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Sample records for profitable black walnut

  1. Beyond the wild nut: moving toward profitable black walnut nut crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Hammons; Felix, Jr. Ponder; John Rickman

    2004-01-01

    Currently, about 2 million pounds of black walnut nutmeats are consumed annually, requiring about 26 million pounds of wild in-shell nuts (hulled, wet weight). Walnuts from wild trees are variable in quality, yield, and moisture, reducing the amount of good, salable nutmeats produced. Consequently, the price that can be paid to the harvester/producer is limited....

  2. Annotated black walnut literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2007-01-01

    Many of the publications on establishment, management, and utilization of black walnut and other high-value hardwoods are printed in conference proceedings or scientific journals that are not readily available at most public libraries or on the internet. As Chair of the Education Committee of the Walnut Council, I have tried to summarize the findings from the following...

  3. Annotated black walnut literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2006-01-01

    Many of our publications on the establishment, management, and utilization of black walnut, butternut, and associated high-value hardwoods are printed in conference proceedings or scientific journals that are not readily available at most public libraries or on the internet. As Chair of the Education Committee, I have tried to summarize for you the relevant findings of...

  4. Nut Growers Hear It Pays to Care for Black Walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller; Andrea Clark

    2003-01-01

    Careful attention to walnut trees could pay off in nut yields. Nutrient management and improved nut varieties can make a big difference in black walnut nut production. This was the theme of the 2002 American Black Walnut Conference in Springfield, MO. The conference was sponsored by the Center For Advancement of American Black Walnut and Southwest Missouri RC&D (...

  5. Predicting Site Index in Young Black Walnut Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig K. Losche; Richard C. Schlesinger

    1975-01-01

    Prediction of black walnut height at age 25 is graphically represented for two soil-site groups. The landowner or manager can use this growth prediction to assess the productivity of yung black walnut plantations.

  6. Ambered kernels in stenospermocarpic fruit of eastern black walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele R. Warmund; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2014-01-01

    "Ambers" is a term used to describe poorly filled, shriveled eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) kernels with a dark brown or black-colored pellicle that are unmarketable. Studies were conducted to determine the incidence of ambered black walnut kernels and to ascertain when symptoms were apparent in specific tissues. The occurrence of...

  7. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  8. Weed Control in Black Walnut Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin F. Bey; Robert D. Williams

    1976-01-01

    Weeds must be controlled for at least 3 years to successfully establish walnut plantations. Whether by cultivating or applying chemicals, a strip or spot 4 feet wide is sufficient the first 2 years, followed by a 6-foot spot or strip for the third and fourth years.

  9. Using poultry litter in black walnut nutrient management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller

    2005-01-01

    Poultry litter was evaluated as a fertilizer in a young (three-year-old) and an old (35-year-old) black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) plantation in southwest Missouri. The older planting had a fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.) ground cover that is grazed by cattle. In the young plantation, weeds were mowed and sprayed with...

  10. History of black walnut genetics research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Victory; Keith Woeste; Olin E., Jr. Rhodes

    2004-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an economically and ecologically important hardwood species that has been used throughout the history of settlement in North America. It was a resource that helped Native Americans in their everyday life, it helped European settlers carve a living out of the wilderness, and it has helped rural farmers and...

  11. Practical strategies of black walnut genetic improvement—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rink; J.W. Van Sambeek; Phil O' Connor; Mark. Coggeshall

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of any tree improvement program is the large-scale production and distribution of genetically improved seedlings. In black walnut, projections based on earlier research indicate that genetically improved seedlings could provide growth improvement of between 15 to 25 percent by using seed or seedlings of the proper geographic origin (Bey 1980; Clausen...

  12. Interplanting woody nurse crops promotes differential growth of black walnut saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. O. Dawson; J. W. Van Sambeek

    1993-01-01

    Interplanting black walnut (Juglans nigra) with four different nitrogen fixing, woody nurse crops (Alnus glutinosa, Elaeagnus umbellata, E. angustifolia or Caragana arborescens) increased annual walnut height and stem diameter (dbh) growth overall by as much as 50% and...

  13. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  14. Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Colonization of Eastern Black Walnut Nursery Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Jackson; Klingeman, William E; Mayfield, Albert; Myers, Scott; Taylor, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the invasive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and an associated fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida M.Kolařík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, N. Tisserat, currently threatens the health of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in North America. Both the beetle and pathogen have expanded beyond their native range via transport of infested walnut wood. Geosmithia morbida can develop in seedlings following inoculation, but the ability of P. juglandis to colonize young, small diameter trees has not been investigated. This study assessed the beetle's colonization behavior on J. nigra nursery trees. Beetles were caged directly onto the stems of walnut seedlings from five nursery sources representing a range of basal stem diameter classes. Seedlings were also exposed to P. juglandis in a limited choice, field-based experiment comparing pheromone-baited and unbaited stems. When beetles were caged directly onto stems, they probed and attempted to colonize seedlings across the range of diameters and across sources tested, including stems as small as 0.5 cm in diameter. In the field experiment, beetles only attempted to colonize seedlings that were baited with a pheromone lure and appeared to prefer (though not statistically significant) the larger diameter trees. Despite several successful penetrations into the phloem, there was no evidence of successful progeny development within the young trees in either experiment. Further investigation is recommended to better elucidate the risk nursery stock poses as a pathway for thousand cankers disease causal organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  16. Effect of seed position and media on germination of black walnut and northern red oak: implications for nursery production and direct seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Barrett C. Wilson; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2004-01-01

    Germination of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) prior to sowing into containers or bareroot nursery beds can help maintain desired crop density and reduce nursery costs. Recommended techniques for germination of black walnut are labor intensive and require that walnuts be completely covered...

  17. Breeding black walnuts in the age of genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark V. Coggeshall; Jeanne. Romero-Severson

    2013-01-01

    Molecular markers have been used in several walnut species to help reconstruct breeding program pedigrees, to characterize genetic structure in natural Juglans populations, to determine the impact of different timber harvest scenarios on residual levels of genetic diversity, and to quantify the effects of interspecific hybridization on subsequent...

  18. Different histories but similar genetic diversity and structure for black walnut in Indiana and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin R. Victory; Jeffrey C. Glaubitz; Jennifer A. Fike; Olin E. Rhodes; Keith E. Woeste

    2008-01-01

    Missouri and Indiana have markedly different histories of glaciation and recolonization by forest trees. These states also differ in land use patterns and degree of anthropogenic landscape change such as forest fragmentation. To determine the overall effects of these and other demographic differences on the levels of genetic diversity and structure in black walnut (...

  19. Soil Structure and Mycorrhizae Encourage Black Walnut Growth on Old Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder

    1979-01-01

    Examination of black walnut seedlings grown in forest and field soils showed all root systems were infected with mycorrhizae; the amount of infection was influenced by treatments. Mean height and dry weight of tops and roots were greater for seedlings grown in forest than field soil. Seedling height growth was not increased by disturbing either soil; but, root dry...

  20. Dormancy and Root Regeneration of Black Walnut Seedlings: Effects of Chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Rietveld; Robert D. Williams

    1978-01-01

    New root and shoot growth of black walnut seedlings were strongly dependent on the amount of time they were kept at a cold temperature. Physiological dormancy ended after approximately 3,100 hours at 3C, but growth responses continued to increase after 4,600 hours. Root regeneration was strongly correlated with shoot growth.

  1. Effect of weed control treatments on total leaf area of plantation black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Cook; Michael R. Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Determining total tree leaf area is necessary for describing tree carbon balance, growth efficiency, and other measures used in tree-level and stand-level physiological growth models. We examined the effects of vegetation control methods on the total leaf area of sapling-size plantation black walnut trees using allometric approaches. We found significant differences in...

  2. Cultivar identification and genetic relatedness among 25 black walnut (Juglans nigra) clones based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejia Pang; Keith Woeste; Charles. Michler

    2017-01-01

    A set of eight microsatellite markers was used to genotype 25 black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) clones within the Purdue University germplasm repository. The identities of 212 ramets were verified using the same eight microsatellite markers. Some trees were mislabeled and corrected as to clone using analysis of microsatellite markers. A genetic...

  3. Variation among black walnut seedling families in resistance to competition and allelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rink; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1985-01-01

    Of three environmental variables affecting black walnut seedling establishment, moisture stress overshadowed the effects of fescue leachate and fertilizer. Interactions between moisture stress and family and between fescue leachate and moisture stress for both seedling height and dry weight suggested that selection for tolerance to moisture stress is possible, whereas...

  4. Black Walnut on Kansas Strip Mine Spoils: Some Observations 25 Years after Pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo; Nelson F. Rogers; E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes; David T. Funk

    1978-01-01

    Dissections of 14 slow-growing black walnut trees on a strip-mine site revealed that bands of discolored heartwood were associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs. Ring shakes were associated with a few pruned and nonpruned stubs, especially with groups of stubs at the same position on the stem. The advantage of early pruning was that even the defects that...

  5. Developing Management Techniques For Black Walnut to Stabilize the Annual Nut Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller

    2001-01-01

    Two studies involving cultural methods to increase nut production of plantation black walnut are presented. In the first study, nut production was measured for 5 years to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilization separately, in combination, and with and without phosphorus (P) broadcast annually for 4 years at two rates. Fertilization...

  6. The Influence of Container Type and Potting Medium on Growth of Black Walnut Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Funk; Paul L Roth; C. K. Celmer

    1980-01-01

    Container size and shape, potting medium, and genotype interacted to influence the growth of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) seedlings. Larger containers tended to produce larger trees. In tall, narrow, vent-pipe containers, different, proportions of peat and sand in potting media had no effect on total weight; a higher proportion of peat than of very fine sand in...

  7. Black Walnut Growth Better on Deep, Well-Drained BottomLand Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig K. Losche

    1973-01-01

    Site requirements of 25-year-old plantation-grown black walnut on floodplains in southern Illinois were studied. Depth to a gravel layer was the only soil factor that significantly influenced height growth. There was a relationship between internal soil drainage and height growth.

  8. Planted Black Walnut Does Well on Cleared Forest Sites -- if Competition is Controlled

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Krajicek

    1975-01-01

    After seven growing seasons, survival of black walnut seedlings planted in cleared forest openings did not differ by competition control treatments. The trees grew somewhat larger where all competing vegetation was controlled but almost as large where only herbaceous competition was controlled. Controlling only woody vegetation was no better than no control of any...

  9. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and seed source on nursery-grown black walnut seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Brookshire; H. E. Garrett; T. L. Robison

    2003-01-01

    A nursery study was established in Missouri to evaluate the effects of endomycorrhizal inoculation and seed source on the growth of black walnut seedlings. Inoculation, in general, resulted in seedlings with significantly larger sturdiness quotients. Glomus intraradicies was found to produce larger seedlings than Glomus etunicatus...

  10. Efficacy of Heat Treatment for the Thousand Cankers Disease Vector and Pathogen in Small Black Walnut Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Mayfield; S. W. Fraedrich; A. Taylor; P. Merten; S. W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarõ´k, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically...

  11. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Denita; Vito, Lisa M; Windham, Mark T; Pscheidt, Jay W; Trigiano, Robert N; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic composition of Geosmithia morbida populations in the native range of black walnut and provide a better understanding regarding demography of the pathogen. The fungus G. morbida, and the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, have been associated with a disease complex of black walnut (Juglans nigra) known as thousand cankers disease (TCD). The disease is manifested as branch dieback and canopy loss, eventually resulting in tree death. In 2010, the disease was detected in black walnut in Tennessee, and subsequently in Virginia and Pennsylvania in 2011 and North Carolina in 2012. These were the first incidences of TCD east of Colorado, where the disease has been established for more than a decade on indigenous walnut species. A genetic diversity and population structure study of 62 G. morbida isolates from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Oregon was completed using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The results revealed high haploid genetic diversity among seven G. morbida populations with evidence of gene flow, and significant differentiation among two identified genetic clusters. There was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Understanding the genetic composition and demography of G. morbida can provide valuable insight into recognizing factors affecting the persistence and spread of an invasive pathogen, disease progression, and future infestation predictions. Overall, these data support the hypotheses of two separate, highly diverse pathogen introductions into the native range of black walnut.

  12. Roles of JnRAP2.6-like from the transition zone of black walnut in hormone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhonglian Huang; Peng Zhao; Jose Medina; Richard Meilan; Keith Woeste

    2013-01-01

    An EST sequence, designated JnRAP2-like, was isolated from tissue at the heartwood/sapwood transition zone (TZ) in black walnut (Juglans nigra L). The deduced amino acid sequence of JnRAP2-like protein consists of a single AP2- containing domain with significant similarity to conserved AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains in other...

  13. JnCML-like, an EF-hand motif-containing gene seasonally upregulated in the transition zone of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhonglian Huang; Priyanka Surana; Daisuke Kihara; Richard Meilan; Keith Woeste

    2011-01-01

    The economic value of a black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) tree is strongly determined by the quality and quantity of darkly colored heartwood in its stem. To understand the regulation of heartwood formation, we analyzed the region of heartwood formation in walnut stems (i.e., the transition zone, TZ) for the expression of 80 ESTs. Semi-quantitative...

  14. Purification and characterization of black walnut (Juglans nigra) Allergen, Jug n 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts as a group have caused a significant number of cases of fatal anaphylactic reactions. In a large scale study of US peanut and tree nut allergy cases with 5149 patients, walnuts were the leading cause of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize potential ...

  15. Colonization of artificially stressed black walnut trees by ambrosia beetle, bark beetle, and other weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon E. Reed; Jennifer Juzwik; James T. English; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley &...

  16. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  18. Trap deployments in black walnut tree canopies help inform monitoring strategies for bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...

  19. Trap Style, Bait, and Height Deployments in Black Walnut Tree Canopies Help Inform Monitoring Strategies for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingeman, William E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Palmquist, Debra E

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge about which bark and ambrosia beetle species are active and at what heights in black walnut canopies is not well understood. Neither is the role of these beetles in spreading Thousand Cankers Disease. To assist with future planned research, which will assess the extent to which these beetle species are associated with Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae), experiments were undertaken to monitor bark and ambrosia beetles in urban landscapes and parks in Tennessee between 2011 and 2013. Within mature walnut tree canopies, sticky panel, modified soda bottle, and Lindgren traps were deployed at different heights, with and without ethanol as an attractant and with and without walnut stem sections, or in situ limbs that had been girdled or injection with ethanol to simulate stressed tree tissues. Bark and ambrosia beetle species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) collected in greatest abundance included Ambrosiodmus rubricollis (Eichhoff), Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff), Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford), Dryoxylon onoharaense (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Monarthrum fasciatum (Say), Monarthrum mali (Fitch), Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius), Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford). C. mutilatus, X. saxesenii, and X. crassiusculus were more active higher in trees than most other species and were strongly attracted to ethanol via all means of lure deployment. C. mutilatus, which were captured from April through October and increased in abundance across the 3-yr study, were most abundant in late May with a second activity period in late August. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Concentrations of Imidacloprid and Olefin-Imidacloprid Metabolite in the Walnut Husk Maggot (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katheryne Nix; Carla Coots; Paris Lambdin; Jerome Grant; David Paulsen; Greg Wiggins; Paul Merten

    2014-01-01

    .... Because imidacloprid has been used successfully against pests of other host plants, we investigated how it would impact larvae of the walnut husk maggot, Rhagoletis suavis (Loew), on black walnuts...

  1. Effect of direct and indirect selection criteria for efficiency of gain on profitability of Japanese Black cattle selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahi, A K; Hirooka, H

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of use of residual feed intake (RFI) and the blood concentration of IGF-I (IGF) as selection criteria for efficiency of gain on profitability of Japanese Black cattle selection strategies with restricted test capacity. A breeding objective that integrated the cow-calf and feedlot segments was considered. Selection strategies were defined that differed in whether information on IGF and RFI during performance testing (RFIpt) was used to make selection decisions and in the number of animals measured for IGF. In all strategies, sires were selected from the proportion chosen during the first selection stage (performance testing), modeling a 2-stage selection process. The effect on genetic gain and profitability of variations in test capacity, of the genetic correlations of IGF with marbling score (MS) and RFIpt, and nonzero economic values for and, hence, inclusion of RFI of the cow and feedlot animals in the breeding objective was examined. Additional genetic gain and profitability were generated when information on IGF concentration and RFIpt in the performance-tested young bulls was included in the selection criteria. Profit per cow was optimal when measurement of IGF and RFIpt were incorporated together in the selection index. Increasing test capacity resulted in an increase in genetic gain in all strategies, and profit per cow was optimal in all strategies when 900 places were available for performance testing. Profit per cow was more sensitive to changes in the genetic correlation between IGF and MS than between IGF and RFIpt, especially when more animals were measured for IGF, or else the favorable relationship between IGF and MS had no significant effect on profit per cow. Additional genetic gain and profitability were generated in each strategy when RFI of the cow and feedlot animals were included in the breeding objective with nonzero economic values. These results may be used to provide guidance to

  2. Walnut Twig Beetle (pityophthorus juglandis blackman) (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; P.L. Lambdin

    2014-01-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Scolytini: Pityophthorina), was initially described by Blackamn (1928) from specimens collected on black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in Lone Mountain, New Mexico and Paradise, Arizona (Blackman, 1928; Cranshaw, 2011; LaBonte and rabaglia, 2012). There are no synonyms in the literature.

  3. THE CONTAMINATION RATE OF AFLATOXINS IN GROUND RED PEPPERS, DRIED FIGS, WALNUTS WITHOUT SHELL AND SEEDLESS BLACK RAISINS COMMERCIALIZED IN SAKARYA CITY CENTER, TURKEY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Öztürk Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Despite a lot of studies on aflatoxin rates in a variety of food which are present in the diet of people in Turkey, the research on aflatoxins in ground red peppers, figs and walnuts in Sakarya is scarce...

  4. An ill-posed problem for the Black-Scholes equation for a profitable forecast of prices of stock options on real market data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Michael V.; Kuzhuget, Andrey V.; Golubnichiy, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    A new empirical mathematical model for the Black-Scholes equation is proposed to forecast option prices. This model includes new interval for the price of the underlying stock, new initial and new boundary conditions. Conventional notions of maturity time and strike prices are not used. The Black-Scholes equation is solved as a parabolic equation with the reversed time, which is an ill-posed problem. Thus, a regularization method is used to solve it. To verify the validity of our model, real market data for 368 randomly selected liquid options are used. A new trading strategy is proposed. Our results indicates that our method is profitable on those options. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of two simple extrapolation-based techniques is much worse. We conjecture that our method might lead to significant profits of those financial insitutions which trade large amounts of options. We caution, however, that further studies are necessary to verify this conjecture.

  5. Optimization of walnut oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Jokić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut is recognized worldwide as a functional health food. In the walnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from seeds. Walnut oil in this study was obtained by pressing the seeds followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of pressing temperature (70, 85, 100 °C, frequency (20, 30, 40 Hz and nozzle size (8, 10, 12 mm in pressing experiments on oil recovery and oil temperature were monitored. The optimal calculated pressing condition within the experimental range of the variables studied was determined. In obtained walnut oil the following parameters were analyzed: peroxide value, free fatty acids, insoluble impurities, moisture content, iodine value, saponification value, p-anisidine value and Totox value. The residual oil from pressed cake obtained at optimal conditions was extracted with CO2 with a goal to extract tocopherols residue from walnut after applied screw press process. Content of tocopherols in walnut oil obtained by pressing and oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were compared.

  6. Mortality and reduced brood production in walnut twig beetles, Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), following exposure to commercial strains of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, and its associated fungal symbiont, Geosmithia morbida, is a disease of economic and ecological concern on eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Numerous attacks and gallery formation by the WTB and subse...

  7. Phenological and pomological properties of promising walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut production in Turkey fluctuates quantitatively and qualitatively. The main problem is almost always early leafing. The environmental adaptations of Turkish national walnut cultivars are often poor due to early bud break and sensitivity to walnut blight and anthracnose. Therefore it is necessary to carry out a breeding ...

  8. Mortality and reduced brood production in walnut twig beetles, Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), following exposure to commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louela A. Castrillo; Albert E. Mayfield; Michael H. Griggs; Robert Camp; Bryan Mudder; Adam Taylor; John D. Vandenberg

    2017-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, and its associated fungal symbiont, Geosmithia morbida, is a disease of economic and ecological concern on eastern black...

  9. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  10. Testing of a machine for walnut cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko BERNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of walnut (Juglans regia L. belongs to stone fruits. This means that the lignified, stony endocarp, a shell, contains delicious kernel. On the tree  a nut is surrounded by the green husk.In Slovenia and in the other parts of the world heavy tools (such as stone, hammer and hand-crusher for nuts are used to remove nutshell. In the intensive walnut production heavy tools are not competitive with today world economy. This is because the priority in walnuts and nuts kernel production is to reduce costs. Walnut shell cracking devices are invented to reduce walnut handling costs and consumer price. Characteristics of this device and walnut kernel quality are presented in this research.

  11. Bark and ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi colonizing stressed walnut in Missouri and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Reed; James English; Jennifer Juzwik; Matt. Ginzel

    2013-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a growing threat to black walnut, an economically and ecologically important tree in the eastern US. Trees in the earliest stages of TCD do not display symptoms. In later stages, leaves of the canopy become yellow, wilt, and ultimately die, yet remain attached to their branches. Eventually, all branches in the canopy may die, leading...

