data was exported from the database Albertina CZ Gold Edition. We calculated the efficiency score using CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes and BCC (Banker, Charnes and Cooper models based on 3 inputs and 1 output. In the years 2007 to 2010, the efficiency score of almost all the companies was higher than 0.5; however, in years since 2011, we revealed significant differences in the efficiency of individual firms and only about 40 percent of tour operators achieved an efficiency score higher than 0.5. Using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, our findings show that, in the case of the Czech tour operator market, profitability ratios do not correspond with firm efficiency. Profitability ratios are not a good proxy for economic efficiency and should not be used as the only firm criterion of performance.

  1. Environmental issues in operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  2. The assessment of eco-design with a comprehensive index incorporating environmental impact and economic profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Fu, Yun; Wang, Xiuteng; Xu, Bingsheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Eco-design is an advanced design approach which plays an important part in the national innovation project and serves as a key point for the successful transformation of the supply structure. However, the practical implementation of the pro-environmental designs and technologies always faces a dilemma situation, where some processes can effectively control their emissions to protect the environment at relatively high costs, while others pursue the individual interest in making profit by ignoring the possible adverse environmental impacts. Thus, the assessment on the eco-design process must be carried out based on the comprehensive consideration of the economic and environmental aspects. Presently, the assessment systems in China are unable to fully reflect the new environmental technologies regarding their innovative features or performance. Most of the assessment systems adopt scoring method based on the judgments of the experts, which are easy to use but somewhat subjective. The assessment method presented in this paper includes the environmental impact (EI) assessment based on LCA principal and willingness-to-pay theory, and economic profit (EP) assessment mainly based on market price. The results from the assessment are in the form of EI/EP, which evaluate the targeted process from a combined perspective of environmental and economic performance. A case study was carried out upon the utilization process of coal fly ash, which indicates the proposed method can compare different technical processes in an effective and objective manner, and provide explicit and insightful suggestions for decision making.

  3. The role of network sharing in transforming the operator business: Impact on profitability and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mölleryd, Bengt G.; Markendahl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on network sharing on mobile networks and examines the impact on profitability and competition. Network sharing refers to that operators collaborates with its competitors on part of the production of mobile services, and it could vary from passive sharing, like sharing of sites or basic facilities, to active sharing, like radio access networks or even entire networks. The paper takes a global scope on examining the extent of network sharing. The emergence of a sector with d...

  4. Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.

  5. Improving productivity and profitability of a bioanalytical business through sales and operation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul

    2013-07-01

    Today's bioanalytical CROs face increasing global competition, highly variable demand, high fixed costs, pricing pressure, and increasing demand for quality and speed. Most bioanalytical laboratories have responded to these challenges by implementing automation and by implementing process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma). These solutions have not resulted in a significant improvement in productivity and profitability since none of them are able to predict the upturn or downturn in demand. High volatility of demand causes long lead times and high costs during peak demand and poor productivity during trough demand. Most bioanalytical laboratories lack the tools to align supply efficiently to meet changing demand. In this paper, sales and operation planning (S&OP) has been investigated as a tool to balance supply and demand. The S&OP process, when executed effectively, can be the single greatest determinant of profitability for a bioanalytical business.

  6. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-03-28

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  9. Atlantic Environmental Resource Directory, 1989: A directory of non-profit environmental and development organizations in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthbertson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This directory lists 161 non-profit groups in the Atlantic region, along with contacts for the environmental networks across the country and in New England and appropriate federal and provincial offices in Atlantic Canada. The directory was compiled from questionnaires sent out to a list of contacts that were on an original mailing list of groups known to have taken stands on environmental issues in the past. Follow-up mailouts and phone calls were also made. As well, some contacts were discovered through word-of-mouth. Groups are listed alphabetically by province and are classified by subjects. Information includes address and phone number, contact, date formed, number of members, scope, language and objectives. Groups and resources are indexed by subject area and groups are listed by resources available, environmental networks, Eastern states-United States citizen groups, labour unions, federal and provincial government.

  10. Operation and profits of energy boards. A study of the basis of municipal business activities and the equitableness of the profits of municipal energy boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, V.; Nissinen, T.; Valkama, P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the empirical part of the study (Chapter 6) is to evaluate the equitableness of profits on capital invested of the 16 municipal energy boards selected for this study and, at the same time, to create a general evaluation basis for equity decisions made by the authorities case by case. In this part of the study, answers are sought for the following questions: (1) how has the economic situation of the energy boards studied been recently developing based on various economic parameters? (2) have there been differences in the returns and profitability of energy boards operating as public utilities or energy boards operating in company form? (3) what kind of a price level the energy boards studied have maintained in relation to the national averages of this field? (4) is a city in a weaker economic position more tempted to require higher profits on capital invested than a city with a sound economic basis? (5) how high profits on capital invested can be considered reasonable for the whole energy board and particularly for a network business holding a monopoly? The structure of the study is as follows. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the energy boards selected for this study and of the economic situation of the cities owning them. The theoretical part of the study is included in Chapter 3 'Municipal Self-Government and Business'. It analyses rather deeply the terminology of the municipal business, norm basis, steering of actions, restructuring of companies into business profit centres and privatisation, as well as application of the Act on Restrictions on Competition from the standpoint of a municipal self-government. Chapter 4 deals with the establishment of energy board activity, the legal basis and the criteria for pricing electricity, network services and district heat. Chapter 5 examines the Act on Restrictions on Competition as a regulator of the energy board activities. After this, there are the presentations of the research results of the

  11. The profit maximizing liner shipping problem with flexible frequencies: logistical and environmental considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannini, Massimo; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2018-01-01

    for the ship operator and as a result they typically minimize costs. This treatment does not capture a fundamental characteristic of shipping market behavior, that ships tend to speed up in periods of high freight rates and slow down in depressed market conditions. This paper develops a simple model...... for a fixed route scenario which, among other things, incorporates the influence of freight rates, along with that of fuel prices and cargo inventory costs into the overall decision process. The objective to be maximized is the line’s average daily profit. Departing from convention, the model is also able...... to consider flexible service frequencies, to be selected from a broader set than the standard assumption of one call per week. It is shown that this may lead to better solutions and that the cost of forcing a fixed frequency can be significant. Such cost is attributed either to additional fuel cost...

  12. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-01

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  14. Study on profits and the financial position of the Dutch power transmission system operator Tennet 2005-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A study has been conducted into the profits of the grid operator of the Dutch national high-voltage power transmission system operator TenneT in the years 2005 to 2009. Also attention is paid to the financial position of TenneT. These results are taken into account with regard to method decisions for TenneT in the fifth regulatory period. [nl

  15. Integration of operational research and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof - Ruwaard, J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The subject of this thesis is the integration of Operational Research and Environmental Management. Both sciences play an important role in the research of environmental issues. Part I describes a framework for the interactions between Operational Research and Environmental Management.

  16. THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE STOCK MANAGEMENT ON THE PROFITABILITY OF THE HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS (A CASE OF CHELSEA HOTEL ABUJA)

    OpenAIRE

    Olawale - Olakunle Olajumoke Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines effective slack management and its impact on the profitability of the hospitality operations. A sound and dynamic stock management strategy is indispensable in contemporary time where aggressive competition for survival is the common business trend coupled with rapid increase in technological acceleration. Secondary sources of data collection were employed to get relevant information. The result reveals that effective stock management is inevitably the bedrock upon which e...

  17. Lease Operations Environmental Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Land Management

    2001-02-14

    This report contains discussions in nine different areas as follows: (1) Good Lease Operating Practices; (2) Site Assessment and Sampling; (3) Spills/Accidents; (4) Containment and Disposal of Produced Waters; (5) Restoration of Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils; (6) Restoration of Salt Impacted Soils; (7) Pit Closures; (8) Identification, Removal and Disposal of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and (9) Site Closure and Construction Methods for Abandonment Wells/Locations. This report is primary directed towards the operation of oil and gas producing wells.

  18. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  19. Manual on environmental monitoring in normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Many establishments handling radioactive materials produce, and to some extent also discharge, radioactive waste as part of their normal operation. The radiation doses to which members of the public may be exposed during such operation must remain below the stipulated level. The purpose of this manual is to provide technical guidance for setting up programmes of routine environmental monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear establishment. The annex gives five examples of routine environmental monitoring programmes currently in use: these have been indexed separately.

  20. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  1. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described

  2. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  3. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  4. The Dependence of Airport Profit on Passenger Satisfaction and Operational Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Vokáč

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the airports are in fact commercial companies, their main objective is to make profit. Therefore, it is important for the airports to identify the business activities that may increase the income as well as those that may reduce the costs. The terminal process, handling the passengers’ baggage both on their departure and arrival, is a basic process at all airports that are intended for the commercial air transport. The quality of the terminal process provided by the airports has a significant impact on the passengers especially in terms of their satisfaction. In this text, the passenger satisfaction is regarded as a key factor of the terminal process affecting a whole range of other areas. Its high efficiency leads to cost reduction from the perspective of the airport. As it is proposed here, there is a connection between the passenger satisfaction and the process efficiency. For example, the queues that form due to the check-in process may be a result of the imbalance between the passenger arrival rate and the service rate. Therefore, there is a necessity of improving not only the passenger satisfaction but also the process efficiency.

  5. Sustainability or profitability? How communicated motives for environmental policy affect public perceptions of corporate greenwashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de vries, G; Terwel, B; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Daamen, D.

    Companies in the energy sector face a dilemma regarding how to communicate their environmental policies to the public. Communicating that environmental policies and activities are motivated by concern for the environment could elicit positive reactions, but may also lead to accusations of corporate

  6. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  7. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  8. The biggest bio-fuel plant in Norway - a profitable environmental investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2002-01-01

    A few years ago, Norske Skog Saugbrugs in Halden, Norway, invested NOK 180 mill in a new combustion plant for bio-fuel. In 2001, the plant produced 400 GWh and so replaced about 35 000 tonnes of oil. Considering the Kyoto Agreement, the profitability is even greater. The capacity of the boiler is 400 - 450 GWh, which covers more than 40 percent of the paper factory's need for thermal energy. The paper factory in Halden is one of the largest in Europe. About half of the bio-fuel derives from the factory's own production, which is an important reason why the price of bio-energy is less than the price of oil. At the same time the use of the biomass for energy production implies that bark and mud does not pile up in the factory. The remaining half of the biomass, the external half, is wood returned from building activities in the form of wood chippings, one-time pallets and similar. This also solves a social problem. The bio-fuel plant uses a fluidized bed boiler of very high efficiency. This implies very small emissions of NOx and CO. Particles are removed by means of an electro filter. The system meets the requirements made by the EU and by Norwegian pollution control authorities

  9. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  10. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  11. Environmental sustainability in the spanish hotel sector. A contribution to sustainable tourism between business profitability and the environmental commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Valenzuela Rubio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to approach how the Spanish tourist sector has implemented environmental viewpoints initiated by international organizations such as UNO, UNESCO, European Union, etc. from the Rio Conference on (1992, and reinforced by the increasing environmental sensitivity of the hotel customers. Another aim of this process is to improve resource management and increase competitiveness in the hotel trade. The environmental commitment of the hotel sector must be demonstrated either by obtaining a certification of environmental quality or an ecolabel awarded by special purpose entities on fulfillment of specific requirements. These environmental labels are mostly obtained by large hotel chains for image and affordability reasons. Nevertheless, the Spanish hotel business still has a long way to go before reaching complete sustainability.

  12. Operational Flexibility Responses to Environmental Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    This study develops and tests a behavioral model of organizational changes in operational flexibility. Regression results using an international data set provide strong support for the general proposition that uncertainties associated with different environmental components--poitical, government policy, macroeconomic, competitive, input and product demand uncertainties--have different implications for firm internal, locational, and supploer flexibility. Slack acts as a buffer attenuating, a...

  13. Application of an Operational Audit Model in a Not For Profit Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Advisor David R. Whipple, Chairman Department of Administrative Sciences ii AIITRCT This thesis has examined various problems facing the not- for...the interviewee and more closely gauge the validity of the comments. ( Fetterman , 1986) As the auditor sifts through bits and pieces of conversations... Fetterman , D.M., "Operational Auditing: A Cultural Approach," The Internal Auditor, April 1986, pp. 48-54. Fisher, J., How to Manage a Nonprofit

  14. Enhancing Profitability of Pond Aquaculture in Ghana through Resource Management and Environmental Best Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating pace of growth of aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa has received much positive appraisal because of the potential of the industry to contribute to economic development and food security by providing jobs and animal protein. Adoption of best management practices (BMPs) holds the potential to ameliorate the related environmental impacts of aquaculture, such as in the amounts of nutrients and sediment that will enter natural water bodies from earthen pond effluents. The goals of...

  15. Environmental concerns gaining importance in industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that environmental concerns have leapt to the forefront of industry's concerns in operating in Latin America. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro June 3-14 focused a strong world spotlight on the region's environmental and commercial resources. Protection of the region's rain forests, which accounts for a huge share of the world's total, is emerging as an especially contentious issue. Ecuador's Oriente region may well prove the litmus test of how or whether oil and gas companies are able to operate in Latin American rain forests. Controversy over industry operations in the Oriente have heated to the point that environmentalist and native groups have routinely picketed company offices in Quito and used mass fundraiser mailings in North America

  16. Increasing operations profitability using an end-to-end, wireless internet, gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, M. [Northrock Resources Ltd., AB (Canada); Benterud, K. [zed.i solutions, inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    Implementation by Northrock Resources Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Unocal Corporation, of a fully integrated end-to-end gas measurement and production analysis system, is discussed. The system, dubbed Smart-Alek(TM), utilizes public wireless communications and a web browser only delivery system to provide seamless well visibility to a desk-top computer. Smart-Alek(TM) is an example of a new type of end-to-end electronic gas flow measurement system, known as FINE(TM), which is an acronym for Field Intelligence Network and End-User Interface. The system delivers easy-to-use, complete, reliable and cost effective production information, far more effective than is possible to obtain with conventional SCADA technology. By installing the system, Northrock was able to increase gas volumes with more accurate electronic flow measurement in place of mechanical charts, with very low technical maintenance, and at a reduced operating cost. It is emphasized that deploying the technology alone will produce only partial benefits; to realize full benefits it is also essential to change grass roots operating practices, aiming at timely decision-making at the field level. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  18. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  19. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  20. Analysis of Traceability Optimization and Shareholder’s Profit for Efficient Supply Chain Operation under Product Recall Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Memon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Product recall gains considerable importance in recent times; the reason may be the huge losses faced by manufacturers because of product recall issues. Furthermore, the revenue of the firm is immensely affected as a result of product recall, which may lead to serious outcomes. Huge recall cost (such as repairing or destroying the recalled products and cost of notification occurs as a result of large recall. Therefore, in order to minimize the quantity and probability of recalls the traceability systems are widely used and considered as a necessary part of product safety strategies. However, from literature it is clear that manufacturers are still struggling to obtain the significant results. This study helps the managers to understand the importance of recall cost by analysing its impact on shareholders profit. Keeping in view the importance of problem, the paper proposed an integrated optimization model to minimize the expected loss to shareholders in recall crisis using batch dispersion methodology. The analysed results show that reduction in traceability level increases the expected shareholders losses while decreasing the operational costs. This will help managers to optimally set the production batch sizes in order to reduce the product recall impact.

  1. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Richter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  2. The Army's Green Warriors: Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... Environmental considerations encompass anything related to the environment that either affects the planning and execution of military operations, positively or negatively, or is affected by those operations...

  3. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  4. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  5. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  6. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  7. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  9. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil from energy, environmental, and economic perspectives: Profit or expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Junqueira, Tassia L.; Pavanello, Lucas G.; Cavalett, Otávio; Mantelatto, Paulo E.; Bonomi, Antonio; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from Brazilian sugarcane biorefineries was assessed. • Energy from biogas could be used for electricity or vehicular fuel replacement. • Biogas in cogeneration could release bagasse for second-generation ethanol production. • Environmental analysis showed decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant load. • Diesel replacement was the most economically attractive alternative. - Abstract: The need to improve the sustainability of bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has intensified the search for process energy optimization coupled with the environmental suitability of the generated coproducts and wastes. In this scenario, the anaerobic digestion of vinasse (the most abundant effluent from a sugarcane biorefinery) arises as an interesting alternative because, in addition to promoting the stabilization of organic matter, it also enables energy generation from biogas. In this work, vinasse anaerobic digestion in biorefineries was evaluated in terms of energy, environmental, and economic considerations. The energy potential from vinasse of a single sugarcane biorefinery, which is generally lost due to its application to soil with no treatment, was found to be comparable to the electricity supply demand of a city of approximately 130,000 inhabitants or to the surplus energy from bagasse burning that is exported by some sugarcane mills in Brazil. On a national level, such energy is comparable to the electricity generated by some hydroelectric plants, reaching 7.5% of the electricity generated by the world’s largest hydroelectric plant. When burned in boilers, biogas could be used to stimulate second-generation ethanol production because almost 12% of the bagasse could be released from burning and the biogas used to attenuate the process energy demand. As an alternative fuel, biogas could replace up to 40% of the annual diesel supply in the agricultural operations of a sugarcane biorefinery and still

  10. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm's Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances.

  11. Environmental Management System Adoption and the Operational Performance of Firm in the Textile and Apparel Industry of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In China, more firms in the textile and apparel industry adopt environmental management systems compared to firms that manufacture other products. It is important to know how the firms’ financial and real performances are affected. We study the changes of firms’ performance in profitability, sales, and operational efficiency after environmental management system (EMS adoption using an event study. Based on 22 events of EMS adoption, we found a significant decrease in firms’ profitability, sales, and inventory productivity. We explore the reasons which led to the decrease in firm performances. We found that the increase in sample firms’ total assets is the major reason. The loss in operational efficiency and flexibility are due to the requirements of the EMS.

  12. Environmental management system for transportation maintenance operations : [technical brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report provides the framework for the environmental management system to analyze : greenhouse gas emissions from transportation maintenance operations. The system enables user : to compare different scenarios and make informed decisions to minim...

  13. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  14. NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) Radiometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making nearly polar orbits 14 times per day...

  15. Operational environmental monitoring plan for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.D.; Baker, P.L.; Cockman, J.S.; Fischer, N.T.; Flynn, D.T.; Harvill, J.P.; Knudtsen, K.L.; Louderbough, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    This plan defines the scope and extent of the WIPP effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life. It also discusses the quality assurance/quality control programs which ensure that samples collected and the resulting analytical data are representative of actual conditions at the WIPP site. This plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP, including: a summary of environmental program information, including an update of the status of environmental permits and compliance activities; a description of the WIPP project and its mission; a description of the local environment, including demographics; a summary of applicable standards and regulatory requirements and brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences; a summary of the preoperational environmental monitoring and assessment activities and responses to the requirements (Appendix A) and guidelines presented in the ''Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance for US DOE Operations.'' 166 refs., 28 figs., 27 tabs

  16. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartan Ayfer; Kucukali Serhat; Ar Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly as...

