Electronic Commerce ("eCommerce") is a concept for trade based upon products and services that are being marketed, contracted, and paid for over the Internet. Consequently, electronic commerce demands for the investment in computer systems, marketing, logistics and payments. This paper will focus on the profitability of investments in eCommerce with a special focus on outlays for information technology systems and sales management. If the services are made more standardized, if they do not ch...
Hevia Saenz de Miera, Lluc
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore how the experience that customers gain by means of their purchasing and returning behaviour affects their profitability for the e-commerce fashion company. More specifically, how the profit per order or per period of time that this customers represent varies, depending on his previous experience. Method: The methodology followed for the present project combined the development of an algorithm to process the available raw data with a case st...
Mihaela I. MUNTEAN
Full Text Available In an e-commerce performance framework is important to identify the key performance indicators that measure success and together provide the greatest context into the business perfor-mance. Shopping carts are an essential part of ecommerce, a minimal set of key performance indicators being the subject of our debate. The theoretical approach is sustained by a case study, an e-shop implemented using PHP and MySQL, for simulating main business processes within the considered performance framework. Our approach opens a perspective for future research using additional indicators in order to properly evaluate the global performance of any e-shop.
LI Jingfeng; ZHU Yuefei; ZHANG Yajuan; PAN Heng
Mobile commerce uses wireless device and wireless link to result in the transfer of values in exchange of information, services or goods. Wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) will bring a revolution to the business model of mobile commerce if such networks are used as the underlying network technology for mobile commerce. Mobile commerce will remain in a niche market until the security issue is properly addressed. Hence, security is also very important for MANET applications in mobile commerce. Robust key management is one of the most crucial technologies for security of MANETs. In this paper, a new solution for key management is proposed using identity-based (ID-based) signcryption and threshold secret sharing. It enables flexible and efficient key management while respecting the constraints of MANETs. In our solution, each mobile host uses its globally unique identity as its public key. It greatly decreases the computation and storage costs of mobile hosts, as well as communication cost for system key management.
Full Text Available This research aims to suggest key design characteristics that are necessary for developing usable e-commerce websites in the Arab world. A comprehensive usability evaluation of four leading Arab e-commerce websites was conducted using the heuristic evaluation method. The results identified major and minor usability problems and major and minor good design characteristics on the selected websites. Based on the results, 51 key design characteristics were suggested. The recommended key design characteristics comprised two levels according to their priority: level one which includes mandatory key design characteristics and level two which includes supplementary design characteristics. The key design characteristics in each level were categorized under specific pages and areas that can be found on any e-commerce website. Such categorizations could direct website evaluators and designers to important pages and areas that should be considered to improve the overall usability of e-commerce websites. The results of this research are particularly important to developing countries which are still facing challenges that may affect the design and accessibility of usable and useful websites. These relate to low speed of accessing the Internet and a lack of website designers who have experience in customers’ needs and websites’ usable design characteristics.
Full Text Available In terms of the security and efficiency of mobile e-commerce, the authors summarized the advantages and disadvantages of several related schemes, especially the self-verified mobile payment scheme based on the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC and then proposed a new type of dynamic symmetric key mobile commerce scheme based on self-verified mechanism. The authors analyzed the basic algorithm based on self-verified mechanisms and detailed the complete transaction process of the proposed scheme. The authors analyzed the payment scheme based on the security and high efficiency index. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme not only meets the high efficiency of mobile electronic payment premise, but also takes the security into account. The user confirmation mechanism at the end of the proposed scheme further strengthens the security of the proposed scheme. In brief, the proposed scheme is more efficient and practical than most of the existing schemes.
Full Text Available Considering the security of both the customers’ hosts and the eShops’ servers, we introduce the idea of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature, enabling mobile agents to generate undetachable digital signatures on remote hosts with the key-insulated property of the original signer’s signing key. From the theoretical perspective, we provide the formal definition and security notion of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature. From the practical perspective, we propose a concrete scheme to secure mobile agents in electronic commerce. The scheme is mainly focused on protecting the signing key from leakage and preventing the misuse of the signature algorithm on malicious servers. Agents do not carry the signing key when they generate digital signatures on behalf of the original signer, so the key is protected on remote servers. Furthermore, if a hacker gains the signing key of the original signer, the hacker is still unable to forge a signature for any time period other than the key being accessed. In addition, the encrypted function is combined with the original signer’s requirement to prevent the misuse of signing algorithm. The scheme is constructed on gap Diffie–Hellman groups with provable security, and the performance testing indicates that the scheme is efficient.
Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens
Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e......-commerce" is especially difficult to implement because it differs from other types of consumer sales in numerous aspects including low profit margins, low value density of products and high frequency purchases. As well as examining these unique characteristics, the authors present research on consumer behaviour, cross...
Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami
To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.
Hsiang-Ming Lee; Tsai Chen
Based on the smart phone and 3G communication boom in recent years, mobile commerce has become increasingly popular. This study empirically investigated the continuance usage intention of m-commerce consumers. The proposed model is an extension of the expectation-confirmation model, with perceived quality as the antecedent variable of confirmation and perceived usefulness. This model employed three dimensions of perceived quality from DeLone and Mclean’s IS success model. Survey data were col...
Seyed Kamal Chaharsooghi
Full Text Available E-commerce as one of the most significant aspects of innovation in business processes is what takes place in companies across the world. The gap between information and communications technology and e-business application is called the digital divide. It is necessary to understand the reasons for the failure of commercial sites. Here the objective is to assess the commercial sites of Iran. Different methods are adopted to evaluate sites and electronic stores. The balanced scorecard is a rarely adopted method of concern to evaluate these sites in Iran. The survey methodology and Delphi technique are applied in building the research tools, which led to the development of a questionnaire. Through applying the BSC approach, the numbers of indicators in each of the four perspectives of BSC were identified. The DEMATEL technique is applied to determine the importance of different perspectives and to identify the causal correlations among the four perspectives. The results generated by SMART PLS graphics, the Structural Equation Modeling software, confirm the adequacy of this proposed model for websites. The findings here indicate that the growth and learning perspective have the greatest impact on the other perspectives while the other perspectives mostly affect the financial perspective.
Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Biswas, Rajib
Based on numerous investigations on increasing the biogas yield of manure, a new concept was developed to increase the economical operation of manure based biogas plants by combining up concentration of manure with a more specific treatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber fraction...... by implementing the treatment on the digested solid fraction. Catch crops have been identified as a sustainable co-substrate for biogas production with a high biogas potential. For exploiting this biomass for profitable biogas production, the biomass yield per hectare, harvest costs, TS concentration and specific...
"Winning techniques and strategies for nonprofits and government agencies in creating successful and critical key performance indicatorsBy exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David...
Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A
The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21
Beca, Jaclyn; Husereau, Don; Chan, Kelvin K W; Hawkins, Neil; Hoch, Jeffrey S
In evaluating new oncology medicines, two common modeling approaches are state transition (e.g., Markov and semi-Markov) and partitioned survival. Partitioned survival models have become more prominent in oncology health technology assessment processes in recent years. Our experience in conducting and evaluating models for economic evaluation has highlighted many important and practical pitfalls. As there is little guidance available on best practices for those who wish to conduct them, we provide guidance in the form of 'Key steps for busy analysts,' who may have very little time and require highly favorable results. Our guidance highlights the continued need for rigorous conduct and transparent reporting of economic evaluations regardless of the modeling approach taken, and the importance of modeling that better reflects reality, which includes better approaches to considering plausibility, estimating relative treatment effects, dealing with post-progression effects, and appropriate characterization of the uncertainty from modeling itself.
The US refining industry has experienced an extended period of change covering the past 20 years. Growing regulatory requirements, combined with shifting market characteristics, have resulted in massive investments and significant and ongoing structural change. Despite excellent capacity utilization, recent profitability has been poor. Industry psychology can be described as depressed, with honest concern about the long-term attractiveness of domestic refining as an area for continued participation and investment. This paper provides an overview of how the industry arrived at these levels of poor profitability, examines the current situation and future drivers, and presents Chem Systems' views on the outlook for domestic refining
Rundall, Thomas; Oberlin, Shelley; Thygesen, Brian; Janus, Katharina
Hospitals with a challenging payer mix (CPM)-high proportions of uninsured and Medicaid patients and a low proportion of commercially insured patients-are an important source of care for low-income, uninsured people. Achieving profitability is difficult for CPM hospitals. From 2005 through 2008, only one-third of 67 CPM hospitals in California reported positive total margins. In-depth group interviews were completed with the management leadership teams of a diverse group of five profitable CPM hospitals to identify the management strategies and practices that the hospitals' leadership teams credited for their financial success. Twelve management policy and practice topics were identified. Four of the policies and practices that managers identified involve organizational actions to increase hospital revenue or operational efficiency. These factors are consistent with those identified in previous research. However, managers also identified eight factors not previously revealed in research on hospital profitability, including management policies and practices that establish the organizational culture, workforce, relationships, monitoring systems, and governance necessary to ensure that hospital employees and affiliated physicians support and successfully implement organizational actions necessary to achieve profitability.
Tsai, Yuan-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Tien
With the transformation of its population structure and economic environment, Taiwan is rapidly becoming an aging society. There is a growing need for elderly products, and therefore the operation of web shops that sell elderly products is important. In an era which values performance management, searching for key performance indicators (KPIs) helps to reveal, if the goals of a web shop are achieved. In the current study, researchers adopted the constructs of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate web shop performance. Additionally, the Delphi method, along with questionnaires, was used to develop 29 indicators. Finally, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method assisted in identifying the level of importance of the constructs, in which "internal process" ranked top, followed by "learning and growth", "customer", and "financial". "Internal process" was the key construct that impacted other factors, while "customer" was an important construct affected by other factors. By understanding the influences and relationships among the constructs, enterprises can conduct additional monitoring and management to achieve functions of prevention, continuous improvement, and innovation in order to shape their core competence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qin, Zheng; Li, Shundong; Li, Fengxiang
This book helps deepen understanding of key e-commerce strategies. It brings together theoretical perspectives based on academic research, integrated use of technologies and a large amount of cases, especially those of China.
Evans, P; Wurster, T S
In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce.
Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...
Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu
The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...
Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.
The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.
Russell, R L
Various studies report that investment in people pays off two to one over other capital investments. Because business is fundamentally a matter of relations among human beings, training is essential for the development of the practice staff to effectively work together and give quality service to clients. Interpersonal skills are essential, as illustrated in the Gallop Poll organization discovery that most customer service in America is poor and that much of it is awful. This report enumerates five steps to aid in the development of the practice staff to be able to meet the expectations of the client so that each client visit is a pleasant, educational, and rewarding experience. The five steps are (1) developing rapport, (2) creating a professional presence, (3) focusing on getting and giving information, (4) showing how much you care, and (5) placing a high priority on staff training.
Full Text Available E-commerce has been evolving from being a purely niche phenomenon to owning a vital share in economies of developed countries. Growth of such distribution and sales channel has been highly correlated with technological improvements penetrating modern societies. Today we stand in front of new ideas, adoption barriers and profit opportunities. There are a few trends ready to take off in the near future, one of them is the idea of reverse e-commerce, which is engaging the consumer even more into a highly personalized buying process. Nevertheless, every new idea needs the suitable time and place to launch. The purpose of this analysis is to verify prospects for the reverse e-commerce, which has a huge market potential. Reverse e-Commerce has every chance of becoming a new, still undiscovered now, marketing channel.
Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.
Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)
Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…
Spiteri, Kenneth J.; 2nd Computer Science Annual Workshop (CSAW’04)
E-commerce, which is short for ‘Electronic Commerce’, is simply the idea of replacing physical business transactions with electronic business transactions using the Internet. E-commerce cuts through boundaries such as time and geography to put business owners and customers into virtual contact with one another. A key idea behind E-commerce is the ability to take orders and receive payments through an electronic storefront. Philosophically, E-commerce is about openness, connectivity, and integ...
Dubovyk Tetiana V.; Ortynska Valentyna V.
The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to creat...
Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz
Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.
If you have ever built or managed a WordPress site and want to add e-commerce functionality into your site, WooCommerce and this book are perfect for you. Learning how to use WooCommerce through this series of recipes will give you a solid platform to add any future e-commerce needs.
Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.
Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)
Olaleye, S. A. (Sunday Adewale)
Abstract The emergence of mobile devices, especially the tablet, has created chances and challenges for mobile commerce vendors across the continents, as they seek to increase their profits and optimize the users’ online shopping experience. This study examines how mobile devices affect mobile commerce with regards to tablet usage for online shopping in developed and developing nations. The intervention of mobile devices in mobile commerce should be aboveboard, so that it ca...
Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.
This paper presents tables of Shell's earnings from oil and gas exploration and producing activities for the eastern and western hemispheres giving details of sales and net proceeds; Shell earnings analysis money of the day for worldwide oil and gas production between 1980 and 1998; key financial ratios for 1980-1998 for Shell petroleum exploration and production; Shell oil and natural gas liquids reserves changes by technical category (1980-1998); Shell natural gas reserves changes by technical category for 1989-1998; and finally Shell's petroleum exploration and production wells for 1980-1998
Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan
About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.
E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.
International e-commerce, which involves cross-border transactions over the internet, shows every sign of continuing to expand rapidly. The potential savings of transaction costs from e-commerce are substantial. The most important cost-saving aspect of e-commerce is the reduction in travel, administration, communication and search costs. One consequence of such cost advantages is that many small cross-border transactions have now become economic. In addi...
The aim of this thesis was to suggest practical use of m-commerce in the company Elektra PV based on analysis of options of m-commerce in the Czech Republic and in the world. First part of this thesis investigates theoretical basics of mobile commerce. Next part processes three case studies about the companies Amazon, Argos and Alza.cz, then followed the analysis of m-commerce. Based on previous findings is suggested for the company Elektra PV to implement mobile application.
Dubovyk Tetiana V.
Full Text Available The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to create content through the media via forums, ratings, reviews, and recommendations on different platforms. Enterprises are advised to use social tools to perform social interaction with consumers in social networks, create a social climate in view of the social support on the Web. The authors have proposed the concept of «social commerce system», structure of which contains the following elements: individuality of consumer, social communications, social communities, e-commerce; defined the multidimensional attributes that are naturally associated with all four elements of the social commerce. They cover the quality of information, system quality, quality of service, convenience and ease-of-use, payment mechanism.
E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.
E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.
Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.
Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten
-portals must attract and retain customers. Success in mobile portal markets will depend on dynamic strategies that blend elements of personalization, permission, and specification of content. This chapter reviews the key differences between traditional e-commerce and the emergent m-commerce. It reviews...... the core concepts of personalization, permission, and content specification as they apply to e-commerce and m-commerce. The chapter presents a framework for developing effective business strategies for developing and managing mobile portals. http://www.morten-rask.dk/2003c.htm......M-commerce entails transactions conducted via mobile telecommunications networks using communication, information, and payment devices such as mobile phones or palmtop units. Geographic positioning and location capabilities are also being added to such networks and devices. Rather than using...