  12. Walnut tissue culture: research and field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose M. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Vitrotech Biotecnologia Vegetal began researching propagating Juglans regia (English walnut) and various Juglans hybrids by tissue culture in 1993 and has operated on a commercial scale since 1996. Since this time, more than one and a half million walnuts of different species have been propagated and field planted. Tissue cultured...

  13. 75 FR 34950 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... the Internet at the address provided above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Debbie Wray, Marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  14. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Seybold, Steven J; Graves, Andrew D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico), but the species has now (2014) invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion) native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD are discussed.

  15. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Rugman-Jones

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD of walnut trees (Juglans spp. results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico, but the species has now (2014 invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GRAFT SUCCESS AND CLIMATIC VALUES IN WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    T Karadeniz

    2006-01-01

    The study determines the graft take of walnut in Ordu province located in the East Black Sea Region. Grafting studies were carried out in nursery conditions in late August from 1993 to 2000. During these years, a total of 87 264 applied grafts were evaluated by using patch-grafting method. The graft take varied from 29% to 64 % depending on years. Relations between the graft take and climate conditions were also considered. Graft take under nursery conditions was affected by especially relati...

  17. Walnut Hoarding by the Japanese Wood Mouse, Apodemus speciosus Temminck

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko, Tamura; Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    2001-01-01

    Walnuts, Juglans ailantifolia Carriere, are large and the shell is diffcult to open. Thus, seed predators in Japan are restricted mainly to the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis Temminck) and the wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus Temminck), which can shave away the hard shells with their sharp incisors. Previous work indicated that the squirrels are not only predators, but also disperse walnuts. In this study, 95 walnuts in Periodl (September 1996-February 1997) and 80 walnuts in Period 2 (Septembe...

  18. Genetic evaluation of domestic walnut cultivars trading on Korean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is regarded as a healthy food because of its high nutritional composition and various health benefits. Although several walnut cultivars are being actively traded for domestic plantation or ornament in Korea, no particular effort has been made to evaluate genetic quality management of walnut ...

  19. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...... annual profit. Higher wage level and lower wage growth is associated with higher profit. A workforce that has less tenure, all else equal, is more profitable....

  20. Threshold Dose Distribution in Walnut Allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Mark A; Remington, Benjamin C.; Houben, GF; Baumert, Joseph L.; Knulst, André C; Blom, W Marty; Klemans, Rob J B; Taylor, Steve L

    BACKGROUND: In food allergy, eliciting doses (EDs) of foods on a population level can improve risk management and labeling strategies for the food industry and regulatory authorities. Previously, data available for walnut were unsuitable to determine EDs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was

  1. Survival of foodborne pathogens on inshell walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessington, Tyann; Theofel, Christopher G; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Harris, Linda J

    2013-09-16

    The survival of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis PT 30 or five-strain cocktails of S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated on inshell walnuts during storage. Inshell walnuts were separately inoculated with an aqueous preparation of the pathogens at levels of 10 to 4 log CFU/nut, dried for 24 h, and then stored at either 4 °C or ambient conditions (23-25 °C, 25-35% relative humidity) for 3 weeks to more than 1 year. During the initial 24-h drying period, bacterial levels declined by 0.7 to 2.4 log CFU/nut. After the inoculum dried, further declines of approximately 0.1 log CFU/nut per month of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 levels were observed on inshell walnuts stored at 4 °C; at ambient conditions the rates of decline ranged from 0.55 to 2.5 log CFU/nut per month. Rates of decline were generally greater during the first few weeks of storage, particularly at lower inoculum levels. The survival of the five-strain cocktails inoculated at very low levels (under 400 CFU/nut) was determined during storage at ambient conditions. The pathogens could be recovered by either enumeration or enrichment from most samples throughout the 3-month storage period; reductions in bacterial levels from the beginning to end of storage were 0.7, 0.2, and 2.3 log CFU/nut for Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. For 6% of all nut samples (14 of 234 samples), pathogens were isolated from the second but not first 24-h enrichment, suggesting that bacterial cells were viable but not easily culturable. Salmonella-inoculated walnuts were exposed for 2 min to water or a 3% solution of sodium hypochlorite (to mimic commercial brightening) either 24 h or 7 days after inoculation; treated nuts were dried for 24h and held at ambient conditions. Salmonella levels were reduced by less than 0.5 log or 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/nut on water- or chlorine- treated walnuts, respectively, regardless of postinoculation treatment time. Additional

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GRAFT SUCCESS AND CLIMATIC VALUES IN WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Karadeniz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the graft take of walnut in Ordu province located in the East Black Sea Region. Grafting studies were carried out in nursery conditions in late August from 1993 to 2000. During these years, a total of 87 264 applied grafts were evaluated by using patch-grafting method. The graft take varied from 29% to 64 % depending on years. Relations between the graft take and climate conditions were also considered. Graft take under nursery conditions was affected by especially relative moisture (% in addition to the mean and maximum temperature (°C in August and September months.

  3. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  4. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  5. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  6. 7 CFR 984.56 - Disposition of reserve walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Board may export or authorize the disposition in export to the destinations outside the United States... marketing year a handler may deliver reserve walnuts and any substandard walnuts meeting the minimum kernel...

  7. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is named the “super food” in the 21st century. In this study, the 9-year-old precocious walnut cultivar 'Xiangling' were used to exam the developmental process, and the dynamics of fat, protein and sugar content in the fruit, and the activities of enzymes related with sugar metabolism were further ...

  8. In vitro propagation of walnut - A review | Payghamzadeh | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro propagation of walnut has played a very important role in rapid multiplication of cultivars with desirable traits and production of healthy and disease-free plants. During the last several years, different approaches have been made for in vitro propagation of walnut. Micropropagation using apicale bud, nodale ...

  9. Characterization of physical and aerodynamic properties of walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the physical and aerodynamic properties of freshly harvested walnuts. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard and Chandler cultivated in California, USA. The nuts treated with and without Ethephon were collected from mechan...

  10. Identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts (Juglans regia) using EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.; Sami, A.; Mansour, A.; El-Sayed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an easy, fast, and reliable tool for identification of irradiated food. Untreated nuts may encounter hazards of carrying several pathogens or microbial contamination; walnuts are of specific importance due to their nutritional and medicinal values, and hence walnut processing via gamma irradiation is a necessary step. EPR was employed for the identification and dosimetry of Cs-137 gamma-irradiated walnuts (shells and kernels). Several important parameters were studied, such as spectral features, microwave power dependence of signal intensities, and short- and long-term time dependences. Responses of walnut shells and kernels to different radiation doses in the range 0-10 kGy were investigated. Results confirmed that EPR is a suitable tool for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts using either their shells or only kernels.

  11. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Steven J. Seybold; Andrew D. Graves; Richard. Stouthamer

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties...

  12. For-Profit Colleges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Deming; Claudia Goldin; Lawrence Katz

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college...

  13. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  14. Determinants of Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Chaudhry; Arjun Chatrath; Ravindra Kamath

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of profitability of U.S. commercial banks in the 1970s and 1980s. It is established that banks, depending on their size, may need to exercise greater control over a defined set of variables in order to maximize profits and/or minimize costs. Further, the study provides some indirect evidence of economies of scale/scope in certain aspects of the banksÕ loan and investment portfolios.

  15. Measuring Bank Profit Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Trevor; McQuinn, Kieran

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that a variant of the Battese and Coelli (1995) inefficiency model can be applied as a consistent and unifying framework in exploring the determinants of credit institutions’ profit inefficiency scores. To date, work concerned with the potential determinants of credit institutions' profit inefficiency levels has addressed the issue in either a single-step or multi-step process. In the former, inefficiency scores are conditioned by region and bank-specific indicators, while...

  16. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia1234

    OpenAIRE

    Berryman, Claire E.; Grieger, Jessica A.; West, Sheila G.; Chen, Chung-Yen O.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Rothblat, George H.; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducte...

  17. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on...

  18. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  19. Roasting Process Optimization of Walnut Kernels for the Preparation of Walnut Cream Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamidreza Ziaolhagh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Roasting has considerable effects on the quality of cream made of nuts. In this study, the roasting conditions of walnut kernels were optimized based on the stability parameters of the produced cream. Temperatures of 100-150°C for 10-30 minutes were used to roast walnut kernels. The amount of oil separation, peroxide, acidity and Thiobarbituric acid values of the cream, as well as color parameters were determined after three months of storage at 25°C. The results showed that the oil separation increased with temperature and time of roasting (from 4.16% at 100°C/10min to 7.85% at 150°C/30min. Peroxide, acidity and thiobarbituric acid values were significantly affected by temperature and time of roasting. In addition, it was shown that as the temperature increased, the redness and yellowness increased, but the lightness of the samples decreased. Finally, the temperature of 116°C for 12 minutes was chosen as the optimized roasting conditions for producing walnut cream.

  20. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  1. Land Acquisition Priority Plan for Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses land acquisition priorities for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The proposed alternatives...

  2. 7 CFR 999.100 - Regulation governing imports of walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... completed prior to the importation of walnuts. To avoid delay the applicant should make advance arrangements... including the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (g) Compliance. Any person violating any of the...

  3. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  4. Biotic health of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge is in the process of converting over 5,000 acres of agricultural land back to native prairie and savanna. The refuge will...

  5. Survey of breeding birds Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the second annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1995. This series of...

  6. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and that funding is only spent on that will deliver more or better medical education. So staffing and other resources will be kept to the minimum required to deliver a high‑quality service. Secondly as in other walks of life, the profit motive should be a driver of innovation, and this should also be the case in medical education.

  7. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  8. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  9. Antiamnesic Effects of Walnuts Consumption on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Harandi, Shaahin; Golchin, Leila; Ansari, Mehdi; Moradi, Alireza; Shabani, Mohammad; Vahid SHEIBANI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alzheimer?s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease, which impairs memory and cognitive function. Walnuts are a dietary source of polyphenols, antioxidants and other compounds with health beneficial effects. These characteristic of walnuts make them perfect candidates for evaluation of their possible effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the effects of walnuts consumption (2%, 6% and 9% walnut diets) on me...

  10. Determinants of Tunisian Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Raoudha Bejaoui; Houssam Bouzgarrou

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the persistence of profit and the effect of bank-specific determinants of Tunisian bank profitability. To account for profit persistence, we apply a dynamic panel model, using Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) system for 16 Tunisian commercial banks, divided into 11 deposit banks and 5 development banks during the period 1999-2010. The estimates show that the evidence for profit persistence is positive and significant for both deposit and development ban...

  11. Allergenic properties and differential response of walnut subjected to processing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut is one of the most frequently involved foods in anaphylactic reactions. We investigated changes in walnut allergenicity after physical treatments by in vitro techniques and physiologically relevant assays. Changes in the allergenicity of walnut subjected to high pressure and thermal/pressur...

  12. Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    This lesson discusses two California communities, Locke and Walnut Grove, that illustrate the experiences of early Asian immigrants and their struggles to find a place in U.S. society. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration files, "Walnut Grove Japanese-American Historic District,""Walnut Grove…

  13. The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study (WAHA): Protocol for a Nutritional Intervention Trial with Walnuts on Brain Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Sujatha; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Cofán, Montserrat; Sabaté, Joan; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Pérez-Heras, Ana M.; Arechiga, Adam; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P.; Alforja, Socorro; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Doménech, Mónica; Roth, Irene; Freitas-Simoes, Tania M.; Calvo, Carlos; López-Illamola, Anna; Haddad, Ella; Bitok, Edward; Kazzi, Natalie; Huey, Lynnley; Fan, Joseph; Ros, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: An unwanted consequence of population aging is the growing number of elderly at risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia and macular degeneration. As nutritional and behavioral changes can delay disease progression, we designed the Walnuts and Healthy Aging (WAHA) study, a two-center, randomized, 2-year clinical trial conducted in free-living, cognitively healthy elderly men and women. Our interest in exploring the role of walnuts in maintaining cognitive and retinal health is based on extensive evidence supporting their cardio-protective and vascular health effects, which are linked to bioactive components, such as n-3 fatty acids and polyphenols. Methods: The primary aim of WAHA is to examine the effects of ingesting walnuts daily for 2 years on cognitive function and retinal health, assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests and optical coherence tomography, respectively. All participants followed their habitual diet, adding walnuts at 15% of energy (≈30–60 g/day) (walnut group) or abstaining from walnuts (control group). Secondary outcomes include changes in adiposity, blood pressure, and serum and urinary biomarkers in all participants and brain magnetic resonance imaging in a subset. Results: From May 2012 to May 2014, 708 participants (mean age 69 years, 68% women) were randomized. The study ended in May 2016 with a 90% retention rate. Discussion: The results of WAHA might provide high-level evidence of the benefit of regular walnut consumption in delaying the onset of age-related cognitive impairment and retinal pathology. The findings should translate into public health policy and sound recommendations to the general population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01634841). PMID:28119602

  14. Evaluation on oxidative stability of walnut beverage emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Fuguo; Xue, Yanhui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-07-15

    Walnut beverage emulsions were prepared with walnut kernels, mixed nonionic emulsifiers and xanthan gum. The effects of food antioxidants on the physical stability and lipid oxidation of walnut beverage emulsions were investigated. The results showed that tea polyphenols could not only increase the droplet size of the emulsions, but also enhance physical stability during the thermal storage at 62 ± 1 °C. However, water-dispersed oil-soluble vitamin E and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin obviously decreased the physical stability of the emulsion system during the thermal storage. BHT and natural antioxidant extract had scarcely influenced on the physical stability of walnut beverage emulsions. Tea polyphenols and BHT could significantly retard lipid oxidation in walnut beverage emulsions against thermal and UV light exposure during the storage. Vitamin E exhibited the prooxidant effect during the thermal storage and the antioxidant attribute during UV light exposure. Other food antioxidants had no significant effect on retarding lipid oxidation during thermal or light storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. METKA - Forest energy profitably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. (FMA Kanta-Hame, Hameenlinna (Finland)); Rieppo, K. (TTS Research, Hameenlinna (Finland)), e-mail: matti.kymalainen@mhy.fi, e-mail: kaarlo.rieppo@tts.fi

    2010-07-01

    The harvesting and profitability of forest energy in Finland is practically entirely dependent on state subsidies. Currently, there is a lot to improve in forest energy knowledge and competence. METKA - Forest energy profitably project (2008-2011) aims at increasing the cost efficiency of the forest energy chain and the volume of the supply chain in Haeme region. The project ia coordinated by Forest Management Association Kanta-Haeme (Kanta-Haemeen Metsanhoitoyhdistys ry). Project partners include FMA Paeijaet-Haeme, TTS Research and the Finnish Forest Research Institute's (METLA) Joensuu unit. METKA -project belongs to the Rural Development Programme for Mainland Finland 2007-2013 and is being funded partly by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). The final project objective is to develop a new operational forest energy model for FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme. In order to create the operational model, the project has been divided into several sub-tasks, in which TTS Research and Metla are responsible for the research. TTS Research conducts studies that focus on forest energy harvesting and processing. The studies investigate especially small-diameter energy wood harvesting. Majority of the studies investigate the use of time, and they form the basis for cost and profit analyses. Metla is responsible or areas of research that contribute to the development of a forest energy storage's moisture estimation algorithm and a forest energy harvesting yield calculation program. Upon completion, the calculation program and the estimation algorithm are integrated to the logistics control system developed by FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme and taken into use as aids in forestry planning. During 2008 and 2009, several practical tests have been performed. Tests will be executed in autumn 2010 as well. The analysis of the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results

  16. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  17. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  19. Physical properties of seeds of African walnut ( Plukenetia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the physical and proximate traits of seeds of African walnut (Plukenetia conophorum) from four locations (states) in south-eastern Nigeria was carried out in 2011. The locations considered were Enugu, Anambra, Abia and Rivers. Results of statistical analysis showed remarkable variation (p < 0.05) in all the seed ...

  20. Effect Of Walnut Leaf, Coriander And Pomegranate On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanism of most of herbal used for diabetes mellitus treatment has not been well defined. This study was performed to investigate hypoglycemic effect of walnut leaf (Juglans regia L.), coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum L.) or pomegranate seed (Punica granatum L.), and their possible role on pancreatic tissue. Diabetes ...

  1. Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of the leaf, stem bark, kernel and root methanol extracts as well as the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of the leaf of Tetracarpidium conophorum, the African walnut, were investigated using the agar cup diffusion and agar broth dilution techniques. Extracts and ...

  2. Changes in walnut and other hardwood markets: 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Scott. Bowe

    2013-01-01

    After a decade of record demand in the 1990s, production and price of hardwood lumber declined moderately between 1999 and 2005 and then plummeted between 2005 and 2009. The decline in hardwood lumber price affected all species. However, walnut was the last species to decline in price, starting in 2007, and has had the largest price increase since hitting its low point...

  3. Detection and partial characterization of two distinct walnut isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... Two new cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) isolates (Ah and Ad) were isolated and detected from ..... Japan, Hungary, USA, Slovakia and New Zealand. The ... CLRV isolates (Rebenstorf et al., 2006) used to compare Turkish CLRV walnut isolates in this study. Nr. Host. Accession number. Geographical origin. 1.

  4. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Key words: Walnut (Juglans regia L.), fruit development, sugar, fat, protein, invertase. INTRODUCTION. The 'hidden hunger' .... mixture, and then determined by KDY-9820 Kjeldahl apparatus. (Beijing Huawei Science and ... Where, V2, Vl, is the measure value at two measure time; T2 – T1is the days between two measure ...

  5. 75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule...

  6. 76 FR 8871 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ..., or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  7. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... CONTACT: Jeff Smutny, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  8. Allelopathic effects of Juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, effects of juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Beith Alpha) seed germination percentage and postgermination seedling growth were investigated. Decomposition was carried out by keeping the leaves in distilled water.

  9. Decision making analysis of walnut seedling production on a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision has to be made between those three alternatives aiming at achievement of optimal/best economic result for the family farm. Summarizing results obtained from the decision tree, simulation and sensitivity analysis, the optimal solution for the family farm should be to continue production of walnut seedlings with ...

  10. Biological and pomological characteristics of superior walnut selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As late spring frosts are a limiting factor to successful growth of walnuts attention was focused on walnut selection in years when late spring frosts occur after bud swelling. This particularly referred to the years of 1998 and 2002, and, partly 2001. In those years, 32 walnut trees were found to produce satisfactory yield in regions severely affected by string spring frosts and were subjected to careful observation in the following years. Of that number, 11 trees were found exceptional. They were characterized by luxuriance, vigour, satisfactory resistance to walnut antracnose, and yielding capacity. Fruits had good quality and favorable characteristics of the shell (smooth, thin, light-colored, easily separable and kernel (relatively smooth, light-colored, tasty. Fruit mass measured 18.0-9.3 g kernel mass 8.6-4.1 g, and kernel content 55.0-47.0%. The kernel contained 67.0-61.1% oil, 19.3-14.5% crude proteins and 2.65-2.12% mineral matter. All investigated selections had been grafted. They were grown in identical conditions, in collection, and the ones found best for commercial growth were selected.

  11. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... country of destination. If a handler makes no shipments during any month he/she shall submit a report... remainder of that marketing year. (b) Reports of walnuts purchased directly from growers by handlers who are...

  12. IDRC-supported documentary A Walnut Tree wins awards at ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... A Walnut Tree follows the lives of Baba, an elderly poet and former teacher, and his family, who were forced to flee their home because of the ongoing conflict between the Pakistani army and the Taliban. The internally displaced family live in a makeshift shelter in the Jalozai settlement near Peshawar in ...

  13. Factors affecting the quality of walnut lumber and veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Cassens

    2004-01-01

    Walnut is a unique species in both its timber and wood characteristics. Although market conditions vary it is generally considered a valuable species. Because of these factors, setting quality (value) levels for both lumber and veneer can be involved. Lumber grades are quantitative thus straight forward once the system is understood. Determining quality in veneer is...

  14. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... 2011-12 marketing year and would therefore be considered small handlers according to the SBA definition... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  15. What's killing my walnuts -- how to find help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry Van Sambeek; Jenny. Juzwik

    2010-01-01

    For the last decade, we have watched as the granulate ambrosia beetle (GAB) formerly the Asian ambrosia beetle spread into the southern region of walnut. Now we are asked to watch for the possible invasion of the thousand canker disease (TCD) complex into the eastern United States assuming we cannot prevent its invasion from the western United States. For both pest...

  16. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawage, Sriema L; Britton, Monica T; Leslie, Charles A; Uratsu, Sandra L; Li, YingYue; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2013-10-01

    Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines

  17. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige for at real......Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige...... sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  18. Walnut twig beetle: update on the biology and chemical ecology of a vector of an invasive fatal disease of walnut in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Seybold; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman

    2011-01-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (sensu Wood 2007), is a native North American bark beetle that has been recently implicated as the vector of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the western U.S. (Tisserat et al. 2009, Utley et al. 2009, Seybold et al. 2010).