  17. Energy conservation and recycling of wall and concrete may give large environmental profits in the construction industry. Environment taken seriously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestvold, Veslemoey

    2000-01-01

    The article reviews some results from the 5 year project ''Oekobygg'', started in 1998, which studies energy conservation and recycling of wall and concrete in the construction industry. Reduction of the waste amounts, industrial recycling and ''smart housing'' are discussed. Recycling will result in the largest environmental benefits

  18. The effect of corporate environmental performance on financial outcomes – profits, revenues and costs: evidence from the Czech transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    -, č. 10-15 (2010), s. 1-43. ISBN 978-87-7873-297-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : environmental protection * pollution * financial performance * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www3.druid.dk/wp/20100015.pdf

  19. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm’s Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances En este trabajo examinamos si la posición relativa del ROE de la empresa en el sector afecta a la estimación del nivel de ROE en el a˜no posterior, y a la estimación de su variación. Empleando el desglose operativo-financiero de Nissim y Penman, encontramos que el factor sectorial es significativo, aunque las variaciones de los signos sugieren la presencia de relaciones no lineales. Nuestro trabajo evita los problemas generados por los signos negativos en los ratios al emplear cuantiles y realizar regresiones independientes para los diferentes signos que toman las variables. De esta forma, los resultados muestran diferentes patrones en el impacto de los inductores del ROE de primer nivel (los factores operativo y financiero y de segundo nivel (margen de resultados, rotaciones de los activos, endeudamiento y diferencial de rentabilidad sobre la rentabilidad futura, dependiendo del diferencial de rentabilidad con

  20. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  2. Can productivity and profitability be enhanced in intensively managed cereal systems while reducing the environmental footprint of production? Assessing sustainable intensification options in the breadbasket of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Jat, Hanuman S; Sharma, Parbodh C; Balwinder-Singh; Gathala, Mahesh K; Malik, Ram K; Kamboj, Baldev R; Yadav, Arvind K; Ladha, Jagdish K; Raman, Anitha; Sharma, D K; McDonald, Andrew

    2018-01-15

    In the most productive area of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in Northwest India where high yields of rice and wheat are commonplace, a medium-term cropping system trial was conducted in Haryana State. The goal of the study was to identify integrated management options for further improving productivity and profitability while rationalizing resource use and reducing environmental externalities (i.e., "sustainable intensification", SI) by drawing on the principles of diversification, precision management, and conservation agriculture. Four scenarios were evaluated: Scenario 1 - "business-as-usual" [conventional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) followed by ( fb ) conventional-till wheat]; Scenario 2 - reduced tillage with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [PTR fb zero-till (ZT) wheat fb ZT mungbean]; Scenario 3 - ZT for all crops with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [ZT direct-seeded rice (ZT-DSR) fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]; and Scenario 4 - ZT for all crops with strategic diversification and precision resource management [ZT maize fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]. Results of this five-year study strongly suggest that, compared with business-as-usual practices, SI strategies that incorporate multi-objective yield, economic, and environmental criteria can be more productive when used in these production environments. For Scenarios 2, 3, and 4, system-level increases in productivity (10-17%) and profitability (24-50%) were observed while using less irrigation water (15-71% reduction) and energy (17-47% reduction), leading to 15-30% lower global warming potential (GWP), with the ranges reflecting the implications of specific innovations. Scenario 3, where early wheat sowing was combined with ZT along with no puddling during the rice phase, resulted in a 13% gain in wheat yield compared with Scenario 2. A similar gain in wheat yield was observed in Scenario 4 vis-à-vis Scenario 2. Compared to Scenario 1, wheat yields in

  3. The Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Program CY-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Operational Environmental Monitoring Program (OEMP) provides facility-specific environmental monitoring to protect the environment adjacent to facilities under the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and assure compliance with WHC requirements and local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The objectives of the OEMP are to evaluate: compliance with federal (DOE, EPA), state, and internal WHC environmental radiation protection requirements and guides; performance of radioactive waste confinement systems; and trends of radioactive materials in the environment at and adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites. This paper identifies the monitoring responsibilities and current program status for each area of responsibility

  4. Report on the direct purchase of natural gas by non-profit and co-operative housing agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Direct purchase of natural gas is now utilized by many groups of customers in Canada. To date, the process has been effected through short-term contractual arrangements for buying gas from Saskatchewan. Longer-term arrangements (5-15 years) for direct purchase of Saskatchewan or Alberta gas are now being actively considered. There are no longer any real barriers to direct purchase of natural gas for groups of customers in Ontario, but much preparation is required to initiate the process and operate it properly in order to maximize the financial benefits. The various formats for direct purchase (buy/sell, T-service, broker mediated), purchase price considerations, and the benefits and risks of direct purchase are reviewed. Potential savings in gas costs are estimated based on a typical 3-bedroom townhouse family unit and a 1-bedroom senior citizen apartment unit. Generally speaking, it is found possible for the townhouse to save about $50/y on the Consumers Gas and ICG Utilities distribution systems and $34/y for a 1-bedroom apartment suite. An umbrella approach for organizing gas supply contracts is recommended, which allows an agent for the consumer group to enter into a preliminary contract with a gas supplier after completion of a tender process. A number of disciplines are essential for initiation and operation of a direct purchase, requiring the services of four individuals possessing various skills. 5 tabs

  5. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and methodological approach to profit management of organization is offered: its application is connected with revision of acting control system of enterprise profit on the basis of assessing the initial condition of profit, planning the demanded profit level, periodical monitoring condition of planned values on profit, and also adoption of flexible administrative decisions on reduction of deviations and increasing the efficiency of organization activity. The system of profit formation including corresponding income and expenses of organization is presented. Methods of revenue planning are characterized. The characteristics of income and expenses connected with non-operating operations and transactions is given. The essence of the main directions of using enterprise profit is revealed. Need of application of author’s technique of management of profit of organization taking into account influence of external and internal factors is proved. The universal purpose of management of profit of organization and a task providing achievement of the goal are formulated . Tools of assessment efficiency of the system of formation and use of profit which is actually created in organization are offered. The methodical approach to planning of profit allowing to increase efficiency of activity of organization is presented. The mechanism of an assessment deviations of planned indicators of effective management of profit from actual and adoptions of correcting decisions on

  6. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Strategic Stakeholder Communication and Co-operation in Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    in this process is strategic stakeholder relationships like communication and co-operation. The paper addresses this topic based on a proposed approach for identifying and evaluating the influence from various groups of stakeholders as well as the findings from recent surveys of environmental management......Ever since the introduction of the first major Danish environmental protection law in 1974, environmental regulation has been instrumental in pushing industry towards adopting environmentally less harmful behaviour. However, since the early 1990s, pressure from a growing number of other...... stakeholders, such as for example customers, NGO's, neighbours, etc., has increasingly driven industry towards incorporating environmental considerations in their decisions and activities to an extent which justifies placing Danish companies at the cutting edge of industrial greening. An essential element...

  8. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  9. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators; Laufzeitverlaengerungen fuer die deutschen Kernkaftwerke? Kurzanalyse zu den Gewinnmitnahmen der KKW-Betreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-15

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  10. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Taxes, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan

    2018-02-01

    About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.

  12. Environmental analytical laboratory setup operation and QA/QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.; Boyd, J.A.; DeViney, S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental analysis requires precise and timely measurements. The required precise measurement is ensured with quality control and timeliness through an efficient operation. The efficiency of the operation also ensures cost-competitiveness. Environmental analysis plays a very important role in the environmental protection program. Due to the possible litigation involvement, most environmental analyses follow stringent criteria, such as the U.S. EPA Contract Laboratory Program procedures with analytical results documented in an orderly manner. The documentation demonstrates that all quality control steps are followed and facilitates data evaluation to determine the quality and usefulness of the data. Furthermore, the tedious documents concerning sample checking, chain-of-custody, standard or surrogate preparation, daily refrigerator and oven temperature monitoring, analytical and extraction logbooks, standard operation procedures, etc., also are an important part of the laboratory documentation. Quality control for environmental analysis is becoming more stringent, required documentation is becoming more detailed and turnaround time is shorter. However, the business is becoming more cost-competitive and it appears that this trend will continue. In this paper, we discuss what should be done to deal this high quality, fast-paced and tedious environmental analysis process at a competitive cost. The success of environmental analysis is people. The knowledge and experience of the staff are the key to a successful environmental analysis program. In order to be successful in this new area, the ability to develop new methods is crucial. In addition, the laboratory information system, laboratory automation and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are major factors for laboratory success. This paper concentrates on these areas

  13. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  14. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  15. Environmental dosimetry for normal operations at SRP. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological effect of environmental releases from SRP during normal operations has been assessed annually since 1972 with a dosimetry model developed by SRL in 1971 to 1972, as implemented in the MREM code for atmospheric releases and RIVDOSE code for liquid releases. Starting in 1978, SRL started using environmental models and dose commitment factors developed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all other environmental dose calculations. The NRC models are more flexible than the older SRL models, use more up-to-date methodologies, cover more exposure pathways, and permit more detailed analysis of effects of normal operations. It is recommended that the NRC models, as implemented in the computer codes X0QD0Q and GASPAR for atmospheric releases and LADTAP for liquid releases, and NRC dose commitment factors be used as the standard method at SRP for assessing offsite dose from normal operations in Health Protection Department annual environmental monitoring reports, and in National Environmental Policy Act documents and Safety Analysis Reports for SRP facilities. 23 references, 3 figures, 9 tables

  16. Instructions for operating LBL Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (PERM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, M.L.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Ingersoll, J.G.

    1979-08-01

    The Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (PERM) is used to assess the impact of energy conservation in buildings, with reduced ventilation. Reduced ventilation can lead to increased concentration of air contaminants. The instrument operates on the principle of electrostatic collection of 218 Po ions. Cumulative alpha activity collects on the electrode and is detected with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent detector

  17. L-Reactor operation, Savannah River Plant: environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to assess the significance of the effects on the human environment of the proposed resumption of L-reactor operation at the Savannah River Plant, scheduled for October 1983. The discussion is presented under the following section headings: need for resumption of L-Reactor operations and purpose of this environmental assessment; proposed action and alternative; affected environment (including, site location and description, land use, historic and archeological resources, socioeconomic and community characteristics, geology and seismology, hydrology, meteorology and climatology, ecology, and radiation environment); environmental consequences; summary of projected L-Reactor releases and impacts; and Federal and State permits and approval. The three appendices are entitled: radiation dose calculation methods and assumptions; floodplain/wetlands assessment - L-Reactor operations; and, conversion table. A list of references is included at the end of each chapter

  18. Application of operating experience in environmental qualification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Wise, R.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental qualification (EQ) of equipment related to nuclear safety has been carried out in the nuclear community since the 70's. It started with electrical equipment and then expanded to include mechanical equipment. During this evolutionary process, the methods used for EQ have gone through a long period of refinement and clarification. Prior to 1971, qualification for equipment in licensed nuclear power plants was based on the use of electrical components of commonly accepted high industrial quality without the benefit of specific environmental qualification standards. Between 1971 and 1974, most plants used the criteria of IEEE Standard 323-1971 as the basis for demonstrating qualification. Also during this period related 'daughter' standards, mainly by IEEE, became available which addressed qualification for specific equipment items. After July 1974, plants were required to meet the more comprehensive guidelines specified in IEEE Standard 323-1974 and the related 'daughter' standards. IEEE Standard 323-1974 later evolved into IEEE Standard 323-1983. For nuclear power plants built in Ontario during the 70's, i.e. Pickering B and Bruce B, has included the environmental qualification requirements in their respective nuclear safety design guides. It is now recognized that they are not up to the current EQ standards. Darlington, constructed during the 80's, implemented the environmental qualification program in its project. An Environmental Qualification (EQ) Program is now under way in Ontario Power Generation (OPG) to formally implement the Environmental Qualification for Bruce B, Pickering B, and Pickering A and to preserve the Qualification for Darlington G.S. This paper makes a thorough a review of the standard methods used in the past by utilities for environmental qualification. These methods include type testing, analysis, and operating experience. Both type testing and analysis have been clearly defined in standards listed in References [2] to [6] and

  19. A green profitability framework to quantify the impact of green supply chain management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandie Coetzee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The greenhouse gas emissions of South Africa are the largest contribution by a country in the African continent. If the carbon emissions are not reduced, they will continue to grow exponentially. South Africa’s emissions are placed in the top 20 in the world when considering per capita emissions. Objectives: The aim of the research article was to investigate how the impact of implementing environmental initiatives on business profitability and sustainability can best be quantified in a South African business. Method: Various methods, theories and best practices were researched to aid in the development of the green business profitability framework. This framework was applied to two case studies in different areas of the supply chain of a South African fast-moving consumer goods business. Results: Results indicated that the green profitability framework can be used successfully to quantify both the environmental and profitability impact of green supply chain initiatives. The framework is therefore more suitable for the South African company than other existing frameworks in the literature because of its ability to quantify both profitability and sustainability in short- and long-term planning scenarios. Conclusion: The results from the case studies indicated that the green business profitability framework enabled the tracking of environmental initiatives back to logistics operations and profitability, which makes it easier to understand and implement. The developed framework also helped to link the carbon emissions to source, and to translate green supply chain actions into goals.

  20. Operational practices of lean manufacturing: Potentiating environmental improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Marcos José Alves Junior; Mendes, Juliana Veiga

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to investigate how environmental improvements can be achieved through operational practices of Lean Manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted to analyze the relationship between operational practices of Lean and reduction of environmental impact in organizational contexts. Verified theoretically, this relationship was observed in a company of the electronics industry, through an exploratory research which contemplated a mixed approach. The adopted research method consisted of a single case study, by providing greater depth and detail of the study. Utilized a research protocol, validated test pilot. The instruments for data collection were semi-structured interviews, direct observation and document analysis. The information was examined qualitatively considering the technique for content analysis. Findings: As a result of the study, it was found that there is evidence for the existence of relationship between the practices of Lean, for example, Kaizen, PDCA (plan, do, check, act), Ishikawa Diagram, Poka-Yoke, Standardized Work and Value Stream Mapping, with the reduction of environmental impacts of an organization. This reduction was observed after application of these practices that resulted in the reduction of energy consumption, water and waste generation. These results were accounted for financially, contributing to a reduction of annual costs by about US$ 20,900. Originality/value: The study presents in detail, the application of operational practices of Lean Manufacturing, with an effective view to reducing the environmental impact and cost reduction. The literature review, a detailed description of the application process and financial results are important information that contributes to the scientific studies that address traditional operating practices and the search for better environmental performance.

  1. Operational practices of lean manufacturing: Potentiating environmental improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Alves Pinto Junior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to investigate how environmental improvements can be achieved through operational practices of Lean Manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted to analyze the relationship between operational practices of Lean and reduction of environmental impact in organizational contexts. Verified theoretically, this relationship was observed in a company of the electronics industry, through an exploratory research which contemplated a mixed approach. The adopted research method consisted of a single case study, by providing greater depth and detail of the study. Utilized a research protocol, validated test pilot. The instruments for data collection were semi-structured interviews, direct observation and document analysis. The information was examined qualitatively considering the technique for content analysis. Findings: As a result of the study, it was found that there is evidence for the existence of relationship between the practices of Lean, for example, Kaizen, PDCA (plan, do, check, act, Ishikawa Diagram, Poka-Yoke, Standardized Work and Value Stream Mapping, with the reduction of environmental impacts of an organization. This reduction was observed after application of these practices that resulted in the reduction of energy consumption, water and waste generation. These results were accounted for financially, contributing to a reduction of annual costs by about US$ 20,900. Originality/value: The study presents in detail, the application of operational practices of Lean Manufacturing, with an effective view to reducing the environmental impact and cost reduction. The literature review, a detailed description of the application process and financial results are important information that contributes to the scientific studies that address traditional operating practices and the search for better environmental performance.

  2. Operational practices of lean manufacturing: Potentiating environmental improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Marcos José Alves Junior; Mendes, Juliana Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to investigate how environmental improvements can be achieved through operational practices of Lean Manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted to analyze the relationship between operational practices of Lean and reduction of environmental impact in organizational contexts. Verified theoretically, this relationship was observed in a company of the electronics industry, through an exploratory research which contemplated a mixed approach. The adopted research method consisted of a single case study, by providing greater depth and detail of the study. Utilized a research protocol, validated test pilot. The instruments for data collection were semi-structured interviews, direct observation and document analysis. The information was examined qualitatively considering the technique for content analysis. Findings: As a result of the study, it was found that there is evidence for the existence of relationship between the practices of Lean, for example, Kaizen, PDCA (plan, do, check, act), Ishikawa Diagram, Poka-Yoke, Standardized Work and Value Stream Mapping, with the reduction of environmental impacts of an organization. This reduction was observed after application of these practices that resulted in the reduction of energy consumption, water and waste generation. These results were accounted for financially, contributing to a reduction of annual costs by about US$ 20,900. Originality/value: The study presents in detail, the application of operational practices of Lean Manufacturing, with an effective view to reducing the environmental impact and cost reduction. The literature review, a detailed description of the application process and financial results are important information that contributes to the scientific studies that address traditional operating practices and the search for better environmental performance.

  3. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  4. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  5. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  6. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  7. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual...... framework listing these concepts was proposed, and three research hypotheses were presented. A questionnaire was elaborated based on this theoretical background and sent to respondents occupying the highest positions in the production/operations areas of Brazilian automotive companies. The data, collected...

  8. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Schwab, M.R.; Fox, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    In the process of performing environmental restoration at the 560-square mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling taking place all over the Site. This paper provides an overview of the lessons we have learned in designing, implementing, and putting into operation a computerized system named the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), which is being used to manage the Site's environmental characterization sampling data. Topics discussed in this paper include helping the Site adapt to a data management culture, the advantages of electronic data over paper data, issues of data validation and defensibility, being a resource to the user community (including the regulatory community), managing and tracking data changes, integrating data from multiple programs, providing configuration control for data and software, getting priorities for software development, and developing a baseline for on-going funding to maintain the infrastructure for the information system

  9. Environmental education van Kaarna: Results of the operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivikoski, N.

    2000-02-01

    Kaarna, a van specialising in environmental education, has toured North Karelia since 1996 disseminating information about the environment. This survey focused on the impact of the van on specific target groups. Attitudes towards the environmental van were positive and there was a clear need for it. It is, however, difficult to define the impact of the van's operation on people's attitudes towards the environment as it often takes several years before the results of this kind of environmental project become evident. According to the respondents in the survey, the van provided them with additional information they would not otherwise have had. More than 25% of school children and almost every third adult said that the van had given them information which had an impact on their attitudes towards the environment. This can be regarded as a positive result. (orig.)

  10. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  11. Introduction of the Profit Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    The profit surface is a visualization technique for data computed from trading rules. I simulate price paths and operate the trading rules to compute cumulative returns for the rule under different specifications. The specifications are pairs of integers, filter lag lengths, so a contour plot is useful to display cumulative returns for more specifications than can be shown otherwise.

  12. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  13. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  14. Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.

  16. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  17. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility staged operations: environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental information is presented relating to a staged version of the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The information is intended to provide the basis for an Environmental Impact Statement. In either the integral or the staged design, the DWPF will convert the high-level waste currently stored in tanks into: a leach-resistant form containing about 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residual, slightly contaminated salt, which is disposed of as saltcrete. In the first stage of the staged version, the insoluble sludge portion of the waste and the long lived radionuclides contained therein will be vitrified. The waste glass will be sealed in canisters and stored onsite until shipped to a Federal repository. In the second stage, the supernate portion of the waste will be decontaminated by ion exchange. The recovered radionuclides will be transferred to the Stage 1 facility, and mixed with the sludge feed before vitrification. The residual, slightly contaminated salt solution will be mixed with Portland cement to form a concrete product (saltcrete) which will be buried onsite in an engineered landfill. This document describes the conceptual facilities and processes for producing glass waste and decontaminated salt. The environmental effects of facility construction, normal operations, and accidents are then presented. Descriptions of site and environs, alternative sites and waste disposal options, and environmental consultations and permits are given in the base Environmental Information Document

  19. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  20. Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power DOE Operations Annual Site Environmental Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R. J. [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1997-11-10

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power of Boeing North American. Inc. (formerly Rockwell International Corporation). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL and the De Soto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing; R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to ensure protection of the environment.