Lodder, A.R.; Murray, A.D.
For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commerce. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including the E-Commerce Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data
Lodder, A.R.; Murray, A.D.
For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commerce. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commerce, including the E-Commerce Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data
Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL
The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.
Andre Michael Ricky Wajong
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to give information and understanding about security threat that could happen in security system in e-commerce. The approach used is how the transaction system is, how the security is applied, and also the possible security threat in e-commerce. The result of this research is that there are still gaps in e-commerce. It is hoped that the business actors will be more realized about the security importance and more aware about the possible threat.
Andre M. R. Wajong; Carolina Rizki Putri
The objective of this paper is to give information and understanding about security threat that could happen in security system in e-commerce. The approach used is how the transaction system is, how the security is applied, and also the possible security threat in e-commerce. The result of this research is that there are still gaps in e-commerce. It is hoped that the business actors will be more realized about the security importance and more aware about the possible threat.
17 juil. 2017 ... La promotion de l'entrepreneuriat, la façon dont le commerce peut profiter aux femmes et à leur famille, et la création d'emplois pour les plus vulnérables étaient au coeur de la discussion en table ronde du ministre du Commerce international du Canada, l'honorable François-Philippe Champagne, et des ...
Through the in-depth study on the existing mobile e-commerce and WAP protocols, this paper presents a security solution of e-commerce system based on WPKI, and describes its implementation process and specific implementation details. This solution uniformly distributes the key used by the various participating entities , to fully ensure the confidentiality, authentication, fairness and integrity of mobile e-commerce payments, therefore has some pract ical value for improving the security of e-commerce system.
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
E-commerce presents realization of business processes, which are realised through the electronic communication instruments (especially Internet). E-commerce brings positives and negatives, which go from traditional business. Presentation of firms with WWW pages becomes an impulsion for steps to implementation of e-business resolution. In last years are rising special logistic centres, an example of this are logistic centres of net courier, express and parcel services or logistic centres of in...
Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems
The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)
DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho
While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.
The emergence of e-commerce is changing many traditional ways of doing business and there are lots of success story regarding e-commerce in developed countries. These successes have prompted governments and business organizations in developing countries including Nigeria to step up their effort in the adoption and use of e-commerce technology. The rapid rise of e-commerce has brought with it a large amount of e-commerce business models which are more easy to implement, run, and profit-ori...
Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances
Når små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMVer [F1] ) vover sig ud i nye forretningsmuligheder, som baserer sig på mobile devices via trådløs kommunikation med et forretningsmæssigt formål for øje eller 'Mobile Commerce' (M-commerce), skal de være meget dygtige til både at udnytte forkantsteknologier...... af disse netværk som en central del af nye M-commerce forretningsmodeller for SMVer og at redegøre for de foreløbige resultater fra projektets indledende fase. Projektets formål er at udforske, beskrive og facilitere udviklingen af nye forretningsmodeller for M-commerce i danske SMVer. Data er blevet...... indsamlet gennem dybdeinterview. Artiklen bidrager til teori om M-commerce forretningsmodeller, og i særdeleshed, modeller der karakteriseres af intenst netværkssamarbejde. [F1] Jeg er ikke overbevist, at vi ikke skulle bruge SMEs, da det er meget mere kendt, også herhjemme....
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed
Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp
Ivana B. Petrevska
Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.
This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.
DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....
Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....
Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.
Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the
Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...
Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances
into this emerging market may well depend on development of new business models that emphasize the socio-technical intricacies of these networks. The objective of this paper is to examine the development of these networks as a central part of new M-commerce business models in SME's and report on initial findings...
This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.
This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.
Papadopoulou , Panagiota; Pelet , Jean-Eric
Part 2: Trust and Privacy; International audience; Trust and privacy have been widely studied as key issues and success factors for e-commerce. The advent of m-commerce calls for revisiting these concepts and re-examining their antecedents in the mobile context. This paper attempts a comparative approach to the issues of trust and privacy in e-commerce and m-commerce. It investigates how trust and privacy are differentiated with the shift from the context of e-commerce to the context of m-com...
Clarke, GP; Thompson, C; Birkin, M
This paper explores the growth of e-commerce in British grocery retailing and examines the spatial variations in e-commerce usage. The main data source is a large commercial consumer survey (Acxiom’s Research Opinion Data) rarely used by academics to date. Using these data in combination with census data, the paper addresses a number of key questions. After outlining key trends in the dataset on e-commerce usage (by product and over time) the first research question is: How do e-commerce purc...
In recent years, e-commerce grows rapidly in the whole world. In the United State and European countries, e-commerce has become a significant financial service channel and played an irreplaceable role comparing with traditional banking. In these ten years, the banking industry in China has begun to implement e-commerce in order to serve their customers better. The implementation of e-commerce has changed people’s understanding of financial issues. Meanwhile, e-commerce brings new profit point...
Building eCommerce Sites with Drupal Commerce Cookbook is written in a helpful, practical style with numerous hands-on recipes to help you build attractive eCommerce sites.This book is primarily for store owners and web designers with little or no experience of Drupal and Drupal Commerce who want to build and customise a store in Drupal Commerce. You will have a basic knowledge of websites, but you don't need to be familiar with Drupal or PHP. However, this book would also suit experienced Drupal and Ubercart users who want to migrate to or build a Drupal Commerce store
Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal
Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...
Julia Y. Lee
Internet commerce has transformed the marketing of goods and services. The separation between point of sale and seller, and the presence of geographically dispersed sellers who do not engage in repeated transactions with the same customers challenge traditional mechanisms for building the trust required for commercial exchanges. In this changing environment, legal rules and institutions play a diminished role in building trust. Instead, new systems and methods are emerging to foster trust in ...
Diploma thesis "E-commerce" aimed to create a suitable solution for marketing mix of the e-shop Levneelektro.cz. Based on performed analyzes I concluded that improvement of a communication with customers is very important for company ELEKTRA PV. I found that a crucial step for maintenance of competitiveness is the foundation of a loyalty program which is responsible for keeping customer loyalty. I have designed two different solutions of the loyalty program that are appropriate for the company.
Today companies are faced with the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. A successful approach to electronic portals is an effective demonstration of the new ways of relating to the client. The objectives that we have considered for the realization of e-commerce portal can be summarized as follows: structured communication, effective collaboration, complet and closed circuit of orders and deliveries, inventory op...
Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart
A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....
The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned
Azilahwati Binti Adam; Jessnor Elmy Binti Mat Jizat; Mohd Asri Bin Mohd Nor
Current technological advances, particularly in information and communications technology (ICT) and social media have sparked a phenomenon in the business world. The existence of social commerce (s-commerce), which is a combination of e-commerce and social media, has opened up greater opportunities for SMEs in Malaysia. The use of s-commerce as a medium for marketing and buying and selling is capable of helping SMEs to increase the sales and profitability of their businesses. However, accordi...
Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Spaccapietra, S.; March, S.T.; Kambayashi, Y.
In electronic commerce scenarios, effectiveness and efficiency of business process execution are of paramount importance for business success. Even more than in traditional commerce scenarios, they determine the chances of survival of organizations in fast moving, highly competitive electronic
Corrêa, João Batista
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação tem como objetivo identificar as principais características do e-commerce que influenciam no processo de decisão de compra via internet, tendo o consumidor on-line como centro deste estudo. Evidenciou-se o processo de decisão de compra por este possibilitar uma análise de cada etapa "percorrida" pelo consumidor ao realizar s...
Mit dem Aufkommen von E-Commerce verband sich die Einschätzung vieler Ökonomen, dass die transparente Struktur und der ortsunabhängige Zugriff per Internet zu nahezu vollkommenem Wettbewerb auf elektronischen Märkten führen würde. Letztendlich, so eine weitverbreitete Annahme, würde ein verstärkter Wettbewerb in elektronischen Märkten einsetzen, womit sich sowohl das Preisniveau als auch die Preisstreuung erheblich gegenüber physischen Märkten vermindern würde. Diese Prophezeiungen bezüglich ...
Florentina Loredana Tache
Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.
Llorente Viejo, Silvia
La tesis "Electronic Commerce of Services" presentada por Silvia Llorente Viejo realiza un estudio de los diferentes componentes presentes en el comercio electrónico de servicios. En esta tesis se presentan los diversos aspectos presentes en el comercio electrónico, tanto de productos como de servicios, especialmente las fases que lo forman y consideraciones sobre participantes que se pueden encontrar en cada uno. Para el caso de los e servicios, se realiza una descripción completa de sus car...
Xiang Junyong; Jing Linbo
After years of development in China's electronic commerce sector,there has been a drastic increase not only in the number of electronic commerce enterprises and online shoppers,but also in electronic commerce market turnover in China.During this process,the Chinese government has played a key role in establishing legislation and market disciplines for the electronic commerce market.This paper explores policy regarding electronic commerce development in China and analyzes new trends in China's electronic commerce,including the rise of mobile commerce,social commerce,and cross-border electronic commerce,and the booming industries of internet financing and Big Data.This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the development,uniqueness,and trends of electronic commerce in China.In addition,this paper also provides policymakers in China and other developing countries with policy suggestions regarding electronic commerce.
Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.
Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.
Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B). Then at...
Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)
The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.
Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.
Full Text Available Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B. Then attempt to characterize maritime e-commerce in business-to-customer (B2C relationship. The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes of internet commerce in the maritime industry, having particular re-gard to Polish online market, especially retail.
Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet. Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing
Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence
For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential
Valentin – Stelian Bădescu
Full Text Available Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.. This component informational increasingly involves broader and more complex, with the technological advancement of computer science and globalization of human society, special measures to ensure the security of information. Cyber-crime is an illegal act committed by using a computer network (especially Internet. Cyber-crime is a subset of cybercrime.
Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.
Linda Sau-ling LAI
This paper aims to address the new trend of social commerce as electronic commerce leverages Web 2.0 technologies and online social media. The infusions of new technologies on the World Wide Web connect users in their homes and workplaces, thus transforming social formations and business transactions. An in-depth study of the growth and success of a social commerce site, Facebook was conducted. The investigation is finalized with a triad relational model which reflects so...
Norah Suliman Alturaigi
Many developing country firms are investing huge money in the sector of mobile commerce (m-commerce). Simplifying and understanding the factors which can impact on m-commerce success enables the organisations’ managers to focus their efforts on the key areas of their m-commerce businesses, thereby contributing to the successful implementation of m-commerce. This study provides a clear understanding of m-commerce in the private sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identifies the critical ...
 The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.
Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans
sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...
Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it
Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.
An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…
... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real... Organizations § 1.501(c)(6)-1 Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade. A... on for profit. It is an organization of the same general class as a chamber of commerce or board of...
It is highly recommended for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to integrate e-commerce into their business operations because it is an opportunity to increase profitability, enhance effectiveness, and increase corporate values. However, the number of Vietnamese SMEs adopting e-commerce is insignificant due to lack of understanding of the process of integrating it into business operations. This research is conducted for the purpose of providing SMEs attempting to move towards the e-com...
Khalid Haseeb, Muhammad Arshad, Shoukat Ali, Shazia Yasin
E-commerce has presented a new way of doing business all over the world using internet.Organizations have changed their way of doing business from a traditional approach to embrace ecommerceprocesses. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, a concernregarding the exchange of money securely and conveniently over the internet increases. Therefore,security is a necessity in an e-commerce transaction. The purpose of this paper is to present atoken based Secure E-commerce Proto...
Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU
Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.
Electronic Commerce . This report presents the results of that examination. Based upon an examination of 16 key documents, we estimate that DoD could realize direct and indirect cost savings of almost $1.2 billion over a 10-year period by replacing these manually processed documents with their electronic equivalents. To achieve those savings, DoD would need to make investments totaling approximately $80 million in new systems and procedures. (Author)
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.14 How will Commerce entities...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise...
Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.
Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.
Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.
CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN; LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA
The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow), and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow). Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an ...
This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.
Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M
As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.
Nelson Oly Ndubisi
Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.
Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.
KEY WORDS: Day old Chicks, Gross Margin, old layers, Point of lay, Profitability, Rate of return, Viability. ABSTRACT: This ... People depend on poultry for food and poultry farming serves as an additional ..... Wholesales Marketing of Tomato.
张峰; 秦志光; 刘锦德; 张险峰
Electronic commerce operates relying on the open Internet. Security architecture for e-commerce becomes the key point to its use prosperously. A finite automation of typical e-commerce model is presented in this paper. The finite automation simulates typical trade system, describes its states transition and supplies a theory basis for designing security architecture for e-commerce. Then security threats and corresponding solutions to the model are discussed. Finally, the security architecture for e-commerce is given. All of them are used as basis for further e-commerce security research.
Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How will...
Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne
This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....
Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel
Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.
Beginning Django E-Commerce guides you through producing an e-commerce site using Django, the most popular Python web development framework. Topics covered include how to make a shopping cart, a checkout, and a payment processor; how to make the most of Ajax; and search engine optimization best practices. Throughout the book, you'll take each topic and apply it to build a single example site, and all the while you'll learn the theory behind what you're architecting. * Build a fully functional e-commerce site. * Learn to architect your site properly to survive in an increasingly competitive onl
Current m-commerce business models show that m-commerce depends on complex networks of business relationships, which often comprise telecommunications service providers, mobile device makers, banking industry, Internet search engine providers, and various third-party value-adding companies. Due to the nature of m-commerce, the key to success in m-commerce lies predominantly in managing a network of alliances. This paper answers research questions, such as why do companies team up for m-commer...
A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs
Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.
In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)
FU Qiansheng; YANG Jingmin
E-commerce has advantages of low bargaining cost, full field service, and convenient. Its development forms and promotes the key factor of the global economic growth, and the security problem of e-commerce becomes more and more important thereupon. It is the subject of a great meaning to structure the safe, convenient e-commerce running environment. The task of anti-spam is a concrete content among them. This paper discusses the source and danger of spam, and the precautionary and radical cure measures of spam are put forwarded, and the technologies of the anti-spam are discussed especially.
This chapter presents the results of a study investigating leadership and leadership styles in e-commerce adoption in small and medium size enterprises in Australia. The results show that top management and CEO' leadership have a key role in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in developing...... a vision for e-commerce adoption and that the dominant leadership style is directive with some signs of consultative. Furthermore the study shows that e-commerce adoption is becoming a strategic process and in this process top management is taking into consideration both the organizational knowledge...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.12 Commerce. Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce...
McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy
Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…
The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce...
A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.
Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.
The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de
Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.