  19. Probable walnut-induced anaphylactic reaction in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaher, Ana; Fischer, Nina Maria; Kümmerle-Fraune, Claudia; Couturier, Nicolas; Jacquenet, Sandrine; Favrot, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Anaphylaxis due to nuts is frequent in humans; to the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been reported previously in dogs. A 5-year-old female, intact, Vizsla dog was presented with acute diarrhoea, vomiting, respiratory distress and erythematous wheals. The dog had eaten walnuts, which she had been fed in small amounts for years, hours before the onset of clinical signs. A diagnosis of generalized anaphylaxis was made. Skin testing and Western blotting revealed positive results with walnuts and hazelnuts. This case report illustrates the need for a thorough food history and for recognition that a dog may experience severe allergic reactions to unusual and regularly fed food items. It also shows that allergen specific tests may help to confirm the diagnosis and help in planning the dog's future dietary regime. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Prospects Of Using Walnut In Technologies Of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurikova Inna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in the field of beverage functionality using walnut are presented. The main components such as celery, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, pumpkin and rhubarb, as a dietary supplement - extracts from walnut of milk-maturity stage are offered for creating blends. The basic physical and chemical properties of fruit and vegetable raw materials and semi-finished products created on the base of them have been studied, and their nutritional and biological value has been proved. Rational technologies of fruit and vegetable blends with nut additives have been identified. Their biological value has been confirmed. Drinks are recommended for use in the daily diet of human beings to satisfy thirst and enrich the body by biologically valuable components.

  1. Profit Patterns Across American Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Moss, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    To remain viable, agriculture in each location must offer returns that are competitive with those from alternative investments and sufficient to cover producers' financial obligations. Economic theory says that rates of return converge over time as resources flow into more-profitable industries and out of less-profitable industries, causing factor price changes. Both traditional growth and trade theories say factor markets will adjust to equalize commodity returns over time. This study examin...

  2. Tomographic X-ray data of a walnut

    CERN Document Server

    Hämäläinen, Keijo; Kallonen, Aki; Kujanpää, Antti; Niemi, Esa; Siltanen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    This is the documentation of the tomographic X-ray data of a walnut made available at http://www.fips.fi/dataset.php . The data can be freely used for scientific purposes with appropriate references to the data and to this document in arXiv. The data set consists of (1) the X-ray sinogram of a single 2D slice of the walnut with three different resolutions and (2) the corresponding measurement matrices modeling the linear operation of the X-ray transform. Each of these sinograms was obtained from a measured 120-projection fan-beam sinogram by down-sampling and taking logarithms. The original (measured) sinogram is also provided in its original form and resolution. In addition, a larger set of 1200 projections of the same walnut was measured and a high-resolution filtered back-projection reconstruction was computed from this data; both the sinogram and the FBP reconstruction are included in the data set, the latter serving as a ground truth reconstruction.

  3. Ethanolic Walnut Kernel Phenolic Compounds and its Antimicrobial Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ashrafi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food-borne pathogens are causes of poisoning and gastrointestinal infections. In recent years, it is recommended to use natural materials like plant extracts and essences instead of chemical preservatives in food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of ethanolic walnut kernel and its antimicrobial effect on some food-borne pathogens. Methods: In this experimental study, after collection of walnut kernel, its ethanolic extract was prepared. Then its antimicrobial activity on salmonella typhimurium, shigella disentriae, listeria monocytogenes was examined as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using microdilution method. Chloramphenicol (30µg was used as the reference antimicrobial agent. Total phenols, flavonoids and flavonols were also determined by colorimetric method. Results: The results showed that MIC was between 0.625 and 1.25 mg/ml and MBC was between 1.25 and 2.5mg/ml for ethanolic extract. Total phenols were 365±14.71mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and total flavonoids and flavonols were 285±12.25 and 132± 1.63mg/g rutin equivalent, respectively. Conclusion: These findings showed that walnut kernel has antibacterial effects on three aforementioned bacteria and can substitute for chemical preservatives. More studies, such as examinations in food models are needed to unravel the antimicrobial effects of this plant.

  4. Genetic and ecological insights into glacial refugia of walnut (Juglans regia L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Aradhya

    Full Text Available The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG periods. A maximum entropy method was used to project the current walnut distribution model on to the LGM (21-18 kyr BP and LIG (130-116 kyr BP climatic conditions. Model tuning identified the walnut data set filtered at 10 km spatial resolution as the best for modeling the current distribution and to hindcast past (LGM and LIG distributions of walnut. The current distribution model predicted southern Caucasus, parts of West and Central Asia extending into South Asia encompassing northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern Himalayan region, and southwestern Tibet, as the favorable climatic niche matching the modern distribution of walnut. The hindcast of distributions suggested the occurrence of walnut during LGM was somewhat limited to southern latitudes from southern Caucasus, Central and South Asian regions extending into southwestern Tibet, northeastern India, Himalayan region of Sikkim and Bhutan, and southeastern China. Both CCSM and MIROC projections overlapped, except that MIROC projected a significant presence of walnut in the Balkan Peninsula during the LGM. In contrast, genetic analysis of the current walnut distribution suggested a much narrower area in northern Pakistan and the surrounding areas of Afghanistan, northwestern India, and southern Tajikistan as a plausible hotspot of diversity where walnut may have survived glaciations. Overall, the findings suggest that

  5. Development of disease-resistant walnut rootstocks: Integration of conventional and genomic approaches (SCRI-match Year 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnuts are grown on almost every continent with total world-wide production estimated at over 4 billion in-shell pounds. California walnut growers, who produce 99% of the US walnut crop, produced an estimated 1.2 billion pounds on approximately 310,000 bearing acres with a farm gate value of approx...

  6. Flight Capacity of the Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on a Laboratory Flight Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubree M. Kees; Andrea R. Hefty; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold; Brian H. Aukema

    2017-01-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, and associated fungus Geosmithia morbida Kolarık, Freeland, Utley, & Tisserat constitute the insect–fungal complex that causes thousand cankers disease in walnut, Juglans spp., and wingnut, Pterocarya spp. Thousand...

  7. Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicola J A; Ellmers, Leigh J; Pilbrow, Anna P; Thomsen, Lotte; Richards, Arthur Mark; Frampton, Chris M; Cameron, Vicky A

    2017-07-07

    There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males and females). Compared to standard diet, walnuts did not significantly alter food consumption or body weight trajectory of either MetS-Tg or WT mice. In MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were associated with reductions in oral glucose area under the curve (gAUC, standard diet 1455 ± 54, walnut 1146 ± 91, p = 0.006) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, standard diet 100.6 ± 1.9, walnut 73.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p liver expression of genes associated with metabolism (Fabp1, Insr), cell stress (Atf6, Ddit3, Eif2ak3), fibrosis (Hgf, Sp1, Timp1) and inflammation (Tnf, Ptpn22, Pparg). In conclusion, dietary walnuts were associated with modest favourable effects in WT mice, but a combination of beneficial and adverse effects in MetS-Tg mice, and up-regulation of hepatic pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes in both mouse strains.

  8. Genetic and silvicultural research promoting common walnut (Juglans regia) for timber production in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel E. Hemery

    2004-01-01

    A combination of genetic and silvicultural research is required to improve the viability of common walnut for timber production in the UK. A summary of a research programme, initiated in 1996, is provided. Establishment of walnut plantations using tree shelters indicated positive benefits using 0.75 m shelters but larger shelters (1.20 m) caused early flushing and...

  9. 7 CFR 984.91 - Relationship with the California Walnut Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship with the California Walnut Commission. 984.91 Section 984.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order...

  10. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  11. Long term human impacts on genetic structure of Italian walnut inferred by SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith Woeste; Irene Olimpieri; Danilo Marandola; Francesco Cannata; Maria E Malvolti

    2011-01-01

    Life history traits, historic factors, and human activities can all shape the genetic diversity of a species. In Italy, walnut (Juglans regia L.) has a long history of cultivation both for wood and edible nuts. To better understand the genetic variability of current Italian walnut resources, we analyzed the relationships among the genetic structure...

  12. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in cultivate walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Aradhya; K. Woeste; D. Velasco

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) using 15 microsatellite loci revealed a considerable amount of genetic variation with a mild genetic structure indicating five genetic groups corresponding to the centers of diversity within the home range of walnut in Eurasia. Despite the narrow genetic...

  13. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith Woeste; Francesca Chiocchini; Stefano Del Lungo; Marco Ciolfi; Irene Olimpieri; Virginia Tortolano; Jo Clark; Gabriel E. Hemery; Sergio Mapelli; Maria Emilia Malvolti; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new...

  14. Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut (Juglans regia L.) from Juglans nigra genomic GA enriched library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih. Kafkas

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...

  15. Landscape genetics of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) across its Asian range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith E. Woeste; Francesca Chiocchini; Irene Olimpieri; Virginia Tortolano; Jo Clark; Gabriel E. Hemery; Sergio Mapelli; Maria Emilla. Malvolti

    2014-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. Despite the increasing interest in the development of conservation strategies for walnut germplasm, an accurate and full-scale overview of wild genetic resources of J. regia has not been conducted because natural...

  16. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  17. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  18. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r2≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism.

  19. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  20. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  1. Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Nicola J. A.; Ellmers, Leigh. J.; Pilbrow, Anna P; Lotte Thomsen; Arthur Mark Richards; Chris M Frampton; Cameron, Vicky A.

    2017-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males ...

  2. Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. A. Scott

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg and wild-type (WT mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males and females. Compared to standard diet, walnuts did not significantly alter food consumption or body weight trajectory of either MetS-Tg or WT mice. In MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were associated with reductions in oral glucose area under the curve (gAUC, standard diet 1455 ± 54, walnut 1146 ± 91, p = 0.006 and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, standard diet 100.6 ± 1.9, walnut 73.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001, with neutral effects on gAUC and MAP in WT mice. However, in MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were also associated with trends for higher plasma cholesterol (standard diet 4.73 ± 0.18, walnut 7.03 ± 1.99 mmol/L, p = 0.140 and triglyceride levels (standard diet 2.4 ± 0.5, walnut 5.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, p = 0.061, despite lowering cholesterol and having no effect on triglycerides in WT mice. Moreover, in both MetS-Tg and WT mice, walnuts were associated with significantly increased liver expression of genes associated with metabolism (Fabp1, Insr, cell stress (Atf6, Ddit3, Eif2ak3, fibrosis (Hgf, Sp1, Timp1 and inflammation (Tnf, Ptpn22, Pparg. In conclusion, dietary walnuts were associated with modest favourable effects in WT mice, but a combination of beneficial and adverse effects in MetS-Tg mice, and up-regulation of hepatic pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes in both mouse strains.

  3. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  4. 40 CFR 35.936-4 - Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Profits. 35.936-4 Section 35.936-4... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-4 Profits. Only fair and reasonable profits may be earned by contractors in subagreements under EPA grants. See § 35.937-7 for...

  5. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    , menace, sensual spur, and associations with death along with an assertive presence is seen with black-clad pop performers. This becomes especially clear when comparing the distinctive stage-styles of Siouxsie Sioux (born 1957, UK) and Janelle Monáe (born 1985, USA). Siouxsie Sioux’s late 1970’s black......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  6. Phytochemistry, Bioactivity and Potential Impact on Health of Juglans: the Original Plant of Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongdong; Zhao, Yicheng; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; She, Gaimei

    2016-06-01

    Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research.

  7. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge- Prairie Learning Center : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1993 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report begins by covering the...

  8. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge- Prairie Learning Center : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1995 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report begins by covering the...

  9. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge and Prairie Learning Center : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (now Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) Master Plan is to guide the long-range development of the Refuge,...

  10. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge- Prairie Learning Center : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1994 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report begins by covering the...

  11. Accuracy Assessment Points for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Walnut Canyon National Monument and in the...

  12. Amphibian population survey of Walnut Creek Wildlife Refuge: A habitat comparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, work was begun south of Prairie City, Iowa, to restore abandoned farmland to natural prairie habitat. This area has been named the Walnut Creek National...

  13. Census of trees occurring in the Bat Net region of Walnut Creek Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Walnut Creek Wildlife Refuge is a government funded project attempting to restore 8000 acres of Iowa land to its original prairie form. A census of trees is needed...

  14. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge- Prairie Learning Center : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1992 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report begins by covering the...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Walnut Canyon National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of...

  16. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1990 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The refuge was established on...

  17. A proposal to study the insect fauna of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this proposed study to identify target insect fauna on the Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge by completing comprehensive surveys of remnant...

  18. Bison Grazing and Prairie Restoration at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter inquiring about the type of electric fence charger used at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (now Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge). The...

  19. Field Plot Points for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Walnut...

  20. SMEX02 Sliced Core Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek Watershed, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes sliced soil core moisture data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), conducted during June and July 2002 in the Walnut...

  1. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge- Prairie Learning Center : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1991 annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report begins by covering the...

  2. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research......Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....

  3. Effect of Grafting Method, Graft Cover and Foliar Spray of some Mineral Elements on Persian Walnut Graft-take and Winter Survival Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rezaee; Faranak Naghilou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is an important nut crop in Iran and many parts of the world. One of the major challenges of growing walnut is planting of non-grafted walnut trees in orchards, which leads to the reduction of yield, quality and productivity of walnut orchards. Compared to the other fruit trees, walnut grafting is difficult and even newly grafted walnut seedlings are vulnerable to fall or winter frost chilling, so that most of the seedlings are lost after subjec...

  4. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  5. Potentials of raw and cooked walnuts (Tetracapidium conophorum) as sources of valuable nutrients for good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, O K; Falegbe, O; Moyib, F R

    2015-12-01

    The present study estimated nutrient composition of walnuts before and after cooking with respect to its potential as valuable source of nutrients for daily intake. Walnut fruits were purchased from five different markets in Ijebu-Ode local government area and its environs. The fruits samples were divided into two portions, labelled R (for raw) and C (cooked). The C samples were cooked at 100 degrees C for 1 hr and allowed to cool to room temperature. The seeds of both C and R samples were ground and analyzed for proximate, macro and micro minerals using methods of Association of Official Chemists. The results obtained showed that both raw and cooked walnuts are rich in fat, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) in amounts that are within daily recommended intake per 100 g of walnut seeds. They also contained appreciable levels of protein, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) but with low content of moisture (MC), carbohydrate, fiber, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Boiling significantly affected the levels of protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture content, fat, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and iron The study reveals that walnut is nutritious due to its appreciable level of protein and presence of various essential and macro minerals. Its low content of sodium and potassium is beneficiary in hypertensive condition as snack. The study suggests future bio-fortification of walnut with zinc, which may bring about a co-increase in Ca and protein content.

  6. Nutritional And Health Values Of African Walnut Tetracarpidium Conophorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract African walnut Tetracarpidium conophorum which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae is a perennial climber widely distributed and consumed by the inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. The plant is cultivated principally for the nuts which are consumed as snacks. T. conophorum are a rich source of protein carbohydrate fats and oil vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and overall nutritional wellbeing. T. conophorum contain wonderful plant based polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha linolenic acid. They also contain healthful monosaturated fats. T. conophorum carries many notable plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have disease preventing and health promoting properties. Over all T. conophorum is an important plant with a wide array of potential nutritional and health benefits which demands for development of value added products from them

  7. Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Roberta R; Yim, Sun J; Shearer, Gregory C; Hackman, Robert M; Djurica, Dragana; Newman, John W; Shindel, Alan W; Keen, Carl L

    2015-12-01

    Improved vascular function after the incorporation of walnuts into controlled or high-fat diets has been reported; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect of walnuts is(are) poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and short-term effects of walnut intake on changes in microvascular function and the relationship of these effects to plasma epoxides, the cytochrome-P450-derived metabolites of fatty acids. Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women were randomized to 4 weeks of 5 g or 40 g of daily walnut intake. All outcomes were measured after an overnight fast and 4 h after walnut intake. Microvascular function, assessed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was the primary outcome measure, with serum lipids and plasma epoxides as secondary measures. Compared to 5 g of daily walnut intake, consuming 40 g/d of walnuts for 4 weeks increased the RHI and Framingham RHI. Total cholesterol and low- and high-density cholesterol did not significantly change after walnut intake. The change in RHI after 4 weeks of walnut intake was associated with the change in the sum of plasma epoxides (r=0.65, P=.002) but not with the change in the sum of plasma hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Of the individual plasma epoxides, arachidonic-acid-derived 14(15)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid was most strongly associated with the change in microvascular function (r=0.72, Pfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analyzing profit efficiency of banks in India with undesirable output – Nerlovian profit indicator approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Jayaraman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a holistic approach to measure the profit efficiency of banks, factoring desirable/undesirable outputs, using Nerlovian profit indicator approach. The profit inefficiency of banks has been decomposed into technical and allocation inefficiency using directional distance function. Results reveal that profit inefficiency of banks is primarily due to allocative inefficiency and the impact of technical inefficiency on profit inefficiency is minimal compared to allocative inefficiency, which indicates that banks need to focus on optimal utilization of input–output mix to enhance profit efficiency.

  10. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  11. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  12. The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we use data for 1981 through 1994 on a large sample of U.S. companies to examine the persistence of incremental industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on profitability. Our results indicate that the incremental effects of industry on profitability persist longer than the incremental effects of the corporate parent and of the specific business. Changes in industry structure have a more persistent impact on profitability than do changes in firm structure. © 199...

  13. The Choice of For-Profit College

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I investigate whether students self-select into the US for-profit colleges or whether the choice of for-profit sector is accidental or due to the reasons external to the students (geographic exposure to for-profit providers, tuition pricing, or random circumstances). The main student-level data samples come from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the associated Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS:2000). I estimate a multinomial logit of co...

  14. Farm profitability and Labour Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Amarender A, Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate choice of cropping systems to local agro-ecology increases profitability and employment. The increased labour shortage and reduced profitability are growing concerns to the farmers. Keeping this, the paper written with the following objectives: i) To assess the profitability among different cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics; ii) To assess the labour use pattern among different cropping systems and farm size; iii) To determine the resource use efficiency of the different cr...

  15. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicopathological changes in rats and its prevention by walnut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Saba; Rashid, Hina; Sharma, Shikha; Parvez, Suhel; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic consequences, which result in acute pulmonary toxicity. Bleomycin (BLM) is used to treat various forms of cancers. However, its prolonged administration is associated with major toxicity to respiratory system. We studied the effect of walnut (Juglans regia) extract in a rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicopathy. We also studied parameters of inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress in various groups of animals. Prophylactic treatment of total methanolic extract of walnut at the dose of 150mg/kg b.w. was given per os to Wistar rats for 14days prior to BLM exposure. A single intratracheal injection of BLM (10U/kg b.w.) was administered on the eleventh day of the treatment. There was a marked increase in the hydroxyproline level, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide production, and in the activities of xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase in the lung tissue in BLM-treated animals when compared to control animals. BLM also decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase and catalase and increased the lung inflammation and apoptosis by upregulating the NF-κB signaling pathway and caspase-3 expression. Treatment with walnut extract attenuated these changes in a significant manner. Walnut extract significantly modulated the lung injury as measured by markers of cellular injury such as lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, total cell count, total protein and reduced glutathione in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological findings supported the protective effects of walnut extract against BLM-induced lung injury. Walnut which has been shown to have numerous medicinally valuable constituents including ellagic acid showed efficacy in preventing the various toxicopathological effects of BLM in rat lungs. Overall, walnut extract decreases BLM-induced oxidative stress and lung inflammation by modulating the alveolar macrophage inflammatory response in rats

  16. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  17. Identification of walnut husk (Juglans regia L.) volatiles and the behavioural response of the invasive Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarles, Landry; Boullis, Antoine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Lognay, Georges; Verhaeghe, Agnès; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-10-01

    Several European countries are important walnut (Juglans regia L.) producers. However, these countries must contend with the recent introduction of the Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera, Tephritidae), which is causing severe economic losses, especially in organic production. Because most Tephritid fruit flies use kairomones in their search for host plants, we hypothesise that this highly specialist species orients toward the volatile blend released by walnut husks. We collected, identified, and quantified the volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by walnut husks from the most commonly cultivated variety in France (Franquette). Then, the behavioural response of R. completa toward synthetic odour blends was recorded in dual choice assays conducted in net cages. A total of 26 VOCs were identified, with α-pinene, β-pinene, trans-linalool, eugenol, and tetradecane representing the major constituents. In the dual choice assay, male and female R. completa were strongly attracted to synthetic blend that included most of the identified husk VOCs. When searching for a host plant, R. completa use host fruit kairomones. The potential of these semiochemicals in monitoring and management of this quarantine pest is discussed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. GC-FID and NMR Spectroscopic Studies on Gamma Irradiated Walnut Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilia J. Sinanoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnuts have an excellent fatty acid profile, beneficial for coronary heart diseases. A diet rich in walnuts has shown to decrease the total and LDL cholesterol levels as well as lipoprotein levels. In this study, the effects of different doses of γ-irradiation and different packaging conditions on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of walnuts (Juglans regia L. were investigated merging data from different spectroscopic techniques. Walnuts moisture, ash, fat, and protein content as well as fatty acid profile were evaluated immediately after irradiation. GC-FID results showed that SFA increased and MUFA and PUFA decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Moreover, MUFA/SFA and PUFA/SFA ratios decreased P<0.05 compared to control samples. Furthermore, NMR spectroscopy was implemented to examine possible discrimination patterns based on irradiation dose and packaging. This approach revealed the role of PUFA decrease with the parallel increase of irradiation dose while indicating the protective role of vacuum and MAP compared to air packaging. In conclusion, at irradiation doses of up to 5 kGy, the walnuts retained the nutritional benefits of its fatty acids, in particular MUFA and PUFA. Concerning the different types of packaging, greater stability in the nuts was observed using MAP packaging.