  1. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Operator`s Manual. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. The HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. This manual describes the facilities available to the operational user who is responsible for data entry, processing, scheduling, reporting, and quality assurance. A companion manual, the HEIS User`s Manual, describes the facilities available-to the scientist, engineer, or manager who uses the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning; and to the regulator who is responsible for reviewing Hanford Site operations against regulatory requirements and guidelines.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM US

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yinglin; Huang, Yating

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that affect bank profitability. We construct a sample of US banks from 2003 to 2015, and use return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) to measure bank profitability. We find that banks with higher profitability are the banks that have: (1) a higher deposits to total asset ratio, (2) a higher diversification ratio, and (3) higher operational efficiency. We also find that better-capitalized banks tend to be more profitable only when we use ROA as the me...

  3. NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET): NASA's key to environmental technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Beth

    1993-01-01

    NASA has stepped forward to face the environmental challenge to eliminate the use of Ozone-Layer Depleting Substances (OLDS) and to reduce our Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) by 50 percent in 1995. These requirements have been issued by the Clean Air Act, the Montreal Protocol, and various other legislative acts. A proactive group, the NASA Operational Environment Team or NOET, received its charter in April 1992 and was tasked with providing a network through which replacement activities and development experiences can be shared. This is a NASA-wide team which supports the research and development community by sharing information both in person and via a computerized network, assisting in specification and standard revisions, developing cleaner propulsion systems, and exploring environmentally-compliant alternatives to current processes.

  4. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  5. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

  6. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H.

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS satellites to meet the tri-agency user requirements for NPOESS over the 10-year (2009-2018) operational life of the program. Beginning in 2009, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into three orbital planes to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving operational ``weather'' satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land, and the space environment. In recent years, the operational weather forecasting and climate science communities have levied more rigorous requirements on space-based observations of the Earth's system that have significantly increased demands on performance of the instruments, spacecraft, and ground systems required to deliver NPOESS data, products, and information to end users. The ``end-to-end'' system consists of: the spacecraft; instruments and sensors on the spacecraft; launch support capabilities; the command, control, communications, and data routing infrastructure; and data processing hardware and software. NPOESS will observe significantly more phenomena simultaneously from space than its operational predecessors. NPOESS is expected to deliver large volumes of more accurate measurements at higher spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal resolution at much higher data

  7. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, ‘resources’ and ‘climate change’ categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  8. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, `resources' and `climate change' categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  9. Windfalls and other profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed

  10. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in 1987. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Evaluation of environmental impact of radioactive waste from reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Pages, P.

    1989-10-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental impact of radioactive wastes from reactors operation. We estimate a case of a plant of 20 GWe power operating for 30 years which is equivalent to 600 tons of uranium per year. According to the properties, the waste is stored on surface (Aube site). Starting from the year of storage, we have defined the maximum dose equivalent for an individual from the reference group. The calculation depends on water of outlet water in which some initially stored radionuclides have migrated. Under the most pessimistic estimation, maximum annual dose was of the order of magnitude 0.5 μ Sv (0.05 mrem) for the storage 400 years after opening the site, and after 4000 years. Compared to the values obtained for the radioactive waste storage, the value of this impact is five times higher than the respective surface storage, but two time less than values for underground storage [fr

  12. Longview District Operations and Maintenance Headquarters: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operations and maintenance staff are presently based at a headquarters next to the Longview Substation. These headquarters buildings, however, were built in 1941 and have deteriorated to the point of needing extensive repair. They also lack sufficient inside storage space. New buildings cannot be constructed on the site because of surrounding development. In addition, the site is within an area exposed to industrial fallout (coal tar pitch and metallic particles) that may be damaging buildings, equipment, and vehicles. BPA is concerned about the potential health risk to headquarters staff from the fallout. In light of these problems, BPA proposes to construct a new operations and maintenance headquarters at a different location, and to demolish the existing headquarters. This paper discusses the environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives

  13. Review of environmental aspects of uranium mill operations: industry's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Problems faced by uranium mill operators in complying with new environmental regulations and guidelines are discussed. It is pointed out that valid data must be available in order to evaluate impacts on the environment, to determine background radiation levels, to measure the effectiveness of control techniques, and to determine compliance with standards and regulations. Specific problem areas facing mill operators today and some of the unresolved questions include: sampling methods and equipment for radon in ambient air, measurements of radon and radon daughter exposures of people, radon emanation rate meaurements applicable to monitoring mill tailings, the calibration of γ counters, measurements of population doses, regulations concerning mill tailings reclamation nd stabilization, and the comparative value of in-vivo counting and uranium urinary excretion measurements for monitoring personnel

  14. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public

  15. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  16. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  17. Romanian-Danish Environmental Co-operation. Co-operation development 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has, since 1991, through the Danish Environmental Support Fund, contributed towards protecting the environment and nature in Central and Eastern European countries and has helped to limit regional as well as global pollution. The Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection and the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy initiated the co-operation in 1993 and an official Agreement was signed in 1994. This publication describes the co-operation between the two countries in the field of the environment in the hope that this will give both the general public of Romania and the international community a better understanding of the work being accomplished. It also gives an overview of the 19 projects developed within this framework, which has a total Danish grant of DKK 77.9 million. (au)

  18. Annual radiological environmental operating report, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in 1988. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. The vast majority of the exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials or from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons fallout. Small amounts of Co-60 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Environmental monitoring program design for uranium refining and conversion operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop recommendations for the design of environmental monitoring programs at Canadian uranium refining and conversion operations. In order to develop monitoring priorities, chemical and radioactive releases to the air and water were developed for reference uranium refining and conversion facilities. The relative significance of the radioactive releases was evaluated through a pathways analysis which estimated dose to individual members of the critical receptor group. The effects of chemical releases to the environment were assessed by comparing predicted air and water contaminant levels to appropriate standards or guidelines. For the reference facilities studied, the analysis suggested that environmental effects are likely to be dominated by airborne release of both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants. Uranium was found to be the most important radioactive species released to the air and can serve as an overall indicator of radiological impacts for any of the plants considered. The most important nonradioactive air emission was found to be fluoride (as hydrogen fluoride) from the uranium hexafluoride plant. For the uranium trioxide and uranium dioxide plants, air emissions of oxides of nitrogen were considered to be most important. The study recommendations for the design of an environmental monitoring program are based on consideration of those factors most likely to affect local air and water quality, and human radiation exposure. Site- and facility-specific factors will affect monitoring program design and the selection of components such as sampling media, locations and frequency, and analytical methods

  20. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-01-01

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10 6 SM 3 ) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment

  1. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  2. Environmental Restoration Operations: Consolidated Quarterly Report January -March 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the January, February, and March 2017 quarterly reporting period. Table I-1 lists the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active mission sites are located in TA-III. This Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) fulfills all quarterly reporting requirements set forth in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit and the Compliance Order on Consent.

  3. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  4. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  5. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  6. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  7. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones; Koordinering av nordiske systemoperatoerer i kraftmarkedet - gevinster ved bedret kapasitetsutnyttelse og mer fleksibel prisomraadeinndeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) of the Department of the Navy gives notice that an Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared for the proposed action of implement inc an Operations Management Plan for ongoing and future operations at the U.S...

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  10. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  11. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  12. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  13. Indoor environmental quality in Hellenic hospital operating rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalaki, Elena G.; Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A. [Group Energy Conservation, Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, GR 152 36 P. Penteli (Greece); Lagoudi, Argyro [Terra Nova Ltd., Environmental Engineering Consultancy, Athens, Kaisareias 39, GR 115 27 Athens (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in hospital operating rooms (ORs) constitutes a major challenge for the proper design and operation of an energy efficient hospital. A subjective assessment of the indoor environment along with a short monitoring campaign was performed during the audits of 18 ORs at nine major Hellenic hospitals. A total of 557 medical personnel participated in an occupational survey, providing data for a subjective assessment of IEQ in the audited ORs. The OR personnel reported work related health symptoms and an assessment of indoor conditions (thermal, visual and acoustical comfort, and air quality). Overall, personnel reported an average of 2.24 work-related symptoms each, and 67.2% of respondents reported at least one. Women suffer more health symptoms than men. Special dispositions, such as smoking and allergies, increase the number of reported symptoms for male and female personnel. Personnel that perceive satisfactory indoor comfort conditions (temperature, humidity, ventilation, light, and noise) average 1.18 symptoms per person, while for satisfactory indoor air quality the average complaints are 0.99. The perception of satisfactory IEQ (satisfactory comfort conditions and air quality) reduces the average number of health complaints to 0.64 symptoms per person and improves working conditions, even in a demanding OR environment. (author)

  14. Economic effects of a reservoir re-operation policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for integrated human and environmental water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pablo Ortiz-Partida

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights: This study determines the economic feasibility of the EF policy. Results show that a proposed Environmental Flow policy would increase irrigated agriculture profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  15. Operational approach to the environmental problems in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, F

    1980-01-01

    Environmental programs associated with socioeconomic development are examined. In most developing countries, environmental problems affecting human health are connected with poverty, over-population, and biological pollutants. An analysis of the environmental problems associated with socioeconomic development in Surabaya City, Indonesia, is presented. An analytical methodology and a mathematical model for an integrated environmental program are described. (1 diagram, 5 references, 5 tables)

  16. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  17. Do Emotional Appeal and Media-context Influence the Effectiveness of TV Commercials for Profit and Non-profit Brands?

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Irene; Claeys, Christel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of emotions, both ad- and context-evoked, on the effectiveness of commercials for non-profit vs. profit brands. Effectiveness is made operational by rational measures, recall and recognition, and by emotional measures, ad likeability and brand attitude. Four different experimental groups were exposed to a sequence of warm and sad commercials for non-profit and profit brands, embedded either in a warm film fragment or a sad one. The results indicate that, ove...

  18. Converting MEMS technology into profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzek, Janusz

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.

  19. Causes of different profitability of agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work involves identification of causes of different profitability of agricultural sector done on case study of nearly identical agricultural enterprises. It shows that financial mix even in scope of similar companies can lead to various profit indicators. Through comparative financial analysis in the same industry and activity by applying methods and techniques we have concluded that company PP Ratkovo operates more stable and closer to determined norms and also shows better results in majority of the indicators. Horizontal and vertical analysis indicates that companies in Agribusiness partner group use expensive external sources of financing. We have precisely defined in which cost segment occurs highest distinction. Also we have shown reasons why PP Ratkovo in the last two years manifests great profitability measured by ebit, ebitda and net profit as well as excellent structure of material costs and wages costs in in frame of the operating income, and reasons why enterprises in Agribusiness partner group does not.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Operations, Upgrades, and Consolidation at the Western Command Site, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Mexico Environmental Geo ra hie InformationS stem Source: NNSA AOWC Agent Operations Westem Command ER Environmental restoration NNSA National...8217)’ UU1’ Cll TONGA TE J)oputy Secretaey RE: Kirtland Air Force Dase~ Environmental Assessment for Operations, Upgrades and Consolidation at the Western

  1. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring. Annual report, CY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1993 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite conditions, the differences are less than in previous years. At certain locations on or directly adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste sites, levels can be several times higher than offsite conditions

  3. Environmental Restoration Operations Consolidated Quarterly Report: July-September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the July, August, and September 2016 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active sites are located in TA-III.

  4. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  5. 77 FR 24979 - Plan of Operations, Environmental Assessment, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [7148-NZY] Plan of Operations, Environmental.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Plan of Operations and Environmental Assessment for a 30-day public... Energy Company (Cimarex), a Plan of Operations to conduct the Rivers Edge 3-D Seismic Survey within the...

  6. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Security Forces Operations Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Elizabeth; Myklebust, Jessica; Denier, James; Christner, Jennifer; Fontaine, Kathyrn

    2006-01-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) has prepared this EA in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act to evaluate the potential environmental and social impacts from the construction and operation of the proposed SFOF...

  7. Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning through Post-Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosher, David E; Lachman, Beth E; Greenberg, Michael D; Nichols, Tiffany; Rosen, Brian; Willis, Henry H

    2008-01-01

    .... Army conducts overseas. Countries in which the Army conducts operations tend to have environmental problems caused by industrialization, lack of environmental protection, long-running conflict, and natural conditions...

  8. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  9. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  10. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  11. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  12. How to make microenterprise profitable

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimenko, Pavel; Hokkanen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The idea of the thesis is to give a good insight on how to make a microenterprise profitable from marketing and networking points of view and explain the basic steps that are needed to be taken when establishing a company. We took the company Maks Investment & Consulting Group Oy (MIC Group), which is approximately one year old consulting firm, as a case study. The company was studied very carefully from the very beginning of its operations. Business plan of MIC Group was also studied in orde...

  13. Profitability expertise of rural methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to analyze the profitability of projects of methanization, and to identify factors which curb or favour their profitability. It is based on a detailed analysis of the investment and of the profitability of 50 sites of different sizes and at different stages of progress (from the feasibility study to few months of operation), and also of experiences in three neighbour countries (Germany, Switzerland and Belgium). First, the study highlights the importance of investment costs in the biogas production global cost, notably with respect to current German prices. Then, it comments the impact of subsidies on facility profitability. It proposes ways to improve public support to the different energetic vectors produced from biogas: electricity, biomethane, and heat

  14. Initial Operation of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Pearson, J. Boise; Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The NTREES facility has recently been upgraded such that the power capabilities of the facility have been increased significantly. At its present 1.2 MW power level, more prototypical fuel element temperatures nay now be reached. The new 1.2 MW induction heater consists of three physical units consisting of a transformer, rectifier, and inverter. This multiunit arrangement facilitated increasing the flexibility of the induction heater by more easily allowing variable frequency operation. Frequency ranges between 20 and 60 kHz can accommodated in the new induction heater allowing more representative power distributions to be generated within the test elements. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during testing In this new higher power configuration, NTREES will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials at near-prototypic power densities. As checkout testing progressed and as higher power levels were achieved, several design deficiencies were discovered and fixed. Most of these design deficiencies were related to stray RF energy causing various components to encounter unexpected heating. Copper shielding around these components largely eliminated these problems. Other problems encountered involved unexpected movement in the coil due to electromagnetic forces and electrical arcing between the coil and a dummy test article. The coil movement and arcing which were encountered during the checkout testing effectively destroyed the induction coil in use at

  15. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This draft environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of River Bend Station, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  16. NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) - NASA's key to environmental technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Beth

    1993-01-01

    NOET is a NASA-wide team which supports the research and development community by sharing information both in person and via a computerized network, assisting in specification and standard revisions, developing cleaner propulsion systems, and exploring environmentally compliant alternatives to current processes. NOET's structure, dissemination of materials, electronic information, EPA compliance, specifications and standards, and environmental research and development are discussed.

  17. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations

  18. Transitioning from operations to environmental restoration: Startup of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.C.; Kozlowski, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper will present a description of the program undertaken by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC) to effect a transition from operation of the Fernald site by the past M ampersand O contractor, WEMCO, to DOE's new mission and contractual approach focussed on site remediation. This transition, on a first of its kind contract, represented a significant, proactive approach on the part of DOE to pursue the clean up of its weapon's production facilities in a faster, more cost-effective manner. The paper will discuss the formal transition readiness review process and the lessons teamed by DOE and the contractor during transition. The oral presentation will be shared by both authors with one half of the time allocated to the transition readiness demonstration process and one half to the lessons learned. The objective of having a Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters representative participate in the transition to the first ERMC was to develop a handbook to assist other sites proceeding with the ERMC concept, such as the Richland Operations Office, and to develop a lessons learned document. Because a lessons learned report is available separately, only those more significant lessons learned are highlighted in this paper

  19. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.

  20. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  1. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  2. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  3. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  4. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  5. sustainable development and profitability in the Finnish restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulenga, Mpafya

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability in the food industry is often concerned with the provision of organic products and recycling. The emphasis on organically produced supplies though viewed as an environmentally sustainable means of food production to meet the ends of the green revolution should not obscure consideration of profitability in the business. Making profit is a business goal, while environmental sustainability is an ethical issue whose practice is subject to the balancing act of being pr...

  6. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of the proposed Panoramic Survey... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) at the Summit...

  7. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear... nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions of the rule is required by June 20, 2014. This... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to...

  8. 78 FR 24734 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Final Environmental Impact Statement for the... Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), Southwest of Range 20, is not operationally feasible and has been.... The Army identified and analyzed environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with the proposed...

  9. Final environmental statement related to operation of White Mesa Uranium Project, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental impact statements are presented under the following headings: the existing environment; mining and milling operations; air quality; land use; mineral resources; soils; radiological impacts; socioeconomic impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relation between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments

  10. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  11. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN; LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2011-01-01

    The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow), and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow). Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an ...

  12. Final environmental statement related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of River Bend Station, pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  13. Environmental monitoring program for Itataia industrial complex before operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condessa, M.L.M.B.

    1982-01-01

    This environmental monitoring program aims to characterize the environment in adjacent area of Itataia Industrial Complex. The places and frequencies of samples and measurements, as well as analysis and parameters to be measured in each type of samples are presented. (C.M.) [pt

  14. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  15. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada

  16. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  17. Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations: Maintenance, and Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luther, Linda

    2007-01-01

    ... impacts associated with airport operations and expansion are likely to be debated. This issue is important to various stakeholders, particularly those whose health, property values, and quality of life may be affected by such impacts...

  18. Changes in animal performance and profitability of Holstein dairy operations after introduction of crossbreeding with Montbéliarde, Normande, and Scandinavian Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezetter, C; Bareille, N; Billon, D; Côrtes, C; Lechartier, C; Seegers, H

    2017-10-01

    An individual-based mechanistic, stochastic, and dynamic simulation model was developed to assess economic effects resulting from changes in performance for milk yield and solid contents, reproduction, health, and replacement, induced by the introduction of crossbreeding in Holstein dairy operations. Three crossbreeding schemes, Holstein × Montbéliarde, Holstein × Montbéliarde × Normande, and Holstein × Montbéliarde × Scandinavian Red, were implemented in Holstein dairy operations and compared with Holstein pure breeding. Sires were selected based on their estimated breeding value for milk. Two initial operations were simulated according to the prevalence (average or high) of reproductive and health disorders in the lactating herd. Evolution of operations was simulated during 15 yr under 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold). After 15 yr, breed percentages reached equilibrium for the 2-breed but not for the 3-breed schemes. After 5 yr of simulation, all 3 crossbreeding schemes reduced average milk yield per cow-year compared with the pure Holstein scheme. Changes in other animal performance (milk solid contents, reproduction, udder health, and longevity) were always in favor of crossbreeding schemes. Under an objective of constant number of cows, margin over variable costs in average discounted value over the 15 yr of simulation was slightly increased by crossbreeding schemes, with an average prevalence of disorders up to €32/cow-year. In operations with a high prevalence of disorders, crossbreeding schemes increased the margin over variable costs up to €91/cow-year. Under an objective of constant volume of milk sold, crossbreeding schemes improved margin over variable costs up to €10/1,000L (corresponding to around €96/cow-year) for average prevalence of disorders, and up to €13/1,000L (corresponding to around €117/cow-year) for high prevalence of disorders. Under an objective of constant

  19. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  20. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, Henk L.M.; Van der Tak, Casper M.