Abstract E-commerce in China has become a fast developing business in recent years. Many e-commerce companies have been set up to survive and benefit from the profitable business. Tao Bao, established in 2003, is the one of leading companies in e-commerce business. In the past few years, Tao Bao has become the favorite of the majority of customers in China and grown quickly. The purpose of the study was to make a marketing analysis of Tao Bao and enable the company to get better grow...
For at være forretningsmæssigt levedygtige, må m-portaler tiltrække og fastholde kunderne. Kernebudskabet i dette afsnit er at muligheden for at være succesfuld med dette vil afhænge af dynamiske strategier, der blander elementer af personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold. Vi gennemgå...... her kerneforskelle mellem traditionel e-handel (e-commerce) og m-commerce og hvordan de to handelsformer adskiller sig med hensyn til personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold....
Qin, Yi; Zhang, Yan-Qing; King, K. N.; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar
Intelligent data mining techniques have useful e-Business applications. Because an e-Commerce application is related to multiple domains such as statistical analysis, market competition, price comparison, profit improvement and personal preferences, this paper presents a hybrid knowledge-based e-Commerce system fusing intelligent techniques, statistical data mining, and personal information to enhance QoS (Quality of Service) of e-Commerce. A Web-based e-Commerce application software system, eDVD Web Shopping Center, is successfully implemented uisng Java servlets and an Oracle81 database server. Simulation results have shown that the hybrid intelligent e-Commerce system is able to make smart decisions for different customers.
Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.
The paper presents the concept that seems to be getting more and more bigger, namely electronic commerce. The theme is a debate about what the world of commerce means and attracts through its timeliness. Entry into the third millennium has triggered one of the greatest changes in our daily lives - the move towards an Internet-based society. But one of the most significant changes is manifested in the way business is conducted, especially in the way to lead and manage markets and in the way...
This paper reports on the bases and methods employed by the WK (Wright, Killen and Co, Houston) profit-margin indicator for U.S. gas-processing plants. Additionally, this article reviews the historical profitability of the gas-processing industry and key factors affecting these trends. Texas was selected as the most representative for the industry, reflecting the wide spectrum of gas-processing plants. The profit performance of Texas' gas plants is of special significance because of the large number of plants and high volume of NGL production in the region
Full Text Available The World Wide Web represents a new frontier towards a global industry, leading the way for new businesses. Commerce now deals with a whole different concept: electronic commerce (e-commerce. This kind of commerce provides new means for a large variety o
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1220.103 Section 1220.103 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The term commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. ...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 401.1 Section 401.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.1 Commerce. Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation...
Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.
Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...
We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)
The development of electronic commerce offers a promising way for business to meet challenges of the ever changing market. The fast advancing information infrastructure makes the connectiviry possible to reach almost everywhere in the world, but it does not ensure a successful business process. The
Hjarup, Søren; Henten, Anders
The analysis addresses the issues of how businesses interact in the light of continuous maturation of business-to-business e-commerce. Development of cheaper and more standardised information and communication technologies enhances the depth and width of electronic networks, which may lead...
QIN Zhiguang; LUO Xucheng; GAO Rong
E-commerce is a very active field of Intemet research. A very important aspect of e-commerce is its security. Because of the variety of e-commerce applications, many security policies,protocols and techniques are involved in the deployment of the security. The related standards and protocols ofe-commerce are studied in this paper. The general model of e-commerce security is set forth.In this model, two most important e-commerce protocols including secure sockets layer (SSL) and secure electronic transaction (SET) are analyzed. The open problems and new trends of e-commerce security are presented.
Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin
There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli t...
Pereira Sanchez, Sergio
What do we know as E-commerce and E-Business? Unique features of E-commerce. Types of E-commerce. History and feature of E-commerce. Why does E-commerce develop better in some places than in others? What make a current E-commerce success? Introduction of the US E-commerce firm studied. Bussiness case (customer, product, company and competition). Conclusions.
Hauswirth, Manfred; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Miklós, Zoltan; Podnar, Ivana; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Wombacher, Andreas
The increasing use of the Internet in business and commerce has created a number of new business opportunities and the need for supporting models and platforms. One of these opportunities is information commerce (i-commerce), a special case of ecommerce focused on the purchase and sale of information as a commodity. In this paper we present an architecture for i-commerce systems using OPELIX (Open Personalized Electronic Information Commerce System)  as an example. OPELIX provides an open...
Han, Hui; Trimi, Silvana
Abstract: Social commerce is a new business model of e-commerce, which utilizes of Web 2.0 technologies and social media to support social-related exchange activities. While its popularity, being a subset of e-commerce, has been increasing tremendously since its introduction in 2005, there exists a general paucity of research on its framework and its applications’ effectiveness, especially in areas beyond the common social commerce practices. This study develops a comprehensive social commerc...
Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J.
The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed
Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J. [Global Energy Assets, Inc. (United States)
The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed.
The unprecedented development of information technologies in recent decades has revolutionized global trade, wholesale and retail, redefining, from a radical way of organizing and operating system business, requiring a new way to trade, to enter relationship and partnership with consumers connect. Thus, this paper presents the main developments in trade, from classic to electronic commerce trade, concluding that, in fact, widespread Internet and information technology contribute to the develo...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains model output data that were collected to examine the impact of ocean acidification on fishery yields and profits of red king crab in...
Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs. Design/methodology/approach - The research...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...... and Australia. Research limitations/implications - The main limitation relates to the difficulty of generalization of the findings to a larger population of SMEs. To overcome this, a statistical survey is planned to be conducted in the future. Practical implications - The results of the empirical research...
Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes
Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.
Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.
The evolution of hypermedia space and growing saturation of the market with mobile devices, an increasing role of Big Data, which allow for multidimensional analysis of data from offline and online markets, growing popularization of solutions of Market Intelligence supported by Cloud Computing technology as well as development of potential and opportunities of adapting the Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) in commerce cause that customers and their experience become a ...
Abdullah Saleh Alqahtani; Robert Goodwin
Mobile and e-commerce applications are tools for accessing the Internet and for buying products and services. These applications are constantly evolving due to the high rate of technological advances being made. This paper provides a new perspective on the types of applications that can be used. It describes and analyses device requirements, provides a literature review of important aspects of mobile devices that can use such applications and the requirements of websites designed for m-commer...
This paper considers the reason why indirect tax issues arise in the context of electronic commerce and discusses relevant issues. To do so, the paper presents a simple framework to understand and examine these issues in the international context. It also identifies common and different issues of the VAT system and the RST system. It demonstrates that an emerging solution proposed in the context of the VAT system can be affected with difficult problems that were regarded to be problems of the...
Išoraitė, Margarita; Miniotienė, Neringa
Electronic commerce in the world is becoming an increasingly popular form of trade. Most shoppers start looking for products, descriptions and quality features online before buying a product. In order to provide customers with more convenience, more and more companies and existing stores are setting up their own online stores where a person can buy at a convenient time, even at night when regular stores are no longer working. Online stores allow you to save time spent by a person searching fo...
This special feature brings together three original articles on Internet finance, grassroots programmers, and an e-psychotherapy platform, respectively, to engage in the ongoing debate on China’s e-commerce and digital economy. The three authors contribute to a rethinking of the Chinese digital capitalism from the perspective of sociology (Nicholas Loubere), anthropology (Ping Sun), and social psychology (Hsuan-Ying Huang). They pinpoint the role of commercial activities as vehicles to highli...
Azilahwati Binti Adam
Full Text Available Current technological advances, particularly in information and communications technology (ICT and social media have sparked a phenomenon in the business world. The existence of social commerce (s-commerce, which is a combination of e-commerce and social media, has opened up greater opportunities for SMEs in Malaysia. The use of s-commerce as a medium for marketing and buying and selling is capable of helping SMEs to increase the sales and profitability of their businesses. However, according to studies conducted by SME Corp Malaysia, the usage of e-commerce and social media is still low. Attitude and self-efficacy are variables that are often used in studies related to entrepreneurs and their intention to accept a new business innovation or technology. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the internal factors within entrepreneurs, namely attitude and self-efficacy, which influence the acceptance and use of s-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia.
Full Text Available Better mining corporations want to adopt “Responsible Mining”. This paper outlines the essentials of responsible mining and offers a guide to corporations who want become responsible. Eight principles are discussed: (1 Social and environmental assessment, (2 Transparency, (3 Acceptance by stakeholders, (4 Food production trumps questionable mining, (5 Compliance with international standards, (6 Corporate prequalification, (7 Insurance and performance bonds, and (8 Royalties, taxes and fees. These principles are followed by a discussion of No-Go Zones to mining: why some types of sites should be off-limits to all mining. The Annex on Compensatory Offsets suggests that, on occasion, there may be exceptions to a No-Go Zone.
I Gusti Ngurah Indra Saputra
Full Text Available E-commerce is a remote goods or services transaction activity between two company (business to business or between company with customers (business to consumer. Ecommerce was simplifying the transaction process between producers and consumers, butthere is a risk of security issue if doing transactions on e-commerce. A common e-commercesecurity system using another protocol security e.g. SSL (Secure Socket Layer so these ecommerce security system is very dependent with these security protocol. The e-commercesecurity problem was fixed by developed security system that using security system directly onthe web page. The system is designed to securing transaction data using RC6 encryption, RC6encryption key is secured by RSA encryption, and encrypted data is encoded by Base64. Theresulting security system is blocking transaction data when users clicking submit transactionbutton, then these transaction data encrypted using applied algorithm before send it into serverso transaction data was secured without aid of another security protocol e.g. SSL (SecureSocket Layer.
Full Text Available Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Commerce can be used to create and deliver effective, ethical E-Commerce systems.
An average farmer in the sample was 40 years old; 85% were males and 84% had ... nation is like a tree, farming is its roots, and commerce and industry ... proportion of calories and protein ... risks (price fluctuation;), loss or unexpected ..... Table 2: Estimates of Tranlog Profit Frontier by Ordinary Least Square and Maximum.
Many non-profits are looking at ways that they can leverage the Internet to assist in fund raising. Some organizations are using the Internet as a form of e-commerce to accept online gifts, while others are using the immediacy of the Internet for online auctions.
Priscilla Omonedo; Paul Bocij
Since the emergence of e-Commerce, the world of business has witnessed a radical shift in the way business activities are conducted. However, the emergence of m-Commerce has further pushed the boundaries of virtual commerce revolution. As a result, there seems to be a growing blur in the distinction between e- Commerce and m-Commerce. In addition, existing definitions for both forms of commerce highlight characteristics (e.g. type of device and activity conducted) that ma...
JOBODWANA, Z NTOZINTLE
E-commerce refers to all forms of commercial transactions that involve individuals and organizations based on the electronic processing of data. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services using mobile telephones or personal digital assistants (PDA). M-commerce is emerging in Africa and South Africa especially as either a complement or an alternative to e-commerce as originally conceived, though there are arguments that mobile telephone technology â€œm-commerc...
Uarda Roshi; Naim Mecalla
Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development...
With the development of Information Technology and Internet, the world economy is facing an era of E-commerce. Internet E-commerce becomes valid over whole economic activities and internet-oriented economic paradigm is emerging. The advanced countries, such as USA and UK, are providing a vision for E-commerce development competitively and concentrating a national-wide capacity. Although the level of Korean E-commerce has a little gap with that of advanced countries, the fundamental foundation for activating E-commerce is established. To improve a reliability of cyber market, the plan for establishing foundation of cyber trade should be provided by revising E-commerce legislation system, expanding infrastructure, promoting E-commerce in public sector, and extending E-commerce between industry sectors.
Full Text Available Trust is the key ingredient for sustainable transactions. In the concept of trust, the trustor trusts the trustees. In e-commerce, the trustor is the buyer and the trustees are the intermediaries and the seller. Intermediaries provide the web-based infrastructure that enables buyers and sellers to make transactions. Trust is the buyer’s judgment and comprises two distinct concepts; both trust and distrust reside in the trustor. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated effects of trust and distrust on a buyer’s purchase intentions. Previous studies have provided theoretical frameworks illustrating co-existent trust and distrust, trust transfers from one to another, and trust in buyer-intermediary-seller relationships. Based on these frameworks, this study (i presented a holistic model that contained the judgment of buyers resulting in trust or distrust in the intermediary and the seller; (ii investigated trust and distrust transfer from the intermediary to the seller, and (iii explored the effects of various antecedents that affect trust and distrust. To validate the proposed model, we employed Partial Least Squares (PLS. A summary of key findings are as follows. First, buyer’s trust in an intermediary positively affected his or her trust in the seller, positively influencing purchase intention. In other words, we found the trust transfer from an intermediary to its seller. Second, distrust in an intermediary directly impacted on the buyer’s perceived risk, negatively influencing his or her purchase intentions. Third, structural assurance and perceived website quality of an intermediary gave a positive impact on buyer’s trust in the intermediary. The results of this study shed light on the necessity of managing both trust and distrust to facilitate sales in e-commerce.
João Pedro Matos Teixeira Dias
Atualmente os websites de comércio eletrónico são uma das ferramentas principais para a realização de transações entre comerciantes online e consumidores ou empresas. Estes websites apoiam- se fortemente na sumarização e análise dos hábitos de navegação dos consumidores, de forma a influenciar as suas ações no website com o intuito de otimizar métricas de sucesso como o CTR (Click through Rate), CPC (Cost per Conversion), Basket e Lifetime Value e User Engagement. A utilização de técnicas de ...
Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.
The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.
Ion IVAN; Daniel MILODIN; Alin ZAMFIROIU
In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here’s how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taki...
Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe
Even with the so-called New Markets facing a world-wide break-down and the euphoria around electronic commerce subsequently cooling down market forecasts still predict a great future for electronic commerce. Influenced by electronic communication technologies, business transactions change rapidly. Although business-to-consumer e-commerce is expected to become a successful sales and communication channel world-wide, e-commerce was not accepted by broad consumer groups the way it was hoped for....
A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.
Full Text Available A tecnologia da informação está atualmente inserida diretamente no comércio de maneira geral; entretanto, é no comércio eletrônico, e-commerce, que sua aplicação ocorre de forma mais direta. Contudo, essa modalidade de comércio ainda é pouco difundida e, por apresentar problemas de segurança e disparidade de informações, faz com que os consumidores comprem produtos e serviços com parcimônia. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo mapear a utilização da tecnologia de e-commerce na região do município de Blumenau (SC, por meio do estudo do funcionamento de ambientes web de compra coletiva. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa “censo” qualitativo, durante os meses de outubro e novembro de 2012 nos sites de compra coletiva que oferecem produtos na região de Blumenau. Os resultados apresentados demonstram o perfil dos compradores e comerciantes, os principais produtos ofertados, comercializados e procurados, as formas de pagamentos, as garantias e seguranças oferecidas pelos sites, entre outros. Os resultados demonstraram que produtos de alimentação, estética e beleza, e viagens estão entre os mais ofertados e comercializados na região, o que evidencia os principais tipos de consumidores. Diante dos dados encontrados, notou-se que os produtos e serviços oferecidos ainda são restritos, o que torna tal modalidade de comércio pouco utilizada na região. Contudo, o aumento da variedade de ofertas bem como segurança e confiabilidade nessa modalidade de comércio podem fazer com que o e-commerce torne-se mais atrativo e consolidado nos próximos anos.