  19. Bacterial community diversity on in-shell walnut surfaces from six representative provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-08-30

    Walnuts (Juglans regia) have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of bacteria on in-shell walnut surfaces from six representative provinces in China. The bacterial populations on walnut surfaces were investigated by high-throughput sequencing based on the bacterial 16 S rRNA hypervariable region V4. Twenty-eight samples were collected from fourteen regions in six provinces and harvested in different periods (the fresh in 2016 and the old in 2015). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in all samples except for XJ1. In XJ1, and the most abundant phylum was Cyanobacteria, which also accounted for a large proportion of the abundance in YN1, YN11, XJ2 and SC11. In addition, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were also the abundant phyla in the given samples. Some genera belonging to the opportunistic pathogens were detected, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia and Bacillus. The results revealed that the composition and abundance of bacterial consortiums on walnut surfaces varied among the geographical sites where they were harvested. Moreover, the storage time of samples also had impact on the abundance of bacteria. This study may provide a better understanding of the bacterial communities' diversity on in-shell walnut surfaces.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Red and Green Walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhou Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit color is an important economic trait. The color of red walnut cultivars is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in the molecular mechanism of leaf and peel color change between red and green walnut. A reference transcriptome of walnut was sequenced and annotated to identify genes related to fruit color at the ripening stage. More than 290 million high-quality reads were assembled into 39,411 genes using a combined assembly strategy. Using Illumina digital gene expression profiling, we identified 4568 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between red and green walnut leaf and 3038 DEGs between red and green walnut peel at the ripening stage. We also identified some transcription factor families (MYB, bHLH, and WD40 involved in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The trends in the expression levels of several genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors in the leaf and peel of red and green walnut were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Together, our results identified the genes involved in anthocyanin accumulation in red walnut. These data provide a valuable resource for understanding the coloration of red walnut.

  1. The walnut (Juglans regia) genome sequence reveals diversity in genes coding for the biosynthesis of non-structural polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich...

  2. 7 CFR 999.500 - Safeguard procedures for walnuts and certain dates exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROPS; IMPORT REGULATIONS... cannot be used for drying and sale as dried walnuts); walnuts used in non-competitive outlets such as use... the Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, AMS, USDA, and shall show the...

  3. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  5. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  6. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  7. Risk Management And Organisational Profitability | Ukandu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of growth and profit maximization in the oil industry has been impaired by a lot of risks. Risk control measures and effective plan are used to reduce the occurrence of such risks. Also, proper risk evaluation techniques are used to evaluate the cost implication of risk on production and the profitability level of such ...

  8. Will farm profits shift in 2013?

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Kauffman

    2012-01-01

    Despite a severe drought, profits in the U.S. farm sector soared in 2012. Beginning in late June, U.S. crops and pastures wilted under one of the worst droughts in history. Although total farm incomes remained high, the drought exacerbated a widening gulf in profitability between the crop and livestock sectors.

  9. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    carried out by marketing scholars. This is not likely to advance marketing theory. After all, accounting to profitability lies at the heart of the marketing concept, Kohli & Jaworski (1990:1-18) and Narver and Slater (1990:35). Similarly, according to Buttle (1996) marketing's link to profitability is stressed in the definitions of.

  10. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  11. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  12. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  13. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  14. Study on the Ingredient Proportions and After-Treatment of Laser Sintering Walnut Shell Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS. WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Results show that, when the volume fraction of the walnut shell powder in the WSPC reaches the maximum (40%, sintered WSPC parts have the smallest warping deformation and the highest dimension precision, although the surface quality, density, and mechanical properties are low. However, performing permeating resin as the after-treatment technology could considerably increase the tensile, bending and impact strength by 496%, 464%, and 516%, respectively.

  15. Protective Effect of Juglans regia L. Walnut Extract Against Oxidative DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; De Bellis, Roberta; Mancini, Umberto; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Stocchi, Vilberto; Potenza, Lucia

    2017-06-01

    Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are relevant components of the Mediterranean diet providing important macronutrients, micronutrients and other bioactive constituents including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and polyphenols. Although the walnut beneficial effects in human health are widely recognized by a lot of epidemiologic studies very little is known regarding its effect on damaged DNA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Juglans regia L. ethanolic extract from kernel on the induction of DNA strand breaks by thiol/Fe3+/O2 mixed function oxidase, tert-butyl hydroperoxide or UVC radiations in acellular and cellular models. Plasmid DNA cleavage and fast Halo assay were used to monitor oxidative damage to DNA. Both approaches showed protection of oxidatively injured DNA. These results agree with a lot of scientific proofs which recommend walnut as dietary adjunct in health promotion and prevention as well as in treatment of lifestyle-related oxidative diseases.

  16. The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Sheila G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tocopherols may protect against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods We assessed the effect of walnuts, which are rich in tocopherols, on markers of prostate and vascular health in men at risk for prostate cancer. We conducted an 8-week walnut supplement study to examine effects of walnuts on serum tocopherols and prostate specific antigen (PSA. Subjects (n = 21 consumed (in random order their usual diet +/- a walnut supplement (75 g/d that was isocalorically incorporated in their habitual diets. Prior to the supplement study, 5 fasted subjects participated in an acute timecourse experiment and had blood taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after consuming walnuts (75 g. Results During the timecourse experiment, triglycerides peaked at 4 h, and gamma-tocopherol (γ-T increased from 4 to 8 h. Triglyceride – normalized γ-T was two-fold higher (P = 0.01 after 8 versus 4 h. In the supplement study, change from baseline was +0.83 ± 0.52 μmol/L for γ-T, -2.65 ± 1.30 μmol/L for alpha-tocopherol (α-T and -3.49 ± 1.99 for the tocopherol ratio (α-T: γ-T. A linear mixed model showed that, although PSA did not change, the ratio of free PSA:total PSA increased and approached significance (P = 0.07. The α-T: γ-T ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01, partly reflecting an increase in serum γ-T, which approached significance (P = 0.08. Conclusion The significant decrease in the α-T: γ-T ratio with an increase in serum γ-T and a trend towards an increase in the ratio of free PSA:total PSA following the 8-week supplement study suggest that walnuts may improve biomarkers of prostate and vascular status.

  17. Estimating willingness to pay for protection of eastern black walnut from deer damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Godsey; John P. Dwyer

    2008-01-01

    For many landowners willing to plant trees, one of the biggest establishment and maintenance costs is protecting those young trees from deer browse damage. In some cases, the method of protection used can cost two to three times as much as the cost of planting. Deer damage such as nipping off terminal buds and buck rub penetrating the bark and cambial tissue can kill...

  18. Designing specific chloroplast markers for black walnut from a set of universal primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Victory; Rodney L. Robichaud; Keith Woeste

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplasts are a valuable source of genetic information because their sequence is highly conserved, they undergo little or no recombination, and they are uniparentally inherited. Chloroplast polymorphisms are powerful genetic tools for identifying matrilineal family groups, studying gene flow from seed versus pollen movement, reconstructing phylogeographic...

  19. Facilitating nutrient aquisition of black walnut and other hardwoods at plantation establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert

    2004-01-01

    Bareroot hardwood seedlings typically undergo transplant shock immediately following planting before root systems are established. Fertilization at planting may act to minimize transplant shock by reducing nutrient stresses. However, previous work with fertilization of hardwoods at planting has generally relied on fertilizers with nutrient forms immediately available....

  20. New high profitable wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Vrsalovic, Ivan [Rijekaprojekt d.o.o., Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-11-01

    To generate more quantities of electric energy from wind it is necessary to use a new type of wind turbine built in the regulable mantle's nozzle. This wind turbine type replaces the free air stream from wind by a programmed, i.e. regulated, and partially concentrated stream of air. The nozzle shell is designed as an aerodynamically shaped ring with wings with its lower pressure side pointed towards the centre so that the lift force on each part of the wing is directed radially towards the centre. This induces centrifugal reaction force in the airflow that causes the stream field to expand strongly downstream of the rotor and includes a greater number of streamlines in the active stream in front of the rotor (upstream). Thus the nozzle forces a higher mass flow rate of air through the turbine. The higher mass flow and higher velocity reduction behind the rotor result in a higher energy output from the wind turbine in the nozzle. In this way the wind turbine efficiency is multiplied. New turbines induce more power from weaker and medium winds and their lasting time, because of the relation p = f(v{sup 3}) (i.e. the power corresponds to wind velocity raised to third power). Wind turbine nozzle produces three times more energy than conventional wind turbine. Short economic analysis for conditions of the island of Lastovo indicates that profit gained by new turbines is up to five times higher than by conventional turbines. The new wind turbine nozzle should generate interest and demand on an international market, even for regions with weaker winds. (Author)

  1. Preparation of activated carbon from walnut shell and its application in industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yilin

    2017-05-01

    With the development of China's industry, the content of heavy metal ions in wastewater is increasing. In this paper, analyzed the performance of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell by chemical activation method, and conduct the experimental research on the factors influencing the performance of activated carbon by using the control variable method. The best method for preparing activated carbon from walnut shell was put forward. In the industrial wastewater treatment technology to lay the foundation for the application. Lay the foundation for the promotion of industrial wastewater treatment technology.

  2. The Process Management in Non - Profit Organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagmara Bubel; Sylwia Legowik-Swiacik; Michal Dziadkiewicz; Anna Wisniewska-Salek

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to learn about the implementation of the process management concepts in the non-profit organisations and the possible evaluation of effectiveness raise of the organisations' functioning...

  3. Donations and Differentiation: Three Essays on Non-Profit Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfolds, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given increased competition with for-profit firms, the issue of the comparative advantage of non-profit organizations is renewed. While non-profits may want to differentiate themselves when faced with additional non-profit competition, it is unclear whether they would want to differentiate themselves or converge towards for-profit competitors. This paper addresses this issue by considering the different financing models, human resource systems, and objectives of non-profit organizations, as c...

  4. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  5. Tax Evasion, Monopoly, and Nonneutral Profit Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kangoh

    1998-01-01

    It is known in the literature that tax evasion does not influence the monopolist's output decision, and hence, profit taxes are neutral, even in the presence of tax evasion. This result is based on the assumption that the audit probability and the penalty rate are fixed or depend on the understatement or overstatement of relevant economic indicators. However, under alternative and perhaps more reasonable formulations of the audit probability, the neutrality of profit taxes may not be preserve...

  6. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. \\ud The following findings emerged from the study: \\ud • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public\\ud • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small non...

  7. Inclusive governance in non-profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Borzaga, Carlo; Sacchetti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The study of private non-profit enterprises that offer general interest services is only at the start. The understanding of existing organisations resists an inclusive, public interest view of governance. This contribution aims at providing a reflection on specific features that non-profit enterprises should have, and outlines four main justifications for including stakeholders in production governance: 1) access to knowledge and other resources, 2) trust creation, 3) internal efficiency, 4) ...

  8. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Kundid; Blanka Škrabić; Roberto Ercegovac

    2011-01-01

    The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overa...

  9. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarín, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  10. Energy Conflicts and Differential Profits: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Bichler, Shimshon; Nitzan, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, we identified a new phenomenon that we called ‘energy conflicts’ and showed that these conflicts were intimately linked to the differential profitability of the leading oil companies. This link remains as true today as it was in the early 1970s. Like earlier energy conflicts, the ‘Arab Spring’, the outsourced wars that followed and the third Gulf War against ISIS continue to march to the drum beat of differential profits.

  11. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  12. TURKISH BANKING SECTOR’S PROFITABILITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Kakilli ACARAVCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of banking sector is the most important instrument of financial system for the future of the economy. The objective of this study is to determine by using Johansen and Juselius cointegration test approach of the bank specific and macroeconomic factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks in Turkish banking sector. In study, the data are collected from the three biggest state-owned, privately-owned and foreign banks. The sample period spans from 1998 to 2011. In the study, return of asset, return of equity and net interest margin were used as proxy for profitability of banks. The bank specific determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability are total credits/total assets, total deposits/total assets, total liquid assets/total assets, total wage and commission incomes/ total assets, total wage and commission expenses/total assets, the logarithm of total assets and total equity/total assets. The macroeconomic determinants of study are real gross domestic product, inflation rate, real exchange rate and real interest rate. Empirical findings suggest that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks. The reel gross domestic product and real exchange rate have been effective on the profitability. In addition, the 2001 economic crisis has a negative effect on all Turkish Banking sector.

  13. Comparative study of functional properties of eight walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci CERİT

    Full Text Available Abstract Eight walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes were assessed for the glutathione (GSH and total phenolic contents (TPC, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The GSH contents were between 1.1 and 7.2 mg 100 g-1. The TPC contents ranged from 33 to 50.3 mg GAE g-1, while the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values ranged from 156 to 302 mg FeSO4 g-1. A strong correlation (r2=0.8258 was determined between the FRAP values and the TPC. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC values ranged from 13 to 35 mg trolox g-1. The correlation between the CUPRAC values and the GSH contents was weak (r2=0.2069. The walnut extracts (0.2 mg mL-1 concentration showed 16.2-40% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity. A strong correlation between DPPH-TPC was determined (r2=0.8538, and it was concluded that the TPC makes the most important contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the walnut. Additionally, the walnut may be appraised, in view of its nutritional value and health benefits, by considering the GSH content revealed in the current study.

  14. Evaluation of some Phenological and Pomological Characteristics of Selected Walnut Genotypes from Shahroud-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Akhiani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first step in walnut breeding programs is to identify and evaluate superior genotypes of fruit trees. Hence, there are various walnut breeding programs in various areas of Iran. A study aimed to evaluate the morphological and chemical characteristics of selected superior genotypes of walnut was conducted in the Shahroud region in 2011-2012.  The following genotypes were selected in this study as the best walnut genotypes:  X-18 homogamous genotypes due to desirable late leafing;   genotype X-11 for its high percentage of kernel production, easily removal of shell, thin shell; genotype X-52 due to its kernel plumpness compared to other genotypes, thin shell and high percentage of kernel and genotype X-70 for its kernel brightness, easily kernel extracting and high percentage of kernels. The X-49 and X-5 genotypes had the highest amount of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids and higher nutritional quality compared to other genotypes. Three genotypes, X-3, X-11 and X-22, had the highest amount of oil. Genotypes X-9 and X-45 had the highest amount of protein. The difference between oil content and fatty acid compositions was presumably due to genetic diversity and ecological conditions of the studied genotypes cultivation.

  15. Evaluation of some walnut genotypes in the west of Iran using fruit characteristics and RAPD marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Zare-rashnoodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. belongs to the family Juglandaceae is one of the most important nut crops in Iran. In this research, morphometric and genetic variations among some genotypes of Persian walnut collected from different parts of west Iran were evaluated based on nut characteristics and RAPD markers. In the first experiment, 29 traits related to nut and kernel were used to evaluate genetic potential of 119 walnut genotypes. The primary results of fruit morphometric characteristics showed that there is high variability in the some evaluated traits such as fruit shape, nut diameter and Kernel removal from nut in studied genotypes. Also, in the second experiment, the genetic diversity among 50 genotypes of walnut was evaluated using 13 RAPD markers. A total of 87 alleles were produced in the 13 RAPD markers with their sizes ranging from 140 to 2500 bp. The number of observed alleles for each locus ranged from 4 (OPA-18 and OPA-13 to 11 (OPA-09, with an average of 6.46 alleles per locus. Shannon's information index (I value was observed to be highest (3.20 in the OPA-09 locus, while the OPA-13 locus had the lowest value (0.70 with an average of 1.66 among RAPD locus. The Jaccards’ genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.08 to 0.79 among genotypes. Finally, our results demonstrate some of these genotypes have been desirable traits and must be conserved as valuable genetic resources, from the perspective of breeding.

  16. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Protein Hydrolysates Using Different Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbani, Raheleh; Ghaffari, S Mahmood; Salami, Maryam; Vahdati, Kourosh; Sepehri, Houri; Sarvestani, Nazanin Namazi; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species. Walnut protein hydrolysates were also tested, for the first time, against the viability of human breast (MDA-MB231) and colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines. MTT, [3-(4, 5dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide], assay was used to assess in vitro cancer cell viability upon treatment with the peptide fractions. The peptide fractions showed cell growth inhibition of 63 ± 1.73 % for breast cancer and 51 ± 1.45 % for colon cancer cells. Thus, a direct correlation between antioxidant and anticancer activities of walnut peptide fractions exists and supports their potential therapeutic benefit.

  17. Quantifying residues from postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel analytical approach, involving solvent extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by gas chromatography (GC), was developed to quantify residues that result from the postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide (PPO). Verification and quantification of PPO,...

  18. Effect of Thermal Processing on the Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Antioxidant Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African Walnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olanrewaju Arinola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal processing (roasting and boiling on the nutritional, antinutritional, and antioxidant properties of African walnut was studied. Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut was subjected to thermal treatment of roasting (RWIS, boiling with shell (BWIS, and boiling without shell (BWOS. The resulting samples with raw nut (RAAW which served as control were analysed for proximate composition, antinutritional components, and antioxidant activity. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the samples on dry basis were 29.14%, 54.14%, and 3.32% (RAAW; 24.13%, 61.75%, and 2.77% (BWIS; 22.47%, 62.65%, and 2.16% (BWOS; and 24.25%, 60.52%, and 2.48% (RWIS, respectively. Thermal processing had significant effect on all the proximate principles; boiling and roasting generally reduced the protein and ash contents of the nut. Boiling with or without shell reduced the phytate and tannin contents of the nut while roasting increased the level of these two antinutritional components; walnut boiled without shell however, had the lowest phytate and tannin contents of 0.815 mg/100 g and 0.239 mg/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were 8.47% (RAAW, 13.82% (BWIS, 14.96% (BWOS, and 7.29% (RWIS. This study reveals that thermal processing has a significant effect on the proximate principles, bioavailability, and antioxidant activity of African walnut.

  19. Differential effects of walnuts vs almonds on improving metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalgaonkar, S; Almario, R U; Gurusinghe, D; Garamendi, E M; Buchan, W; Kim, K; Karakas, S E

    2011-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased inflammation, which all benefit from dietary intake of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 PUFA). Our goal was to compare the effects of MUFA-rich almonds vs n-3/n-6 PUFA-rich walnuts on metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS. Thirty-one PCOS patients randomly received either walnuts or almonds containing 31 g of total fat per day for 6 weeks. At the beginning and at the end, anthropometric parameters, fasting lipids, phospholipid-fatty acids, inflammatory markers, androgens, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous-GTT were obtained. Weight remained stable. Within group, walnuts increased the n-3/n-6 essential PUFA in the diet and plasma phospholipids. Walnuts decreased low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 6% from 3.76 ± 0.27 to 3.38 ± 0.22 mmol/l (P = 0.05) and apoprotein B by 11% from 0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.05 g/l (P PCOS.

  20. York University PhD Thesis about the voyage of the Walnut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    York'i Ülikooli sotsiaalantropoloogia üliõpilase Lynda Männiku uurimistööst, mis käsitleb 1948. a. novembris ohtliku merereisi Briti miinilaeval "Walnut" Rootsist Kanadasse üle elanud inimeste, kelle hulgas oli ka Lynda isa, saatust

  1. Socio-economic potentials and threats to the African walnut in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snowball and simple random sampling techniques were used to collect data from harvesters (8) and marketers (51) within and around Omo and Shasha Forest Reserves, Southwest Nigeria. Data obtained were analysed by means of descriptive and inferential test statistics. An estimated 30.01kg of African walnut was ...

  2. Effects of Walnut Consumption on Mood in Young Adults—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pribis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Walnuts contain a number of potentially neuroprotective compounds like vitamin E, folate, melatonin, several antioxidative polyphenols and significant amounts of ω-3 fatty acids. The present study sought to determine the effect of walnuts on mood in healthy volunteers. Sixty-four college students were randomly assigned to two treatment sequences in a crossover fashion: walnut–placebo or placebo–walnut. At baseline mood was assessed using Profiles of Mood States (POMS. Data was collected again after eight weeks of intervention. After six-weeks of washout, the intervention groups followed the diets in reverse order. Data was collected once more at the end of the eight-week intervention period. No significant changes in mood were observed in the analyses with both genders combined and in females. However, we have observed a significant medium effect size improvement in the Total Mood Disturbance score (−27.49%, p = 0.043, Cohen’s d = 0.708 in males. In non-depressed healthy young males, walnuts seem to have the ability to improve mood.

  3. Green Fabrication of Copper Nanoparticles Dispersed in Walnut Oil Using Laser Ablation Technique

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    Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of copper nanoparticles was achieved by laser irradiation of copper plate in walnut oil. The copper plate was irradiated using Nd:YAG pulse laser at different ablation time from 5 to 50 minutes, and the prepared samples were characterized using analytical methods to find the optical absorption, morphology, particle size, and capping of copper nanoparticles with walnut oil. Consequently, the absorption peak appeared at about 615, 606, 588, 576, and 561 nm; and the nanoparticles formed in spherical shape in walnut oil. The particle size varied from 25 to 4.01 nm, and the tail of the carbonyl band capped the copper nanoparticles through the electron transfer from the carboxylic group to copper nanoparticles. The refractive indices of the nanofluid were measured using a surface plasmon resonance technique and changed from 1.4691 + 0.008i to 1.4682 + 0.043i as the volume fraction increased from 0.0257 × 10−5 to 1.26 × 10−5. Consequently, the laser ablation method is environmentally sensitive (i.e., green and thus is suitable for the fabrication of copper nanoparticles in walnut oil without any agent.