    1996-01-01

    The standard view is that situations where no transborder environmental externalities occur are most efficiently dealt with by national environmental policies rather than by international co-operation. Though this may be the general case, non-coordinated national policies do not always produce the most efficient international allocation. This paper presents four cases in which the allocative outcome of non-coordinated domestic policy choices can be improved upon by international environmental co-operation. The first case refers to the use of environmental policy as a strategic trade instrument. The other cases refer to the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs and increasing returns to scale. The form of international environmental co-operation should be adapted to the situation. Formal international agreements between countries are characterised by high transaction costs and may not always be the most efficient form of co-operation

  1. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  2. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  3. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): R series hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gene; Criscione, Joseph C.; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) instrument is currently under development by the NASA GOES-R Project team within the framework of the GOES Program to fulfill the future needs and requirements of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Office. As part of the GOES-R instrument complement, HES will provide measurements of the traditional temperature and water vapor vertical profiles with higher accuracy and vertical resolution than obtained through current sounder technologies. HES will provide measurements of the properties of the shelf and coastal waters and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The HES team is forging the future of remote environmental monitoring with the development of an operational instrument with high temporal, spatial and spectral-resolution and broad hemispheric coverage. The HES development vision includes threshold and goal requirements that encompass potential system solutions. The HES team has defined tasks for the instrument(s) that include a threshold functional complement of Disk Sounding (DS), Severe Weather/Mesoscale Sounding (SW/M), and Shelf and Coastal Waters imaging (CW) and a goal functional complement of Open Ocean (OO) imaging, and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). To achieve the best-value procurement, the GOES-R Project has base-lined a two-phase procurement approach to the HES design and development; a Formulation/study phase and an instrument Implementation phase. During Formulation, currently slated for the FY04-05 timeframe, the developing team(s) will perform Systems Requirements Analysis and evaluation, System Trade and Requirements Baseline Studies, Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategy and complete a Preliminary Conceptual Design of the HES instrument. The results of the formulation phase will be leveraged to achieve an effective and efficient system solution during

  4. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility; Sicherheit der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Das Spannungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  5. Environmental effects on materials in operating power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews several areas in which corrosion problems have occurred and what can be done to help improve future performance: BWR pipe cracking, PWR steam generators, Three Mile Island-thiosulfate contamination, secondary side problems, mechanical damage (Ginna), piping and vessel cracking, turbine cracking, and bolting. The safety and operational issues involved are listed

  6. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  7. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  8. Profitability and Farmers Conservation Efforts on Sustainable Potato Farming in Wonosobo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.

  9. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  10. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  11. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  12. Economic efficiency of environmental management system operation in industrial companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmasova, N.; Ershova, I.; Plastinina, I.; Boyarinov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The article examines the issue of the efficiency of the environmental management system (EMS) implementation in the Russian machine-building companies. The analysis showed that Russia clearly lags behind other developed and developing countries in terms of the number of ISO 14001 certified companies. According to the authors, the main cause of weak system implementation activity is attributed to the lack of interest in ISO 14001 certification on the Russian market. Five-year primary (field) research aimed at the analysis of the environmental priorities of the civilians suggests that the image component of the economic benefits ensures the increase in economic and financial performance of the company due to the increase in customers’ loyalty to the products of the EMS adopter. To quantify economic benefits obtained from EMS implementation, a methodological approach with regard to the image component and the decrease in semi-fixed costs due to the increase in the production scale has been developed. This approach has been tested in a machine-building electrical equipment manufacturer in Ekaterinburg. This approach applied to data processing yields the conclusion that EMS gives a good additional competitive advantage to its adopters.

  13. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  14. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  15. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the impact of pricing of risk on the profitability of Nigeria insurance market and also the relationship between operation expenses and profitability of the non-life insurance market in Nigeria. Results show that economy, competition and government regulation have effect on pricing of risk. Also, it was ...

  16. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahyouni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015, this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset management, bank size and capital ratio are positively correlated with bank profitability. While, credit quality and operating efficiency affect bank’s profits negatively. Additionally, macroeconomic factors have different impact on profitability indicators in each market. Our findings may help decision makers inside and outside bank to determine important factors affecting bank profitability.

  17. Approaches to economic analysis of profitability of forestry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Dzyubenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the directions of adaptation of existing analytical procedures for assessing the profitability to specific activities of forestry enterprises, which is an integral part of evaluating financial potential of enterprises of the investigated branch. In particular, the author identifies the following analytical procedures that make it possible to assess the performance of forestry enterprises and determine its financial potential: the return on equity (assets on net profit, the return on equity, the return on assets, the return on sales of profits from operating activities, the profitability of sold products at net profit, reinvestment factor, the economic growth sustainability ratio, the period of payback capital, the payback period of equity capital. On the basis of these indicators, the current state of profitability of forestry enterprises was substantiated and their critical points were determined.

  18. 76 FR 37100 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement; Continued Operation of the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., hazardous and radioactive material transportation, energy efficiency and renewable energy, nuclear energy, fossil energy, magnetic fusion, basic energy sciences, supercomputing, and biological and environmental.... Further, an updated evaluation of SNL/NM operational and transportation accident analyses and a new...

  19. Sources of Data and Expertise for Environmental Factors Relevant to Amphibious Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew, Colin

    2000-01-01

    In the planning and conduct of amphibious operations it is necessary to have knowledge of a range of environmental variables, such as sea states, surf zone width and wave heights, beach composition, and bathymetry...

  20. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-04

    Federal Activities, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Sincerely yours,, PD k Whittington , P.E Regional Administrator Enclosure I I I I...many of the residents are deprived , disadvantaged; uninformed and part of a minority); nor is anyone certain the AF will make full restitUtion in light...only wash 217 our home away but would deprive to us of water for the pipelines that supply 217 water over the whole ranch. This reservoir has been here

  1. Environmental assessment related to the operation of Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operations, this assessment includes a descriptive section which is intended to provide sufficient detail to allow the various impacts to be viewed in proper perspective. In particular, details are provided on site characteristics, current programs, characterization of the existing site environment, and in-place environmental monitoring programs. In addition, specific facilities and operations that could conceivably impact the environment are described at length. 77 refs., 16 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  3. 78 FR 37281 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... factors: (1) License renewal will involve nuclear power plants for which the environmental impacts of...) Changes in the environment around nuclear power plants are gradual and predictable. The 1996 GEIS improved... environmental impacts that may occur from renewing commercial nuclear power plant operating licenses; (2...

  4. 78 FR 5830 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan for the Interim Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-FXES11120800000F2-123-F2] Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan for the Interim Operations of PacifiCorp's Klamath Hydroelectric Project on the Klamath River, Klamath County, OR, and... environmental assessment and proposed habitat conservation plan; request for comment. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  5. The impact of industry role players on the competitiveness and profitability of an entity in a volatile environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MGS Muli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the face of numerous challenges that organisations encounter they cannot survive independently of the industry in which they operate. Constant interaction with industry role players and the ability to adapt and align organisational strategies to changes within the industry are instrumental to improved profitability. This study aimed to better understand the impact that industry role players have on their profitability and competitiveness in a volatile environment. Such an appreciation will assist organisations to continuously adapt their strategies to industry variations. The airline industry was selected because of its volatility that has seen a decline in the profitability of airlines operating worldwide; and Air Zimbabwe in particular because of the extreme macro and micro environmental forces under which it operates. Zimbabwean aviation industry employees' in current employ at Air Zimbabwe, employed by foreign airlines, travel agents, ground handling agents and aviation regulators were interviewed. The impact on competitiveness and profitability of six major industry role players (competitor airlines, suppliers, buyers, substitute products, new entrants and regulatory authorities in the airline industry was analysed. There was general consensus among respondents that industry role players strongly impact on both the profitability and competitiveness.

  6. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  7. Operationele Oceanografie en Rapid Environmental Assessment (Operational Oceanography and Rapid Environmental Assessment)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    te Raa, L. A; Lam, F. P; Schouten, M. W

    2008-01-01

    .... Possible applications of operational oceanography in REA include improved sonar performance predictions with three-dimensional sound speed forecasts, support of AUV mission planning with the help...

  8. Atomic profits, no thanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.

    1980-01-01

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de

  9. Environmental aspects based on operation performance of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA Project entitled Development and Upgrading of Guidelines, Databases and Tools for Integrating Comparative Assessment into Energy System Analysis and Policy Making, which included the collection, review and input of data into a database on health and environmental impacts related to operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The objectives of the report included assembling environmental data on operational performance of nuclear fabrication facilities in each country; compiling and arranging the data in a database, which will be easily available to experts and the public; and presenting data that may be of value for future environmental assessment of nuclear fabrication facilities

  10. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  11. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  12. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  13. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  14. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Design and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, F.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). This poster will provide an overview of the NPOESS architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the Earth, atmosphere, and near-Earth space environment. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as to remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up NPOESS that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan's purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  17. Environmental analysis of the operation of the ERDA facilities in Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWherter, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the environmental effects of current ERDA operations in Oak Ridge is being conducted to establish a baseline for the consideration of the environmental effects of additional facilities or modified operations in the future. An extensive ecological survey has been conducted for about one year; social and economic data were obtained; and an archaeological survey of the area was made. The facilities were described and the effluents associated with operations were quantified to the extent practical. The effects of effluent releases to the environment are being analyzed. The social effects of the ERDA facilities in Oak Ridge are also being studied. (auth)

  18. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  19. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    whether recent developments in operational oceanographic products are addressing these needs. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Working Group on Operational Oceanographic products for Fisheries and Environment (WGOOFE) identified a potential mismatch between user requirements......Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear...

  20. Piggerywaste management and profitability of pig farming in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Piggery waste management systems in the study area were identified and described, the farm profitability ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, operating net returns and benefit cost ratio.

  1. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  2. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.

  3. Environmental Audit at Santa Barbara Operations, Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, North Las Vegas Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of selected facilities under the jurisdiction of the DOE Nevada Operations Office (NV) that are operated by EG and G Energy Measurements, Incorporated (EG and G/EM). The facilities included in this Audit are those of Santa Barbara Operation (SBO) at Goleta, California; the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) at Santa Barbara, California; and Las Vegas Area Operations (LVAO) including the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, and the North Las Vegas Facilities (NLVF) at North Las Vegas, Nevada. The Environmental Audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Audit, commencing on January 28, 1991 and ending on February 15, 1991. The scope of the Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. Also assessed was compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations and requirements; internal operating requirements; DOE Orders; and best management practices. 8 tabs

  4. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  5. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  7. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  8. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  9. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  10. Environmental Responsibility: A Panacea for Operational Disturbances in Offshore West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, I.

    2002-01-01

    Reports from onshore E and P activities in Nigeria have shown that operating in the Niger Delta region poses some of the toughest challenges in the world. The region has witnessed a spate of attacks on oil and gas facilities, staff and contractors, consequently, major oil and gas players have to contend with complex operational uncertainties due to increase pressure from the local communities for improved environmental control measures.To effectively de-risk this region of this category of operational uncertainties, the industry must begin to see environmental performance as not only a measure of how well she can comply with existing environmental regulations, but also as a measure of how well she can pre-empt environmental pressures as well as maintain constant harmony with all concerned stakeholders and seeing herself as responsible to the environment with a view to improve performance.In this project, we have been able to develop SMART' models based on continous consultation, integrated management approach and continous improvement attitude (CIA). With a good FOCUS' approach, this will help in safe and effective operations, pre-empt pressures, maintain harmony with local communities and effectively manage operational disturbances within complex environmental settings like the Nigerian Niger Delta area. Finally, we are of the opinion that every industry that seeks to remain efficient and relevant in this millennium should constantly be looking for ways of becoming more environmentally responsible because no business can call itself efficient if it threatens the environment within which it operates.SMART is an acronym for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bond.FOCUS is an acronym for Fair, Objective, Consistent, Unbiased and Succint

  11. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

  12. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R. [Department of Hydraulic and Energy Engineering, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), c/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

  13. Environmental dose-assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations

  14. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  15. Manitoba Hydro's environmental management system and its application to hydraulic facilities and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D. C.

    1996-01-01

    Development at Manitoba Hydro of a series of environmental practices manuals, as part of the public utilities' approach to environmental management, were described. Experiences gained during the process of developing these manuals were described. It has been found that to be accepted environmental practices must: (1) support existing facilities, operations and procedures, (2) be presented in an easily accessible form, (3) have an evident purpose, (4) be stated clearly; (5) be practical and feasible, and (6) have implementation clearly defined. The audience level of detail, style of presentation, implementation, frequency of revision and update were also summarized. A detailed outline of the current policy of Manitoba Hydro was included in the appendices

  16. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D and D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment

  17. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  18. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  20. Comparison of efficiency and profitability of investor-owned multihospital systems with not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, A M

    1991-01-01

    It is often assumed that investor-owned hospitals are more market driven than are not-for-profit hospitals, and that they will maximize output and minimize inputs, to the exclusion of other management strategies. To resolve the conflicting research evidence, this study analyzed efficiency and profitability measures for approximately 50 investor-owned and 60 not-for-profit hospitals in Florida for the period from 1982 through 1988. The results indicate that the investor-owned hospitals used significantly fewer FTE staff per bed, had significantly fewer manhours per adjusted patient day, and paid significantly less in wages and had significantly higher operating margins (profit) than did the not-for-profit institutions.

  1. Environmental analysis of the operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10 site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.W.; Blumberg, R.; Cotter, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    An environmental analysis of the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley was conducted to present to the public information concerning the extent to which recognizable effects, or potential effects, on the environment may occur. The analysis addresses current operations of the ORNL X-10 site and completed operations that may continue to have residual effects. Solid wastes from ORNL operations at the Y-12 site which are transported to the X-10 site for burial (e.g., Biology Division animal wastes) are included as part of X-10 site operation. Socioeconomic effects are associated primarily with the communities where employees live and with the Knoxville Bureau of Economic Analysis economic area as a whole. Therefore, ORNL employees at both Y-12 and X-10 sites are included in the ORNL socioeconomic impact analysis. An extensive base of environmental data was accumulated for this report. Over 80 reports related to ORNL facilities and/or operations are cited as well as many open-literature citations. Environmental effects of the operation of ORNL result from operational discharges from the onsite facilities; construction and/or modification of facilities, transportation to and from the site of persons, goods and services; socioeconomic impacts to the local, regional, and general population; and accidental discharges if they should occur. Operational discharges to the environnment are constrained by federal, state, and local regulations and by criteria established by the US Department of Energy to minimize adverse impacts. It is the purpose of this document to evaluate the operation of the ORNL insofar as impacts beyond the site boundary may occur or have the potential for occurrence.

  2. Environmental analysis of the operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10 site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Blumberg, R.; Cotter, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    An environmental analysis of the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facilities in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley was conducted to present to the public information concerning the extent to which recognizable effects, or potential effects, on the environment may occur. The analysis addresses current operations of the ORNL X-10 site and completed operations that may continue to have residual effects. Solid wastes from ORNL operations at the Y-12 site which are transported to the X-10 site for burial (e.g., Biology Division animal wastes) are included as part of X-10 site operation. Socioeconomic effects are associated primarily with the communities where employees live and with the Knoxville Bureau of Economic Analysis economic area as a whole. Therefore, ORNL employees at both Y-12 and X-10 sites are included in the ORNL socioeconomic impact analysis. An extensive base of environmental data was accumulated for this report. Over 80 reports related to ORNL facilities and/or operations are cited as well as many open-literature citations. Environmental effects of the operation of ORNL result from operational discharges from the onsite facilities; construction and/or modification of facilities, transportation to and from the site of persons, goods and services; socioeconomic impacts to the local, regional, and general population; and accidental discharges if they should occur. Operational discharges to the environnment are constrained by federal, state, and local regulations and by criteria established by the US Department of Energy to minimize adverse impacts. It is the purpose of this document to evaluate the operation of the ORNL insofar as impacts beyond the site boundary may occur or have the potential for occurrence

  3. Environmental issues in oil and gas operations in Yukon and in the N.W.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacWilliam, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Companies planning an expansion into the two territories ought to examine the way each territory deals with potential environmental issues such as spills, releases, contaminated sites and the reclamation of land. Recent legislation has provided each territory with a certain amount of autonomy, which includes the ability to oversee environmental protection. The Yukon, in particular, has considerable freedom in addressing environmental issues relating to oil and gas activities. Both territories are subject to the input and approval of the federal government and First Nations citizens where their respective interests or lands are involved. An overview is included of the regulation of environmental matters north of the 60th parallel. Although the expansion of oil and gas companies into the two territories 'north of 60' offers new opportunities, operators must consider the potential for environmental issues such as spills, releases, site contamination and reclamation of land. In the Yukon where the government has assumed jurisdiction to regulate oil and gas resources, it is implementing a comprehensive regime to deal with environmental issues, at first, in draft form. In contrast, in the N.W.T. the federal government retains considerable control over gas and oil rights and the consequent environmental issues, and, accordingly, it is essential to be aware of federal environmental regulations for the time being

  4. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M. [Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  5. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  6. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  7. A Study on an appropriate operating system of environmental basic facility service industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental basic facility service industry is designed to have a structural reorganization of general operating system and the efficient and effective participation of private industry and regulation of industry in connection with the general system. 35 refs., 9 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. 78 FR 58570 - Environmental Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... applicant or the licensee), for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI... Rock Point (BRP) Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). II. Environmental Assessment (EA...

  9. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.; Roeck, de Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear

  10. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  11. Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM). Operational safety, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. Release: December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report overviews the monitoring activities of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection at the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM), focussing the ERAM inventory of radioactive waste and the measures and results of geomechanical and hydrogeological monitoring, operational radiation protection, the monitoring of discharges of radioactive substances, environmental monitoring, and the dose levels expected from discharges of radioactive substances. (orig.)

  12. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  13. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooyman, J.H.; Robinson, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The agreement ensures that environmental impacts resulting from operations at the Oak Ridge Reservation are investigated and remediated to protect the public health, welfare, and environment

  14. Impact of government incentives in the profitability of green energy production using fuel cells in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo A. Potosí-Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are a technological alternative to produce green energy, however, high costs make fuel cell a non-profitable option. This paper analyses the impact of the Colombian government incentives in the profitability of fuel cells. The analysis is based on the total operation cost of the fuel cell in three representative applications: residential, office and building elevator. The economic viability of fuel cell generation in those cases is contrasted with classical solutions like diesel generators and standard grid to provide a reference framework. Such results enable to evaluate the effectiveness of the Colombian government incentives in promoting the use of fuel cells over other less environmental-friendly options such as diesel generators. Finally, new incentives are proposed by subsidies offered by other countries with higher fuel cell penetration into their electric market. All the analyses are supported in simulations performed with a mathematical model parameterized using the characteristics of commercial devices.