This paper aims at presenting an in-depth review of the new economic relationships associated with the advent of e-commerce in the daily lives of consumers in Bulgaria, which greatly contributes to change and adapt to the modern business environment as well as to the new processes. In the paper are considered both - advantages and disadvantages of the current business models. I have tried to outline with short subsections each business model which is deployed in the market. There are some of ...
Peyman Rahmati; Andy Adler; Thomas Tran
A major challenge for E-commerce and content-based businesses is the possibility of altering identity documents or other digital data. This paper shows a watermark-based approach to protect digital identity documents against a Print-Scan (PS) attack. We propose a secure ID card authentication system based on watermarking. For authentication purposes, a user/customer is asked to upload a scanned picture of a passport or ID card through the internet to fulfill a transaction online. To provide s...
Hauswirth, Manfred; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Miklós, Zoltan; Podnar, Ivana; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Wombacher, Andreas
The increasing use of the Internet in business and commerce has created a number of new business opportunities and the need for supporting models and platforms. One of these opportunities is information commerce (i-commerce), a special case of ecommerce focused on the purchase and sale of
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.
This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as of Jan. 1... Commerce Control List), Category 9 Aerospace and Propulsion, Product Group E is amended by revising the...
...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...
... the Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulation, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington... Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Building 1, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA... Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115 Phone...
Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas
Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce
Chen, YongJia; Liang, WeiMin
This study mainly investigated how Chinese E-commerce companies should cope with E-commerce innovation with specific dynamic capabilities. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce) innovation includes three phases of innovation based on technology and time. They are web-based commerce, mobile commerce (M-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (U-commerce). They caused not only technological changes but also organizational changes. To cope with E-commerce innovation, a prerequisite is to understand the impa...
Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan
With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.
Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Senette, Caterina
The widespread diffusion of electronic commerce offers a great opportunity for blind people. We describe the results of an electronic survey carried out with 22 blind and 22 sighted users in order to understand the difficulties and obstacles they experience shopping on-line, and solicit their expectations and suggestions for making the interaction simpler and more satisfying. Results show that blind users shop on-line much less than their sighted counterparts, since they encounter more difficulties not only when making a purchase, but even in the navigation phase preceding the commercial transaction. Complex layouts and unstructured content can prevent an e-transaction from being successfully completed. Furthermore, security, privacy and trustiness, common concerns for all consumers, also impact on the fear of buying via Internet for the visually impaired. Poor usability leads to a potential loss of revenue for on-line companies and a lost opportunity to increase a blind person's independence. Providing simpler, more understandable UIs would benefit all users and fuel the expansion of electronic commerce.
Chung, Jae Hoon [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea)
The world economy is in the era of a big revolution. With the development of information and telecommunication technology and the expansion of Internet and E-commerce, a new type of company is emerging such as Carboy mall or Portal and the existing manufacturers, like automobiles or heavy industry, are changing by joining with Information Technology and Internet. With an expansion of E-commerce, the speed of change is accelerated. The petroleum industry has achieved a considerable level of process automation. Moreover, companies like SK or LG-Caltex are going to reorganize suitable to a digital environment. However, there is a limit on establishing an efficient B2B model due to the lack of cooperation among the same kind industries with the excessive supply. Now the change to Information Technology in oil refinery industry is not a problem of choice but is directly connected to a survival. To survive in this global competitive era, it should improve its efficiency through making on-line on the whole company activities in addition to enabling Information Technology in production process.
"Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…
The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government
Chen Juhua; Hu Yong; Wang Wei
This paper introduced the development of e-commerce education in China within the framework that the advantages, development, and education of e-commerce are functionally interactive. The first part of the paper is dedicated to explaining the advantage of e-commerce as well as the present situation and prospects of e-commerce in China. Then, the next two sections are focused on reporting the rapid progress of e-commerce education and its limitation in China. Next, we analyze its irrationality...
Pappel, A. [Union Gas Ltd., Chatham, ON (Canada)
A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this workshop presentation which dealt with the increased use of E-Commerce in the energy industries. E-Commerce refers to the use of any kind of electronic communication, including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce offers real-time access and real-time solutions to energy marketers. This paper discussed growth trends and the driving force behind E-Commerce. Market and regulatory changes such as unbundling and business transformation are some of the factors responsible for the increased used of E-Commerce. This workshop also described some of the intricacies of the Union Gas web site.
Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.
Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan
On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.
Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.
This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing
J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)
textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service
Bell, Peter N
The profit surface is a visualization technique for data computed from trading rules. I simulate price paths and operate the trading rules to compute cumulative returns for the rule under different specifications. The specifications are pairs of integers, filter lag lengths, so a contour plot is useful to display cumulative returns for more specifications than can be shown otherwise.
This journal special issue will explore diverse stakeholder perspectives and share examples of project management practices in the non-profit sector. Key objectives are to develop understandings of project management practice in the sector, to examine how cross-sectoral collaboration and learning can help non-profit organisations achieve their project and programme objectives, and to explore ways in which the wider project management community can learn from experiences in the non-profit sector.
KEY WORDS: Profitability, poverty reduction, yoghurt, processing, employment ... 70% percent of the rural working population (Joshua,. 1999). With about 76 out of every 120 people living ... traditionally the difference between total revenue and ... (70%) of the respondents were males while 30% were females. The age ...
supply of woody products from the existing forest resources is decreasing. ... Key words: Household level investments; Eucalyptus; financial profitability. ... eucalyptus (kalitunsi) tree species to other forest tree ... financial analyses is an assumption that market prices eucalyptus woodlot is situated in ... not be of good quality.
Social commerce is doing commerce in a collaborative and participative way, by using social media, through an enterprise interactive interface that enables social interactions. Technologies such as Web 2.0, Cloud Computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) enable social commerce. Yet, a framework for social commerce, putting Enterprise Social Interactions as central entities, would provide a strong business justification for social commerce design and adoption with these enabling techno...
Steven John Simon
Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt? 19.11 Section 19.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.11 How will...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When will...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt? 19.19 Section 19.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.19...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice? 19.16 Section 19.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.16 When will...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce...
Discussion of the publishing industry and its use of information and communication technologies focuses on the way in which electronic-commerce technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business complementarity model of electronic publishing to maximize profitability and improve the competitive position.…
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of
Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu
Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO
Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua
Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)
Mircea Constantin Scheau
Full Text Available Phishing and E -commerce have at least two things in common - cyberspace and money, and the intersection of the two is often built around services and products offered by banking institutions and investment trusts. Nowadays, fraud economy and fraud methods that have been known to be particularly prolific for cybercriminals are hot issues. Attacks have become refined, with time and profit as determining factors. The risks of being discovered are significantly lower as the analysis preceding offenses is more comprehensive. Inside pawns or accomplices increase the chances of success for fraudulent actions. Cyberspace offers boundless possibilities. Technology is accessible to all. Innovation supports developments in all areas. The same device can be used in various areas. Imagination is the final frontier.
Problems, relating to the imposition of direct taxes on e-commerce, calculation and collection thereof in e-commerce are discussed in the final Master's thesis with reference to the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, by comparing them with the model of the double taxation avoidance agreement of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development as well as the remarks of the experts of this Organization. Criteria, according to which the e-commerce taxation jurisdiction is applicable, a...
E-commerce is a relatively new business field with a high potential of growth, thanks primarily to advantages provided to companies and consumers. At the same time, e-commerce raises technical and economic issues and problems to be solved, which are a concern for businesses, states and international organizations. The growth is accompanied by a need of regulation, including the observance of competition rules. The analysis of the practice in states with developed e-commerce markets highlights...
Alka Raghunath; Murli Dhar Panga
E-commerce as anything that involves an online transaction. E-commerce provides multiple benefits to the consumers in form of availability of goods at lower cost, wider choice and saves time. The general category of ecommerce can be broken down into two parts: Emerchandise: E-finance. E commerce involves conducting business using modern communication instruments: telephone, fax, e-payment, money transfer systems, e-data interchange and the Internet. Online businesses like financial services, ...
Oussama Zerdoumi; Okba Kazar; Saber Benharzallah
Telecommunications technologies are advanced; they introduced new technologies to meet the needs of individuals and organizations to make commercial transactions, where we find the birth of e-commerce after the emergence of the Internet. But this approach has limits like the use of a client / server model, which limit the use of these transactions in anytime and anywhere. Recently and after the emergence of the wireless networking, the commerce increase the range of the E-commerce application...
E-commerce is growing fast with the fast development of internet and communication technology. Now E-commerce brings the businesses a world wide market and a huge population of protential csutomer. For customers the price information is more transparent and there are much more buying choices than before. Online businesses are competeing for customers on a word wide market like never before. The customer retention gained increased value among the E-commerc businesses. But the research of cust...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting by teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee...
Full Text Available With the rise in the online demand for fashion and textiles (FTs along with the development of e-commerce, a business mode called drop-shipping mode has emerged. Despite the fact that the drop-shipping mode has many merits, this method has less earning power compared with the traditional business mode. This study proposes a mix business mode for FTs chains in an e-commerce environment. Traditional and drop-shipping modes are special cases of the mix mode. In addition, a generalized model is built to analyze the profitability of FTs chains. Our study shows that, in most cases, the mix mode improves overall profit of FTs chain. Moreover, we consider the seasonality and the short life cycle of fashion items in analyzing the relationship between the e-retailer's optimal inventory level and demand distribution parameters. The numerical example shows that, by changing their inventory level, e-retailers can address the demand fluctuation using the mix mode. The proposed mix mode employs both business modes to enhance the profitability of a FTs chain. As such, the mix mode is an effective method to address demand fluctuation for FTs in an e-commerce environment.
This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.
Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars
This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions
Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili
Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity
Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun
In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.
Shona Leitch; Matthew Warren
Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Com...
E- commerce as a manufacturing marketing support. E-commerce very support in raise, development for manufacturing. E-commerce will give a proper to management in a labor to do of process. Between labor, e-commerce is very support marketing in manufacturing to get income, because it can change of service. A time ago the consumer came and bought at a manufacturing but now the consumer canon line every time, everywhere they can make a transaction.Consumer can see the all activities and produc...
Dewi, Lydia Mutiara
Internet has been a maior tool of communication in this globalized world since these two decades. This tool can be used for many purposes so that one can fulfill interests and necessities. One purpose that arises within this virtual world is E-Commerce. lf this one implements worldwide virtual commerce correctly, E-Commerce will provide benefits for its users, E-Merchant and E-Customer. Thus, one should understand how this electronic commerce works so that one does not suffer a financial loss...
The project captured additional functional and technical requirements for collaboration and exchange in the electronics industry's value chain, and refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements...
Electronic commerce as a new field of application of internet technology was started in North America 1994. The developing speed of e-commerce has proved to be successful in the commercial world. Moreover, Chinese e-commerce as late comer also has shown its great potential in all the IT related-industries. This thesis focuses on the development of the Chinese e-commerce over recent years. The data for conducting the thesis are collected from the primary sources like company reports, newsp...
In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)
Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine
This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...
Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.
The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)
... Infrastructure (PKI) technology to support electronic commerce between the USPTO and its customers. PKI is a set... security for its electronic commerce systems, the USPTO uses PKI technology to protect the integrity and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...
Full Text Available The evolution of hypermedia space and growing saturation of the market with mobile devices, an increasing role of Big Data, which allow for multidimensional analysis of data from offline and online markets, growing popularization of solutions of Market Intelligence supported by Cloud Computing technology as well as development of potential and opportunities of adapting the Artificial Intelligence (AI and Internet of Things (IoT in commerce cause that customers and their experience become a major point of activity of companies/brands. Shopping experience of a buyer is an effect of multiple and multidimensional contacts, often conducted simultaneously in many channels and in the real time. It forces an increasingly growing number of challenges that companies/brands are presented with if they want to optimize a space of customer journey and have to ensure continuity, coherence and complexity of experiences for their customers. Searching or creating these benefits that customers expect and their constant development becomes a prerequisite in this situation so that variety of positive experiences resulting in customer satisfaction and happiness could be guaranteed.
The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738.3 Section 738.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a) Scope...
Rezarta Zhaku - Hani
Full Text Available Thanks to e-commerce it has never been easier to conduct business throughout the world and it has never been timelier enriching international customers. E-commerce is also an incurable tool for new businesses as it allows them to rapidly broaden their customers, interact with customers in businesses throughout the world, an inexpensive market and advertise the company worldwide. In the other hand the impact of GDP, positive or negative, is a very important one for the revenue of organizations within a country. Given the fact that e-commerce has become a very profitable way to conduct business and GDP is another important factor for organizations, we have decided through this paper to analyze their impact on the revenue of one of the biggest mobile operators in Macedonia called “ONE”. At the end of the research we will be able to show whether investing in e-commerce has been profitable for the Macedonian mobile operator “ONE”.
De Mesnard, Louis
On the traditional micro-economic theory, firms are supposed to maximise pure profit. We study what happened when we take into consideration shareholders and the financial profit remunerating the financial capital. We show that it is necessary to surrender the financial profit maximisation to use the rate of financial profit maximisation. The cases of concurrence with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with variable coefficient of capital are studie...
Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich
Full Text Available Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and methodological approach to profit management of organization is offered: its application is connected with revision of acting control system of enterprise profit on the basis of assessing the initial condition of profit, planning the demanded profit level, periodical monitoring condition of planned values on profit, and also adoption of flexible administrative decisions on reduction of deviations and increasing the efficiency of organization activity. The system of profit formation including corresponding income and expenses of organization is presented. Methods of revenue planning are characterized. The characteristics of income and expenses connected with non-operating operations and transactions is given. The essence of the main directions of using enterprise profit is revealed. Need of application of author’s technique of management of profit of organization taking into account influence of external and internal factors is proved. The universal purpose of management of profit of organization and a task providing achievement of the goal are formulated . Tools of assessment efficiency of the system of formation and use of profit which is actually created in organization are offered. The methodical approach to planning of profit allowing to increase efficiency of activity of organization is presented. The mechanism of an assessment deviations of planned indicators of effective management of profit from actual and adoptions of correcting decisions on
Penttinen, M. email: email@example.com; Mikkola, J. email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Rummukainen, A. email: email@example.com
The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in
Raaij, van E.M.