  4. Composition, Structure and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrates and Isolates Produced from Walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Mao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC and protein isolate (WPI produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC and walnut protein isolate (WPI were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H0 of WPC was significantly higher ( p < 0.05 than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H0 compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC. Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  5. Weyl-Heisenberg frames, translation invariant systems, and the Walnut representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.G.; Christensen, Ole; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the convergence properties of the frame operators of Weyl-Heisenberg systems and shift-invariant systems, and relate these to the convergence of the Walnut representation. We give a deep analysis of necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for converge...

  6. Sorting in-shell walnuts using near infrared spectroscopy for improved drying efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current walnut drying practice, dryers comingle nuts with varying moisture contents (MC) which results in over drying of nuts with low MC and thereby decrease product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate correlations among near infrared (NIR) spectral data and MC of fr...

  7. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  8. Ancient humans influenced the current spatial genetic structure of common walnut populations in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith E. Woeste; Francesca Chiocchini; Stefano Del Lungo; Irene Olimpieri; Virginia Tortolano; Jo Clark; Gabriel E. Hemery; Sergio Mapelli; Maria Emilia Malvolti; Gyaneshwer. Chaubey

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J....

  9. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one.

  10. Varietal diversity of walnuts in the Crimea and the perspective of its use in selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Ю. Хохлов

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying of walnuts collection have been given; the evaluation of the assortment according to resistance to unfavorable climatic conditions has been done; some varieties have been recommended for using in breeding and introduction in industry.

  11. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  12. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  13. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  14. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes to this chal......Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...

  15. The Effect of Walnut Oil Consumption on Blood Sugar in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaeenezhad, Mohammadjavad; Aghasadeghi, Kamran; Hakimi, Hossein; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Nikaein, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is increasing globally. Considering the potential role of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in prevention of DM type 2 and lipid profiles improvement, some studies have been carried out on walnut. However, there are no studies on control of blood sugar in DM type 2 patients using walnut. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of walnut oil on blood sugar in DM type 2 patients. Methods This randomized control clinical trial was performed on 100 patients with DM type 2. For the experiment group (n = 50), walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was added to their diet, while the control group (n = 50) did not undergo any interventions. Before initiation of the experiment and after the experiment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c were measured. Results The two groups were not significantly different for SBP, DBP, body weight, and Body Mass Index. HbA1c level decreased significantly in the experiment group by 7.86% ± 21.97 (P = 0.005) from 7.00 ± 1.08 before the intervention to 6.37 ± 1.29 after the intervention. Also, FBS level decreased significantly by 8.24% ± 16.77 (P = 0.001); from 158.37 ± 48.16 before the intervention to 137.91 ± 23.24 after the intervention in the experimental group. These changes in the control group were not significant. Conclusions Consumption of walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was shown to improve blood glucose level but, no changes were noted for bodyweight and blood pressure in type two diabetic patients. PMID:28115966

  16. Pet Fiber Reinforced Wet-Mix Shotcrete with Walnut Shell as Replaced Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing modern society, many raw materials, such as crushed limestone and river sand, which are limited, are consumed by the concrete industry. Naturally, the usage of waste materials in concrete have become an interesting research area in recent years, which is used to reduce the negative influence of concrete on the environment. Hence, this paper presents the development of a sustainable lightweight wet-mix shotcrete by replacing natural coarse gravel with a kind of byproduct, nut shell (walnut. Fibers made from dumped polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles were mixed in the composite to improve the properties of the lightweight wet-mix shotcrete. The initial evaluation of the fresh concrete mixed with different volume fraction of walnut shell was carried out in terms of its performance capacities of mechanical properties (i.e., tensile and compressive strength, pumpability and shootability (i.e., slump, pressure drop per meter and rebound rate and the results were compared with plain concrete. With increase of walnut shell, compressive and splitting tensile strength of casting concrete decreased, while slump and pressure drop reduced slightly. Additionally, appropriate dosage of walnut shell can improve the shootability of fresh concrete with low rebound rate and larger build-up thickness. In the second series tests, polypropylene (PP fiber and multi-dimension fiber were also mixed in composite for comparative analysis. After mixing fibers, the splitting tensile strength had obtained marked improvement with slight reduction of compressive strength, along with acceptable fluctuation in terms of pumpability and shootability. Furthermore, relation of density and compressive strength, relation of rebound and density, build-up thickness and relation of compressive and splitting tensile strength were discussed. This study found wet-mix shotcrete incorporating PET fiber with walnut shell of about 35% coarse aggregate replacement

  17. Black Saturn

    OpenAIRE

    Elvang, Henriette; Figueras, Pau

    2007-01-01

    Using the inverse scattering method we construct an exact stationary asymptotically flat 4+1-dimensional vacuum solution describing Black Saturn: a spherical black hole surrounded by a black ring. Angular momentum keeps the configuration in equilibrium. Black saturn reveals a number of interesting gravitational phenomena: (1) The balanced solution exhibits 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness for fixed mass and angular momentum; (2) Remarkably, the 4+1d Schwarzschild black hole is not unique, sin...

  18. PROFIT: Bayesian profile fitting of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D. S.; Tobar, R.; Moffett, A.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We present PROFIT, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. PROFIT consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (PROFIT) and PYTHON (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit, respectively). R PROFIT is also available pre-built from CRAN; however, this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sérsic, Core-Sérsic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source, and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Sérsic profile for the most common values of the Sérsic index n (0.5 automated bulge-disc decomposition with PROFIT on SDSS, KiDS, and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

  19. Extraction and Characterization of Natural Dye from Green Walnut Shells and Its Use in Dyeing Polyamide: Focus on Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of dyes from walnut using Soxhlet apparatus has been studied. The color components extracted and isolated from walnut shells were characterized by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, mass spectroscopy (MS, and infrared (IR techniques. Natural dye extract obtained from the walnut was used in dyeing polyamide fabrics with different mordants. The dyed fabrics were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria. As such, the relationship between antibacterial activity and dye concentration is investigated. Durability of antibacterial activity to laundering is also discussed. Results indicate that the polyamide dyed with walnut displayed excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of ferric sulfate, cupric sulfate, and potassium aluminum sulfate and exhibited good and durable fastness properties.

  20. 48 CFR 1615.404-70 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.404-70 Profit analysis factors. (a) OPM contracting officers..., will likely serve to diminish this profit analysis factor in an overall determination of profit. This...

  1. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overall banking intermediation. Return on assets (ROA is profitability indicator used in the analysis. The presented research results and their economic interpretation may serve as a valuable foundation for the general assessment of commercial bank management in Croatia as well as for identifying several sources of potential improvement and impairment of their financial performance in the future. Thus, corrective actions could be planned and implemented in advance.

  2. IMPROVEMENTS IN ACCOUNTING OF BREWERIES’ PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sklyaruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of the profit of breweries, taking into account the specifics of the production process and business peculiarities were identified. There were found out the specificity of calculation of the expenses, considering the norms of the technological process, the duration of the operating cycle and the specifics of the production of beer and non-alcoholic products, which determine the methodology of formation of the prime price of the products and the price of its sale. The expediency of using the method for phases (with semi-ready and not semi- ready option method of calculation of the semi-finished products of own production there was proved. The irrelevance of using Account 44 “Undistributed profit (uncovered loss” according to its purpose under the current Plan of accounts is shown. The model of using the profit based on the proposed sub-accounts was built and the example of their use was shown.

  3. Determination of Chemical Composition, Physical Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Treated Walnut Hull by Neurospora Sitophila through Nylon Bag and Gas Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoomeh Takalloozadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, chemical composition, gas production characteristics, effective degradability and nutritive value index (NVI of DM and CP by in situ method of treated walnut hull by Nurospora Sitophila were studied. Three fistulated Kermani ram were used for determination of Walnut hull degradability. Data were analysed using completely randomize design. By processing walnut hull with Neurospora Sitophila, water holding capacity and total content of tannin and phenol decreased significantly, while the insoluble ash increased significantly. Processing had no significant effect on degradability parameters and NVI of dry matter and crude protein. Gas production volume in untreated Walnut hull in times 6, 12 and 24 hours increased significantly with comparison to the treated Walnut hull. Generally, processing of walnut hull with Nurospora Sitophila had no significant effect on nutritive value of this feedstuff.

  4. The effect of partial substitution of pork back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts on chemical composition, texture profile and sensorial properties of meatloaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dănuţ MOCANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of the partial substitution of the pork back fat with different vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, walnut and sunflower and walnuts on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory characteristics of meatloaves. The dry matter and ash content of meatloaf with vegetable oils and walnuts were higher than the control sample (P < 0.05. The cooking loss, energy values and lipid oxidation for the samples with walnuts and vegetable oils were lower than the control sample. The meatloaf sample containing walnuts and sea buckthorn oil had the highest total antioxidant capacity. The partial substitution of pork back fat showed a positive effect on textural and sensorial characteristics. Results reveal that the incorporation of vegetable oils and walnuts has successfully reduced the animal fat content in the finite products while improving the quality characteristics.

  5. Effects of Ethephon on Fresh In-Husk Walnut Preservation and its Possible Relationship with Phenol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liang, Shuangjie; Ma, Huiling; Zhang, Pingping; Shi, Weina

    2016-08-01

    Fresh walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are in demand due to their high nutrition value and unique flavor of the kernel. In this study the effects of ethephon on decay control and kernel quality of fresh walnuts and its possible relationship with phenolic metabolism were investigated. Fresh in-husk walnuts treated with 0, 10, 500, and 800 mg/L ethephon were stored at 0 ± 0.5 °C for 42 d. Decay incidence, total phenolic (TP) compounds, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol-oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities of green husks, and acid values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) of kernels were assessed at 6-d intervals. The respiration rate of the whole walnut was assessed at 3-d intervals. Treatment with 500 mg/L ethephon enhanced respiration, reduced the decay index, and inhibited PPO and POD activity and browning of green husks, and also promoted PAL activity and TP content of green husks. This treatment also reduced the PV and AV of kernels. A concentration of 10 mg/L ethephonhad similar, but weaker, effects on walnuts. Treatment with 8000 mg/L ethephon, however, had opposite effects. These data indicate ethephon treatment at a proper concentration can extend storage life and maintain kernel quality of fresh in-husk walnuts through the manipulation of phenolic metabolism. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L. Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa.

  7. A cross sectional study of the association between walnut consumption and cognitive function among adult US populations represented in NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, L; Ang, A

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between walnut consumption and measures of cognitive function in the US population. Nationally representative cross sectional study using 24 hour dietary recalls of intakes to assess walnut and other nut consumption as compared to the group reporting no nut consumption. 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 rounds of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Representative weighted sample of US adults 20 to 90 years of age. The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System 2 (NES2), consisting of simple reaction time (SRTT), symbol digit substitution (SDST), the single digit learning (SDLT), Story Recall (SRT) and digit-symbol substitution (DSST) tests. Adults 20-59 years old reporting walnut consumption of an average of 10.3 g/d required 16.4ms less time to respond on the SRTT, P=0.03, and 0.39s less for the SDST, P=0.01. SDLT scores were also significantly lower by 2.38s (P=0.05). Similar results were obtained when tertiles of walnut consumption were examined in trend analyses. Significantly better outcomes were noted in all cognitive test scores among those with higher walnut consumption (P consumption and cognitive functions among all adults, regardless of age, gender or ethnicity suggest that daily walnut intake may be a simple beneficial dietary behavior.

  8. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector......, the article discusses conditions for prospective democracy in the Danish non-profit housing sector....

  9. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the colonization of ... make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond psyllium. ...

  10. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of black tea is LIKELY SAFE for most adults. Drinking too much black tea, such as more than ... reduce some of the heart health benefits of drinking tea. Milk might bind with the antioxidants in tea and ...

  11. Synthesis of walnut shell modified with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles for efficient removal of humic acid from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Ali; Shahabi, Habibeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Zarei, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this research was to study the efficiency of modified walnut shell with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the adsorption of humic acid from aqueous solutions. This experimental study was carried out in a batch condition to determine the effects of factors such as contact time, pH, humic acid concentration, dose of adsorbents (raw walnut shell, modified walnut shell with TiO2 and ZnO) on the removal efficiency of humic acid. pHzpc of raw walnut shell, walnut shell modified with TiO2 and walnut shell modified with ZnO were 7.6, 7.5, and 8, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of humic acid at concentration of 30 mg/L, contact time of 30 min at pH = 3 in an adsorbent dose of 0.02 g of walnut shell and ZnO and TiO2 modified walnut shell were found to be 35.2, 37.9, and 40.2 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that the studied adsorbents tended to fit with the Langmuir model. Walnut shell, due to its availability, cost-effectiveness, and also its high adsorption efficiency, can be proposed as a promising natural adsorbent in the removal of humic acid from aqueous solutions.

  12. The Effect of Whip Grafting Method on Grafting Success and Plant Development in Some Cultivars of Anatolian Walnut (Juglans Regia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    OZEL, Halil Barıs; DEMİR, Kadriye

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whip grafting methods on graft success and plant development (the length and diameter of graft shoot) in open rooted walnut plant production. In the study, scion woods of “Chandler, Maraş-18, Şebin, Kaman-1, Kaman-2, Bilecik and Şen-2” walnut cultivars and one year old walnut rootstocks were used. The study was carried out in the open field and under shaded greenhouse conditions. Walnut seedlings were dug out in February and were tak...

  13. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  14. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...

  15. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...

  16. 262 257 Profitability Analysis of Three Met

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Profitability Analysis of Three Methods of Suya Production and Marketing in. Maiduguri metropolitan Council, Borno State, ... N 1.25:1 and N 1.1:1 for Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu production and marketing enterprises, respectively. The marketing ... packaging and retailing. It is retailed to consumers in cement ...

  17. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry farmers in Yola metropolis of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... The major constraints includes: high input costs, unstable market, power supply, diseases, loans, government assistance and to lack of poultry management ...

  18. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  19. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  20. Continuous sawmill studies: protocols, practices, and profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...

  1. How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

  2. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato. (Ipomea batatas L.) in a humid Ultisols. ... this permits the growing of two or three crop cycles in a year. This crop is usually produced ...... vegetative growth as evidenced by number of leaves, vines, shorter internodes and ...

  3. Data Sparseness and Variance in Accounting Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); M.J. Burger (Martijn); D. Skuras (Dimitris)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A central question in strategic management is why some firms perform better than others. One approach to addressing this question empirically is to decompose the variance in firm-level profitability into firm, industry, location, and year components. Although it is

  4. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  5. Profitability Analysis of Groundnuts Processing in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the profitability of groundnuts processing in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of groundnut processors, estimate the costs and returns in groundnut processing and determine the return on investment in ...

  6. Anaphylaxis due to Brazil nut skin testing in a walnut-allergic subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Schiappoli, M; Passalacqua, G

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of nut allergy can be difficult because of the possible severity of the clinical manifestations and the cross reactivity between different species. We report a case of anaphylaxis due to skin testing in a young adult with clinically ascertained walnut allergy. After an episode of anaphylaxis due to walnut ingestion, a routine diagnostic workup was carried out, involving skin prick test with commercial extracts, prick by prick with fresh food and CAP-RAST assay for different nuts. Immediately after pricking with fresh Brazil nut, a severe episode of anaphylaxis occurred, that required epinephrine and intravenous steroids. The subject had never eaten Brazil nut before. Therefore we hypothesize a cross reactivity effect, since this phenomenon is well known for tree nuts. Our case suggests that in vivo diagnosis, especially if fresh nuts are used, should be performed only if adequate equipment to treat anaphylaxis is available.

  7. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  9. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.; Radočaj Olga F.; Borić Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and ...

  10. A new naphthalenone isolated from the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Pi, Xin-Mei; Yu, Chang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study of green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. led to the isolation of a new naphthalenone, (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-butoxy-5-hydroxy-naphthalen-1(2H)-one (1), together with 16 known compounds. Compounds 4-6, 13, 14 and 17 were isolated from the genus Juglans for the first time, and their chemotaxonomic significance was also evaluated.

  11. Le documentaire A Walnut Tree, produit grâce à l'appui du CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juin 2016 ... Le documentaire A Walnut Tree, produit grâce à l'appui du CRDI et racontant le quotidien difficile d'une famille pakistanaise déplacée à l'intérieur de son propre pays, a remporté le Grand Prix du meilleur film du festival DOKer de Moscou en mai, ainsi que le prix FIPRESCI (Fédération internationale de la ...

  12. PREPARATION OF THE CORE OF WALNUT FOR USE IN THE COMPOSITION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyakonova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In work it is considered conditions of preparation of a core of the Walnut for the following use as a prescription component of soft drinks of improvement. It is provided the analysis of patent and literary source in which are explained the existing productions technology of soft drinks on the basis of nut raw materials. It is considered influence on fatty acids compound of nucleus of Walnut by high temperatures, frying at 200 °C, damp-thermal treatment, by soaking in water and boiling during 60 seconds. It is scientifically argues  that the most optimum method of preparation of a core of the Walnut which allows to inactivate an undesirable microflora and to raise physical and chemical indicators of nut is the method of damp-thermal processing of raw materials. It is designated influence of the long-lived soaking on durability of a core of nut and content of the free phosphorus in its structure which characterizes amount of phytin substances in raw materials. It is proved that the long-lived soaking destroys complexes of phytin acid with phosphorus release. After 10 clocks of soaking, the amount of the free phosphorus in the studied exemplars of the Walnut increases to 55 %. It is established technological parameters of preparation of nut extract by selection of its optimum hydro module. It is developed nut drink with the balanced composition of fatty acids. It was investigated chemical composition of nut drink which is characterized by content of 40 % of fats, 18 % ‒ proteins and near 37 % of carbohydrates. It is analyzed possible influence of nut drink on the needs of a human body for biologically valuable substances, and established that the developed drink satisfies the need of an organism for essence of fatty acids more than for 30 %. It is carried out the production approbation of the developed product that confirms practicality of the designed technology and high organoleptic rates of nut drink.

  13. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and amounts of separated oil on the surface were determined for each spread. The results have shown that the color of spreads was very different, depending on the oilseed: gray for sunflower, brown for walnut, yellowish-brown for peanut butter, ivory for sesame and profoundly dark green for pumpkin seeds spread. The flavor and odor of the spreads were characteristic for the raw materials used; however, the sunflower and walnut spreads had a slight rancid flavor. Generally, the spreadability of all spreads was good, but their mouth feel was not acceptable. During the consumption, all of them were sticking immensely to the roof of the mouth, which made the swallowing harder. The highest total score of 16.20 points (max. 20 was obtained for the peanut butter, while the lowest (10.38 was achieved by the sunflower butter. Oil separation (various degrees was noticed in all spreads, which negatively influenced the appearance and entire sensorial quality of the products. The quantity of separated oil depended on the age and total amount of oil in the spreads, and was between 1.13% in the peanut butter and 12.15% in the walnut spread in reference to the net weight of the product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  14. Rainfall simulation experiments in the southwestern USA using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    V. Polyakov; J. Stone; C. Holifield Collins; M. A. Nearing; G. Paige; J. Buono; R.-L. Gomez-Pond

    2018-01-01

    This dataset contains hydrological, erosion, vegetation, ground cover, and other supplementary information from 272 rainfall simulation experiments conducted on 23 semiarid rangeland locations in Arizona and Nevada between 2002 and 2013. On 30 % of the plots, simulations were conducted up to five times during the decade of study. The rainfall was generated using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator on 2 m by 6 m plots. Simulation sites included brush and grassland areas with ...

  15. Geographically extensive hybridization between the forest trees American butternut and Japanese walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, Sean M.; McCleary, Tim S.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the question of naturally occurring interspecific hybrids between two forest trees: the native North American butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) and the introduced Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carrière). Using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers, we provide evidence for 29 F1 and 22 advanced generation hybrids in seven locations across the eastern and southern range of the native species. Two locations show extensive admixture (95% J. ailantifolia and hybrids) while other ...

  16. Estimation of structural attributes of walnut trees based on terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Estornell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. (walnut is a tree of significant economic importance, usually cultivated for its seed used in the food market, and for its wood used in the furniture industry. The aim of this work was to develop regression models to predict crown parameters for walnut trees using a terrestrial laser scanner. A set of 30 trees was selected and the total height, crown height and crown diameter were measured in the field. The trees were also measured by a laser scanner and algorithms were applied to compute the crown volume, crown diameter, total and crown height. Linear regression models were calculated to estimate walnut tree parameters from TLS data. Good results were obtained with values of R2 between 0.90 and 0.98. In addition, to analyze whether coarser point cloud densities might affect the results, the point clouds for all trees were subsampled using different point densities: points every 0.005 m, 0.01 m, 0.05 m, 0.1 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, 1 m, and 2 m. New regression models were calculated to estimate field parameters. For total height and crown volume good estimations were obtained from TLS parameters derived for all subsampled point cloud (0.005 m – 2 m.

  17. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Shekaari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily, gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy, and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation. Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings.

  18. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  19. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  20. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  1. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage tha...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  2. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyadi, Imron; Purnomo, Didit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provi...