  15. Environmentalism and environmental change as it affects Canadian defence policy and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, C M

    1989-12-01

    The greenhouse effect is described, along with the anthropogenic factors that are considered to influence climate. Various types of climatic models are outlined and critically compared, since much of the present debate about the possible impacts of the greenhouse effect is centered on which of the many forecasts is representative of what can be expected in the early 21st century. The central focus of this comparison is to summarize the findings of the models and arrive at an overall consensus on rates of climatic change. It is seen that models are, at their present state of development, only able to provide an internally consistent picture of a plausible future climate. A general consensus is that the annual global average temperature will rise to 16.8-19.8{degree}C by the year 2035. The largest sources of uncertainty in modelling appear to be the feedback from oceans, clouds, ice-albedo, and possibly lapse rate and water-vapor changes. The repercussions of climate change that may influence the Canadian Forces in their daily operations and in strategic planning are briefly discussed. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  17. Business analytics of specialized medical biochemistry laboratory using profit and loss acount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikica Buljanović

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By measuring the actual effectiveness of a medical biochemistry laboratory’s business operations, we can determine the accounting measure of laboratory’s profitability, where operating expenses of the laboratory are covered by the income generated from the services. A laboratory’s financial report can be based on a profit and loss account, which shows whether or not a business entity, i.e., the laboratory, is making a profit during a particular business period. Methods. Profitability of the Specialized Medical Biochemical Laboratory (Laboratory of the General County Hospital in Našice, Croatia, was determined using the profit and loss account for 2007. Business success was expressed using the accounting measures of marginal contribution, gross income, and operating income, which could show whether or not the laboratory was operating profitably. This procedure allowed us to identify indicators of successful or unsuccessful business operations of the Laboratory. Results. According to the profit and loss account, the operating profit was 719,926 HRK, i.e., the operating margin was 11.7%, indicating that the Laboratory was operating positively. After subtracting all operating expenses per 100 income units, 11.7 units profit remained from the Laboratory’s core business. Conclusion. The Specialized Medical Biochemical Laboratory of the General County Hospital in Našice generated income, i.e., it operated at a profit. The purpose of profit and loss account was to determine the Laboratory operations that had impact on its business effectiveness and could increase the actual profitability. If the laboratory operates at a loss, and no activities are undertaken that would reverse the business toward positive, the analysis may provide information on the cost for the society as a whole of the studied laboratory within the existing healthcare system.

  18. Managing Environmental Impact Assessment for Construction and Operation in New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process, its utilization and the necessary infrastructure for such a process in order to provide a holistic approach for EIA in new nuclear power programmes. It also emphasizes the environmental aspects unique to a nuclear power programme, assuming that a State embarking on such a programme already has an environmental regulatory framework for the industrial projects in place. This publication also describes the phased implementation of the EIA programme in accordance with the phases described in IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1. This publication is addressed to senior managers, project managers or coordinators and technical specialists of government authorities and agencies, including regulatory bodies, operating organizations and supporting industries, and other organizations involved in environmental issues

  19. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporation of environmental impact criteria in the design and operation of chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Bauer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start-up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment.

  1. Bechtel Hanford, Inc./ERC team health and safety plan Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, S.R.

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive safety and health program is essential for reducing work-related injuries and illnesses while maintaining a safe and health work environment. This document establishes Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI)/Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) team requirements, policies, and procedures and provides preliminary guidance to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) subcontractor for use in preparing essential safety and health documents. This health and safety plan (HASP) defines potential safety and health issues associated with operating and maintaining the ERDF. A site-specific HASP shall be developed by the ERDF subcontractor and shall be implemented before operations and maintenance work can proceed. An activity hazard analysis (AHA) shall also be developed to provide procedures to identify, assess, and control hazards or potential incidents associated with specific operations and maintenance activities

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Regents of the University of California (UC) propose the continued operation, including near-term proposed projects, of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition, DOE proposes the continued operation, including near-term proposed projects, of Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Continued operation plus proposed projects at the two Laboratories is needed so that the research and development missions established by Congress and the President can continue to be supported. As provided and encouraged by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), DOE and UC have prepared this document as a joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Impact Report (EIR) to analyze the impacts of the proposed action. In addition, this document discusses a no action alternative for continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative focused on specific adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative. This document also examines the alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. The environmental documentation process provides information to the public, government agencies, and decision makers about the environmental impacts of implementing the proposed and alternative actions. In addition, this environmental documentation identifies alternatives and possible ways to reduce or prevent environmental impacts. A list of the issues raised through the EIS/EIR scoping process is presented

  4. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  5. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  6. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  8. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  9. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B., E-mail: beatrice.mandelli@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4}, CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6}, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in the LHC experiments and detectors. • Strategies to reduce the GHG emissions: gas recirculation and recuperation systems. • GHG emission: achievements from LHC Run1 to Run2. • Resistive Plate Chambers operation with new environmentally friendly gases.

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  11. Environmental impact report addendum for the continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    An environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (ES/EIR) for the continued operation and management of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was prepared jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California (UC). The scope of the document included near-term (within 5-10 years) proposed projects. The UC Board of Regents, as state lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), certified and adopted the EIR by issuing a Notice of Determination on November 20, 1992. The DOE, as the lead federal agency under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), adopted a Record of Decision for the ES on January 27, 1993 (58 Federal Register [FR] 6268). The DOE proposed action was to continue operation of the facility, including near-term proposed projects. The specific project evaluated by UC was extension of the contract between UC and DOE for UC's continued operation and management of LLNL (both sites) from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1997. The 1992 ES/EIR analyzed impacts through the year 2002. The 1992 ES/EIR comprehensively evaluated the potential environmental impacts of operation and management of LLNL within the near-term future. Activities evaluated included programmatic enhancements and modifications of facilities and programs at the LLNL Livermore site and at LLNL's Experimental Test Site (Site 300) in support of research and development missions 2048 established for LLNL by Congress and the President. The evaluation also considered the impacts of infrastructure and building maintenance, minor modifications to buildings, general landscaping, road maintenance, and similar routine support activities

  12. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  13. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexian Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower. The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator’s profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator’s environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator’s environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm’s green investment.

  14. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. This paper assesses the status of existing federal risk-based standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites. Gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards and the technical issues associated with the application of those standards are identified. Finally, the implications of the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues on DOE operations are discussed, and approaches to resolving the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues are identified. 6 refs

  15. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, A G; Verma, P C; Rajan, M P [Health Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-02-15

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  16. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rajan, M.P.

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  17. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Parviz; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H 2 O). The biological production of H 2 is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Provision of Child Care: Cost Functions for Profit-Making and Not-for-Profit Day Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Mukerjee; Ann Dryden Witte; Sheila Hollowell

    1990-01-01

    This paper estimates cost functions for day care centers in Massachusetts. The production technology assumed is the generalized homothetic Cobb-Douglas production function. The cost function dual to this production function is estimated separately for profit-making (P1Os) and not-for-profit (NPOs) organizations. The results are discussed in the context of current NPO literature. NPOs are found to be operating at higher average coats than PMOs for most output levels as predicted by the literat...

  20. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  1. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  2. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  3. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  4. Operation of the joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.; Duport, P.J.; Brown, L.D.

    1993-07-01

    The Joint Panel, formed in 1976, is a Canadian organization (composed of federal and provincial government departments and agencies, uranium mining companies, labour unions, and non-profit research institutions) whose members have voluntarily agreed to share information regarding planned, ongoing and completed research on the effects of uranium (and thorium) production on the radiological health and safety of workers and on the environment. The objectives of the Joint Panel are: the identification of areas (within its purview of interest) where research is required; the stimulation of research in areas where the needs have been identified; the dissemination of subsequent research results; and, the avoidance of unnecessary duplication in research activities. The operation of this unique organization permits a free and open discussion of a wide variety of research activities, draws upon its member institutions to form working groups for the preparation of technical documents, and complements its more formal business sessions with technical presentations on topics of current interest. Copies of reports of completed research are maintained by a secretariat, which also issues the minutes of all meetings as well as the annual reports

  5. Surveillance of Environmental and Procedural Measures of Infection Control in the Operating Theatre Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dallolio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological contamination of operating theatres and the lack of adherence to best practices by surgical staff represent some of the factors affecting Surgical Site Infections (SSIs. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbiological quality of operating settings and the staff compliance to the SSI evidence-based control measures. Ten operating rooms were examined for microbiological contamination of air and surfaces, after cleaning procedures, in “at rest” conditions. Furthermore, 10 surgical operations were monitored to assess staff compliance to the recommended practices. None of the air samples exceeded microbiological reference standards and only six of the 200 surface samples (3.0% were slightly above recommended levels. Potentially pathogenic bacteria and moulds were never detected. Staff compliance to best practices varied depending on the type of behaviour investigated and the role of the operator. The major not compliant behaviours were: pre-operative skin antisepsis, crowding of the operating room and hand hygiene of the anaesthetist. The good environmental microbiological quality observed is indicative of the efficacy of the cleaning-sanitization procedures adopted. The major critical point was staff compliance to recommended practices. Awareness campaigns are therefore necessary, aimed at improving the organisation of work so as to facilitate compliance to operative protocols.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  9. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  10. Comparison of environmental radiation doses estimated for Hanford Operations, 1977 through 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-12-01

    Offsite environmental radiation dose equivalents based on Hanford operations are compared for the years 1977 through 1981 to those calculated for 1982. The comparison revealed a downward trend in calculated offsite doses over the period 1977 through 1982, due primarily to reported reduced effluent releases, changes in effluent reporting methods, and increased Columbia River flow over this period. The calculated doses verify the surveillance program findings that potential offsite radiation doses due to Hanford Operations are small and well below our ability to detect in the environment. 11 references, 23 tables

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  12. Mobilizing First-Line Managers as Organizational Strategy Makers: The Case of Environmentally Sustainable Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Åge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate how first-line managers are mobilized as organizational strategy makers. The research case is a campaign launched by a Norwegian shipping company servicing the petroleum industry. The strategic idea on which the campaign was based was to operate the company`s fleet of offshore service vessels in an environmentally sustainable way, to be realized by carrying out fuel-saving operations on board the vessels. A strategic idea is supposed to set out a vie...

  13. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  14. A team leadership approach to managing the transition from construction to operations for an environmental project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes a team approach, at the totalproject level that focused team members with common objectives, for the transition to start-up and operation of the project. The Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach has been successful for this US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The $53.8-million project will collect, treat, and dispose of low-level mixed waste water discharges from the Hanford Site. Construction is scheduled for completion in September 1994 and facility start-up in June 1995. The project challenge is for leadership that is committed to the transition from construction to operation of the environmental restoration project

  15. Analysis of Environmental Data During TRIGA 2000 Reactor Operation in PTNBR-BATAN Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfakhri

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivity data of grass and soil obtained from environmental monitoring during 2000-2008 have been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The data were analyzed using statistical method of the population homogeneity varians test and the average equality test, whereas qualitative analysis have been carried out by gamma spectrometry. From the data analysis, using homogeneity varians test (X 2 test) and average equality test (F test) it was obtained that X 2 calculation , F calculation > X 2 table , F table , so it can be assumed that operation of TRIGA 2000 reactor has no effect to the radioactivity of the environment. The qualitative analysis of grass and soil samples shows no visible peak of gamma ray from fission or activation products from the reactor, but the natural radionuclide such as 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Bi, and 40 K were detected. It can be concluded that reactor operation have no effect to the environmental radioactivity. (author)

  16. Pre-operational monitoring and assessment of aquatic biota in environmental impact assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an ideal anticipatory mechanism which establishes quantitative values for parameters indicating the quality of the environment before, during and after the proposed developmental activity, thus allowing measures that ensure environmental compatibility in developmental process. EIA studies have been made mandatory in India by MoEF, GOI for expansion/modernization of any activity or development of new project. Biological assessment, under aquatic environment, is one of the major components of EIA and it requires systematic way of data collection. Generation of substantial baseline data can then be used for formulation of subsequent stages of EIA, viz. prediction, evaluation, impact statements and environmental management plan (EMP). However, a definite approach towards biological studies under EIA during pre-operational stage has not been outlined in available guidelines. (author)

  17. Pre-operational monitoring and assessment of aquatic biota in environmental impact assessment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, T K [Ecotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

    2001-06-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an ideal anticipatory mechanism which establishes quantitative values for parameters indicating the quality of the environment before, during and after the proposed developmental activity, thus allowing measures that ensure environmental compatibility in developmental process. EIA studies have been made mandatory in India by MoEF, GOI for expansion/modernization of any activity or development of new project. Biological assessment, under aquatic environment, is one of the major components of EIA and it requires systematic way of data collection. Generation of substantial baseline data can then be used for formulation of subsequent stages of EIA, viz. prediction, evaluation, impact statements and environmental management plan (EMP). However, a definite approach towards biological studies under EIA during pre-operational stage has not been outlined in available guidelines. (author)

  18. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. Framework and operational procedure for implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Cunkuan; Lu Yongsen; Shang Jincheng

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been implemented and become an important instrument for decision-making in development projects in China. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R. China was promulgated on 28 October 2002 and will be put into effect on 1 September of 2003. The law provides that Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is required in regional and sector plans and programs. This paper introduces the research achievements and practice of SEA in China, discusses the relationship of SEA and 'integrating of environment and development in decision-making (IEDD)', and relevant political and legal basis of SEA. The framework and operational procedures of SEA administration and enforcement are presented. Nine cases are analyzed and some proposals are given

  20. Some problems of evaluating environmental impacts of nuclear power installation building and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of the construction and operation of a nuclear power installation on the natural environment is discussed, namely on changes in the landscape profile, in the structure of settlement and large-scale agricultural production, the requisition of agricultural land, changes in transport systems, etc., as well as approaches to the evaluation of these environmental impacts with the aim of preserving the optimal state of inter-relations between man and the natural environment. (author)

  1. Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1. Annual operation report: January-December 1977 (including environmental report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Net electrical energy generated in 1977 was 2,922,683.7 MWH with the generator on line 6,959.8 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, occupational personnel radiation exposures, and primary coolant chemistry. Data on radioactive effluent releases, meteorology, environmental monitoring, and potential radiation doses to individuals for July 7, 1977 to December 31, 1977 are also included

  2. Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning through Post-Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    vehicles, thereby limiting pollu- tion of surface streams and aquifers in the host nation. But the lack of adequate racks can often delay redeployment of...support is central to operations in Iraq, has established high standards for U.S. environmental behavior. By con- trast, Qatar seems less concerned about...2007: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG321/ Kinnevan, Kurt, “Trip Report for Kuwait and Qatar , 11-22 May 2005,” Memorandum for Record

  3. An Investigation of the dependence of CMS RPC operation on environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assran, Y. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng., Suez Canal University (Egypt); Colafranceschi, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Doninck, W.A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sharma, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Wickramage, N., E-mail: nwickram@cern.ch [EHEP, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper an analysis is presented on performance of RPC chambers installed in the cosmic ray test stand at ISR, CERN. The currents of RPC chambers are studied as a function of environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity and pressure, which are important for the operation of the RPC detector system at CMS. A neural network approach has been used to analyze the data and to build a model using experimental measurements and combining the results of the simulations.

  4. Meet the New For-Profit: The Low-Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    "Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…

  5. How to Get Data from NOAA Environmental Satellites: An Overview of Operations, Products, Access and Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, N.; Graumann, A.; McNamara, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight access and availability of NOAA satellite data for near real time (NRT) and retrospective product users. The presentation includes an overview of the current fleet of NOAA satellites and methods of data distribution and access to hundreds of imagery and products offered by the Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In particular, emphasis on the various levels of services for current and past observations will be presented. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources. In special cases, users are authorized direct access to NESDIS data distribution systems for environmental satellite data and products. Other means of access include publicly available distribution services such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS), NOAA satellite direct broadcast services and various NOAA websites and ftp servers, including CLASS. CLASS is NOAA's information technology system designed to support long-term, secure preservation and standards-based access to environmental data collections and information. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is responsible for the ingest, quality control, stewardship, archival and access to data and science information. This work will also show the latest technology improvements, enterprise approach and future plans for distribution of exponentially increasing data volumes from future NOAA missions. A primer on access to NOAA operational satellite products and services is available at http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/About/access.html. Access to post-operational satellite data and assorted products is available at http://www.class.noaa.gov

  6. 76 FR 70169 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Tennessee Valley Authority... on NUREG-0498, ``Final Environmental Statement, Supplement 2, Related to the Operation of Watts Bar... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Stephen J. Campbell, Chief, Watts Bar Special Projects Branch...

  7. Research on evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingsheng; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution, and determines the evaluation indicator system composed of 5 primary indicators as the basic competence of enterprise, operation of equipment, technique economics, environmental benefit and management level, and 26 secondary indicators via policies and regulations, standards, literature research and expert consultation in combination with the composition elements, service value judgment factors and full-life cycle of the work, providing theoretical support for the effect evaluation of third-governance over the environmental pollution in China. Then, the hierarchical analytic matrix is formed by analyzing the environmental pollution governance evaluation indicator system via analytic hierarchy process and scoring the importance of various indicators by experts by applying the Delphi method. The feature vector of the matrix is then calculated to obtain the weight of each indicator and verify the effectiveness of the Delphi method and obtain the comprehensive weight by judging the consistency of the matrix, so as to finally determine the overall ordering level of the importance of secondary indicators.

  8. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  9. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  10. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer... regarding whether those effects have significant impacts. Environmental Assessments are used to evaluate.... ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the...

  11. An Australian perspective on environmental protection at uranium mines during the operational and post-operational phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, S.

    1996-01-01

    A high level of public interest surrounds uranium mining in Australia near Kakadu National Park, and government regulatory and audit systems are in place to deliver a high level of environmental protection. There is considered to be no significant level of radiological risk of the environment, although there is evidence of radio accumulation in some organisms which is relevant to calculation of radiological dose to Aboriginal communities pursuing a traditional lifestyle in the region. Assessment of environmental risk focuses mainly on water chemistry, where the main contaminants are uranium, sulphate, and magnesium. Assessment of ecosystem health are made mainly on the basis of whole effluent tests. Post-operational protection is aimed at achieving rehabilitation compatible with likely future land use: mainly wilderness and traditional Aboriginal foraging and occasional occupation. Passive management systems with landscapes and vegetation similar to the preexisting condition, and a high degree of chemical, radiological and physiographic stability for the long term (<10000 years) are key objectives in rehabilitation planning and execution

  12. Comparative Analysis Of Small Medium Enterprise Profitability Based On Its Ownership Form And Ethnicity: Study On Automotive Sector In Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Singapurwoko, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian mi adalah untuk mengetahui (apakah terdapat perbedaan operating profit margin, net profit margin dan return on investment antara pengusaha Jawa dengan Tionghoa, dan bentuk sole proprietorship dengan partnership. Lokasi penelitian dilakukan di Yogyakarta pada perusahaan-perusahaan skala kecil dan menengah yang bergerak dalam bisnis otomotif suku cadang mobil dan bengkel.Variabel independent dalam penelitian ini adalah operating profit margin, net profit margin dan return on i...

  13. The Effects of Firm-Specific Factors on the Profitability of Non-Life Insurance Companies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Emine Öner

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the firm-specific factors affecting the profitability of non-life insurance companies operating in Turkey. For this purpose, data of 24 non-life insurance companies operating in Turkey from the period 2006–2013 were brought together to obtain 192 observed panel data sets. In this study, profitability is measured by two different variables: technical profitability ratio and sales profitability ratio. According to the empirical results, the firm-specific factors affecti...

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR, which in part relies on the detailed information in the appendices, and comprehensively discusses the proposed action, the alternatives, and the existing conditions and impacts of the proposed action and the alternatives

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains copies of the written comments and transcripts of individual statements at the public hearing and the responses to them

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 10 years) proposed projects, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). Additionally, this document analyzes a no action alternative involving continuing operations at FY 1992 funding levels without further growth, a modification of operations alternative to reduce adverse environmental impacts of operations or facilities, and a shutdown and decommissioning alternative of UC discontinuing its management of LLNL after the current contract expires on September 30, 1992. This document assesses the environmental impacts of the Laboratories' operations on air and water quality, geological and ecological systems, occupational and public health risks, prehistoric and historic resources, endangered species, floodplains and wetlands, socioeconomic resources, hazardous waste management, site contamination, and other environmental issues. The EIS/EIR is divided into five volumes and two companion reports. This volume contains the Final EIS/EIR technical appendices which provide technical support for the analyses in Volume 1 and also provide additional information and references

  17. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  18. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  19. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  20. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, environmental data report for the Nevada Test Site -- 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations. These mandates require compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations. During calendar year (CY) 1995 environmental protection and monitoring programs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) managed sites in Nevada and across the United States. A detailed discussion of these environmental protection and monitoring programs, and summary data and assessments for environmental monitoring results at these sites in CY 1995 are provided in the DOE/NV, Annual Site Environmental Report--1995, (ASER) DOE/NV/11718-037. A brief description of the scope of this environmental monitoring is provided below, categorized by ``on-NTS`` and ``off-NTS`` monitoring.