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...
Business schools began introducing electronic commerce programs in the late 1990s at unprecedented rates. In this study, the author examined the evolution in electronic commerce programs offered by AACSB-accredited colleges and universities from 2001 to 2005. Although these programs are declining in number, they provide the necessary skills and…
Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)
To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Electronic Commerce - What is E-Commerce? V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 13-23 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology, JNCASR, Bangalore 560 064, India.
Lower transaction costs and improved management of customer and supplier ... To provide a geographic context to the Pan Asia e-commerce initiative, it is ... The second model uses a private application service provider (ASP) to handle the ... As an inaugural activity, a regional e-commerce training workshop was held in ...
Larisa Antonia CAPISIZU
Full Text Available The discovery of a new form of communication between people, the Internet, was a premise of commerce development. The emergence of a new form of economic relation manifestation, e-commerce, led to important changes in the sphere of legal regulation. The need for these changes derives from the global and complex nature of the Internet.
Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis
Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…
Palmer, Gina Adams
This follow-up to a December 2000 article provides more details on Stanford University's venture into the "sell-side" of e-commerce, then describes another "sell-side" success story at the University of Wisconsin. Madison. Discusses experiences on the "buy-side" of e-commerce at the Massachusetts Institute of…
Sexton, Randall S.; Johnson, Richard A.; Hignite, Michael A.
Describes a study that analyzed variables in order to identify accurate predictors of individuals' use of the Internet and e-commerce. Results of survey research and a neural network identifies gender, overall computer use, job-related use, and home access as important characteristics that should influence use of the Internet and e-commerce.…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Electronic Commerce - E-Commerce System Architecture. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 26-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a debtor's wages? 19.13 Section 19.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To...
Key words: intrinsic rewards, intrinsic work motivation, non-profit sector, retention, ..... The process of informed consent was explained in both the e-mail and ..... from working, which causes a positive cycle of emotions whereby their desire to.
Robertson, W. Brett
For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…
Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten
Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...
Maksimenko, Pavel; Hokkanen, Hannu
The idea of the thesis is to give a good insight on how to make a microenterprise profitable from marketing and networking points of view and explain the basic steps that are needed to be taken when establishing a company. We took the company Maks Investment & Consulting Group Oy (MIC Group), which is approximately one year old consulting firm, as a case study. The company was studied very carefully from the very beginning of its operations. Business plan of MIC Group was also studied in orde...
Full Text Available One key to the success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is the availability of a clear market for the products. Meanwhile, the fundamental weaknesses faced by SMEs in marketing are low market orientation, weakness in a complex and sharp competition and inadequate marketing infrastructure. Faced with an increasingly open market mechanisms and competitive, market control is prerequisite for improving competitiveness. Therefore, expansion of market access with Web-based Information Technology is now needed as a medium for global communication. One thing that gives a competitive advantage in international trade competition is information technology of electronic commerce or e-commerce. This paper shows the important role of e-commerce for SMEs in Indonesia and how to model the development of e-commerce. This paper intends to show the important role of e-commerce for SMEs in Indonesia and how to model the development of ecommerce.
Pour mieux profiter des avantages commerciaux : le Réseau latino-américain sur le commerce. July 13, 2011. Image. Kevin Conway. Éloigner les menaces et maximiser les possibilités : voilà le mantra des négociateurs commerciaux de par le monde. Pour que la stratégie réussisse, toutefois, les négociateurs et leurs ...
The invocation of World Wide Web (www) first triggered mass adoption of the Internet for public access to digital information exchanges across the globe. To get a big market on the Web, a special security infrastructure would need to be put into place transforming the wild-and-woolly Internet into a network with end-to-end protections. XML (extensible Markup Language) is widely accepted as powerful data representation standard for electronic documents, so a security mechanism for XML documents must be provided in the first place to secure electronic commerce over Internet. In this paper the authors design and implement a secure framework that provides XML signature function, XML Element-wise Encryption function, smart card based crypto API library and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security functions to achieve confidentiality, integrity, message authentication, and/or signer authentication services for XML documents and existing non-XML documents that are exchanged by Internet for E-commerce application.
Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the mo...
Wariati, Ambar; Irma Susanti, Nani
Thisstudy is to findout how legal protection forconsumers ine-commerce is. When consumers harm-ed in e-commerce remedy what can be done by consumers and how should the model of consumerprotection in e-commerce.This research is a normative-empirical, the research by reviewing legislation related to the problem and empirical research to gather information in the field with observations, distribute question-naires and interviews to the competent authorities to the problems examined.H Results of ...
Full Text Available Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the most common online crimes are analyzed and practical guidelines to achieving trust in the online environment are provided.
Martins, Daniel Jorge Ribeiro Nunes
Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Eléctrica e Electrónica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Universidade do Algarve, 2016 Eletronic commerce, know as e-commerce, is a system that consists in buying and selling produtcs/services over the internet. The internet is used by millions of people, making the management of the available information (e.g. competitor analysis market) a very difficult task for those operationg an e-commerce business. So that the managers can better posi...
Full Text Available In this paper, bibliometric (co-citation analysis and social network analysis techniques are used to investigate the intellectual pillars of the electronic commerce literature as reported in SSCI and SCI journals between 2002 and 2006. By analyzing 22,760 citations of 840 articles, this study maps an invisible network of knowledge of electronic commerce studies. The results of the mapping can help identify the research direction of electronic commerce research and provide a valuable tool for researchers to access the literature in this area.
Corbitso, Kenneth; Ash, Thomas; Pisone, Neil
The convergence of traditional and electronic commerce practices is being driven by the need for businesses to keep up with the ever increasing competition of online retailing. This thesis aims to examine and analyze the possible benefits that may arise via the use and development of rapidly evolving mobile technology, through analyzing the benefits of each of the forms of commerce during outlined stages of retail process, in order to evaluate to what extend the benefits can be combined. The ...
范国闯; 刘庆文; 李京; 钟华
The B2B (Business-to-Business)e-commerce framework solves the key problem-interoperability between enterprise during e-commerce transactions.Firstly,this paper presents several key factors of B2B e-commerce framework by analyzing the role of frameworks.Moreover,this paper analyzeds and compares several international popular B2B frameworks from from the point of view of these factors.Finally,this paper proposes the design principles,objectives and e-commerce transaction language of cnXML (Chiese e-Commerce XML)frameworks.
Full Text Available Considering the contradictions between the electronic commerce (e-commerce and its matching express delivery service, this paper investigates a supply chain regarding e-commerce and express delivery industry, in which collaborative operations of enterprises are discussed. The profitability and collaboration capability acting as order parameters and the rest of the influential resources including logistics, fund, information, and commodity are selected with their interrelations being examined based on servo theory of synergetics. Besides, evolutionary model of the e-commerce and express delivery industry is established and analyzed according to self-organization method of system dynamic theory to illustrate order parameters’ role in system evolution, and numerical analyses emerged to intuitively demonstrate the solutions. We conclude the work along with its results of significant references for investigating resource integrations by combining the two closely related businesses in an entire cooperative supply chain and providing guidelines for e-commerce and express delivery enterprises and industries in effective collaboration and system evolution.
Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian
This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.
Compliance Support Division of Standards Division of Inspectorate National Standards Laboratory Consumer Strategies Investment Reports Documents Annual Reports Trade Reports Laws FAQS IMPORTS & EXPORTS Exports Registry Consumer Education Info The Liberia Chamber of Commerce Liberia Business Forum Photo Gallery Photo
.... A major strategic business assumption underlying the modeling process is that worldwide B2B e-commerce will continue to grow at aggressive rates through 2003, when e-business becomes the predominant...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
e-commerce possible are: html (hyper text markup language), XML (extensible markup .... Standard word processor outputs can be converted to ..... various types of transactions between organizations and it requires an expert to understand.
Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.
Helander, M G; Khalid, H M
This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.
E-activity is growing as coal industry producers and suppliers map out the most useful routes to the digital marketplace. The paper analyses the development of E-commerce in mining and coal industry. 2 figs.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Control List (CCL) structure. 738.2 Section 738.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Part 1352 [Document Number: 080730954-0129-03] RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction AGENCY: Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: We, the Department of Commerce, issue a final rule to bring the Commerce Acquisition...
Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias
potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...... expectations they had when investing in these markets, (2) which challenges they faced there, and (3) how they subsequently addressed them. By tracing and comparing these investments and their consequences over time (and space), we hope to shed more light on managerial decisions and understand to what extent...
While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well
Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin
There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.
Osama M. Rababah; Muhannad Al-Shboul; Rizik Al-Sayyed
Quality has been established as a key factor in ensuring the success of E-commerce in attracting and retaining customers. To help in this, numerous software metrics and website quality models have been developed, with a correspondingly large literature. We provide a critical review of this literature and the state-of-the-art. Most of the wide ranges of E-commerce website evaluation models give emphasis on the web applications of the system, using techniques like feature inspection and collect...
Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.
The rapid growth of Internet usage and electronic commerce(e-commerce) applica t ions will push traditional industries to transform their business models and to re-engineer their information systems. This direction will give the software in d ustry either great opportunities for their business growth or crucial challenges to their existence. This article describes two essential challenges the softwar e industry will face and presents relevant new technologies that will be helpful for overcoming those challenges.
,SH,MH, Triana Sofiani
The dynamism of global economy followed by the development of sophisticated information technology, has changed the business transaction model. Former business transactions have been done in traditional model, but the trends of modern business utilize the virtual world that is well known as e-commerce. E-commerce becomes one of contemporary problems in Islamic economic points of view due to: (1) the buyer and seller do not physically meet each other; (2) the absence of object of transaction w...
I Gusti Ngurah Indra Saputra; Gusti Made Arya Sasmita; Anak Agung Ketut Agung Cahyawan Wiranatha
E-commerce is a remote goods or services transaction activity between two company (business to business) or between company with customers (business to consumer). Ecommerce was simplifying the transaction process between producers and consumers, butthere is a risk of security issue if doing transactions on e-commerce. A common e-commercesecurity system using another protocol security e.g. SSL (Secure Socket Layer) so these ecommerce security system is very dependent with these security protoc...
Die Arbeit nimmt sich der textuellen Dimension des E-Commerce an. Grundlegende Hypothese ist die textuelle Gebundenheit von Information und Transaktion im Bereich des elektronischen Handels. Überall dort, wo Produkte und Dienstleistungen angeboten, nachgefragt, wahrgenommen und bewertet werden, kommen natürlichsprachige Ausdrücke zum Einsatz. Daraus resultiert ist zum einen, wie bedeutsam es ist, die Varianz textueller Beschreibungen im E-Commerce zu erfassen, zum anderen können die umfangrei...
Nowadays development of telecommunication technologies set out to the development of internet. It can be said that everyone over the world use internet as communication media to communicate to everybody in every place in the world. Marketing management has to follow this development in satisfiying customers ' needs. Commercial business move from traditional commerce to e-commerce by usinginternet as world wide communication device. And so does marketing management change from local to global ...
R. M. Aileni; D. Farima; M. Ciocoiu
This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic . In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling g...
Metka Tekavcic; Mojca Marc
After the initial few years that witnessed the birth and first steps of e-commerce applications, this paper presents the present state of e-commerce in Slovenia. The EU accession process has brought many changes and challenges for companies in candidate countries Slovenia being among them including the use of e-business technology. The vast majority of Slovenian companies have been increasingly recognizing the need to operate electronically. However, most companies are still at the beginning ...
To day, For the part of corporation, e-commerce bot merely buy and sell product according to online, on the contrary, e-commerce cover entire process from developments, marketing, sale, delivery, service, and payment to various product and service, buy in base global network customers, with support from network business partners throughout world. in this article be discussed about sisitem e-comerce will base on internet resource and many another information technology to support every step fr...
Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.
Valentin LITOIU; Amelia BADICA; Cristian ETEGAN
This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.
The thesis studies about business ethics generally and business ethics implementation in E-commerce particularly. The main objective of the thesis is to explore how ethics is implemented in electronic business, hence research problems are those following: which kinds of ethical issues organizations have to deal with when doing online commerce; what are opportunities and challenges regards to ethics they have and how they manage them. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects from organization...
Full Text Available Le tourisme dit « sexuel » est aujourd’hui décrié comme une forme de tourisme international immoral, un dysfonctionnement grave de la mondialisation appelant une réaction politique contre « l’exploitation sexuelle » dont seraient victimes des millions de femmes et d’enfants. Pourtant, derrière l’apparente évidence du « tourisme sexuel » comme expression de sens commun, rares sont les enquêtes qui explicitent la réalité concrète des échanges prostitutionnels. En adoptant une démarche ethnographique, l’article décrit le fonctionnement de Patpong, un quartier rouge de Bangkok dédié à une clientèle internationale. Par la description des offres disponibles, des revenus générés, des codes et des pratiques, la complexité de l’espace réapparaît. Il s’agit de donner à voir la réalité des échanges pour interroger l’articulation entre commerce et sexualité. L’analyse ethnographique du tourisme sexuel permet ainsi de souligner la diversité des pratiques et de rappeler que les formes les plus visibles — et les plus commentées — d’échanges prostitutionnels éclipsent trop souvent une pluralité d’expériences qui participe pourtant au succès de ces ruelles mondialement connues. So-called sex tourism is condemned as an immoral form of international tourism, a serious failure of globalization requiring political action against the “sexual exploitation” suffered by millions of women and children. Yet behind the common and seemingly evident understanding of “sexual tourism,” few studies have focused on the actual reality of such relations. Based on an ethnographic study, this article presents the structure of Patpong, a red-light district of Bangkok dedicated to international tourism. First, the article aims to briefly present the historical development of Patpong. This peculiar space is intrinsically linked to sex tourism, as these world-renowned streets expanded since the mid-60s to
Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.
Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A
We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cleverley, W O
Measures of marginal profit are derived for the two payment classes--cost payers and charge payers--that the hospital industry must consider in profitability analysis, i.e., prediction of the excess of revenue over expenses. Two indexes of profitability, use when payment mix is constant and when it is nonconstant, respectively, are derived from the two marginal profit measures, and one of them is shown to be a modification of the contribution margin, the conventional measure of profitability used in general industry. All three measures--the contribution margin and the two new indexes of profitability--are used to estimate changes in net income resulting from changes in patient volume with and without accompanying changes in payment mix. The conventional measure yields large overestimates of expected excess revenue. PMID:632101
Sioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics (MEE), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
E-commerce and e-business are now part of the lexicon of modern business everywhere. The energy industry is no exception, although it is somewhat of a latecomer to the field, trailing a number of others. This article, which is based on a multi-client study titled 'E-commerce in the Energy Sector', is focused on the business applications of e-commerce in the energy sector, broadly defined to include oil, electricity, and natural gas industries. The study was conducted by Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) in collaboration with Global Business Network (GBN). (orig.) [German] E-commerce und E-business gehoeren heute im Geschaeftsleben zum guten Ton. Obwohl ein Nachzuegler auf diesem Gebiet, macht die Energiewirtschaft hier keine Ausnahme. Der Artikel, der auf einer von Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) und Global Business Network (GBN) durchgefuehrten Studie zum Thema 'E-commerce im Energie-Sektor' beruht, beschreibt die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten fuer E-commerce im Energie-Sektor worunter hier Oel-, Elektrizitaets- und Erdgaswirtschaft zu verstehen sind. (orig.)
Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)
Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)
Kenkel, P J
Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.
Cheng, Yinglin; Huang, Yating
This paper examines the variables that affect bank profitability. We construct a sample of US banks from 2003 to 2015, and use return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) to measure bank profitability. We find that banks with higher profitability are the banks that have: (1) a higher deposits to total asset ratio, (2) a higher diversification ratio, and (3) higher operational efficiency. We also find that better-capitalized banks tend to be more profitable only when we use ROA as the me...
Hao Jiao; Yupei Wang; Hongjun Xiao; Jianghua Zhou; Wensi Zeng
Building on a case study of three animation companies in the Chinese cultural and creative industry, this study aims to understand how profit model innovation is promoted. Due to the rapidly changing environments and resource scarcity, cultural and creative companies need to select the appropriate profit model according to their own key resources. The study uncovers two critical factors that promote profit model innovation in animation projects: the quantity of consumers and their consumption...
Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming
Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.
Jeppesen, Lars Bo
Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...
Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.
In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to
Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)
Nussbaum, Martha C.
Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)
textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if
Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.
We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the
Waters, John K.
The for-profit sector of higher education has generated some disturbing headlines recently. Widely publicized charges of predatory recruiting practices have prompted new regulations and provided fuel for scorching criticism of the entire business model. But while the spotlight is focused on what for-profits are doing wrong, are people overlooking…
Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta
We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.
Gielen, A. C.
This article investigates whether paying a profit-related wage stimulates training investments. The results point to increased worker effort and wage flexibility as two channels through which profit sharing enhances investments in training. While both effects are found for young workers, for older
Full Text Available Prospective customers of financial and insurance products can be targeted based on the profit the provider expects to earn from them. We present a model for individual expected profit and two alternatives for calculating optimal personalized prices that maximize the expected profit. For one of these alternatives, we obtain a closed-form expression for the price offered to each prospective customer; for the other, we need to use a numerical approximation. In both approaches, the profits generated by prospective customers are not immediately observed, given that the products sold by these companies have a risk component. We assume that willingness to pay is heterogeneous and apply our methodology using real data from a European insurance company. Our study indicates that a substantial boost in profits can be expected when applying the simplest optimal pricing method proposed.
Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A
Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.
Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.
Koch, Carsten Allan
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....
Full Text Available Volunteer work constitutes an important input into the activities of non-profit institutions. However, in the core system of national accounts, volunteering falls outside the production boundary even if it leads to the production of services. By doing so, national accounts inevitably underestimates the contribution of non-profit institutions to the well-being. This shortcoming is overcome by the Satellite Account of Non-profit Institutions complementing and extending the concept of national accounts chiefly by incorporation of the value of volunteering and by full coverage of non-profit institutions classified in a number of economic sectors. This paper is an attempt to address the key issue that is the way of volunteer work´s valuation for analytical purposes. We will discuss different approaches to the valuation and their impact on key macroeconomic aggregates.
Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel
The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.
Full Text Available Recently there has been a surge in research projects on how small and medium enterprises (SMEs use E-Commerce/E-Business for business purposes. These include a mixture of academic, industry and government studies. The outcomes have presented a mixed message. While there are anecdotal success stories, SMEs found their E-Commerce/E-Business endeavours successful to a point but face difficulties in achieving many speculations portrayed by the media and visionaries. In this paper, I try to address the issue based on published works in the domain of E-Commerce/E-Business adoption among SMEs. The answer may lie in a more refined research strategy and consolidation of research outcomes. Lessons from EDI adoption might be useful to formulate impetus to further adoption.
Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten; Dholakia, Ruby
-Pacific - and highlights several countries from each region. These countries are significant because of their large existing base of mobile telecom users, their future potential, their innovativeness in mobile telecom technology development, and their leadership in launching new mobile applications. M-Commerce: Global...... Experiences and Perspectives contains chapters from authors of many countries, and while each chapter examines a specific country in-depth, all the chapters use a common integrative framework called the CLIP (communications, locatability, information provision, and payment processing) application......M-Commerce: Global Experiences and Perspectives focuses on the emerging growth of mobile telecommunications and mobile commerce around the world. To provide a global perspective, this book describes approaches from three major regions of the world - North America, Europe, and Asia...
Full Text Available This article shows the role of electronic commerce in the digital economy, where information is the main resource. Internet, information society technology vector, made possible transition to a knowledge society at the beginning of XXI century. New economy involves transition from a traditional economy based on resources, to a knowledge-based economy. The development of information technology leads to major changes in the economic and social fields. In a world of globalization, e-commerce, part of the information society, manages to eliminate geographical barriers between participants at economic transactions. I presented e-commerce history, definitions. I pointed out the importance of this sector at european level by quantification of indicators. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.
PHILIPP A. ANTIPIN
The article discusses the use of information technologies and possibilities provided by the Internet in commerce. The global and European experience of omni-channel sales is discussed. The prospects and conditions of the development of e-commerce and omni-channel sales are identified.
Ballenger, Robert M.
This case provides a real-world semester long project-oriented case study for students enrolled in an electronic commerce course that has a significant development component. The case provides the technical framework in the form of functional requirements for students to design and build a fully functional transaction processing e-commerce Web…
Bhattacharjee, Amit; Dana, Jason; Baron, Jonathan
Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs . Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U.S. firms and industries. Study 3 shows that hypothetical organizations are seen as doing more harm when they are labeled "for-profit" rather than "non-profit," while Study 4 shows that increasing harm to society is viewed as a strategy for increasing a hypothetical firm's long-run profitability. Studies 5-7 demonstrate that carefully prompting subjects to consider the long run incentives of profit can attenuate anti-profit beliefs, while prompting short run thinking does nothing relative to a control. Together, these results suggest that the default view of profits is zero-sum. While people readily grasp how profit can incentivize firms to engage in practices that harm others, they neglect how it can incentivize firms to engage in practices that benefit others. Accordingly, people's stereotypes of profit-seeking firms are excessively negative. Even in one of the most market-oriented societies in history, people doubt the contributions of profit-seeking industry to societal progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Pogorelova, E. V.; Yakhneeva, I. V.; Agafonova, A. N.; Prokubovskaya, A. O.
The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the elements of the marketing mix in e-commerce in accordance with the trend of e-business and Internet technology. The leading approach to the study of th...
Shen, Jiajie; Cheng, Xianyi
As the commodities of e-commerce are more and more rich, more and more consumers are willing to choose online shopping, because of these rich varieties of commodity information, customers will often appear aesthetic fatigue. Therefore, we need a recommendation algorithm according to the recent behavior of customers including browsing and consuming to predicate and intelligently recommend goods which the customers need, thus to improve the satisfaction of customers and to increase the profit of e-commerce. This paper first discusses recommendation algorithm, then improves Apriori. Finally, using R language realizes a recommendation algorithm of commodities. The result shows that this algorithm provides a certain decision-making role for customers to buy commodities.
There are two roadmaps of accomplishing exhibition electronic-commerce innovation and development. The first roadmap is that the exhibition organizers should seek mutual benefit cooperation with professional electronic-commerce platform of correspondent area with exhibition projects, thus help exhibitors realize their market object. The second roadmap is to promote innovation and development of electronic-commerce (Business-to-Customer) between both exhibitors and purchasers. Exhibition electronic-commerce must focus on innovative development in the following functions: market research and information service; advertising and business negotiation; online trading and online payment. With the aid of electronic-commerce, exhibition enterprise could have distinctive strengths such as transactions with virtualization, transparency, high efficiency and low cost, enhancing market link during enterprise research and development, promoting the efficiency of internal team collaboration and the individuation of external service, and optimizing resource allocation.
Full Text Available ABSTRAK E-commerce berevolusi dengan mengadopsi web 2.0 yang mempunyai kapabilitas meningkatkan partisipasi pelanggan dan meningkatkan nilai ekonomi. Fenomena baru ini dikenal dengan istilah social commerce (s-commerce. Kualitas website dipengaruhi tiga hal yaitu kulitas system (system quality, kualitas layanan(service quality dan kualitas informasi (information quality. Kualitas pelayanan yang baik dapat membantu pengguna mendapatkan kekuatan penuh dari website dengan cara mencocokan dengan harapan mereka. Kualitas informasi menunjukkan sejauh mana isi dari website tersebut tepat waktu (up date, akurat, dan lengkap.Penelitian ini bersifat empirik dengan menerapkan model kualitas website pada dua s-commerce yaitu tokopedia.com dan lazada.co.id. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisa sistemmatis, perbandingan dan observasi. Dari model yang diterapkan didapat hasil bahwa tokopedia memiliki lebih banyak atribut-atribut kualitas website. Kata kunci: s-commerce, kualitas web site, system, service, informasi.
Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen
By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.
Full Text Available Under the Internet thinking, manufacturing management mode is changed, it is not depend on the scale, but in the user as the center, more dependent on the reaction rate of user requirements. As the big data, cloud computing, Internet of things technology such as the development of technology, manufacturing is from automatic to intelligent evolution, on the user's personalized customization is possible. Using Internet thinking positive development manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application mode of transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry plays an important role. Promoting the continued ascent of manufacturing industry informatization level, promote the transformation of the manufacturing production mode, provide greater profit space for the export of products. In industrial 4.0 mode, the user is the core of the enterprise, C2B model will be the mainstream of future manufacturing e-commerce application mode. This paper to present the sorted out the basic model of manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application, point out the existing problems, and the computing technology, communication technology, the constant development of storage technology, such as background, puts forward the corresponding countermeasure, points out that the C2B model is the development direction of manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application mode.
Villadoniga, J. I.; Perez, O.; Gonzalez, F.
In many human activities the levers to improve behaviors are hidden from the position where the situation to improve is acknowledged. This is the case of key behaviors needed to deal directly with the behaviors to improve but, to be successful, there is a need to act on higher order elements such as culture and leadership. (Author)
Full Text Available The concept of quality control has been widely used in companies for the fulfillment of customer satisfaction on products produced. Loss of customers due to in appropriate quality standards are important avoided by the company. This study aims to establish quality control information system e-Commerce in the diagram view map control. In this study, it is used Statistic Process Control (SPC method. In the early stages, e-Commerce is assumed to have met with quality variable of EWAM method. Transaction visitation opportunities at a certain period used as a parameter of quality, and is called extensibility. The visitation data were collected by web traffic and applications and transaction data that occur in e-Commerce. Waterfall model approach was used in the prototype development process. The results of this study was the extensibility of e-Commerce information system. Automation of data collection occurs in real time information system, so that the e-Commerce extensibility statements can be continuously monitored. Analysis of results displayed by the control chart suggested that a sustain effort in the control of extensibility can provide benefits in an effort to retain customers while management can use number of extensibility variable in increasing profitability of the company or the consideration of using e -Commerce. Completion of e-Commerce extensibility can gradually be increased through the reduction of extensibility variation, while the improvement of extensibility relies on the reparation of e-Commerce systems associated with EWAM variable.Keywords : E-Commerce; Web traffic; Extensibility; Quality control; Automation
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended, an employee engaged in “trade commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication” between any State and...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Department of Commerce Business Forum AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce... Commerce (DOC) is seeking vendors that currently conduct business with, or have previously conducted business with or hope to conduct business with DOC. Interested parties are asked to offer comments on the...
Watson, Susan; Nwoha, Ogbonnaya John; Kennedy, Gary A.; Rea, Kenneth
The probability of a business paying for an e-commerce presence ultimately depends on demographic features, experiences with e-commerce, technological expertise, and knowledge of e-commerce opportunities and limitations. Results allow for the assignment of probabilities associated with various business profiles to determine the willingness to pay for an e-commerce presence.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.108 Goods produced for commerce. Goods are “produced for commerce” if they are “produced, manufactured, mined, handled or...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... foreign commerce or (b) in the production of goods for such commerce, which is defined to include any...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate or foreign commerce... commerce. (a) Nature of commerce: type, means, and extent of use. The types of commercial use of a waterway... transportation of commerce which is the determinative factor, and not the time, extent or manner of that use. As...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting, room location change. SUMMARY: This notice announces a change in the room location of a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management...
Chandra Wibowo Widhianto
Full Text Available Article explain how to business through internet which are web business clarification, strategy effect, how to make profit, and business electronic changes consist of criptografy, EDI, signature, digital notarisation, file, payment, and how to get succes in internet business.
Pogorelova, Elena V.; Yakhneeva, Irina V.; Agafonova, Anna N.; Prokubovskaya, Alla O.
The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the…
Education & Training, 2002
Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…
In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.
To address the economy's growing reliance on international business, San Diego State University has recently introduced a program in international commerce. The program was developed by packaging coursework in three existing areas: business administration, language training, and area studies. Although still in its infancy, the international…
Darch, Helen; Lucas, Trevor
An investigation into lack of skills and awareness as barriers to the use of electronic commerce by 20 small- to medium enterprises within the food industry in Queensland, Australia, found that lack of knowledge and technical skills and structural issues are barriers. A range of training and development strategies are needed. (Contains 20…
... and members of their immediate family (spouses, children, siblings, parents), and persons living in... SUCH LOSS, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE.... 15. 508 Compliance: Participants should keep in mind that the Department of Commerce considers...
Alin Daniel MUNTEANU
Among the many potential benefits of electronic commerce include lower prices, access to a wider range of goods, development of innovative services and creating jobs. Online purchases represent about 3% of European retail trade. But the development of uniform electronic markets still face numerous obstacles.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1215.4 Section 1215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.4...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1209.2 Section 1209.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...
Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…
McConnell, M.S. [ENRON Global Markets, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)
18 overheads/viewgraphs outline the presentation which traces the growth in e-commerce in coal in the US and worldwide. It discusses current online products and the production cost of 'E' coal. Business conducted by EnronOnline is described.
Dr. William R. Lucas, Marshall's fourth Center Director (1974-1986), delivers a speech in front of a picture of the lunar landscape with Earth looming in the background while attending a Huntsville Chamber of Commerce reception honoring his achievements as Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Stroeken, J.H.M.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Hawkins, R.