  3. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  4. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  5. The Determinants Of European Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Christos K. Staikouras; Wood, Geoffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of return earned by a financial institution is affected by numerous factors. These factors include elements internal to each financial institution and several important external forces shaping earnings performance. The type of explanation would determine possible policy implications and ought to be taken seriously. This paper reviews the literature on bank performance studies and classifies the bank profitability determinants. The second part of the paper quantifies how internal dete...

  6. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alarcón; M. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation) on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relat...

  7. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  8. Effect of Walnut (Juglans regia Extract on Serum LH, FSH and Testosterone Levels in Adult Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mokhtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Considering the widespread use of walnut in the cooking of foods and medical applications, the present study evaluate possible effects of alcoholic extract of Walnut on FSH, LH and testosterone concentration in adult male rats.   Methods: In this experimental study 40 adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were used and divided into five groups, eight rats per each group. Control group do not receive any treatment . Organic solvent was administered as placebo to sham group , three experimental group, that receive different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut , 10 - 20 and 50 (mg/ kg/Intraperitoneally respectively, were fed daily and serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured. All data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and one way ANOVA test.Results: In comparison with control group, only in group treated by 50 mg/kg of walnut extract, FSH and LH concentration increased significantly (P<0.05. Concentration of testosterone in experimental groups (20 mg/kg and 50mg/kg dose of extract showed significant statistical difference compared with other groups (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: According to results of this study, alcoholic extract of Walnut affect pituitary- testis axis and increase GnRH and LH secretion rate therefore enhance reproductive activity in male rats.

  9. RHAGOLETIS COMPLETA (DIPTERA; TEPHRITIDAE DISTRIBUTION, FLIGHT DYNAMICS AND INFLUENCE ON WALNUT KERNEL QUALITY IN THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Barić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut husk fly (WHF, Rhagoletis completa Cresson 1929 is an invasive species spreading quickly and damaging walnuts in Croatia and neighbouring countries. We researched distribution of this pest in the continental part of Croatia, flight dynamics in Međimurje County and its influence on quality of walnut kernels. CSALOMON®PALz traps were used for monitoring the spread and flight dynamics of R. completa. Weight and the protein content of kernels and the presence of mycotoxin contamination were measured. Walnut husk fly was found in six counties (Istria County: pest reconfirmation, Zagreb County, The City of Zagreb, Varaždin County, Međimurje County and Koprivnica-Križevci County. The presence of the fly was not confirmed on one site in Koprivnica-Križevci County (locality Ferdinandovac and in the eastern part of Croatia (Vukovar-Srijem County: Vinkovci locality. The flight dynamics showed rapid increase in number of adults only a year after the introduction into new area. The weight of infested kernels was 5.81% lower compared to not infested. Protein content was 14.04% in infested kernels and 17.31% in not infested kernels. There was no difference in mycotoxins levels. Additional researches on mycotoxin levels in stored nuts, ovipositional preferences of walnut husk fly and protection measures against this pest are suggested.

  10. Profit-Sharing – A Tool for Improving Productivity, Profitability and Competitiveness of Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibirova Jana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of appropriate utilization of rewards for performance is still growing and therefore this type of rewards can be seen as a significant part of a total rewards package. Companies that are able to appropriately implement rewards for performance may gain competitive advantage over their competitors, but successful implementation requires a good knowledge of these rewards. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the growth of this knowledge by identifying possible positive and negative impacts of profit-sharing on various areas that are important for the performance of a company, nevertheless, addressed are also macroeconomic consequences of profit-sharing. Furthermore, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the relevant literature is provided, under-researched areas are identified and suggestions for further research are given. To accomplish these goals, we applied methods of bibliometric analysis to the articles indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge to identify the most important articles, authors and topics. According to our findings, the majority of studies report a neutral or positive impact of profit-sharing on productivity and profitability. This impact may be achieved by direct influence of profit-sharing on productivity of employees (due to the dependence of their pay on profit, but it seems that yet more important are various mediating mechanisms, especially effects on employment stability, absenteeism, quits and related issues, as well as effects on attitudes of employees and on relationships between employees. We argue that a well-designed profit-sharing plan is crucial for its success, but it is a relatively under-researched problem.

  11. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahimi, Aziz; Zarei, Abdolkarim; Lawson, Shaneka; Woeste, Keith E.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world’s most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different

  12. Incidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in and on ‘Paradox’ (Juglans hindsii x Juglans regia) walnut seed collected from commercial nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut rootstock Paradox (Juglans hindsii (Jeps) Rehder x J. regia L.) is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7) which often results in a high incidence of crown gall in nursery or walnut production orchards. Though A. tumefaciens is susceptible to the commonly used preplant soil fumigant...

  13. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ebrahimi; Abdolkarim Zarei; Shaneka Lawson; Keith E. Woeste; M. J. M. Smulders

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world's most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different regions in 14 countries on...

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also lost in Year 1, P would have decreased its earnings and profits for Year 1 by the additional $50... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.1502-33 Section 1.1502... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-33 Earnings and...

  16. Relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability: an empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores relationships between customer satisfactions; repurchase intentions, purchase behavior, and customer profitability with empirical data on attitudes, behavior, and profitability at the customer level of analysis. Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ...

  17. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  18. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.312-6 Section 1.312-6...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the amount of earnings and profits (whether of the taxable year, or accumulated since February 28, 1913, or accumulated...

  19. An Algorithm for the Nucleolus of Airport Profit Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Inarra, E.; Tijs, S.H.; Zarzuelo, J.

    2003-01-01

    Airport profit games are a generalization of airport cost games as well as of bankruptcy games.In this paper we present a simple algorithm to compute the nucleolus of airport profit games.In addition we prove that there exists an unique consistent allocation rule in airport profit problems, and it

  20. Taxing across Borders: Tracking Personal Wealth and Corporate Profits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel Zucman

    2014-01-01

    ... that UScompanies are shifting profits to Bermuda, Luxembourg, and similar countries on a large and growing scale. About 20percent of all US corporate profits are now booked in such havens, a tenfoldincrease since the 1980s. This profit-shifting is typically done within the letter of the law and thus would be best described as tax avoidance rather than fraud. ...

  1. Determinants Of Profitability And Willingness To Pay For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to analyse the profitability of urban agriculture using metropolitan organic waste in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The results show that the enterprise is profitable, and that output price is the most important determinant of maximum variable profit. Other price factors, specifically planting ...

  2. Evaluating Non-Linear Regression Models in Analysis of Persian Walnut Fruit Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karamatlou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is a large, wind-pollinated, monoecious, dichogamous, long lived, perennial tree cultivated for its high quality wood and nuts throughout the temperate regions of the world. Growth model methodology has been widely used in the modeling of plant growth. Mathematical models are important tools to study the plant growth and agricultural systems. These models can be applied for decision-making anddesigning management procedures in horticulture. Through growth analysis, planning for planting systems, fertilization, pruning operations, harvest time as well as obtaining economical yield can be more accessible.Non-linear models are more difficult to specify and estimate than linear models. This research was aimed to studynon-linear regression models based on data obtained from fruit weight, length and width. Selecting the best models which explain that fruit inherent growth pattern of Persian walnut was a further goal of this study. Materials and Methods: The experimental material comprising 14 Persian walnut genotypes propagated by seed collected from a walnut orchard in Golestan province, Minoudasht region, Iran, at latitude 37◦04’N; longitude 55◦32’E; altitude 1060 m, in a silt loam soil type. These genotypes were selected as a representative sampling of the many walnut genotypes available throughout the Northeastern Iran. The age range of walnut trees was 30 to 50 years. The annual mean temperature at the location is16.3◦C, with annual mean rainfall of 690 mm.The data used here is the average of walnut fresh fruit and measured withgram/millimeter/day in2011.According to the data distribution pattern, several equations have been proposed to describesigmoidal growth patterns. Here, we used double-sigmoid and logistic–monomolecular models to evaluate fruit growth based on fruit weight and4different regression models in cluding Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and Exponential growth for evaluation

  3. Walnut oil increases cholesterol efflux through inhibition of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies Peter J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walnuts significantly decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normo- and hypercholesterolemic individuals. No study to date has evaluated the effects of walnuts on cholesterol efflux, the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport, in macrophage-derived foam cells (MDFC. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which walnut oil affects cholesterol efflux. Methods The extract of English walnuts (walnut oil was dissolved in DMSO and applied to cultured THP-1 MDFC cells (0.5 mg/mL. THP-1 MDFC also were treated with human sera (10%, v:v taken from subjects in a walnut feeding study. Cholesterol efflux was examined by liquid scintillation counting. Changes in gene expression were quantified by real time PCR. Results Walnut oil treatment significantly increased cholesterol efflux through decreasing the expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 in MDFC. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in walnuts, recaptured SCD1 reduction in MDFC, a mechanism mediated through activation of nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR. Postprandial serum treatment also increased cholesterol efflux in MDFC. When categorized by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; cut point of 2 mg/L, subjects in the lower CRP sub-group benefited more from dietary intervention, including a more increase in cholesterol efflux, a greater reduction in SCD1, and a blunted postprandial lipemia. Conclusion In conclusion, walnut oil contains bioactive molecules that significantly improve cholesterol efflux in MDFC. However, the beneficial effects of walnut intake may be reduced by the presence of a pro-inflammatory state. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00938340

  4. Organizational Structure and Behaviour in Day Care: Differences between Non-Profit and For-Profit Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…

  5. DOD Contractor Profitability 1980-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    compdny’s control), surf)lus, and retdined earnings. 2. Seleccion of a Profit ~~asure A number of prot1t measures have been used in s t u d y i n g de E...iC- GGG GGG GGG L"II .:)S. 0.. S.t?ACr; F1ŕC COHPOkA’l’ I ON 1. ~1C Corp. is the world’s largest ~roducer of natural sod~ ash and

  6. Genetic variation of common walnut (Juglans regia in Piedmont, Northwestern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrazzini D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The European or common walnut is a large tree prized as a multipurpose species: it provides valuable timber and produces a high-quality edible nut. The diffusion of the species in Italy has been largely influenced by the human activity, mainly through germplasm movement, selection of genotypes most suited for wood or fruit production and adaptation induced on fruit crop reproductive materials. As a consequence, genetic variability has been reduced, so that programs aimed at its preservation appear of the utmost importance. 104 walnut plants growing in Piedmont, northwestern Italy, were investigated through genetic variation scored at RAPD loci, yielded by PCR amplification of 10 decamer primers. Among the 101 studied loci, only 53 were polymorphic, showing a low level of genetic variation within the studied material. Genetic differentiation was estimated both at individual and geographical area level. Only in few cases trees growing in the same area showed to be genetically similar, while the differentiation between areas accounted for about 10% of the total variation, according to AMOVA. No significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances. The results of the study showed that also in Piedmont (such as it was already demonstrated in other parts of Italy the distribution of common walnut is a direct consequence of the human activity. The selection of individual trees, to be used as basic materials for seed supply, should therefore be based mainly on phenotypic traits, rather than ecological features of the location: in species characterized by artificial diffusion, the adoption of Region of Provenance has a scarce significance and prominence should be given to the phenotype selection.

  7. Effect of water activity and heating rate on Staphylococcus aureus heat resistance in walnut shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Kou, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shuang; Cheng, Teng; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-02-02

    Water activity (a w ) and heating rate have shown important effects on the thermo-tolerance of pathogens in low moisture foods during thermal treatments. In this study, three strains were selected to compare the heat resistance in walnut shell powder and finally the most heat resistant S. aureus ATCC 25923 was chosen to investigate the influence of a w and heating rate using a heating block system (HBS). The results showed that S. aureus ATCC 25923 became more thermo-tolerant at lower a w . The D-values of S. aureus ATCC 25923 increased with decreasing water activity and heating rates (<1°C/min). A significant increase in heat resistance of S. aureus ATCC 25923 in walnut shell powder was observed only for the heating rates of 0.2 and 0.5°C/min but not at 1, 5 and 10°C/min. There was a rapid reduction of S. aureus ATCC 25923 at elevated temperatures from 26 to 56°C at a heating rate of 0.1°C/min. The inactivation under non-isothermal conditions was better fitted by Weibull distribution (R 2 =0.97 to 0.99) than first-order kinetics (R 2 =0.88 to 0.98). These results suggest that an appropriate increase in moisture content of in-shell walnuts and heating rate during thermal process can improve the inactivation efficiency of pathogens in low moisture foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of activated carbons from walnut wood: a study of microporosity and fractal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M.; Fernández-González, M. Carmen; Alexandre-Franco, María F.; Macías-García, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Agricultural and forest residues constitute an extraordinarily important source of precursors for the manufacture of activated carbons. Activated carbons are well known as porous solids with a highly developed apparent surface area. In the present work, activated carbon has been prepared from forest residues of walnut tree wood (a raw material not studied until now) by physical activation. Raw material has been carbonized between 573 and 1073 K and afterwards activated in air at temperatures between 623 and 823 K. The apparent surface area, micropore volume, mesopore volume and fractal dimension of the samples prepared have been calculated.

  9. Stream maintenance as a profit center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchillon, J.L.

    1997-06-01

    Probably one of the most overlooked profit centers in industrial management strategy is savings in energy costs. Every $1 in certified energy savings is often worth over $10 in increased sales. The author has found from actual practice that there is big corporate profit in a shrewd, diligent steam trap management program. He describes a way to restructure corporate handling of trap maintenance to turn it into a source of revenue. Cited is a case history of building an intensive trap maintenance program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This article will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months generate over $125,000 annually in tax-free cash per 1000 traps with an investment payback of 18 months or less. The author is a businessman and energy management consultant that has no trap sales or promotion.

  10. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alarcón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relative roles played by each. The empirical work takes place in the agro-food industry in the Ebro Valley, one of Spain’s most competitive regions. The estimates from profitability quantile and truncated regressions of the efficiency scores reveal that market orientation has a positive effect on economic and productivity performance. The impact of pro-active, innovation-seeking, and risk-averse entrepreneurship is nevertheless more debatable, despite some influence of these entrepreneurial styles on observed performance values. This enables conclusions regarding the possibility of combining a market-oriented business culture with innovation and entrepreneurial activity with a view to obtaining business performance gains.

  11. Historically Black

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black is a short documentary that looks at recruitment of non-black students at Texas Southern University, one of the nation’s largest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). By chronicling Texas Southern’s efforts to diversify and its impact on the campus community, the film explores the changing role of HBCUs in post-segregated America and addresses what this might mean for the future of these deep-rooted institutions. 

  12. Cournot competition between a non-profit firm and a for-profit firm with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a Cournot competition between a nonprofit firm and a for-profit firm in a homogeneous goods market, with uncertain demand. Given an asymmetric tax schedule, we compute explicitly the Bayesian-Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the tax rate and the degree of altruistic preference on market equilibrium outcomes.

  13. To Profit or Not To Profit: That Is the Tough Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of organizing a child care operation as a for-profit or a nonprofit organization. Areas discussed include ease of start up; access to capital and funding; exposure to taxes; access to community support; appeal to volunteers, teaching candidates, and parents; challenge of management; risk to management;…

  14. Do non-profits make a difference? : Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifying

  15. Application of walnut shell modified with Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles in removal of natural organic matters (NOMs from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali naghizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Natural organic matters (NOMs are a mixture of chemically complex polyelectrolytes produced mainly from the decomposition of plant and animal residues that are present in all surface and groundwater resources. This paper evaluates the aqueous NOMs adsorption efficiency on walnut shell modified with Zinc Oxide (ZnO. Materials & Methods: This study examined the feasibility of removing NOMs from aqueous solutions using walnut shell modified with ZnO. The effects of NOMs concentration, modified walnut shell with ZnO dosage, and pH on adsorption of NOMs by modified walnut shell with ZnO were evaluated. Results: The adsorption capacities of modified walnut shell with ZnO in the best conditions were 37.93 mg/g. The results also demonstrated that adsorption capacity of NOMs on modified walnut shell with ZnO was higher in lower pHs due to significantly high electrostatic attraction exists between the positively charged surface of the adsorbent and negatively charged NOMs. And finally adsorption capacity decreases as adsorbent dose increase. Conclusion: Walnut shell modified with ZnO can be proposed as a natural adsorbent in the removal of NOMs from aqueous solutions

  16. Colour and in vitro quality attributes of walnuts from different growing conditions correlate with key precursors of primary and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Hernández, Ignacia; Saa, Sebastian; Toledo, Lea; Burdiles, Pamela; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Brown, Patrick; Pedreschi, Romina

    2017-10-01

    Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are well known for their flavour, nutritional and health properties. The light colour of walnuts is a quality attribute that leads to consumer preference. The aim of this study was to correlate attributes such as colour and antioxidant capacity with the precursors of primary and secondary metabolism. Two growing areas and four different colours of walnuts cv. Chandler from the central region of Chile were evaluated. Walnuts grown in the zone with Andes Mountains influence showed higher (p<0.05) sugar and unsaturated fatty acid contents, which could be attributed to lower minimum temperatures during seed filling. Extra light walnuts had higher (p<0.05) total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and arbutin levels than amber walnuts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that arbutin has been reported in walnuts and could provide the first insight into how enzymatic browning is prevented in the Chandler cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice, while taking black cohosh should ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...

  18. Carbon quantum dots from carbonized walnut shells: Structural evolution, fluorescence characteristics, and intracellular bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chaoge; Shi, Yanni; Li, Min; Xing, Malcolm; Wu, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted tremendous attention for their prominent fluorescence, excellent stability, and outstanding biocompatibility. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare CQDs from walnut shells, which mainly consist of natural cellulose. After carbonization of the walnut shells and acid treatments, zigzag and armchair edges of CQDs with an average size of 3.4nm were revealed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with the (100) planes of graphitic carbon, the lattice spacing distance of these CQDs was 0.258nm. The photoluminescence behaviors related to the size/shape and corresponding edge-state. The CQDs exhibited green fluorescence when the excitation wavelength ranging from 360nm to 460nm. Meanwhile, the CQDs showed hydrophilic, pH-sensitive and up-converted photoluminescence properties. We also found pH and solvent had reversible effects on CQDs' photoluminescence. The CQDs were then tested with live-cell fluorescent images for the potential intracellular probes. Raman mapping technique was also applied to detect the CQDs' distribution in vitro and clarify the entering procedure of CQDs into cells besides confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Fruit characteristics in walnut tree population in relation to growing season onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of walnut selection is to obtain promising genotypes characterized by later growing season onset, shorter period of vegetation, resistance to diseases, stable fruit productivity and high fruit quality. Aiming at obtaining genotypes with favorable properties, in five localities of Eastern Serbia, where walnut is widely grown, we studied the correlation among growing season onset on the one hand, and major pomological properties and fruit quality on the other. In the studied population, trees with early growing season onset and fruit mass up to 8.0 g (30.1% were predominant, whereas those with late growing season onset were in minority, fruit mass ranging from 10.1 to 12 g (0.07%. Kernel ratio was highest in the former (20.69%, and the lowest in the latter (0.07%. Similar was observed in oil and raw proteins content in kernel which was highest in fruits of early trees (33.62%, 47,55%, while it was remarkably lower in late ones (0.72%, 0.49%. The obtained results suggest that the studied population was dominated by early trees and unfavorable or less favorable fruit properties. In spite of that, we evidenced some trees with favorable properties which can be used in breeding as donors of useful genes.

  20. Determinants of profitability differences among major refiner/marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report attempts to shed light on the factors affecting the differing profitabilities among companies, particularly, the effect of refinery upgrading, to contribute toward a better understanding of the performance of the domestic petroleum refining industry. The determinants of domestic refining-marketing profitability in the short run are evaluated. The focus is on those factors affecting the profitability of operations using the existing capital stock. Of particular interest is the effect on profitability of investments made for refinery upgrading. The refining-marketing segment is assumed to be operated to maximize profits of that segment rather than the profits of some other segment. The cost and financial data used in the analysis are proprietary line-of-business data from the FRS. The FRS provides detailed information on refining-marketing revenue, cost, income, and investment. The specific data used are discussed and key definitions provided later in this report. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of Nanoparticles in the Cephalexin adsorption onto Walnut Shell-based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir Nazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Recently, release of pollutants such as pharmaceuticals to the environment becomes one of the most important problems for soil and water. The present study was conducted to introduce walnut shell-based activated carbon (AC as a new low-cost adsorbent for the removal of cephalexin (CFX antibiotic from aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. To investigation of the morphology of the prepared walnut shell AC and nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy analysis was applied. The effect of the presence of Fe2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles on the adsorption of CFX on the walnut shell AC is also studied. Results: The maximum removal efficiency (RE was obtained 98.4% at 100 mg/L initial CFX concentration and decreased to 72.9% with increasing in the initial CFX concentration to 200 mg/L. The results showed that the presence of nanoparticles in the optimum increased the RE of CFX by about 2.1 and 6.5% for Fe2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest the potential of using the walnut shell AC as an adsorbent for effective treatment of pharmaceutical-contaminated wastewaters.

  2. Evaluations and modifications of semi-selective media for improved isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 from cultivated walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causal agent of crown gall of walnut, is an aerobic, Gram negative bacterium belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae. Like many in this group, A. tumefaciens is a common inhabitant of soil and plant host tissue. Isolation from these complex environments is difficult even ...