  2. Vectors for Increasing the Effectiveness of Profit Management at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect management of processes involved in accumulation and disposal of profit at Ukrainian companies affects their performance, with the consequent losses of public budget revenues. This raises the need for new and more effective mechanisms for accumulation and disposal of corporate profit, which would be focused on maximal utilization of production, marketing and fiscal capacities of business entities and enhancement of their competitiveness at domestic and global market. The article’s objective is to conduct theoretical study of profit as an economic category and an essential component of company’s performance, sum up the principles of profit management, and analyze the profit management system at company level. A brief review of theoretical definitions of profit is made, economic origin of profit and its role in business operation in the Ukrainian context is highlighted. The components of profit management system at company level, essential principles of strategic management of company profit, organizational and economic mechanism for company profit management, a strategy for profit management at company level is discussed and summed up. The organizational and economic mechanism for profit quality management at company level is proposed.

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Assessment Construction and Operation of Revised PACBAR III Radar Station Saipan, CNMI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    ...). Many project design features have already incorporated environmental concerns. In addition, discussions with Saipan environmental agencies have resulted in mitigation measures, which have been added to the design...

  4. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  5. Completion plug design provides improved operational efficiency and safety while minimizing environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dum, Frank [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline repair standards have been raised with recent improvements for completion plugs when used with a brand new setting tool, resulting in lower environmental risks, improved operational efficiency and safety. The design changes were originally made to serve in an offshore environment in order to minimize the diver's time in the water and simplify steps by the diver to execute pipeline repair operations in cold, dark conditions. Enhancements in the design include fewer number of fittings, plugs, o-rings and gaskets isolating the pipeline product found inside the pipe. The new design is a step toward meeting strict operational and safety standards demanded in the field of pipeline maintenance and repair. (author)

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  7. Superconducting Super Collider site environmental report for calendar year 1991. Pre-operational

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the first annual SER prepared for the SSC project. It is a pre-operational report, intended primarily to describe the baseline characterization of the Ellis County, Texas site that has been developed subsequent to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Supplemental Environmental impact Statement (SEIS). As such, the emphasis will be on environmental compliance efforts, including monitoring and mitigation programs. The SER also reports on the measures taken to meet the commitments made in the EIS and SEIS. These measures are detailed in the Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) (Department of Energy (DOE), 1991), which was prepared following the signing of the Record of Decision (ROD) to construct the SSC in Texas. The SER will continue to be preoperational until the first high-energy (20 trillion electron volt or TeV) protons collisions are observed, at which point the SSC will become operational. At that time, the SER will place more emphasis on the radiological monitoring program. This SER will report on actions taken in 1991 or earlier and briefly mention some of those planned for calendar year 1992. AU actions completed in 1992 will be addressed in the SER for calendar year 1992

  8. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  9. Superconducting Super Collider site environmental report for calendar year 1991. Pre-operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is the first annual SER prepared for the SSC project. It is a pre-operational report, intended primarily to describe the baseline characterization of the Ellis County, Texas site that has been developed subsequent to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Supplemental Environmental impact Statement (SEIS). As such, the emphasis will be on environmental compliance efforts, including monitoring and mitigation programs. The SER also reports on the measures taken to meet the commitments made in the EIS and SEIS. These measures are detailed in the Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) (Department of Energy (DOE), 1991), which was prepared following the signing of the Record of Decision (ROD) to construct the SSC in Texas. The SER will continue to be preoperational until the first high-energy (20 trillion electron volt or TeV) protons collisions are observed, at which point the SSC will become operational. At that time, the SER will place more emphasis on the radiological monitoring program. This SER will report on actions taken in 1991 or earlier and briefly mention some of those planned for calendar year 1992. AU actions completed in 1992 will be addressed in the SER for calendar year 1992.

  10. Potential profitability of pearl culture in coastal communities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.

  11. Environmental restoration and waste management site-specific plan for Richland Operations Office. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This document was prepared to implement and support the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) national plan. The national plan, entitled Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (DOE 1990b) (hereinafter referred to as the DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan) is the cornerstone of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term strategy in environmental restoration and waste management. The DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan addresses overall philosophy and environmental and waste-related activities under the responsibilities of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The plan also reaffirms DOE-HQ goals to bring its nuclear sites into environmental compliance in cooperation with its regulators and the public, and to clean up and restore the environment by 2019 (the commitment for the Hanford Site is for one year sooner, or 2018). This document is part of the site-specific plan for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). It is the first revision of the original plan, which was dated December 1989 (DOE-RL 1989a). This document is a companion document to the Overview of the Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan (DOE-RL 1989d) and The Hanford Site Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan Activity Data Sheets (DOE-RL 1991). Although there are three documents that make up the complete DOE-RL plan, this detailed information volume was prepared so it could be used as a standalone document. 71 refs., 40 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Environmental restoration and waste management site-specific plan for Richland Operations Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This document was prepared to implement and support the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) national plan. The national plan, entitled Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (DOE 1990b) (hereinafter referred to as the DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan) is the cornerstone of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term strategy in environmental restoration and waste management. The DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan addresses overall philosophy and environmental and waste-related activities under the responsibilities of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The plan also reaffirms DOE-HQ goals to bring its nuclear sites into environmental compliance in cooperation with its regulators and the public, and to clean up and restore the environment by 2019 (the commitment for the Hanford Site is for one year sooner, or 2018). This document is part of the site-specific plan for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). It is the first revision of the original plan, which was dated December 1989 (DOE-RL 1989a). This document is a companion document to the Overview of the Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan (DOE-RL 1989d) and The Hanford Site Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan Activity Data Sheets (DOE-RL 1991). Although there are three documents that make up the complete DOE-RL plan, this detailed information volume was prepared so it could be used as a standalone document. 71 refs., 40 figs., 28 tabs

  13. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  14. 76 FR 80409 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Tennessee Valley Authority..., Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant [WBN], Unit 2--Draft Report for Comment'' (draft SFES.... Stephen J. Campbell, Chief, Watts Bar Special Projects Branch, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing...

  15. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Samuels, Sandy [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Lee, Majelle [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2000 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the former Atomics International (AI) Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned company-operated, test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year of 2000 continue to indicate no significant releases of radioactive material from Rocketdyne sites. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and other sites approved by DOE and licensed for radioactive waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are not released into the environment and do not constitute an exposure pathway.

  16. Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1998, DOE operations at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1998 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and De Soto facilities. In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International (AI) Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned company-operated, test facility within Area IV. AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D and D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year of 1998 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Rocketdyne sites. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, and direct radiation. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and other sites approved by DOE and licensed for radioactive waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are not released into the environment and do not constitute an exposure pathway

  17. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE operations annual site environmental report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne currently operates several facilities in the San Fernando Valley/Simi Valley area, for manufacturing, testing, and research and development (R and D). These operations include manufacturing liquid-fueled rocket engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and engines used for expendable launch vehicles used to place artificial satellites into orbit. This work includes fabrication and testing of rocket engines, lasers, and heat-transfer systems; and R and D in a wide range of high-technology fields, such as the electrical power system for the Space Station. Previously, this work also included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. This nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. The majority of this work is done for the Department of Energy (DOE). This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1996 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to DOE operations at Area IV of SSFL and at De Soto

  18. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  19. Profitability of timber harvesting and timber transportation enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, J.

    1996-01-01

    In co-operation with the major companies contracting out forestry work and Statistics Finland, Metsaeteho carried out a project with the objective of analysing the economic profitability of timber harvesting and transportation enterprises in 1994. The calculation of profitability was based on utilisation of last livelihoods taxation data (EVR) that Statistics Finland was in possession of. The basic material comprised data that the companies contracting out forestry work had full-time entrepreneurs. There were 255 forestry machine contractor enterprises and 270 trucking enterprises. Statistics Finland was responsible for computations of the results of the project. The calculation of the indicators of profitability was based on the recommendations of Yritystutkimusneuvottelukunta, a committee looking into the functioning of enterprises. The year 1994 was a good year from the viewpoint of profitability of both forestry machine contractors as well as trucking enterprises. With full depreciations and salary adjustments attended to, both enterprise groups still showed a mean profitability of ca. 8 %. The yield of invested capital was ca. 25 %. The differences in profitability among enterprises were great in both groups and in different parts of the country

  20. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  1. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  2. Operating performance and environmental and safety risks: A preliminary comparison of majors and independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.; Iledare, W.O.; Baumann, R.H.; Mesyanzhinov, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to compare the safety and environmental records of oil and gas companies operating on the OCS in the Gulf of Mexico over the past decade. The reason for doing so is to help inform public sector policy-makers and private sector decision-makers about the potential safety and environmental risks associated with the expected increased presence of smaller independents in the domestic oil and gas industry in general and on the federal OCS in particular. The preliminary conclusion is that although independents have had a modestly high incidence of fires and explosions than the majors, the difference is not significant statistically and is largely attributable to a few ''bad actors'' rather than demonstrably poorer practice by the group as a whole

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  4. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  5. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  6. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  7. Designing Thinning Operations in 2nd Age Class Pine Stands—Economic and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr S. Mederski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of a harvester for thinning operations in young stands can pose several dilemmas. Firstly, the value of the timber obtained should be higher than the cost of the thinning operation—this is especially difficult with young stands, where the timber is of a small size and productivity is low. In addition, small harvesters used for thinning usually have short cranes, less than 10 m in length, which is rather impractical in stands where the distance between strip roads is a standard 20 m. The aim of this research was to select the best mechanised thinning operation, taking into account economic suitability and some environmental aspects (damage to the remaining stand and density of strip roads. The research was carried out in a 31-year-old pine stand (11.27 ha in which three different harvester thinning (T operations were designed: TM1 with midfield and one harvester pass, TM2 with midfield and two harvester passes and TWM without midfield and one harvester pass. In all the proposed operations, a Vimek 404 T5 harvester (with a 4.6 m-long crane and a Vimek 606 TT forwarder were used. The most economic operation was TWM, with a total cost of €13.73 m−3, while TM1 was 13% more expensive at €15.51 m−3. The lowest level of damage, 1.5%, was recorded in TWM, while in TM1 the level was 2.1%. The TWM operation required a net of strip roads twice as dense as in TM1. Taking into account all the analysed aspects, a thinning operation with midfield and one harvester pass is recommended when using the Vimek 404 T5 harvester and the Vimek 606 TT forwarder in the first thinning of a pine stand.

  8. Areva: a profit that has more than doubled in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The turnover of Areva reached 10.125 milliard euros in 2005 which means a 3.1% increase. The sale of its connector department has enabled Areva to double its net profit to 1.049 milliard euros. This strategic move aims at re-centering the group's activities on the energy domain. Areva foresees a global improvement in the nuclear industry as nuclear energy begins appearing as an adequate answer to the growth of energy needs and to the environmental concerns linked to the emission of greenhouse gases. Areva expects to take one third of the worldwide nuclear market by 2010 with a 2-figure annual profit. (A.C.)

  9. Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Equipment related to the installation and operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanu, Sergio; Carli, Filippo Maria; Piermattei, Viviana; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo Aurelio; Dampney, Keith; Norris, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Results of activities under project Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network for Emerging Energy Technologies (MaRINET) are reported, which led to DEMTE, a database, created on the basis of standardized monitoring of the marine environment during installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. Obtained with the consortium partners’ available techniques and equipment, the database shows that such instruments cover all identified marine environmental compartments, despite the lack of underwater vehicles and the reduced skills in using satellite technologies. These weaknesses could be overcome by an accurate planning of equipment, techniques and knowledge sharing. The approach here presented also leads to an effective analysis even in non-marine contexts

  10. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  11. Is merging and acquisition profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions

  12. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  13. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  14. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  15. The renovated Almaraz is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)

  16. Study of the impact of environmental parameters on the operation of CMS RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Assran, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The muon system of the CMS experiment relies on Drift Tubes (DT), Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). RPCs are dedicated for the first level muon trigger and they are characterized by bakelite electrodes delimited in a specialized gas volume filled with operational gas mixture. This analysis has been done for the RPC chambers installed in CMS experiment at CERN. The Currents of CMS RPCs chambers are analyzed as a function of environmental parameters such as Temperature, Humidity and pressure, which are important for the operation of the muon detector system. A novel Neural Network approach has been used to analyze the data and to build a model using experimental measurements and combining the results of the simulations. Data from RPC Chambers in CMS experiment are taken and compared to the results from neural Network.

  17. Operation of Resistive Plate Chamber Detectors with a New Environmentally Friendly Freon

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    RPC particle gas detectors at CERN provide a vital element to the physics experiments carried out on the LHC. While their current operation and working gas mixtures are successful, environ- mental and economic factors force a revision of the mixture, specifically the eventual replacement of the current Freon gas R134-a with a newer, less environmentally harmful formulation, namely R1234-yf. The methods and results presented here outline the detector response to the introduction of the new Freon and its behavior under various mixtures. The electronegativity and hence impact on RPC parameters was investigated. It was found that the new Freon gas is indeed electroneg- ative, and suppresses the RPC signal. The mixture was modified to include Argon to increase ionization, and the final results of the operation of the RPC were satisfactory. Further work to refine the mixture for future implementation is necessary.

  18. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete‐event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision‐making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E‐factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium‐sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed‐batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision‐making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854–866, 2017

  19. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete-event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision-making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E-factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium-sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed-batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision-making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854-866, 2017. © 2017 The

  20. ANALISIS PENGARUH LEVERAGE, PROFITABILITY, DAN FOREIGN OWNERSHIP TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INFORMASI TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL PERUSAHAAN (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoyo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is defined as the voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner. It's based on Pasal 74 Undang-Undang Perseroan Terbatas No. 40 Tahun 2007. The research aimed to analyze the factors influencing disclosure level of corporate social responsibility at mining sector that listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX period 2013-2014. In this research caracteristics of the company are consisting of leverage, profitability, and foreign ownership. The population taken in this research was all companies at mining sector that listed in IDX from 2013 to 2014. The method of data analisys was linear regression analisys with SPSS 20. Multiple linear regression analysis technique that used in this research to determine the effect of leverage, profitability and foreign ownership to Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure. Index of corporate social responsibility (CSR is measured with company's indicators disclosed by the number of indicator is set on G4 by Global Reporting Initiative (GRI. Leverage is defined by debt to asset ratio (DAR, profitability is defined by return on assets (ROA, and foreign ownership is defined by the amount of foreign ownership divided by number of outstanding shares. The result of this research showed that leverage and profitability have a positive and significant effect on the CSR disclosure, while the foreign ownership have no effect on CSR disclosure at the mining companies in Indonesia.

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  2. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source Facility. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  3. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  4. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. Volume 1 of this document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) SNS accident source terms for EIS input; (B) Reports on the selection of alternative sites for the SNS; (C) Letters of consultation on protected species and cultural resources; (D) Ecological resource survey reports and summaries; (E) Descriptions of ORNL research projects in the Walker Branch Watershed; (F) Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculations for normal and accident conditions; (G) Projected air quality modeling effects at NOAA's Walker Branch Monitoring Tower

  5. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of WPPSS Nuclear Project No. 3 (Docket No. 50-508)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Washington Public Power System Nuclear Project No. 3 (WNP-3) pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic resource impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeological sites will be negligible. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial

  6. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  7. La maximisation du taux de profit

    OpenAIRE

    De Mesnard, Louis

    1991-01-01

    On the traditional micro-economic theory, firms are supposed to maximise pure profit. We study what happened when we take into consideration shareholders and the financial profit remunerating the financial capital. We show that it is necessary to surrender the financial profit maximisation to use the rate of financial profit maximisation. The cases of concurrence with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with variable coefficient of capital are studie...

  8. Influence of the environmental pollution in the electrical power systems and the safe operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Borrego, German

    1996-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the Cuban researches on the influence of the environmental pollution on the power systems and the recommendations that in this regard are made when the Juragua Nuclear power Plants is in operation

  9. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE Operations annual site environmental report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power of Boeing North American, Inc. These are identified as Area 4 of the SSFL and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for research and development (R and D), engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields primarily in energy research and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site had research and development laboratories involved with nuclear research. This work was terminated in 1995 and only D and D activities will have potential for impact on the environment. Since 1956, Area 4 has been used for work with nuclear materials, including fabricating nuclear reactor fuels, testing nuclear reactors, and dissembling used fuel elements. This work ended in 1988 and subsequent efforts have been directed toward decommissioning and decontamination of the former nuclear facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies responsible for oversight. Information presented here concentrates on Area 4 at SSFL, which is the only area at SSFL where DOE operations were performed

  10. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE issued the ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source'' in December 1998. This document was made available for review by federal agencies; tribal governments; the state of Tennessee, New Mexico, Illinois, and New York; local governments; and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the DEIS and any other matters pertaining to environmental review of the document. The formal review and comment period extended from December 24, 1998 until February 8, 1999. DOE considered all comments submitted after the review and comment period. This appendix to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains the 206 comments received and the DOE responses to these comments. It consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the contents of this appendix and discusses the general methodology DOE used for documenting, considering, and responding to the review comments on the DEIS. Chapter 2 summarizes the principal issues of public concern collectively reflected by the comments and presents DOE's responses to these issues. The full texts of the comments on the DEIS are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains DOE's written responses to these comments and the locations of textual changes in the FEIS that were made in response to the comments

  11. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  12. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its juris...

  13. Managing the effects of cultural diversity in HR in a non profit organization, Case organization: Moniheli

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organizations traditionally operate within limited resources. They cannot spend much of their resources to increase motivation. Especially when the bigger goal of the organization is to promote cultural diversity in society, it is very interesting to observe how a non-profit organization manages the cultural diversity that exists within its own human resources. This report is an attempt to identify the ways through which the case organization Moniheli, a non-profit network of diffe...