Het doel van de studie is het verschaffen van inzicht in de effecten van e-commerce in de Nederlandse banksector. Elektronische transactie omgevingen als zodanig zijn niet nieuw voor banken, en financiële dienstverlening heeft altijd al te maken gehad met intermediëring door elektronische netwerken.
Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, â€œis C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?â€ This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...
For many years, Slovnaft used the movement of the price of Brent crude as an argument to explain the movement of its prices. It assumed the price of Urals crude would follow the Brent crude price after a short period. It was still using this argument in 2002. Urals crude was for a long period about 2 USD per barrel (159 l) cheaper than Brent. But over recent last months, the price difference between Brent crude and Ural crude has been increasing. According to the pricing policy, customers of Hungarian-owned MOL/Slovnaft might expect fuel prices to fall. But this did not happen. Slovnaft no longer uses Brent prices to justify its prices and focuses on the development of the FOB Rotterdam fuel market. When prices increase on the FOB Rotterdam fuel market, refineries in neighbouring regions export oil to this market. And in order to maintain stability on the market, other refineries also increase their prices. Slovnaft benefits not only from cheaper Russian oil but also from the major investments it made in the past. While other refineries use distillation residues to produce cheaper heavy heating oils, Slovnaft is able to convert such residues into fuel. And this also has an economic impact. B. Kelemen admits that it will be mainly shareholders who benefit from these developments.It is not only rising oil prices that have been noticeable recently, but also the lack of investment in the oil industry. The capacity of Russian pipelines, tankers and the processing capacity of refineries has been insufficient for some time. Whereas fuel consumption is growing year after year. Preliminary calculations indicate the oil industry needs to invest about 700 bill. USD and investors expect a return, according to B. Kelemen, of 10 to 17%. The closest competitors of Slovnaft will have to invest in desulphurization and the processing of heavy residues. And so Slovnaft can look forward to very profitable years. The same cannot be said of its customers. Slovnaft is set to publish
M.Sc. (Computer Science) The terms "Electronic Commerce" and "Internet Commerce" are often used interchangeably to mean similar processes. By definition, electronic commerce (e-commerce) means any exchange of information that occurs electronically. There are various types of electronic commerce transactions to name a few; electronic data interchange (EDI), fax, electronic funds transfer, interorganisational systems, technical data and document exchange, customer credit approval systems, in...
Verbovskii, Vladislav; Kosov, Vladimir; Chaika (Chayka), Yuliya Aleksandrovna
The article describes five useful things that Chamber of Commerce and Industry membership may give to business owners after joining it. These things are the reasons to become a part of business community formed by Chambers of Commerce that may be considered by those business owner who are deciding whether to join Chamber of Commerce or not. Mentioned reasons are given with examples related to Tomsk Chamber of Commerce and Industry and are relevant to any Chamber of Commerce located in Russian...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.237 Section 779.237 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered must...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.22 Section 779.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions...
... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.404-4 Profit. (a) DOI's policy is to use a... also refer to the Armed Services Pricing Manual (ASPM No. 1). The “Other Costs” factor shall include...
Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ... terms of cost control, in the sense that marketing ... internal accounting system which allows for an ..... information and advice, and the effects of such.
The main objectives of this study were to analyze the profitability of projects of methanization, and to identify factors which curb or favour their profitability. It is based on a detailed analysis of the investment and of the profitability of 50 sites of different sizes and at different stages of progress (from the feasibility study to few months of operation), and also of experiences in three neighbour countries (Germany, Switzerland and Belgium). First, the study highlights the importance of investment costs in the biogas production global cost, notably with respect to current German prices. Then, it comments the impact of subsidies on facility profitability. It proposes ways to improve public support to the different energetic vectors produced from biogas: electricity, biomethane, and heat
... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4 Profit. (c)(4)(i) Contracting officer...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of the...
Full Text Available This work involves identification of causes of different profitability of agricultural sector done on case study of nearly identical agricultural enterprises. It shows that financial mix even in scope of similar companies can lead to various profit indicators. Through comparative financial analysis in the same industry and activity by applying methods and techniques we have concluded that company PP Ratkovo operates more stable and closer to determined norms and also shows better results in majority of the indicators. Horizontal and vertical analysis indicates that companies in Agribusiness partner group use expensive external sources of financing. We have precisely defined in which cost segment occurs highest distinction. Also we have shown reasons why PP Ratkovo in the last two years manifests great profitability measured by ebit, ebitda and net profit as well as excellent structure of material costs and wages costs in in frame of the operating income, and reasons why enterprises in Agribusiness partner group does not.
..., unusual contingency provisions, or other risk-reducing measures, the amount of profit shall be less than... contribute to successful results. Conversely, the Contracting Officer shall view failure or unwillingness on...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use
Bordeleau, Etienne; Graham, Christopher
The recent crisis has underlined the importance of sound bank liquidity management. In response, regulators are devising new liquidity standards with the aim of making the financial system more stable and resilient. In this paper, the authors analyse the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of large U.S. and Canadian banks. Results suggest that profitability is improved for banks that hold some liquid assets, however, there is a point at which holding further liq...
Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich
Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and...
MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM
Full Text Available This study has as main objective the presentation of the current state of knowledge regarding the profit and loss account as part of the financial statements which express in absolute value the profitability of companies and the empirical analysis of these concepts based on the information submitted by OMV Petrom between 2011 and 2015. Thus, in the first part we present several approaches from the specialized literature regarding the aspects mentioned above. The second part follows a vertical and horizontal analysis of key indicators used for measuring the absolute return. For the horizontal analysis we pursued the evolution in time of the following indicators: Gross Margin, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT, Financial Result, Gross and Net Result. The vertical analysis aimed to explain the formation of the Gross Result via EBIT (which was also analyzed through the Gross Margin and other specific elements and of the Financial Result (which was also analyzed through the different types of financial income and expenses. The results of the study revealed problems of profitability in the years 2014 and 2015 which, in our opinion, can be attributed to poor management of the commercial activity, exploration activity (research and development, distribution and financial activity.
Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun
We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.
Full Text Available Every company has a different structure of balance sheet. Some of the companies have more liabilities than equity. Considering the industry or debt-to-equity ratio, the balance sheet structure affects the company profitability measured by DuPont system. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the structure of balance sheet and to identify some optimal levels in order to increase company profitability. The DuPont returns like ROA (return on assets and ROE (return on equity will be used to measure the company profitability, while the debt-to-equity ratio will be used as a measure (reflection of capital structure. The samples consist on the most profitable non-financial companies ranked in Fortune Global 500. The companies will be grouped in clusters (based on industry or debt-to-equity ratio in order to identify the signification of the correlation between the profit and the balance sheet structure. The main results of the paper refer to the company profitability that can be increased by using an optimal structure of liabilities and equity.
Ewert P.J. Kleynhans
Full Text Available Orientation: The key obstacle hindering optimal profitability levels and competitiveness in firms in South Africa is the application of labour legislation policies and tools aimed at narrowing the income gap between different racial groups and resolving inequality amongst a diverse workforce. Research purpose: This article determined whether the implementation of a Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policy by companies has a positive effect on their growth in terms of profits and competitiveness. Motivation for the study: This study determined whether the implementation of BEE could be profitable for companies. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was undertaken in order to find empirical evidence supporting the relation between high BEE Scores, profitability and competitiveness. The empirical investigation utilised regression analysis, correlations and other methods, based on data between January 2009 and December 2011. The BEE Scorecard was used to obtain BEE scores of the top 50 BEE companies. Thereafter, the top 50 companies’ financial information was gathered from the Johannesburg Securities Exchange. Main findings: The implementation of BEE within companies has a positive effect on profitability, turnover and investment. Numerous factors have, however, been hindering,while other factors enhanced the success of BEE. Practical/managerial implications: The findings encourage mangers to engage in BEE as it may facilitate higher profits and indicates where labour legislation could be improved. Contribution/value-add: Value was added through new research determining the effects of BEE and labour legislation on profitability and competitiveness of firms on a micro-level.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one lump sum? 19.6 Section 19.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce...
Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe
Marktprognosen bescheinigen dem elektronischen Handel eine große Zukunft. Business-Transaktionen verändern sich rapide unter dem Einfluss elektronischer Kommunikationstechnologien. Wenngleich auch erwartet wird, dass sich Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce weltweit als erfolgreicher Vertriebs- und Kommunikationskanal etablieren wird, stößt E-Commerce derzeit noch nicht auf die erhoffte Akzeptanz in breiten Konsumentenschichten. Dies hängt nicht zuletzt mit der Verbreitung des Internet zusammen, ...
Amca, Hasan; Jönsson, Anders
E-business in general and e-commerce in particular is changing the way people do business and sell their product and services to the entire world without the need of physically existing around the globe. As enterprises exploit business opportunities via the Internet, they have discovered that not only they need a reliable and scalable IT infrastructure to support their online business, but also they must have the capability to deploy new online applications rapidly and integrate e-commerce to...
Full Text Available Internet use grew faster than any other technology in the last few years and it has a powerful impact on international commerce development. New opportunities appear for small and medium companies which use the internet to make commerce across the borders. Citizens save their time and money making payments on the internet, ordering goods and services using their home computers. With all this advantages, a wide variety of barriers show up and disturb the internet activity. Using the internet, companies can be affected by the losses of revenues, losses of information, security dates, reputation damage, interruption of activity, theft of private information, etc. To cover all this internet risks, insurers develop new products in order to meet all the company and citizens expectations.
Full Text Available One of the major problem with online shopping is finingd the right product, because finding the right product presumes that we know its name, but in most cases it is not so. For this reason the users need help in the process of online searching/shopping. Recommender systems have became a popular technique and strategy for helping users to select desirable products or services. In the past few years the recommender systems have changed from novelties used by a few big e-commerce sites, to serious business tools that are re-shaping the world of e-commerce. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the classification of recommendation systems based on technology used to create recommendations, and inputs they need from the customers. Furthermore we analyze a few algorithms used by recommender systems and we will also present some marketing recommender systems and their comparative analysis.
Liu, Albert Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T. K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance product appeal and website appeal as focal psychological mechanisms that can be invoked by business-to-consumer e-commerce sites to mitigate problems of information asymmetry via signaling to bolster consumers’ purchase intention under the influence...... product and website appeal. Trust is revealed to exert a moderating influence on the impact of product and website appeal on purchase intention. Practical implications: Practitioners should prioritize their resource allocation to enhance qualities most pertinent to product and website appeal. E...... of trust. Design/methodology/approach: Survey approach was employed to validate the research model. Findings: Website appeal partially mediates the positive effect of product appeal on consumers’ purchase intention. Trust in e-commerce sites not only increases purchase intention directly, but it also...
Arbietman, D; Lirov, E; Lirov, R; Lirov, Y
The total investment of the more than fifty e-commerce startups that entered healthcare supply chain management in the past three years has surpassed $500 million. However, none of these early entrants has delivered on the initial promise of restructuring the entire supply chain, replacing the traditional intermediaries, or at least achieving substantial revenue. This article offers a new business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce solution classification paradigm and uses it to analyze the functional requirements for an effective and, efficient healthcare supply chain marketplace. The analysis exposes several fundamental B2B market complexities that prevent the early entrants from creating a solid customer base and reaching desired liquidity goals. It also identifies several technological solutions to the problems mentioned. These new technologies create a comprehensive and symmetric order-matching engine that is capable of aggregating buy orders, requesting quotes from multiple vendors simultaneously, and negotiating along multiple criteria.
Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.
Moriset , Bruno
preprint for: International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2 nd éd. Elsevier; This article presents the fundamentals of e-business and e-commerce and their relations with geography. Electronic platforms and marketplaces provide economies of scale and network effects. E-business gives value chains a high degree of organizational (outsourcing) and locational (offshoring) flexibility, and firms can purchase intermediate goods and business services on a global basis. The rise of e-business shap...
Stanciu Anca Cristina; Constandache Mihaela; Condrea Elena
Trade has proven to be a suitable field for introduction of scientific and technical achievements despite the fact that a large part of the transactions are (remain) customized by the seller-buyer contact. Technical progress in trade means quantitative and qualitative changes in the application of information technology: the automation of processes, using modern equipment, the introduction of automatic data processing. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet, ...
Gustavsson, Malin; Johansson, Anne-Marie
An often mentioned reason for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors, is the lack of trust. The lack of physical clues and physical interaction in the online environment make it more difficult to establish trust with the consumers. So, it is important for companies to learn how to manage consumers’ trust in e-commerce. Although, building consumer trust on the Internet is a challenge for online vendors. The purpose with this dissertation was to get a better understanding of consumer t...
Roussos, George; Kourouthanassis, P.; Moussouri, T.
In the emerging world of the new consumer and the `anytime, anywhere' mobile commerce, appliances are located at the collision point of the retailer and consumer agendas. The consequence of this is twofold: on the one hand appliances that were previously considered plain and utilitarian become entertainment devices and on the other, for the effective design of consumer appliances it becomes paramount to employ multidisciplinary expertise. In this paper, we discuss consumer perceptions of a re...
This thesis presents the concept of advertising, its types and its use for promoting commercial enterprises. Advertising is regarded as a nonpersonal communication technique which implies the conveying of a persuasive message through mass-media, with the purpose of increasing the psychological pressure upon importers. Advertising is presented here from a rational, psychological, behavioral and psychosocial point of view, alongside its effects on exterior commerce.
Bontis, Nick; De Castro, Akemi
Summarizes some key findings of academic papers presented at the First World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce (January, 2000, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada). Outlines two meta-management issues that surfaced: taking a strategic approach to Internet ventures and considering infrastructure design during implementation. Highlights…
Lamie, R. David; Barkley, David L.; Markley, Deborah M.
Rural small businesses struggling against the current of competition from "big box" retailers, weak consumer demand, and on-line shopping options must find strategies that work. Many are finding that adoption of e-commerce strategies is a key to survival, even prosperity. This article highlights the lessons learned from a recent case study…
Chemical components of consumer products and articles of commerce such as carpet and clothing are key drivers of exposure in the near-field environment. These chemicals include semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), some of which have been shown to alter endocrine functionality...
Güneş ÇETİN GERGER
Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.
Andi Dwi Riyanto
Full Text Available Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan metode waterfall. Dari hasil penelitian ini akan dihasilkan sebuah aplikasi mobile untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli pada toko komputer Zona Komputer Banjarnegara.Kata Kunci: e-Commerce, m-Commerce, android
Henderson, Jason R.; Akridge, Jay T.; Dooley, Frank J.
In 2001, the dot.com bubble burst and U.S. e-commerce growth slowed. Slower e-commerce growth may signal changes in the use and perceptions of the Internet and e-commerce in agribusiness companies. Agribusiness firm managers were surveyed in 2004 to identify agribusiness use of the Internet and e-commerce and to solicit their perceptions about the Internet and e-commerce. The survey was developed from a similar survey conducted in 1999. In 2004, agribusiness firms were using e-commerce more w...
Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya
This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...
Full Text Available Multimedia computers today have become a necessity, either by businesses or other community groups. Information is not enough just through text and graphics alone, but the information includes text, graphics, animated images, video and audio. Multimedia computer applications that are widely used today is e-commerce, e-commerce where the buying or selling activity conducted electronically on the Internet. E-commerce can also be more specific means of advertising, sales, delivery and service to take advantage of a web show 24 hours a day for all customers. E-commerce is a fraction of the facilities provided in the wilds Internet (cyber space. However, its existence is vital to boost the business of a company that wants to go-International. E-commerce is a combination of technology, apllications, proceses and strategic bussinees. Object of this study discusses the success factors (opportunities and failures (challenges in e-commerce menerepkan especially in Indonesia and this study also discusses the application of e-commerce as a bridge to cyber trade transactions between the consumer and the merchant bank, a payment server that will authorize a credit card or debit card online. Data taken from the successes and failures of previous studies beberpa survey were analyzed and presented in this study. Based on the results of this study found that the role of government to impose regulations to create a market trend and pioneering e-commerce, especially in the improvement of the trading system. To boost interest in e-commerce is not independent of consciousness, beliefs, customs and culture of a society of Indonesia. Cultures in Indonesia who still believe in the traditional trades of the e-commerce. However, e-commerce will still be needed in the face of the global market. To petrify the small and medium industries (SMEs in creating a market trend of digital government intervention is needed in creating a framework in a comprehensive system such as
The rules-of-trade are those treaties, laws, executive agreements, and implementing regulations that apply to international transfers of nuclear materials, equipment, technology, or skilled personnel. The rules-of-trade are a key element in assuring the international commerce that facilitates deployment of nuclear energy will not also facilitate the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. But the rules must be pertinent, enforceable, and understandable. The two principal problems of current rules-of-trade concern their enforceability and their flexibility; these are discussed at some length. The following additional concerns are described briefly: fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, nonconforming parties, eligibility for international financing, fair competition and equity, and pre-existing facilities
Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter
Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...
Paa-Kerner, Greta; Cambridge Marketing College
Interview about e-commerce.\\ud \\ud The Cambridge Marketing College interviews Greta Paa-Kerner to learn about the dynamic world of e-commerce. She discusses online retail trends and shopping influencers.
Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...... that large countries have due to their size will be counteracted by such profit shifting opportunities. As a result of this, large countries will not be able to capitalize on their size and sustain high corporate taxes. We show that, on the basis of these profit shifting opportunities, a small country can...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....
Research purpose: To examine the nature of the relationships that exist between technology acceptance and frequency of mobile commerce usage amongst Generation Y consumers. Motivation for the study: The Generation Y cohort has emerged as an important age-group due to its economic contribution to the economy. It is therefore essential that their attitudes and behaviour continue to receive empirical introspection, particularly since mobile commerce has gathered momentum as an important and arguably, the most popular medium for commercial transactions. In a global space that is technology based, it becomes imperative to investigate the interplay between mobile commerce acceptance dimensions and frequency of use amongst Generation Ys. Research design, approach and method: A survey was conducted with the aid of a structured self-administered questionnaire with a view to collecting primary data from a sample consisting of 204 Generation Y consumers. Main findings: There were positive correlations between frequency of use and five mobile commerce acceptance dimensions. Cronbach Alpha values ranged between 0.714 and 0.898, thereby indicating high internal consistency amongst the subscales as well as within the entire survey instrument. Correlation coefficients ranged between 0.164 and 0.677 at both the p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 significance levels (2-tailed test, indicating very high levels of association amongst the subscales. Predictive validity of the five subscales and the variable frequency of use resulted in positive and statistically-significant results that were established at an adjusted R2 value of 0.674. Practical/managerial implications: Marketers and business practitioners are presented with practical insights into dimensions that enhance frequency of use of mobile commerce technology amongst Generation Y consumers. Furthermore, an increased usage of mobile commerce technologies is projected to have a stimulus effect on profitability, sustainability and loyalty
The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs
Danqing Li; Dan Chang
With the rapid development and the wide use of mobile technology, m-commerce research has gradually become the focus of scholars. Difficulties exist in m-commerce, such as information sharing, business collaboration, and process reengineering. Grid management, a new managerial concept, has the potential of being a powerful weapon that affects the study on m-commerce process. This study systematically analyzes the traditional m-commerce process and its problems. On that basis, this paper const...
Andi Dwi Riyanto; Khatirudin Ma’arif
Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembang...
Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.
Burinskienė, Aurelija; Burinskas, Arūnas
The application of e-commerce technologies is associated with more efficient purchasing system. The research combines both: the application of e-commerce technologies by consumers and economic efficiency of such application. The research is aimed to propose profile, which can be used to identify cases when it is worth enough to choose e-commerce technologies instead of traditional ones. The paper presents new cash-flow model, which can be applied to evaluate efficiency when e-commerce technol...
Shazia Yasin; Khalid Haseeb; Rashid Jalal Qureshi
E-commerce is a powerful tool for business transformation that allows companies to enhance their supply-chain operation, reach new markets, and improve services for customers as well as for providers. Implementing the E-commerce applications that provide these benefits may be impossible without a coherent, consistent approach to E-commerce security. E-commerce has presented a new way of doing transactions all over the world using internet. Organizations have changed their way of doing busines...
The concept of electronic commerce is widely used today's society, or better known as e-commerce, information technology was born as globalization in economics. Social networking is one of the media of electronic commerce, which currently has a lot of users. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence e-commerce user on social networks, one of which is the facebook for online transactions. Data analysis performed in this study using multiple linear regression techniques to...
Dan Chang; Wei Liao
With the development of E-commerce, more scholars have paid attention to research on Mobile E-commerce and mostly focus on the optimization and evaluation of existing process. This paper researches the evaluation of Mobile E-commerce process with a method called ASME. Based on combing and analyzing current mobile business process and utilizing the grid management theory, mobile business process based on grid are constructed. Firstly, the existing process, namely Non-grid Mobile E-commerce, an...
Electronic Commerce which enables business transactions to be conducted electronically has demonstrated significant operational and strategic benefits. Developed countries have actively adopted e-Commerce and have made it an integral part of business activities. Despite its ability to bridge economic and digital gap between developing and developed countries, developing countries are still slow in e-Commerce adoption. Currently, there is still a lack of e-Commerce readines...
Xiao , Ziyan
E-commerce provides an immediate global marketplace and business transactions, which can occur seamlessly and very quickly from opposite sides of the world. From a regional perspective, the European region has become the world's largest cross-border E-commerce market. This thesis introduced the current situation of the European E-commerce market and the situation of the E-commerce developed countries through a large number of statistical data. By a variety of data comparison, this paper analy...
Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina
In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...
Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph
Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for
Full Text Available The term of professional sport is considered. The models of entrepreneurial activity are described in this sphere. The structure of income of soccer clubs of France, USA and Ukraine is analysed. The tendencies of receipt of profits are rotined on the example of professional soccer clubs of Ukraine. It is marked that in Ukraine actual two models of orientation of conduct of sporting business on condition of high-efficiency management and marketing. For the increase of profits necessary changes are in a current legislation.
This chapter presents the results of a study on factors affecting adoption of e-commerce in small and medium size enterprises in Australia. The Tornatsky and Fleischer (1990) model is used in the investigation therefore the main group of factors taken into consideration are environmental...... that the external environment has an influence mainly through customers' requirements and pressure and availability of IT services, contrary to other studies that found that government and public administration have a big role. The organizational and technological contexts have also much relevance and include...... factors such as employees and CEO attitude....
The purpose of this thesis project was to study the marketing and strategy of the China's largest electric commercial enterprises JD.com, and the small-to-medium-sized retail company, Wuhan Da Shi Trade Company Ltd. In order to find the weakness of e-commerce and make a plan for the chosen partner company to improve their strategy. The improvement tasks are moving their emphasis from low-end electronic products to high-end electronic products and focusing more on value-added services than pro...
Software packages commercially marketed by Agri ImaGIS allow customers to analyze farm fields. Agri ImaGIS provides satellite images of farmland and agricultural views to US clients. The company approached NASA-MSU TechLink for access to technology that would improve the company's capabilities to deliver satellite images over the Internet. TechLink found that software with the desired functions had already been developed through NASA's Remote Sensing Database Program. Agri ImaGIS formed a partnership with the University of Minnesota group that allows the company to further develop the software to meet its Internet commerce needs.
David Gefen; Tsipi Heart Heart
Trust and trust beliefs (trustworthiness) are key to e-commerce success but depend, to a large extent, on culture. With e-commerce being an international phenomenon, understanding the cross-cultural aspects of trust creation is therefore arguably required although mostly ignored by current research which deals almost exclusively with the U.S. This exploratory study examines whether definitions of trust beliefs as conceptualized and verified in the U.S. apply in Israel which differs markedly i...
Narasimha Rao Vajjhala; Salu George Thandekkattu
Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT), tourism, banking, financial servi...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Key West, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...
... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion AGENCY: Postal... reduction for the mobile commerce and personalization promotion, and the revised mailing standards to... * * * * * [Revise the title of 3.0 as follows:] 3.0 Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion 3.1 Program...
The year 2000 is a memorable year in the history of e-commerce. This is the year of the so-called 'dot.com shake-out'. The year 2000 is also the year the European Union issued its e-commerce directive. The directive means to regulate but also facilitate e-commerce in the internal market, by laying
Harris, Lesley Ellen
Explains e-commerce and discusses how it can be used by special libraries. Highlights include library goals; examples of successful uses of e-commerce; how e-commerce can improve information services, including access to information, new information resources, delivery of information, and broadening information markets; and developing an…
This document reports on a study that analyzes the business management processes of Australia's Framing the Future program (FTF) in terms of the extent to which they demonstrate e-commerce principles. Chapter 1 describes the concept of e-commerce in relation to vocational education and training (VET). It defines e-commerce as any business…
... interstate commerce). (Walling v. Craig, 53 F. Supp. 479 (D. Minn). See also Engbretson v. E. J. Albrecht Co... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate commerce requirements of exemption. 782.7... HOURS PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 782.7 Interstate commerce requirements of...
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz
The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all employees, not specifically exempted, who are engaged (a) in interstate or foreign commerce or (b) in the...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in firearms and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.192 Commerce in firearms and ammunition. For provisions relating to commerce in firearms and ammunition, including the movement of destructive devices...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3... in or affecting commerce. Section 7A(a)(1) is satisfied if any entity included within the acquiring person, or any entity included within the acquired person, is engaged in commerce or in any activity...
Müller, Günter; Schoder, Detlef
Vorhersagen zu Wachstum und Volumen elektronisch gestützten Geschäftsverkehrs zeichnen überwiegend ein sehr positives Zukunftsbild. In krassem Gegensatz dazu stehen Aussagen aus ex post-Analysen des Electronic Commerce zu „harten“ ökonomischen Variablen wie etwa Umsatz- oder Gewinnsteigerung, Kostensenkung und Erhöhung von Marktanteilen. In vielen Fällen bewahrheiten sich euphorische Voraussagen zum Erfolg von Electronic Commerce-Aktivitäten für Unternehmen nicht einmal annähernd. Verlustmeld...
In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.
... the Commerce entity intends to garnish the debtor's private sector (i.e., non-Federal) wages (see § 19.... 3201(e); 31 U.S.C. 3720B, 31 CFR 285.13, and § 19.17(a) of this Part); (16) If applicable, the Commerce... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What notice will Commerce entities...
The purpose of this thesis is to help startup B2C E-commerce companies to plan and manage e-commerce website. This thesis is intended to equip current and future e-commerce managers or entrepreneurs with some basic knowledge and practical skills to help them navigate their organisations towards e-business. It does not have any specific commissioner. Thesis will contain most aspects when plan and manage e-commerce website for startups.
Full Text Available Abstract We live in an environment in which e-commerce continues to grow and evolve while state legislators attempt to catch up to the ever-changing technology. Today electronic transactions are more and more frequently supplementing or even entirely replacing traditional channels and business models. Even though, in theory, is easy to apply laws to Internet, in practice is harder. This article synthesizes a number of issues on the application of Romanian legislation on ecommerce and offers practical solutions both to managers and to authorities. The article use quantitative and qualitative methods in order to identify the information provided by catering web sites to their consumers in Romania, compared to United Kingdom. The research results raise question marks about how is written and applied Internet law in Romania and also about the limitations of Romanian electronic commerce legislation. Also it shows how companies fail to comply with applicable legislation and to attract their consumers. Managerial implications related to these findings are provided and future studies are encouraged to be investigated.
Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...
Blitz, David; Vidojevic, Milan
Low-risk stocks exhibit higher returns than predicted by established asset pricing models, but this anomaly seems to be explained by the new Fama-French five-factor model, which includes a profitability factor. We argue that this conclusion is premature given the lack of empirical evidence for a
Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.
Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista
In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…
Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)
Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.
We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate
... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.6 Profit element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible place...
... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...
...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...
... performance and not merely the application of a predetermined percentage factor. For the purpose of... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-7 Profit. The objective of negotiations shall be the exercise of sound business judgment and good administrative practice including the...
V.D.R. Guide Jr (Daniel); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)
textabstractThe profitability of remanufacturing depends on the quantity and quality of product returns and on the demand for remanufactured products. The quantity and quality of product returns can be influenced by varying quality dependent acquisition prices, i.e., by using product acquisition
Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck
In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...
Negari, Leidena Sekar; Sunarto, Sunarto; Lukmantoro, Triyono
DRAMATURGI KEPEMIMPINAN PEREMPUAN DALAMORGANISASI PROFITAbstrakPemimpin dalam organisasi biasanya didominasi oleh kaum pria, karena konsepdan tradisi yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Indonesia yang mengaut pahampaternalistik. Seiring perkembangan zaman perempuan kini mampu mendudukijajaran top tier manajemen di sejumlah organisasi profit. Gaya komunikasiperempuan yang dianggap mampu dicintai karyawan dan lingkungan kerjanyadalam membangun sebuah hubungan menjadi sebuah nilai plus.Di dalam peneli...
This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.
Full Text Available Article to designed e-Commerce system application based on analysis of the ordering and selling system.The used research methods were analysis and design system. This research tries to achieve an e-Commerce sitefacility that was able to be used by customer. Hopefully, the e-Commerce system functioned as service supportingsystem in a company, able to help the customer in making buying transaction more easily, there is online chatfacility , message and suggestion, also providing full information so it is easy to use and interesting.Keywords: e-Commerce, e-Commerce system