  3. Seasonal changes in english walnut (Juglans regia L.) (Juglandaceae), fruit properties and host use patterns by Rhagoletis zoqui (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhagoletis zoqui Bush is a Neosubtropical, univoltine, frugivorous tephritid fly that exploits both native Juglans spp. and the introduced, Palearctic English walnut, Juglans regia. The seasonal development of commercial J. regia fruit and the pattern of host exploitation by R. zoqui were tracked ov...

  4. The Influence of Atmosphere on the Oxidation of Ground Walnut During Storage at 20 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidrih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact of atmosphere on the oxidation of ground walnut during storage at 20 °C. Seven varieties of walnut (Juglans regia L. were ground and stored under O2 or N2 atmospheres in hermetically sealed vials for 10 months at room temperature. Antioxidative potential, total phenolic content, fatty acid composition, and oxidative degradation products were determined after 10 months of storage. Cultivar, atmosphere and cultivar×atmosphere interactions significantly influenced the antioxidative potential. Cultivar and atmosphere significantly influenced the content of total polyphenols, with more polyphenols found in walnut stored in the N2 atmosphere. The mass fraction of unsaturated linolenic acid tended to decrease during storage under the O2 atmosphere; statistically significant differences were only found between individual varieties. The O2 atmosphere also resulted in an increase in the synthesis of oxidative degradation products. Among the degradation products, hexanal was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, as well as the mixture of 2-octenal and 1-octen-3-ol. In general, higher concentrations of these degradation products were found in walnut stored under the O2 atmosphere, although these differences were statistically significant only between individual varieties for some compounds.

  5. Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodad, O.; EstopaNan, G.; Juan, T.; Socias i Company, R.; Sindic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Protein and oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol concentration were determined for two years in the kernel of ten candidate walnut selections from the high Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. The ranges of protein content (11.58–14.5% of kernel dry weight, DW), oil content (54.4–67.48% of kernel DW), oleic (12.47–22.01% of total oil), linoleic (55.03–60.01%), linolenic (9.3–15.87%), palmitic (6.84–9.12%), and stearic (1.7–2.92%) acid percentages, ?-tocopherol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg-1 of oil), d-tocopherol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg-1), and a-tocopherol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg-1) contents agreed with previous results obtained from other commercial walnut cultivars. The effect of year was significant for all the chemical components, except for oil content and palmitic acid percentage. Some genotypes showed high oil contents and consistently high values of ?-tocopherol in both years of study. The introduction of these genotypes as new cultivars by vegetative propagation may result in a an increase in quality of the walnuts from the high Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and as a seed source for forest walnut propagation in the same region. (Author)

  6. Profitable solutions to climate, oil, and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B

    2010-05-01

    Protecting the climate is not costly but profitable (even if avoided climate change is worth zero), mainly because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel. The two biggest opportunities, both sufficiently fast, are oil and electricity. The US, for example, can eliminate its oil use by the 2040s at an average cost of $15 per barrel ($2000), half by redoubled efficiency and half by alternative supplies, and can save three-fourths of its electricity more cheaply than operating a thermal power station. Integrative design permits this by making big energy savings cheaper than small ones, turning traditionally assumed diminishing returns into empirically observed expanding returns. Such efficiency choices accelerate climate-safe, inexhaustible, and resilient energy supply-notably the "micropower" now delivering about a sixth of the world's electricity and 90% of its new electricity. These cheap, fast, market-financeable, globally applicable options offer the most effective, yet most underestimated and overlooked, solutions for climate, proliferation, and poverty.

  7. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  8. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  9. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  10. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  11. Analisis Teknikal Untuk Mendapatkan Profit Dalam Forex Trading Online

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanto, .; Alwiyah, .

    2012-01-01

    Technical Analysis To Obtain Profit From Online Forex Trading. The purpose of the research is to find profitable consistency in predicting price movement, especially on pairs GBPUSD and EURUSD using candlestick, moving average convergence divergence (MACD) and stochastic oscillator as parts of technical analysis before taking an action whether to buy or to sell forex. The profit is calculated for every given buy-sell signal after considering transaction cost in the amount of spread. The desig...

  12. Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact on profitability in petrochemical industry.

  13. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  14. Components of the Profitability of Technical Currency Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of the profitability of 1024 moving average and momentum models when trading in the German mark (euro)/U.S. dollar market based on daily data. The main results are as follows. First, each of these models would have been profitable over the entire sample period. Second, this profitability is exclusively due to the exploitation of persistent exchange rate trends. Third, these results do not change substantially when trading is examined within subperiods. Four...

  15. Risk Sharing and Layoff Risk in Profit Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Raul V.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if the employer is risk averse, however slightly, there is always a profit sharing contract that will Pareto-dominate the spot wage contract in the sense of pure risk sharing. The smaller is the employer risk aversion, the narrower is the room for profit sharing. The higher the workers value employment stability (less layoff risk), the more Pareto attractive is profit sharing regardless of employer risk aversion.

  16. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

  17. Alternative quality measures and profitability of hospital inpatient services offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Hegji, Charles E; Self, Robin M

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis, we study the relationship between hospital quality and hospital profits for a sample of 88 Alabama (USA) hospitals. Quality is measured by three groups of procedures performed on newly admitted patients as suggested by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Health Quality Alliance (HQA) as well as a weighted quality measure. Profit is measured for eight hospital services. Profits from cardiac care were most responsive to the quality measures studied. Moreover, profits from six of the inpatient services increased as the weighted quality measure increased. Finally, in two cases quality increased with the relative number of employees a hospital utilized.

  18. Optimization of simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from walnut flour using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wu, Wanxing; Chen, Dan; Lin, Yuping; Ma, Yage; Chen, Chaoyin; Zhao, Shenglan

    2017-12-01

    Walnut is a traditional food as well as a traditional medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia; however, the large amounts of walnut flour (WF) generated in walnut oil production have not been well utilized. This study maximized the total polyphenolic yield (TPY) from the walnut flour (WF) by optimizing simultaneous ultrasound/microwave-assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (SUMAE). Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing parameters for the TPY, including microwave power (20-140 W), ultrasonic power (75-525 W), extraction temperature (25-55 °C), and time (0.5-9.5 min). The polyphenol components were analysed by LC-MS. A second-order polynomial model satisfactorily fit the experimental TPY data (R2 = 0.9932, P < 0.0001 and Radj2    = 0.9868). The optimized quick extraction conditions were microwave power 294.38 W, ultrasonic power 93.5 W, temperature 43.38 °C and time 4.33 min, with a maximum TPY of 34.91 mg GAE/g, which was a rapid extraction. The major phenolic components in the WF extracts were glansreginin A, ellagic acid, and gallic acid with peak areas of 22.15%, 14.99% and 10.96%, respectively, which might be used as functional components for health food, cosmetics and medicines. The results indicated that walnut flour, a waste product from the oil industry, was a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and thus could be used as a high-value functional food ingredient.

  19. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  20. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  1. A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmpetis, Y.I.A.; Aravanopoulos, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating

  2. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge tree and shrub sampling in oak savanna/prairie sites 15q, 15r, and 15v 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report contains the materials and methods as well as the result from a sampling study on trees and shrubs in Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Plots within...

  3. Fatty acid composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L. cultivars from east Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgul, Attila

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid composition of different walnut (Juglans regia L. cultivars grown in Adilcevaz in east Anatolia was determined. The total oil content of the walnuts ranged from 65.00 ± 0.06 to 70.00 ± 0.58 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 22.63 to 27.27 % of the total fatty acids while the linoleic acid and linolenic contents ranged from 49.93 to 54.41 % and 14.32 to 17.82 % respectively. The palmitic acid content of the walnuts ranged from 5.61 % to 5.82 % while there was a trace amount of miristic acid (En este estudio se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos de diferentes cultivos de nueces ( Juglans regia L. producidos en Adilcevaz en el Este de Anatolia. El contenido de aceite total de las nueces osciló entre 65.00 ± 0.06 y 70.00 ± 0.58 %. El contenido en ácido oleico varió desde 22.63 a 27.27 % respecto a los ácidos grasos totales mientras que los contenidos en ácido linoleico y linolénico variaron desde 49.93 hasta 54.41 % y desde 14.32 hasta 17.82 % respectivamente. El contenido en ácido palmítico de las muestras de nueces estuvo comprendido entre 5.61 y 5.82 % mientras que de ácido miristico solo se encontraron trazas ( < 0.1 %. Finalmente, los resultados de los ácidos grasos indicaron que los cultivos de nueces del Este de Anatolia son distintos en cuanto a su perfil de ácido linolenico. Estos resultados pueden ser significativos para estudios de selección en orden a identificar mejor las variedades de nueces para dietas saludables.

  4. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    ...) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs...

  5. Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was conducted at enterprise level in Cross River State with a sample of 80 saw millers to ascertain the effect of finance on their profitability. The result shows that amount borrowed business experience, ...

  6. A More Detailed Understanding Of Factors Associated With Hospital Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of the most profitable US hospitals, we examined the profitability of acute care hospitals in fiscal year 2013, measured as net income from patient care services per adjusted discharge. Based on Medicare Cost Reports and Final Rule Data, the median hospital lost $82 for each such discharge. Forty-five percent of hospitals were profitable, with 2.5 percent earning more than $2,475 per adjusted discharge. The ten most profitable hospitals, seven of which were nonprofit, each earned more than $163 million in total profits from patient care services. Hospitals with for-profit status, higher markups, system affiliation, or regional power, as well as those located in states with price regulation, tended to be more profitable than other hospitals. Hospitals that treated a higher proportion of Medicare patients, had higher expenditures per adjusted discharge, were located in counties with a high proportion of uninsured patients, or were located in states with a dominant insurer or greater health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration had lower profitability than hospitals that did not have these characteristics. These findings can inform policy reforms, while providing a baseline against which to measure the impact of any subsequent reforms. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  8. The relationship between size, growth and profitability of commercial banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, C. T.; De Haan, J.; Scholtens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic panel model for more than 15 000 banks from 148 countries from 1988 to 2010, we investigate the interaction between size, growth and profitability of banks. For our total sample, we cannot reject the hypotheses that the variability of bank profitability and the level and variability

  9. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  10. A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Välja, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Magnusson, C; Ladhe, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly

  11. Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Layers Production in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    agricultural sector are rational, thus, they would increase their supply if they are sure of making higher profit ceteris paribus (Emokaro et al., 2009). Higher profit ..... Energy and Crude Protein Requirements for. Chicks of Nigeria Local Fowl and Crossbreeds. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5:.271-274. Koutsoyiannis, A (2001). Theory of ...

  12. Profitability of Snail Production in Osun State,Nigeria | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs and returns analysis revealed that variable costs accounted for 96% of the production costs. Labour was the most costly single item in snail production in the area. The results further showed that snail farming was highly profitable, with the average farmer earning a net return of 40 naira per snail. There was a profit ...

  13. Summer 2012 Colorado Wildfire Non-Profit Sector Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information organization . Affiliated with the...million. These estimates do not include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information ... organization . Affiliated with the Insurance Information Institute, RMIIA has been serving consumers and the media since 1952. 22 5.0 Observations

  14. Determinant of Profit Efficiency among Small Scale Traditional Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the determinants of profit efficiency among traditional palm oil processing in Nigeria, using stochastic Cobb – Douglas profit frontier model. A Multi – Stage random sampling technique was used to select 240 traditional palm oil processors from which input – output data were collected.

  15. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; van Triest, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  16. How's Business? Status Report #6 on For Profit Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growth of for-profit child care and indications of a potential slowdown. Discusses the declining expansion of major chains and the accelerated growth of midsize and small chains. Lists the nations' largest for-profit child care and center management organizations. (RJC)

  17. Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The study determined the profitability of rice processing and marketing in Kano. State. The objective of the study was to assess the profitability levels of rice processing and marketing, evaluate the value added to the commodity at each stage in the study area and determine the most efficient services produce.

  18. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  19. 45 CFR 74.81 - Prohibition against profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.81 Prohibition against profit. Except for awards under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small... to any recipient even if the recipient is a commercial organization. Profit is any amount in excess...

  20. Academic Libraries in For-Profit Schools of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jinnie Y.; Adams, Mignon; Hardesty, Larry

    2011-01-01

    For-profit schools constitute the fastest-growing sector of higher education institutions in the United States. Yet accompanying the phenomenal growth of these proprietary colleges and universities has been considerable controversy over the role that the profit motive should play in higher education. The literature of higher education contains…

  1. The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the subject, profit (ribh), in relation to both conventional and Islamic accounting standards, has almost totally been neglected. This paper, therefore, investigates the determination of profit in line with the Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS), conventional economics and Islamic economic ...

  2. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... (service charge) for the FEGLI Program contract. In accordance with the factors defined in FAR 15.404-4(d...

  3. Management Control Systems in Not for Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz Marquez, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about management control system. The first part contains the analysis of the subject, the factors, components and tools of management control. In the second part is about the difference of management control in profit and non-profit organizations.

  4. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial and commercial profits. 509.105...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.105 Industrial and commercial profits... contracting States shall not be taxable by the other contracting State upon its industrial and commercial...

  5. Risk attitudes and profits among small enterprises in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Willebrands, D.; Hartog, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of risk attitudes of firm owners on profits among micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Lagos, Nigeria. Higher risk perceptions are shown to have a significant positive effect on profits, whereas risk propensity has a negative or no effect. Education, age, being male,

  6. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  7. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of relationship marketing was born from this need for long-term interaction with customers. A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit organisations, such as non-profit sports clubs and recreation centres at local and school levels, to offset the decrease in income and ...

  8. Short Term Effect of Consolidation on Profitability of Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings here confirm the existing controversy on whether or not mergers or acquisitions lead to improved profitability. What is however clear is that barring any effect of the present global economic meltdown; it may take some time for the EPS of most of the banks to change significantly. Key Words: EPS Profitability ...

  9. Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics, Cost and return analysis, Herfindahl index, Gross ratio, Operating ratio, Expense structure ratio, Return per capital invested, Benefit cost ratio were used to analyze the data. The study showed that ... Analysis of the profit revealed that plantain marketing is a profitable business. The constraint militating ...

  10. Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog breeding business in Oyo state, Nigeria. ... Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable analyses were done to determine predictors of profitability in dog breeding business. The mean age of respondents was 32.1 ± 7.7 years. The median year of ...

  11. Acquisition of the Profit Concept by Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Anna Emilia

    1992-01-01

    Conceptions of 50 third graders (aged 8-9 years) in Italy about shopkeepers' profit were examined using the Piagetian clinical procedure, with an interview followed by a comparison task that checked comprehension. Teaching children about profit had a higher impact at posttest on children who could compare correctly. (SLD)

  12. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Danish Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system – procedures and tools – for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very transpa...

  13. Macroeconomy and Banks' Profitability in Nigeria | Chidozie | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also seeks to examine the significance of microeconomic variables (cost to income ratio, loan to deposit ratio; loan to total assets ratio and total assets) on banks' profitability. It analysed the impact of banking industry concentration on banks' profitability. The estimation technique follows a panel regression which studied a ...

  14. Application of walnut shell modified with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in removal of natural organic matters (NOMs) from aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    ali naghizadeh; Rasoul Khosravi; Elham Derakhshani; Habibeh Shahabi; Fatemeh Ghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study: Natural organic matters (NOMs) are a mixture of chemically complex polyelectrolytes produced mainly from the decomposition of plant and animal residues that are present in all surface and groundwater resources. This paper evaluates the aqueous NOMs adsorption efficiency on walnut shell modified with Zinc Oxide (ZnO). Materials & Methods: This study examined the feasibility of removing NOMs from aqueous solutions using walnut shell modified with ...

  15. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant?microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Mart?nez-Garc?a, P. J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant?microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the resi...

  16. Is the alpine divide becoming more permeable to biological invasions? - Insights on the invasion and establishment of the Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Aluja, M.; Guillén, L.; Rull, J.; Höhn, H.; Frey, J.; Graf, B.; Samietz, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found ...

  17. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadziabdic, D.; Vito, L.; Windham, M. T.; Pscheidt, J. W.; Trigiano, R. N.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-87 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Thousand cankers disease * Juglans nigra * Geosmithia morbida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2014

  18. THE PROFIT TARGET IN A RESTAURATION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry represents one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary society, with an emphasised role in the process of globalization. Currently, the hospitality industry does not only face the challenges of the economic crisis but the changes in the market, the consumers behaviour and the technological trends, too. That is why, in this time, it is extremely important to apply the management accounting and the cost calculation in any entity in the hospitality industry in order to cope with the market challenges. The main services are performed through the hospitality industry: the accommodation and the restauration. These services satisfy the vital needs of the tourists, but this industry must meet other needs or requests such as the acknowledgement of the social status, the desire to know other cultures or traditions, to spend free time in a pleasant manner etc. Our intention and goal in the current article is to approach an image of the CVP analysis in the decision making process with an emphasis on the restauration in the hospitality industry. In order to cope with this critical time, the competition and to achieve the profits estimated, the managers in the hospitality industry can apply the CVP analysis, one of the simplest and most useful analytical instruments. The paper will tackle with the problem of the break even point in a restaurant, one of the main indicators of the CVP model and also the possibility of the decision making process orientation.

  19. Determinants of the Profitability in the Czech Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Palečková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the banking profitability determinants of the Czech commercial banks during the period 2004-2014. For estimation of banking profitability we used three common measures, namely the Return on Assets, Return on Equity and Net Interest Margin. We estimated twelve determinants of banking performance. The effect of the determinants of banking profitability is estimated using panel data analysis. The data set is consists of seventeen commercial banks in the Czech Republic. The results show that the profitability was positively influenced by the bank’s size, capitalization, credit risk, level of concentration, ownership structure and bank’s market share. Number of branches of the bank had the negative impact on ROA and ROE. on the other hand, the variables Gross Domestic Product, interest rate, liquidity risk, riskiness of bank’s portfolio and affiliation with financial conglomerate have not got the significant influence on profitability of the Czech commercial banks.

  20. Analysis of alternative approach to determining of customers' profitability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes alternative approach to analysis of customers profitability based just on volume of purchased goods. By including average distance of customers' distributional places as additional criteria for profitability analysis and using cluster analysis as a method for ranking customers is proven that assessing of customers' profitability can be more accurate.This approach to evaluation of customers' profitability changes order of customers listed acordingly to profit they generate. In fact it shows that in business terms is room for improvement and harmonisation of relationship among some business partners in certain cases. Recalculation of business conditions which comes from detailed analysis can bring either increase of competitiveness by price reduction or increase of incomes by rising price of goods.

  1. Do Cultivar, Geographical Location and Crop Season Influence Phenolic Profile of Walnut Leaves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Seabra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut leaves from nine different cultivars (Arco, Franquette, Hartley, Lara, Marbot, Mayette, Meylannaise, Parisienne and Rego were studied for their phenolic compounds. Samples were harvested along three consecutive years, at two different geographical locations, in order to evaluate if significant differences in the phenolics composition can be related with genetic, climatic or geographical factors. Nine compounds (3-caffeoylquinic, 3-p-coumaroylquinic and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin 3- galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, a quercetin 3-pentoside derivative and a kaempferol 3-pentoside derivative were quantified using an HPLC-DAD methodology. The qualitative profiles were identical for all samples, but differences were observed in terms of individual compounds’ contents. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out, showing that significant differences exist among production years, which can be related to climatic reasons.

  2. Multifunctional walnut shell layer used for oil/water mixtures separation and dyes adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tang, Xiaohua; Feng, Hua; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong

    2017-10-01

    Functional materials with superwetting property have been extensively used for wastewater treatment. Here, walnut shell powders (WSPs) were accumulated into a layer to separate oil/water mixtures and adsorb organic dyes, avoiding the complex process involved in the fabrication of traditional superhydrophobic or underwater superoleophobic filtering membranes. By making use of the underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oils, the pre-wetted WSPs layer can be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with ultrahigh separation efficiency. Furthermore, the WSPs exhibited excellent adsorption property to the organic dyes including methylene blue, rhodamine B and crystal violet. Finally, the WSPs are agricultural residue to environment, and using it for water remediation not only is a good way to treat water pollution, but also can reduce the pressure to the environment. We believe that such multifunctional material will be an effective approach for separating oil/water separation and adsorbing organic dyes pollution in practical applications.

  3. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, fewstudies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary...... metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria...... strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation...

  4. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to tax on the basis of place of management, place of incorporation or similar criterion or... loss recognized by FC for country Z tax purposes, and pursuant to a group relief regime in country Z FC... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid...