  14. The strategic value of customer profitability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to

  15. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  16. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  17. Prompt nuclear coal analysis ups profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1982-01-01

    To maximise profitability it is essential that products should comply with specification, while ensuring that mining procedures are designed to optimise fully the exploitation of coal reserves. For the producer to realise maximum profits, it is necessary to produce a consistently satisfactory product, while utilising the lowest possible quality of reserves. For the potential need for on-stream analysis, a comprehensive research program, produced several unique systems. The Nucoalyzer CONAC has been developed to analyse continuously a coal sample stream of up to 13 t/h. On-stream analysis is also particularly appropriate as a means of controlling a coal beneficiation plant, especially where coal have a high middling content. Major coal users such as thermal power stations and Synfuel processes can also realise substantial economic benefits through the use of on-stream analysis. On-stream analysis can again significantly reduce operating costs, as it offers the possibility of controlling the level of sulphur in the coal feed. The analytical principle employed in the various Nucoalyzer system is based on Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis

  18. Database created with the operation of environmental monitoring program from the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental control from the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN - Brazilian CNEN) is done through a Program of Environmental Monitoring-PMA, which has been in operation since 1985. To register all the analytic results of the several samples, samples, a database was created. In this work, this database structure as well as the information used in the evaluation of the results obtained from the operation of the above-mentioned PMA are presented. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  19. Can Precision Agriculture Increase the Profitability and Sustainability of the Production of Potatoes and Olives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits K. van Evert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For farmers, the application of Precision Agriculture (PA technology is expected to lead to an increase in profitability. For society, PA is expected to lead to increased sustainability. The objective of this paper is to determine for a number of common PA practices how much they increase profitability and sustainability. For potato production in The Netherlands, we considered variable rate application (VRA of soil herbicide, fungicide for late blight control, sidedress N, and haulm killing herbicide. For olive production in Greece, we considered spatially variable application of P and K fertilizer and lime. For each of the above scenarios, we quantified the value of outputs, the cost of inputs, and the environmental costs. This allowed us to calculate profit as well as social profit, where the latter is defined as revenues minus conventional costs minus the external costs of production. Social profit can be considered an overall measure of sustainability. Our calculations show that PA in potatoes increases profit by 21% (420 € ha−1 and social profit by 26%. In olives, VRA application of P, K, and lime leads to a strong reduction in nutrient use and although this leads to an increase in sustainability, it has only a small effect on profit and on social profit. In conclusion, PA increases sustainability in olives and both profitability and sustainability in potatoes.

  20. GHRSST Level 2P West Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-12 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  1. GHRSST Level 2P Eastern Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-11 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  2. Capital structure and profitability. A case of JSE Listed Companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Mashavave

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find out the relationship between capital structure and profitability focusing on firms listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange in South Africa. Past research on this topic excluded the Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed firms. The research results will be useful to the business people in South Africa because it will be more in line with the South African economic status and thus relevant. From the graphs and tables of the companies analyzed, it appears there is no relationship between the capital structure and profitability. The fluctuations in the debt/equity ratio and profitability ratio are so severe to such an extent that no meaningful conclusion regarding the relationship between capital structure and profitability can be made. The outcomes are haphazard there is no uniformity and consistence on the outcomes. Other hindrances to the relationship between capital structure and profitability were also discovered and these were attributed to the environmental factors of the company such as economic, political, and social and all other external forces that companies under study were exposed to.

  3. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  4. Computer programs at SRL to evaluate environmental effects SRP operations and postulated accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    Savannah River Plant operations unavoidably result in the release of some chemical and radioactive effluents to the environs. The most environmentally significant releases are gaseous effluents to the atmosphere; computer codes dealing with these atmospheric releases are discussed in this report. There is a wide variety of effluents, both chemical and radioactive, to be considered, and each must be correlated with meteorological dispersion data as a function of time to estimate the environmental effects. In addition, large inventories of toxic and radioactive materials in some facilities represent a potential for accidental releases. Accidents are postulated for these facilities, and the environmental effects of resulting releases are again evaluated by correlating with meteorological dispersion data. In accordance with AEC Regulatory Guide 23, a 2-year meteorological data base is used in performing all analyses. Due to the diversity of possible releases and the large meteorological data base, the environmental analyses are necessarily performed with the aid of a large computer facility. Several computer programs have been written to facilitate these analyses according to the type of analysis desired. The computer programs described in this report are basically of three categories: probability distributions of estimated concentrations or doses as a function of distance from a point of origin, estimates of average concentrations or doses over a specified time period such as annual averages, and some miscellaneous programs in support of the first two categories to optimize the use of the computing facility. A complete documentation of each program is included with a program listing and sample input-output

  5. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  6. RELATION OF DRILLING CAPACITY TO MARKET AND PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Owner of drilling rigs should employ highly professional officers, who are capable to manage profit-orientated operations at all stages and make accurate analyses of the next three questions: how to deploy drilling crews to achieve the highest financial result; which kinds of equipment are compatible and employable in profitable operations, and how to compute the requirement of each type of equipment, and the number of drilling crews for a defined period and region to have profitable service. This paper introduce an original mathematical model convenient to compute exact values needed for an answer on these three questions. Application of this model is obvious for research of the relationship among: (i performance and cost of available drilling rigs, (ii condition on the market, and (iii estimated profit. Utilization of this model is possible only if records of market conditions' data, and data relating to progress and cost of operations in different conditions are established. These records will facilitate accurate estimation of input parameters' values and computation of output parameters' values using the Mathematical Model. Results of these computation should give basic data Tor precise plan of operation, rentabili-ty, and figures to decide the strategy of Drilling Company's capacity development.

  7. PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES, INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN STIMULATING JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT THINKING, UNDERSTANDING, AND DECISION MAKING AS ASSOCIATED WITH PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES OF FARM OPERATION FOR USE IN FARM MANAGEMENT. IT WAS DEVELOPED UNDER A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION GRANT BY TEACHER-EDUCATORS, A FARM…

  8. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  9. Operational environmental assessment "Prestige" (a recent application of the MOCASSIM system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Rusu, E.; Almeida, S.; Monteiro, M.; Lermusiaux, P.; Haley, P.; Leslie, W.; Miller, P.; Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2003-04-01

    The sinking of tanker "Prestige", on the 19th November 2002, offshore the northwestern coasts of Spain and Portugal, has lead to a major environmental disaster. In this contribution we present several aspects of the operational environmental assessment "Prestige" conducted by Instituto Hidrografico (IH) in close colaboration with Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the Harvard University, the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and the Saclancentre. The operational system MOCASSIM, which is presently being developed at IH, was used to provide forecasts of the evolution of oceanographic conditions offshore the NW Iberian coast. The system integrates a primitive equation model with data assimilation (the Harvard Ocean Prediction System - HOPS) and two wave models (the SWAN and WW3 models). The numerical domains used in both HOPS and SWAN models covered the area bewteen 40ºN and 46ºN and from 7ºW to 15ºW, and included the sinking area as well as the coastal regions more directly exposed to the oil spill. The models were run with atmospheric forcing conditions provided by the limited area model ALADIN, run operationally at IM, complemented with NOGAPS wind fields from the NATO METOC site of Rota. The HOPS simulations included assimilation of several data available for region. These data sets included CTD casts from the Northern Spanish shelf and slope (made available by University of Baleares) and SST data processed at the Remote Sensing Group of the PML. Results from both models were used in oil spill models and allowed an estimation of the impacts on the coastal areas.

  10. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  11. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m 2 ) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m 2 ) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m 2 ) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  12. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  13. Assessing anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure with agroindustrial wastes: the link between environmental impacts and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Verde, Ivan; Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Hospido, Almudena; Lema, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is established as a techno-economic profitable process by incrementing biogas yield (increased cost-efficiency) and improving the nutrient balance (better quality digestate) in comparison to mono-digestion of livestock wastes. However, few data are available on the environmental consequences of AcoD and most of them are mainly related to the use of energy crops as co-substrates. This work analysed the environmental impact of the AcoD of pig manure (PM) with several agroindustrial wastes (molasses, fish, biodiesel and vinasses residues) using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For comparative purposes, mono digestion of PM has also been evaluated. Four out of six selected categories (acidification, eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation potentials) showed environmental impacts in all the scenarios assessed, whereas the other two (abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion potentials) showed environmental credits, remarking the benefit of replacing fossil fuels by biogas. This was also confirmed by the sensitivity analysis applied to the PM quality (i.e. organic matter content) and the avoided energy source demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery step. The influence of the type of co-substrate could not be discerned; however, a link between the environmental performance and the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate and the nutrient content in the digestate could be established. Therefore, LCA results were successfully correlated to process variables involved in AcoD, going a step further in the combination of techno-economic and environmental feasibilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Draft Environmental Statement related to the operation of Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 51 (10 CFR 51), as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with station operation

  15. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  16. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...

  17. An Unconventional Path Toward the Operational Leveraging of Research-Grade Environmental Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, J.

    2007-12-01

    The traditional and proper path followed in transitioning research applications to operational support entails a rigorous gamut of quality control, testing, validation, technical documentation, and software optimization. In times of dire need when observations are in high demand and resources are few, however, convention must sometimes give way to outside-of-the-box thinking. Here, considerations made for manageable compromises forge a pathway to accelerated transition of developing technologies. Such was the case in Coalition mobilizations immediately following the 9/11 attacks, when the United States Office of Naval Research issued a challenge to the environmental research and development community to expedite the delivery of any and all capabilities bearing support relevance to mission planners and executors involved in the increasingly likely military response. It was under this directive that the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Satellite Meteorological Applications Section reconfigured its base research program and internal processing infrastructure to effectively transform itself into an agile operational production system for rapid transition of value-added satellite environmental characterization products centered around next-generation 'research grade' satellite observing systems. Integral to this transformation was the coincident establishment of the Near Real-Time Processing Effort (NRTPE) coordinated among members of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD; Air Force and Navy participants) working in a 'badgeless environment'. The NRTPE provided a portal for acquisition of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 2-4 hr latency worldwide. By virtue of NRTPE modifications to the Terra and Aqua satellite telemetry downlinks and transmission across the high-speed Defense Research/Engineering Network, data previously

  18. Implications of pollution prevention experience for environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, W.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in the US is that firms face a trade-off between environmental efforts and profit because of the belief that environmental protection invariably involves costs that reduce profits. Firms, therefore, generally perceive environmental protection as an impediment to their goal of profit maximization. Environmental efforts are viewed as an added hurdle in producing a product, rather than an as intrinsic part of well-designed operations. From this perspective, firms have no incentive to engage in environmental protection efforts, and will do so only if they are forced (or are given incentives) by government or if they perceive in advance potential profits from their efforts (e.g., a market for environmental products). The concept of a trade-off between the environment and profit, however, has been challenged recently. A common argument raised for questioning this trade-off is that efforts directed at environmental protection will lead to the development of new technologies and will give US firms a competitive advantage in the emerging environmental industry. It is argued that opportunities available within this growth field outweigh costs of entry and research. Recent publications (World Wildlife Fund, 1992; Resources for the Future, 1993) have proposed that government actions, may encourage the development of the environmental industry and, thus, improve both economic and environmental performance. Suggested governmental actions include using market incentives rather than command and control regulation to achieve environmental goals, integrating environmental values into governmental policy analysis, and supporting investments in environmental technologies. This paper details the economics and benefits of various waste management efforts

  19. Patient experience and hospital profitability: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Muhlestein, David B

    Patient experience has had a direct financial impact on hospitals since value-based purchasing was instituted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2013 as a method to reward or punish hospitals based on performance on various measures, including patient experience. Although other industries have shown an indirect impact of customer experience on overall profitability, that link has not been well established in the health care industry. Return-to-provider rate and perceptions of health quality have been associated with profitability in the health care industry. Our aims were to assess whether, independent of a direct financial impact, a more positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and whether a more negative patient experience is associated with decreased profitability. We used a sample of 19,792 observations from 3767 hospitals over the 6-year period 2007-2012. The data were sourced from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, we fit four separate models for three dependent variables: net patient revenue, net income, and operating margin. Each model included one of the following independent variables of interest: percentage of patients who definitely recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who definitely would not recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who rated the hospital 9 or 10, and percentage of patients who rated the hospital 6 or lower. We identified that a positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and a negative patient experience is even more strongly associated with decreased profitability. Management should have greater justification for incurring costs associated with bolstering patient experience programs. Improvements in training, technology, and staffing can be justified as a way to improve not only quality but now

  20. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  1. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  2. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be small. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of an operating license for Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3. 101 references, 33 figures, 30 tables

  3. Profit through predictability: The MRF difference at optimax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Brandon

    2007-05-01

    In the manufacturing business, there is one product that matters, money. Whether making shoelaces or aircraft carriers a business that doesn't also make a profit doesn't stay around long. Being able to predict operational expenses is critical to determining a product's sale price. Priced too high a product won't sell, too low profit goes away. In the business of precision optics manufacturing, predictability has been often impossible or had large error bars. Manufacturing unpredictability made setting price a challenge. What if predictability could improve by changing the polishing process? Would a predictable, deterministic process lead to profit? Optimax Systems has experienced exactly that. Incorporating Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) into its finishing process, Optimax saw parts categorized financially as "high risk" become a routine product of higher quality, delivered on time and within budget. Using actual production figures, this presentation will show how much incorporating MRF reduced costs, improved output and increased quality all at the same time.

  4. The benefits of customer profitability analysis in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Georgiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the benefits of customer profitability analysis implementation according to the specifics of the hotel product and the state of the management accounting in hotels. On this basis is substantiated the necessity management accounting and information systems in the hotels to be anteriorly adapted and developed in relevance with the objectives and methodological tools of customer profitability analysis, while keeping their function in collecting information for operational revenues and costs by responsibility centers. A model for customer profitability analysis based on ABC method is proposed in this connection, providing an example to clarify its methodological aspects and benefits. The latter consist in providing information for the purposes of taking a variety of management decisions regarding costs, product mix, pricing, performance measurement and implementation of various marketing initiatives.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY DETERMINANTS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Muda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is conducted to compare the determinants of profitability of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. The Generalized Least Square (GLS is employed with unbalanced panel data on seventeen Islamic banks, using quarterly data for the period of 2007 to 2010. In order to find out the differences in the profitability determinants, the sample of banks is divided into two sub-samples (domestic and foreign. The results reveal that domestic Islamic banks are more profitable than foreign Islamic banks. The results also show that the profitability determinants of domestic banks are different from those of foreign banks. The overhead expenses, loans, efficiency, gross domestic product growth rate and bank size have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability, in which case applicable to the domestic banks only. In turn, the gross domestic product per capita has a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of only the foreign banks. The study finds that, deposits, capital and reserves, inflation and banks’ age have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. Meanwhile, liquidity and concentration are not able to explain the variability of domestic and foreign Islamic banks’ profitability. The findings indicate that the profitability of domestic banks is affected by the global financial crisis while, the profitability of foreign banks is not affected.

  6. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  7. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  8. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued.

  9. Environmental assessment related to the operation of Hansen uranium mill project, WM-24, Cyprus Mines Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental assessment was prepared by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, in response to a request for technical assistance from the State of Colorado in connection with licensing action on the proposed Cyprus Mines Corporation, Hansen uranium project. The major components of discussion are (1) a summary and recommended licensing conditions, (2) a description of the site environment and the proposed facility operation as well as alternatives in comparison with NRC's performance objectives for tailings management, and (3) a radiological assessment for estimating the facility's compliance with 10 CFR 20 and 40 CFR 190 dose regulations. The NRC recommends licensing the proposed mill subject to stipulated license conditions

  10. Environmental assessment related to the operation of San Miguel uranium project, WM-20, Phoneer Uravan, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental assessment was prepared by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, in response to a request for technical assistance from the State of Colorado in connection with licensing action on the proposed Pioneer Uravan, Inc., San Miguel uranium project. The major components of discussion are (1) a summary and recommended licensing conditions, (2) a description of the site environment and the proposed facility operation as well as alternatives in comparison with NRC's performance objectives for tailings management, and (3) a radiological assessment for estimating the facility's compliance with 10 CFR 20 and 40 CFR 190 dose regulations. The NRC recommends licensing the proposed mill subject to stipulated license conditions

  11. Validity and design of environmental surveillance systems for operating nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1977-12-01

    The composition and procedures of environmental surveillance programs at completed and operating nuclear power plants have been examined with respect to their validity, continuing significance and cost. It was found that many programs contain components that are mainly an extension of preoperational baseline measurements that need not be continued indefinitely and that others lack the statistical validity to make their continued application meaningful. To identify the practical limits imposed by counting statistics and realistic equipment capacity measurements were done on iodine-131 and cesium-137 containing samples to establish detectability limits and proportionate costs for sample preparation and counting. It was found that under commercial conditions effective detectability limits and expected confidence limits were substantially higher than those mentioned in NRC Regulatory Guides. This imposes a need for either selecting fewer samples and counting them for longer times or accepting a lesser accuracy on more samples, within the bounds of reasonable cost per sample

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  13. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report, calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Fassett, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Johnson, V.G.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Moss, K.J.; Perkins, C.J.; Richterich, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1994 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air surface water, groundwater, soil, sediments, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite locations, the differences are less than in previous years.

  14. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report - calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This document summarizes the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1995 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water,groundwater, soil, sediments, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities can still be observed on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite locations, the differences are less than in previous years.

  15. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) and 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved continued data analysis and report writing. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) was issued as a final report during the previous reporting period. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) activities included the preparation of the final report. There were no Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities to report. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  16. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  18. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  19. A quality assurance program for environmental data operations involving waste management processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Blacker, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the 'core' elements needed in an effective Quality Program for environmental data operations involving nuclear, mixed, or non-nuclear wastes. For each core element, this paper examines the minimum components needed for an effective Quality Program for EDOs, and compares approaches to Quality Programs currently required by the U.S. DOE and the U.S. EPA. The comparison suggests how the Quality Program requirements used at DOE, and defined by NQA-1 and its supplements, and those used by EPA through its QAMS program guidance, may provide a basis for developing a harmonized Quality Program for EDOs involving any waste management processes, nuclear, non-nuclear, or mixed. (orig./DG)

  20. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  1. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report, 1992. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    This report contains the environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site for 1992. Monitoring and surveillance on and around the NTS by DOE contractors and Site user organizations during 1992 indicated that underground nuclear testing operations were conducted in compliance with regulations, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.15 percent of the guideline for air exposure. All 1992 nuclear events took place during the first three quarters of the calendar year prior to the Congressional testing moratorium. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from test operations was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. Using the CAP88-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions data, the calculated maximum effective dose equivalent offsite would have been 0.012 mrem. Any person receiving this dose was also exposed to 78 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped to EPA-approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Non-NTS support facilities complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits.

  2. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  3. Professional Educator or Professional Manager? The Contested Role of the For-Profit International School Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2014-01-01

    For-profit education is increasingly prevalent within international schooling. The language of client, customer and consumer may not yet be embedded in the classroom, but international school leaders, particularly those operating in for-profit contexts, are having to respond not only to the needs of educational stakeholders but also to the…

  4. 26 CFR 1.959-3 - Allocation of distributions to earnings and profits of foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... profits taxes imposed on or with respect to such distribution by any foreign country or possession of the..., after incurring $10 of foreign income tax allocable to such income under paragraph (c) of § 1.954-1, has... has earnings and profits of $300, consisting of operating income of $100 for each of the years 1963...

  5. The Effects of Operational and Environmental Variables on Efficiency of Danish Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is one of three patterns a public utility should follow in order to get funds for investments realization. The other two are recourse to bank loans or to private equity and tariff increase. Efficiency can be improved, for example, by growth and vertical integration and may be conditioned by environmental variables, such as customer and output density. Prior studies into the effects of these variables on the efficiency of water utilities do not agree on certain points (e.g., scale and economies of scope and rarely consider others (e.g., density economies. This article aims to contribute to the literature by analysing the efficiency of water utilities in Denmark, observing the effects of operational and environmental variables. The method is based on two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA applied to 101 water utilities. We found that the efficiency of the water sector was not affected by the observed variables, whereas that of wastewater was improved by smaller firm size, vertical integration strategy, and higher population density.

  6. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooyman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The objective of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment, leak detection capability, and LLLW source control are maintained until final remedial action. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service, and that active tank systems be doubly contained, cathodically protected, and have leak detection capability. LLLW tank systems that do not meet requirements are to be either upgraded or replaced, but can remain in service if they do not leak in the interim

  7. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajnert Radosław

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP with application of two different solutions – 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  8. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnert, Radosław; Nowak, Martyna; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP) with application of two different solutions - 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA) and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  9. Draft supplement to final environmental statement related to construction and operation of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. Docket No. 50-537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented concerning the site and environs; facility description; environmental impacts due to construction; environmental impacts of plant operation; environmental measurement and monitoring programs; environmental impacts of postulated accidents; need for the proposed facility; alternatives; evaluation of the proposed action; and discussion of comments received on the draft environmental statement

  10. MOBILE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER OPERATED BY PACE ENVIRONMENTAL FOR METALS-CONTAMINATED SOIL CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report describes ...

  11. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976, volume 1: nonradiological environmental surveillance report; II: summary of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The non-radiological environmental surveillance program including thermal and chemical effluents, water quality, fish populations, benthos, fish impingement, gas-bubble disease, and plankton, fish larvae and fish egg entrainment is described. Information is also presented concerning operations, personnel radiation exposures, and fuel examinations

  12. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) assessment of operational and environmental efficiencies on Japanese regional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mika; Otsuka, Akihiro; Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution and economic growth becomes a major policy issue to attain a sustainable society in the world. To discuss the problem from economics and business perspectives, this study proposes a new use of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) as a methodology for unified (operational and environmental) assessment. A unique feature of the proposed approach is that it separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Such separation is important because energy industries usually produce both desirable and undesirable outputs. This study discusses how to unify the two types of outputs under natural and managerial disposability. The proposed DEA approach evaluates various organizations by the three efficiency measures such as OE (Operational Efficiency), UEN (Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability) and UENM (Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability). An important feature of UENM is that it separates inputs into two categories and unifies them under the two disposability concepts in addition to the proposed output separation and unification. This study incorporates an amount of capital assets for technology innovation, as one of the two input group, into the measurement of UENM. Then, it compares UENM with the other two efficiency measures. This study is the first research effort in which DEA has an analytical capability to quantify the importance of investment on capital assets for technology innovation. To confirm the practicality of the proposed approach, this study applies the three efficiency measures to a data set regarding manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries of 47 prefectures in Japan. This study empirically confirms the validity of Porter hypothesis in Japanese manufacturing industries, so implying that environmental regulation has been effective for betterment on the performance of Japanese manufacturing industries. Another important finding is that the emission of greenhouse gases is a

  13. Environmental implications of element emissions from phosphate-processing operations in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution to plants and soils of certain elements emitted by phosphate processing, we sampled sagebrush, grasses, and A- and C-horizon soils along upwind and downwind transects at Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. Analyses for 70 elements in plants showed that, statistically, the concentration of 7 environmentally important elements, cadmium, chromium, fluorine, selenium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc, were related to emissions from phosphate-processing operations. Two additional elements, lithium and nickel, show probable relationships. The literature on the effects of these elements on plant and animal health is briefly surveyed. Relations between element content in plants and distance from the phosphate-processing operations were stronger at Soda Springs than at Pocatello and, in general, stronger in sagebrush than in the grasses. Analyses for 58 elements in soils showed that, statistically, beryllium, fluorine, iron, lead, lithium, potassium, rubidium, thorium, and zinc were related to emissions only at Pocatello and only in the A horizon. Moreover, six additional elements, copper, mercury, nickel, titanium, uranium, and vanadium, probably are similarly related along the same transect. The approximate amounts of elements added to the soils by the emissions are estimated. In C-horizon soils, no statistically significant relations were observed between element concentrations and distance from the processing sites. At Soda Springs, the nonuniformity of soils at the sampling locations may have obscured the relationship between soil-element content and emissions from phosphate processing.

  14. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alejandro Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current logistics and transportation (L&T systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs. However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a environmental-related issues; and (b strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems.

  15. Development of GP and GEP models to estimate an environmental issue induced by blasting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faradonbeh, Roohollah Shirani; Hasanipanah, Mahdi; Amnieh, Hassan Bakhshandeh; Armaghani, Danial Jahed; Monjezi, Masoud

    2018-05-21

    Air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most adverse effects induced by blasting in the surface mines and civil projects. So, proper evaluation and estimation of the AOp is important for minimizing the environmental problems resulting from blasting. The main aim of this study is to estimate AOp produced by blasting operation in Miduk copper mine, Iran, developing two artificial intelligence models, i.e., genetic programming (GP) and gene expression programming (GEP). Then, the accuracy of the GP and GEP models has been compared to multiple linear regression (MLR) and three empirical models. For this purpose, 92 blasting events were investigated, and subsequently, the AOp values were carefully measured. Moreover, in each operation, the values of maximum charge per delay and distance from blast points, as two effective parameters on the AOp, were measured. After predicting by the predictive models, their performance prediction was checked in terms of variance account for (VAF), coefficient of determination (CoD), and root mean square error (RMSE). Finally, it was found that the GEP with VAF of 94.12%, CoD of 0.941, and RMSE of 0.06 is a more precise model than other predictive models for the AOp prediction in the Miduk copper mine, and it can be introduced as a new powerful tool for estimating the AOp resulting from blasting.

  16. US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office: Annual site environmental report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, E.M.; Black, S.C.

    1991-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTA) by DOE contractors and Site user organizations during 1990 indicated that underground nuclear testing operations were conducted in compliance with regulations, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.05 percent of the guideline for air exposure. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from test operations was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. Using the AIRDOS-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions data, the calculated maximum effective dose equivalent offsite would have been 4.7 x 10 -3 mrem. Any person receiving this dose was also exposed to 123 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped to EPA-approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Non-NTS support facilities complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits. 63 figs., 88 tabs

  17. Nuclear decontamination and decommissioning operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meservey, R.H.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Frazee, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Idaho National engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is home of the largest concentration of nuclear reactors in the world. In addition to the reactors, many fuel reprocessing, laboratory, and other nuclear support facilities have been operated at the INEEL. Many have already been decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) and many more are in the planning stages for such activities. A full time D and D program has been in existence at the INEEL for the past 20 years. Starting with a long range plan for D and D of all surplus contaminated facilities at the INEEL, and ending with the verification of the free release of those facilities after decommissioning, all aspects of D and D activities are covered. Topics covered in this paper include the INEEL D and D Long Range Plan, the D and D Porject Managers Handbook, the use of ASTM Standard Guides in decommissioning operations, and the INEEL D and D Technology Logic Diagrams. The identification and preparation of safety plans, environmental documentation, and operational procedures will also be covered in the presentation. The selection and use of advanced technologies to improve safety, reduce costs, and shorten D and D schedules is very important to the nuclear industry. In addition to a discussion of the D and D Technology Logic Diagrams, a discussion of new and improved technologies in use at the INEEL and other department of energy facilities will be presented. This will include brief discussions of work being performed at three Department of Energy Large Scale D and D Technology Demonstration projects. These include technology demonstrations at a Test Reactor, Uranium Fabrication Plant, and a large Production Reactor. Unique technologies which have been developed and tested at the INEEL will also be covered in the presentation. These include the biological decontamination of concrete, a laser enhanced zero added waste cutting, abraiding, and drilling technology, and the development of an

  18. Charity care: do not-for-profits influence for-profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian

    2002-03-01

    This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.

  19. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  20. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...... expectations they had when investing in these markets, (2) which challenges they faced there, and (3) how they subsequently addressed them. By tracing and comparing these investments and their consequences over time (and space), we hope to shed more light on managerial decisions and understand to what extent...

  1. Photovoltaic is always more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well

  2. PROFIT SENSITIVITY IN THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofilean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.

  3. Profitability analysis in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1978-01-01

    Measures of marginal profit are derived for the two payment classes--cost payers and charge payers--that the hospital industry must consider in profitability analysis, i.e., prediction of the excess of revenue over expenses. Two indexes of profitability, use when payment mix is constant and when it is nonconstant, respectively, are derived from the two marginal profit measures, and one of them is shown to be a modification of the contribution margin, the conventional measure of profitability used in general industry. All three measures--the contribution margin and the two new indexes of profitability--are used to estimate changes in net income resulting from changes in patient volume with and without accompanying changes in payment mix. The conventional measure yields large overestimates of expected excess revenue. PMID:632101

  4. The IAEA network on environmental management and remediation (ENVIRONET) - promoting sustainable uranium production operations by taking environmental remediation under a life-cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monken-Fernandes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the past uranium production operations have caused extensive environmental problems. The lack of appropriate regulatory framework in addition to the fact that environmental issues were not conveniently addressed in the operations contributed to this situation. Nowadays, this situation has changed dramatically and lessons learned from the past have led to the implementation of responsible operations from both environmental and social perspectives. Involvement of different stakeholders in the decision making process turned out to be a mandatory issue in many countries. With the so called 'Renascence of Nuclear Power' new production sites will come into play. The sustainability of the uranium industry will depend on the adoption of good practices in these operations under a life-cycle perspective. The recently launched IAEA initiative - the ENVIRONET is aimed at contributing to expedite the transfer of experience amongst its members. It brings together private and state-owned companies, research institutes, and governmental organizations providing a forum for information and experience exchange. Sharing of practical experience is to be addressed by means of training courses and workshops. In addition to this long distance training and educational material will be made available. This paper will present the ENVIRONET and describe how networking can contribute to the implementation of sustainable and responsible uranium production operations worldwide. (author)

  5. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.H.

    1984-06-01

    This report contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Hope Creek Generating Station pursuant to the National Environment Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with station operation. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. No operational impacts to historic and archeological sites are anticipated. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project are anticipated to be minimal. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Hope Creek Generating Station, Unit 1

  6. United States Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1989 to November 9, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasch, R.A.

    1989-11-01

    Protection of the environment at the Hanford Site is being ensured through several dedicated activities. These dedicated activities include: Routine effluent monitoring to ensure operations control emissions to the environment and environmental surveillance to characterize and assess impacts of operations on the environment; Corrective activities including permitting of facilities and upgrading of systems to come into full compliance with environmental regulations; Activities for maintaining compliance with federal and state statutes regulating both active and inactive waste sites; Environmental restoration activities for cleanup of inactive sites; Oversight activities to ensure conduct of responsive and integrated programs for environmental protection; and Recognition of additional requirements of new or revised regulations and DOE orders and implementation of means for meeting these requirements

  7. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  8. Public ownership helps boost HMOs' profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-05-04

    Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.

  9. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico region oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. (CSA) was contracted to conduct a three-year study of the environmental and health related impacts of produced water and sand discharges from oil and gas operations. Data on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), heavy metals, and hydrocarbons in water, sediment, and biota will be collected and evaluated. Health related impacts will be studied through field collections and analyses of commercially- and recreationally-important fish and shellfish tissues. Additionally, information on seafood catch, consumption, and use patterns for the Gulf of Mexico will be gathered and analyzed. The facilities to be studied will include both offshore and coastal facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. Coastal sites will be additionally studied to determine ecological recovery of impacted wetland and open bay areas. The economic impact of existing and proposed effluent federal and state regulations will also be evaluated. The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of four terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana and Texas; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. Accomplishments for this period are described

  10. District heating systems' control for cost effective and environmentally compatible operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balati, J.

    1999-01-01

    District heating systems are being developed in accordance with the growing of large European cities. These systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution from heat sources to heat consumers and, simultaneously, by gradually connecting newly built heat sources. District heating control consists in optimum control of the output of heat sources and in control of heat distribution and consumption. The aim of the paper is to inform about the works in the field of creating a mathematical-physical model of extensive hot water and steam supply circle network and heat sources for the purpose of creating unconventional control algorithms for the complex control of the technological sequence ''heat production distribution- consumption''. For the optimum control algorithms the artificial intelligence methods are also utilised. The aim of the complex access to the solution of new control algorithms will be to decrease the cost of the consumed heat unit and increase environmental protection. The function of the Extensive Heating System District Heating System (DHS) is to ensure permanently the economically justified requirements of heat supply for all consumers with minimum cost per heat supply unit and with enhanced level of environmental protection. The requirements of heat consumers have to be in harmony with the requirements of the maximum possible economy of the whole DHS when adhering to the required qualitative parameters of supplied energy. Therefore, it offers the application of optimised control methods as artificial intelligence methods for the control of the operational circle of DHS heat networks. It is obvious that a higher level of DHS control is required from the technological, economic and ecological point of view. (author)

  11. Economic and environmental scheduling of smart homes with microgrid: DER operation and electrical tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling among smart homes. • Environmental and economic aspects are both addressed. • The model is implemented on an example with data profiles from the UK. • Pareto-optimal curves between cost and CO_2 emissions are obtained. • Real-time pricing and critical peak pricing schemes are investigated. - Abstract: Microgrids are promising in reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions, compared with the current centralised energy generation systems. Smart homes are becoming popular for their lower energy cost and provision of comfort. Flexible energy-consuming household tasks can be scheduled co-ordinately among multiple smart homes to reduce economic cost and CO_2. However, the electricity tariff is not always positively correlated with CO_2 intensity. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed to schedule the energy consumption within smart homes using a microgrid system. The daily power consumption tasks are scheduled by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation with ε-constraint method. The two conflicting objectives are to minimise the daily energy cost and CO_2 emissions. Distributed energy resources (DER) operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on electricity tariff, CO_2 intensity and electricity task time window. The proposed model is implemented on a smart building of 30 homes under three different price schemes. Electricity tariff and CO_2 intensity profiles of the UK are employed for the case study. The Pareto curves for cost and CO_2 emissions present the trade-off between the two conflicting objectives.

  12. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  13. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and ridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilties should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  14. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  16. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    well as being cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, including Hood Canal and Dabob Bay (Figure 3.4-2). Pacific oysters (Crassostrea...gigas) are widely cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound. Commercial oyster beds exist in Dabob Bay, mostly at the north end. Dabob Bay... Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of

  17. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  18. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft 2 mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  19. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  20. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Last, G.V.; Schwab, M.R.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-02-01

    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  1. Worst-case prediction of normal operating containment temperatures for environmentally qualified equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopoler, M.J.; Sundergill, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Due to issues raised in NRC Information Notice No. 87-65, a southern US nuclear plant was concerned about thermal aging of environmentally qualified (EQ) equipment located in areas of elevated containment temperatures. A method to predict the worst-case monthly temperatures at various zones in the containment and calculate the qualified life using this monthly temperature was developed. Temperatures were predicted for twenty locations inside the containment. Concern about the qualified life of EQ equipment resulted from normal operating temperatures above 120F in several areas of the containment, especially during the summer. At a few locations, the temperature exceeded 140F. Also, NRC Information Notice No. 89-30 reported high containment temperatures at three other nuclear power plants. The predicted temperatures were based on a one-year containment temperature monitoring program. The monitors included permanent temperature monitors required by the Technical Specifications and temporary monitors installed specifically for this program. The temporary monitors were installed near EQ equipment in the expected worst-case areas based on design and operating experience. A semi-empirical model that combined physical and statistical models was developed. The physical model was an overall energy balance for the containment. The statistical model consists of several linear regressions that conservatively relate the monitor temperatures to the bulk containment temperature. The resulting semi-empirical model predicts the worst-case monthly service temperatures at the location of each of the containment temperature monitors. The monthly temperatures are the maximum expected because they are based on the historically worst-case atmospheric data

  2. Is There a Limit to Growth? Comparing the Environmental Cost of an Airport’s Operations with Its Economic Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing global awareness of the requirement for sustainable development, economic development is no longer the sole objective of business activities. The need to find a balance between environmental impacts and economic benefits is especially the case for airport operations in or around cities. This study measured the environmental costs and economic benefits and of an airport for a period of 10 years, using Taipei Songshan Airport for the empirical analysis, to examine whether the environmental costs could outweigh the economic benefits. Of all the environmental negative side effects, aircraft engine emissions and noise nuisance are considered the main sources of environmental impacts. The dose-response method and the hedonic price method, respectively, were used for estimating the social costs of these. Income generation from both direct and secondary employment is measured as economic benefits by applying the Garin-Lowry model, originally developed in 1966, for estimation of the employment multiplier. The results show that, in general, the operation of Taipei Songshan Airport brought more economic benefits than environmental costs. The sensitivity analysis of emissions and noise social cost parameters shows that the environmental costs might have exceeded the economic benefits in 2008 and 2009 in certain high emissions and noise social cost cases.

  3. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  4. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  5. A strategic planning approach for operational-environmental tradeoff assessments in terminal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Hernando

    This thesis proposes the use of well established statistical analysis techniques, leveraging on recent developments in interactive data visualization capabilities, to quantitatively characterize the interactions, sensitivities, and tradeoffs prevalent in the complex behavior of airport operational and environmental performance. Within the strategic airport planning process, this approach is used in the assessment of airport performance under current/reference conditions, as well as in the evaluation of terminal area solutions under projected demand conditions. More specifically, customized designs of experiments are utilized to guide the intelligent selection and definition of modeling and simulation runs that will yield greater understanding, insight, and information about the inherent systemic complexity of a terminal area, with minimal computational expense. For the research documented in this thesis, a modeling and simulation environment was created featuring three primary components. First, a generator of schedules of operations, based primarily on previous work on aviation demand characterization, whereby growth factors and scheduling adjustment algorithms are applied on appropriate baseline schedules so as to generate notional operational sets representative of consistent future demand conditions. The second component pertains to the modeling and simulation of aircraft operations, defined by a schedule of operations, on the airport surface and within its terminal airspace. This component is a discrete event simulator for multiple queuing models that captures the operational architecture of the entire terminal area along with all the necessary operational logic pertaining to simulated Air Traffic Control (ATC) functions, rules, and standard practices. The third and final component is comprised of legacy aircraft performance, emissions and dispersion, and noise exposure modeling tools, that use the simulation history of aircraft movements to generate estimates

  6. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  7. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryan, P; Kotousov, A; Ng, C T; Wildy, S

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection. (paper)

  8. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  9. A regime-switching cointegration approach for removing environmental and operational variations in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haichen; Worden, Keith; Cross, Elizabeth J.

    2018-03-01

    Cointegration is now extensively used to model the long term common trends among economic variables in the field of econometrics. Recently, cointegration has been successfully implemented in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM), where it has been used to remove the confounding influences of environmental and operational variations (EOVs) that can often mask the signature of structural damage. However, restrained by its linear nature, the conventional cointegration approach has limited power in modelling systems where measurands are nonlinearly related; this occurs, for example, in the benchmark study of the Z24 Bridge, where nonlinear relationships between natural frequencies were induced during a period of very cold temperatures. To allow the removal of EOVs from SHM data with nonlinear relationships like this, this paper extends the well-established cointegration method to a nonlinear context, which is to allow a breakpoint in the cointegrating vector. In a novel approach, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) statistic is used to find which position is most appropriate for inserting a breakpoint, the Johansen procedure is then utilised for the estimation of cointegrating vectors. The proposed approach is examined with a simulated case and real SHM data from the Z24 Bridge, demonstrating that the EOVs can be neatly eliminated.

  10. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes.

  12. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  13. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  14. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  15. Sustainability Perceptions in Romanian Non-Profit Organizations: An Exploratory Study Using Success Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses sustainability perceptions in Romanian non-profits by investigating 81 non-profits managers and board members. Using a multidimensional sustainability measurement framework, Success Factor Analysis, as a conceptual model, we measured perceptions on 5 critical sustainability factors: People, Business Model, Operations, Strategy and Culture and concluded that there are significant differences in the perceptions of sustainability depending on respondents’ previous failure experiences. While those which previously experienced failure adopt a long-term approach based on marketization, clear accountability standards and rely on strategy, while the others prefer a short-term approach, focused more on non-profits operations and focus on human resources.

  16. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  17. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  18. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  19. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  20. Management Practices: Are Not For Profits Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if