  5. For-profit Hospitals: A comparative and longitudinal study of the for-profit hospital sector in four Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.T. Jeurissen (Patrick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany now argue that for-profit hospital ownership is on the rise because of the retrenchment of public entitlements and – often more importantly in health care – pro-market reforms in the delivery of these services1. Most theoretical notions assume that for-profit hospitals are more

  6. Examining Not-for-Profit Higher Education Faculty Attitudes and Knowledge toward For-Profit Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, for-profit higher education has been the fastest growing segment within higher education. Despite the growth, little research exists about for-profit higher education institutions. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was to examine the attitudes and knowledge of higher education faculty toward…

  7. Costs, commitment and locality: a comparison of for-profit and not-for-profit health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Following on the heels of the first national study demonstrating differences in the community benefits provided by not-for-profit and for-profit health maintenance organizations (HMOs) (Schlesinger, Mitchell, and Gray 2003), this study of the New York state market shows significant differences in premiums, administrative overhead and commitment to safety net coverage between nonprofit and for-profit health plans. This study shows that for-profit health plans do act differently than not-for-profit plans in terms of performance, efficiency, and contribution to safety net programs. Moreover, it suggests that not-for-profit health insurers operating in a predominantly for-profit market act in many ways like for-profits. The New York state insurance market provides an ideal study environment because one can compare a large number of policyholders and plans in both business models (for-profit and not-for-profit) that share an identical legislative and regulatory environment. New York has large populations being provided coverage under both models and no allowances had to be made for state-to-state political and/or legal differences. Specifically, this study shows that: The downstate insurance market is predominantly for-profit, while the upstate market is almost entirely not-for-profit. The recent conversion of Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield to a for-profit model moves the downstate market further into the for-profit column, while the upstate region remains not-for-profit. Insurers in the upstate not-for-profit market are more administratively efficient than insurers in the downstate region. Compared to the downstate region, insurers in upstate New York spent 1.5% less of their operating revenues on administrative expenses. The additional 1.5% of spending on administrative expenses downstate totals dollars 137,000,000. Upstate insurers spend significantly more of the revenues received on payments for medical care. Downstate insurers spent 80.4% of operating revenues on

  8. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of p-nitrophenol onto activated carbon derived from walnut peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Fang; Bai, Song

    2015-01-01

    An original activated carbon prepared from walnut peel, which was activated by zinc chloride, was modified with ammonium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in order to contrast the adsorption property of the three different activated carbons. The experiment used a static adsorption test for p-nitrophenol. The effects of parameters such as initial concentration, contact time and pH value on amount adsorbed and removal are discussed in depth. The thermodynamic data of adsorption were analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic data of adsorption were measured by the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The results indicated that the alkalized carbon samples derived from walnut peel had a better performance than the original activated carbon treated with zinc chloride. It was found that adsorption equilibrium time was 6 h. The maximum removal rate of activated carbon treated with zinc chloride for p-nitrophenol was 87.3% at pH 3,whereas the maximum removal rate of the two modified activated carbon materials was found to be 90.8% (alkalized with ammonium hydroxide) and 92.0% (alkalized with sodium hydroxide) at the same pH. The adsorption data of the zinc chloride activated carbon were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The two alkalized activated carbon samples were fitted well to the Freundlich model. The pseudo-second-order dynamics equation provided better explanation of the adsorption dynamics data of the three activated carbons than the pseudo-first-order dynamics equation.

  9. Quantifying Residues from Postharvest Propylene Oxide Fumigation of Almonds and Walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Leonel R; Hall, Wiley A; Rodriquez, Matthew S; Cooper, William J; Muhareb, Jeanette; Jones, Tom; Walse, Spencer S

    2015-01-01

    A novel analytical approach involving solvent extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by GC was developed to quantify residues that result from the postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide (PPO). Verification and quantification of PPO, propylene chlorohydrin (PCH) [1-chloropropan-2-ol (PCH-1) and 2-chloropropan-1-ol (PCH-2)], and propylene bromohydrin (PBH) [1-bromopropan-2-ol (PBH-1) and 2-bromopropan-1-ol (PBH-2)] was accomplished with a combination of electron impact ionization MS (EIMS), negative ion chemical ionization MS (NCIMS), and electron capture detection (ECD). Respective GC/EIMS LOQs for PPO, PCH-1, PCH-2, PBH-1, and PBH-2 in MTBE extracts were [ppm (μg/g nut)] 0.9, 2.1, 2.5, 30.3, and 50.0 for almonds and 0.8, 2.2, 2.02, 41.6, and 45.7 for walnuts. Relative to GC/EIMS, GC-ECD analyses resulted in no detection of PPO, similar detector responses for PCH isomers, and >100-fold more sensitive detection of PBH isomers. NCIMS did not enhance detection of PBH isomers relative to EIMS and was, respectively, approximately 20-, 5-, and 10-fold less sensitive to PPO, PCH-1, and PCH-2. MTBE extraction efficiencies were >90% for all analytes. The 10-fold concentration of MTBE extracts yielded recoveries of 85-105% for the PBH isomers and a concomitant decrease in LODs and LOQs across detector types. The recoveries of PCH isomers and PPO in the MTBE concentrate were relatively low (approximately 50 to 75%), which confound improvements in LODs and LOQs regardless of detector type.

  10. Relationship between Some Traits and Nut Production in Walnut Cultivars and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut is one of the most important nut crops in Iran. Because of its sexual propagation in Iran, the tree shows a high genetic diversity. In this study, the correlations between trunk cross-sectional area, scaffold cross area, crop density per trunk cross-sectional area and scaffold cross area, number of leaves and leaf area per nut, nut number to branch cross-sectional area, leaf number to branch cross-sectional area, leaf area to branch cross-sectional area and alternate bearing in eight terminal and lateral nutting genotypes were studied in walnut collection of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Iran in two years. Number of nuts to trunk cross sectional area and number of nuts to scaffold cross area were 1.68 (nuts/cm2 and 19.43 (nuts/m2, respectively. The average number of leaves and leaf area per nut were 4.42 (leaf/nut and 1346.33 (cm2 leaf/nut, respectively. The lowest nut density (number of nut/cm2 branch cross sectional area was found to be in genotype H1-1 (2.74 and the highest value was found in ‘Pedro’ (4.36. The correlation coefficient between nut density and leaf area per nut was -0.7. The highest alternate bearing was detected in ‘Hartley’ (15.38 %. This study showed that nut number and branch cross sectional area, nut number and branch leaf area, and branch leaf area and branch cross sectional area had very high correlations, and the polynomial regression model was appropriate for studying the relationship between the evaluated traits with high determination coefficients.

  11. Adsorption of Lead Ion from Aqueous Solution by Modified Walnut Shell: Kinetics and Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenmaishang; Zeng, Zuoxiang; Xue, Weilan

    2018-01-18

    The novel modified walnut shell (WNS-MAH) with higher adsorption capacity for lead ion (carboxyl value, 2.77 mmol/g) was prepared by reacting walnut shell (WNS) with maleic anhydride. Both WNS and WNS-MAH were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The adsorption capacity of WNS-MAH for lead ion was evaluated at different adsorbent doses, pHs, time and temperatures. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were investigated in the temperature range of 298-318K. The adsorption kinetics of lead ion onto WNS-MAH were fitted using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich model. It was found that pseudo-second-order model gives the best correlation results. The diffusion mechanism was determined according to the intraparticle diffusion equation and Boyd equation. Results suggested the adsorption process was governed by film diffusion. The equilibrium adsorption data of lead ion onto WNS-MAH were fitted with Freundlich model and Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of WNS-MAH for lead ion removal was 221.24 mg/g at 318 K. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using D-R model, and the feature concentration (Ce') was determined at different temperatures to distinguish chemisorption and physisorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) were calculated and revealed the adsorption of lead ion onto WNS-MAH was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, the regeneration property was studied and the adsorption process was confirmed by Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDS).

  12. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H; Metcalf, Samuel G; Stewart, William L; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D

    2015-07-01

    Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia 'Chandler') using minirhizotron techniques. Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  13. Assessment of Bacterial Blight Tolerance of Persian Walnut Based on Immature Nut Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila BANDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight is one of the most serious diseases affecting Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.. Susceptibility to this disease was evaluated by artificial inoculation in an in vitro experiment for cultivars developed in Hungary and for selections from Transylvania. Thirty pieces of immature fruit of 11 walnut cultivars and 10 selections were inoculated by punction using a suspension containing a mixture of Xaj-isolates of controlled virulence. As control, a moderate resistant (mR ‘Pedro’ and a highly susceptible (hS ‘Milotai intenzív’ cultivars were used. After ten days the diameter of the necrotic area around the inoculation points was measured and the disease rate (DR was noted. For the calculation of indexes it was taken the structure of the lesions (diffuse or defined margin into consideration. None of the 21 cultivars/selections analysed were found to be hardly resistant, although all of them showed a higher degree of resistance than the susceptible control (‘Milotai intenzív’. The majority of the analysed cultivars fit into the moderate susceptible (mS and moderate resistant (mR group. ‘Milotai kései’ and SZEN-10, had a notable reaction as considered to be moderate resistant (mR, showed a similar degree of resistance compared to the control cultivar ‘Pedro’. It was concluded that these cultivars, based on their resistance to Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, could be proposed as resistance gene sources, as well as for production purposes in the environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin.

  14. Flight Capacity of the Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on a Laboratory Flight Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, Aubree M; Hefty, Andrea R; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-06-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, and associated fungus Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, & Tisserat constitute the insect-fungal complex that causes thousand cankers disease in walnut, Juglans spp., and wingnut, Pterocarya spp. Thousand cankers disease is responsible for the decline of Juglans species throughout the western United States and more recently, the eastern United States and northern Italy. We examined the flight capacity of P. juglandis over 24-h trials on a flight mill in the laboratory. The maximum total flight distance observed was ∼3.6 km in 24 h; however, the mean and median distances flown by beetles that initiated flight were ∼372 m and ∼158 m, respectively. Beetles flew for 34 min on average within a 24-h flight trial. Male and female flight capacities were similar, even though males were larger than females (0.64 vs. 0.57 mm pronotal width). Age postemergence had no effect on flight distance, flight time, or mean flight velocity. The propensity to fly, however, decreased with age. We integrated results of flight distance with propensity to fly as beetles aged in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the maximum dispersal capacity over 5 d, assuming no mortality. Only 1% of the insects would be expected to fly >2 km, whereas one-third of the insects were estimated to fly <100 m. These results suggest that nascent establishments remain relatively localized without anthropogenic transport or wind-aided dispersal, which has implications for management and sampling of this hardwood pest. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  16. Profit (p-index: the degree to which authors profit from co-authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ahmad Aziz

    Full Text Available Current metrics for estimating a scientist's academic performance treat the author's publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual's own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the 'profit (p-index', which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award, and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80% and that researchers' relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods

  17. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Sarrazin Mary S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP, for-profit (FP and government owned hospitals. Methods We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Results Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals. The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P Conclusions For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of uncompensated care provided by NFP hospitals appear warranted.

  18. [Profitability analysis of clinical risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banduhn, C; Schlüchtermann, J

    2013-05-01

    Medical treatment entails many risks. Increasingly, the negative impact of these risks on patients' health is revealed and corresponding cases are reported to hospital insurances. A systematic clinical risk management can reduce risks. This analysis is designed to demonstrate the financial profitability of implementing a clinical risk management. The decision analysis of a clinical risk management includes information from published articles and studies, publicly available data from the Federal Statistical Office and expert interviews and was conducted in 2 scenarios. The 2 scenarios result from a maximum and minimum value of preventable adverse events reported in Germany. The planning horizon was a 1-year ­period. The analysis was performed from a hospital's perspective. Subsequently, a threshold-analysis of the reduction of preventable adverse events as an effect of clinical risk management was executed. Furthermore, a static capital budgeting over a 5-year period was added, complemented by a risk analysis. Regarding the given assumptions, the implementation of clinical risk management would save about 53 000 € or 175 000 €, respectively, for an average hospital within the first year. Only if the reduction of preventable adverse events is as low as 5.6 or 2.8%, respectively, will the implementation of clinical risk management produce losses. According to a comprehensive risk simulation this happens in less than one out of 1 million cases. The investment in a clinical risk management, based on a 5-year period and an interest rate of 5%, has an annually pay off of 81 000 € or 211 000 €, respectively. The implementation of clinical risk management in a hospital pays off within the first year. In the subsequent years the surplus is even higher due to the elimination of implementation costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Protein production: planet, profit, plus people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiking, Harry

    2014-07-01

    Food sustainability and food security are increasingly in the spotlight and increasingly intertwined. According to some projections we will need to nearly double food production in the next 4 decades. This article argues that protein production and consumption are pivotal to sustainability, because anthropogenic contributions to the nitrogen cycle are 100-200% compared with a contribution of 1-2% to the carbon cycle by mineral fuel combustion, with biodiversity as the main casualty. Because 1 kg animal protein requires ∼ 6 kg plant protein, its large-scale production by means of factory farming is a major driver of biodiversity loss, climate change, and freshwater depletion. Furthermore, intensive livestock production is associated with antibiotics resistance and increasing incidence of emerging diseases. Therefore, a "reversed" diet transition back to less animal protein could make a difference. Some European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands, have published integrated policy reports addressing food security, sustainability, and health combined. The food industry is focusing on food safety and increasingly on sustainability. An important issue is consumer communication, because consumer "framing" is radically different from that of governmental and industrial policy makers. There is no "one size fits all." A huge range of differences exists between countries and between distinct groups of consumers within countries; getting consumers to change their diets in a more sustainable direction is likely to require much more than gentle nudging. National governments and the United Nations should assume their responsibilities and initiate a global strategy integrating sustainability, food security, nutrition, and equity. To date, the profit pillar of sustainability has taken precedence over planet and people. It is time to redress the balance. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF BANKS’ PROFITABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SPASESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial banks are important financial institutions in the financial system and the economy. As financial intermediaries, banks play a crucial role in the economic growth of the country through making available the funds for investors to borrow as well as financial deepening in the country. Therefore, the success of working in the banks creates possibilities for more efficient (cheaper crediting of economic entities which results in an increased potential for investing of the enterprises and encouraging the personal people’s spending. Namely, the banking system profitability is the most important instrument of the financing system that has positive influence on potential growth of each national economy. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants in bank profitability in R. Macedonia. For that reason, Return of Assets, Return of Equity and Net Interest Margin, are taken as indicators of the banks’ profitability. On the other hand, the determinants influencing profitability are grouped into two categories, i.e. internal and external. The bank internal determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability, are total loans, asset quality (non-performing loan to total loan ratio, capital adequacy and total deposit to total assets. In our study we use the gross domestic product and inflation rate as external determinants of bank profitability. The results indicate that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks

  1. Profitability of Serbian banking sector during global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko M Miljković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors which contributed to decline of profitability in Serbian banking sector during the period of global economic crisis. There are presented different theories of banking sector profitability and results of scientifically significant empirical researches from economic literature. Following ratios were used as measure of profitability: return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net interest gain to total revenue, net fees and commissions gain to total revenue, and net pre-tax profit/loss to total revenue ratio. The profitability was analyzed for the whole Serbian banking sector in the period 2008-2012 and particularly for the 15 largest banks according to total assets value in 2012. The empirical analysis indicated that one of the most important factors contributing to high amounts of losses of commercial banks in the previous period includes an increase of net operating expenses, especially expenses on account of a write-off of non-performing loans (NPL. Furthermore, there were analyzed the dynamics of interest rates and interest spread as a factor with certain impact on profitability of banks. Finally, it is estimated that the prospects for intensive growth of profitability in the banking sector of Serbia in the mid-term are poor.

  2. 3D hierarchical walnut-like CuO nanostructures: Preparation, characterization and their efficient catalytic activity for CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Weitang [Laboratory of Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Yujuan [Laboratory of Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Duan, Tao, E-mail: duant@ustc.edu.cn [Laboratory of Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhu, Wenkun; Yi, Zao [Laboratory of Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Cui, Xudong, E-mail: xudcui@163.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this work, 3D hierarchical walnut-shaped, 2D nanosheet and 3D microspheres single phase CuO nanostructures are functioning as catalysts and supporting materials, differing from the conventional ways. The novel nanostructures were synthesized via hydrothermal method under a stainless steel autoclave. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR). The walnut-shaped structures with high O/Cu atomic ratio (1.22) exhibit high oxygen adsorption capacity and greatly enhanced catalytic activity. These results will be enrich the techniques for tuning the morphologies of metal oxide micro/nanostructures and open a new field in catalytic applications.

  3. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zihan; Guo, Xingfeng; Lin, Yan; Chen, Jiluan; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Wu, Jihong

    2013-03-30

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a good source of protein that has potential application in new product formation and fortification. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300-600 MPa 20 min) on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate (WPI) using various analytical techniques at room temperature. The results showed significant modification of solubility, free sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity with increased levels of HHP treatment, indicating partial denaturation and aggregation of proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectrum analyses demonstrated that HHP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure. Emulsifying activity index was significantly (P food ingredient. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  5. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  6. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  7. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  8. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  9. Profit Function Approximations and Duality Applications to Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gary D. Thompson; Mark Langworthy

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of profit functions indicate that flexible functional forms may be ranked nearly the same with respect to Allen-Uzawa partial substitution elasticities or price and fixed factor elasticities...

  10. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  11. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  12. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRIN) recommended fungicide use rate with profit maximization objective of Nigerian cocoa farmers. To achieve this research objective, a cross-sectional survey of cocoa farmers in four local government areas (LGAs) each in Osun and Ondo ...

  13. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  14. EXAMINATION OF IMPACT OF PHARMA R&D ON PROFITABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gergo Tomori;

    2014-01-01

    .... This latter requires the examination of the impact of research and development activity as the most important factor to the profitability of two selected regional market leader pharma companies...

  15. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  16. Determinants of Profitability of Insurance Firms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Kofi Boadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to find out the determinants of the profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. Secondary data on financial reports were collected from sixteen insurance firms in Ghana for the period 2005 to 2010.The study was quantitative in nature. It adopted the longitudinal time dimension, specifically, the panel method and ordinary least square regression. The study discovered that, apart from tangibility which has a negative relationship, there is a positive relationship between leverage, liquidity and profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. It was also concluded that, the profitability model adopted has been explained in respect to all the independent variables and that the degree of error is less than 20%. Finally, it is suggested that the explanatory variables used in this study should be regressed on Return on Equity to find their extent of relationship on profitability.

  17. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexiou, Constantinos; Sofoklis, Voyazas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) hypothesis...

  18. For-Profit Institutions and Student Veteran Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Fox Garrity, Bonnie K.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the lack of data about student veterans and reasons this lack of data raises particular concerns about for-profit institutions, which enroll a large percentage of student veterans.

  19. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  20. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  1. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy...

  2. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  3. In vitro Anti-Candidal effects of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Walnut (Juglansregia Tree Fruit Peel in Comparision with Fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of fungal species resistant to antifungal drugs among the Candida genus and also their numerous side effects, convince the researchers to work on new therapeutic methods with minimal side effects for humans fungal infections. The aim of this study was to assess of anticandidal activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of walnut Fruit Peel on common Candida species. In this study, the antifungal effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruit peel of walnut (Juglansregia and fluconazole against four Candida species were evaluated using broth Microdilution method, based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI M38-A3 guideline. And then the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC of these extracts and antifungal drug were obtained for tested Candida species. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruit peel of walnut showed antifungal effects against Candida species. The MIC of fluconazole, aqueous and methanolic extracts of walnut fruit peel for different Candida species were 0.001- 0.032, 6.25-50, 3.125-25 mg/ml, respectively. The MFC of fluconazole, and methanolic extracts of fruit peel of walnut were 0.001-0.032 and 6.25-25 mg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extracts of walnut fruit peel were without fungicidal effects. The most important result of this study is to show that fruit peel extracts of walnut are effective against named fungal species and it looks promising that in future, we can obtain some effective antifungal agents with minimal side effects from shallot extract.

  4. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of

  5. IMPROVING HUMAN RESOURCES REPORTING IN NON FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Todea1; Delia Corina Mihaltan2

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to expose the present reality concerning the information offered byaccounting regarding the human resources in a non for profit organization and to propose ways ofimproving it. To this end we display the typical aspects of human resources which are connected tothe specificities of the non for profit organizations and their impact on accounting. We emphasizethe deficiencies of human resources reporting and submit means of improving it.

  6. What Do We Know About Variance in Accounting Profitability?

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the variance of accounting profitability among a broad cross-section of forms in the American economy from 1981 to 1994. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on accounting profitability among operating businesses across sectors. The findings indicate that industry and corporate-parent effects are important and related to one another. As expected, business-specific effects, which a...

  7. Non-profit organization as a category of political science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish the concept of “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” (NPO. The article outlines the main features of the NPO. A lot of attention is paid to the typology of these organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of NPO activities.

  8. sustainable development and profitability in the Finnish restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulenga, Mpafya

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability in the food industry is often concerned with the provision of organic products and recycling. The emphasis on organically produced supplies though viewed as an environmentally sustainable means of food production to meet the ends of the green revolution should not obscure consideration of profitability in the business. Making profit is a business goal, while environmental sustainability is an ethical issue whose practice is subject to the balancing act of being pr...

  9. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... which implies a destruction of capital that will counteract the falling rate of profit. This will require sustained political intervention....

  10. Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    The decades-old debate over pharmaceutical industry prices, profits, and innovation has again intensified. A number of events coalesced to refocus public interest on pharmaceuticals. Contributing to public concern were Bureau of Labor Statistics price index increases for pharmaceuticals far outpacing those for the products of other industries. Another prominent characteristic of the pharmaceutical industry has been its extraordinarily high reported profitability. This article examines the phe...

  11. Persistence of Profitability in Family-Owned Food Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Boland; Pendell, Dustin L.

    2005-01-01

    We examine firm profitability in the food economy and determine the source of variance of firm profitability in family-owned and non-family-owned food processing firms. The results indicate firm effects dominate in explaining the variance in the business-segment performance in the food economy. More specifically, we find family-owned firms compared to non-family-owned firms have a higher percentage of total variance in the business-segment performance explained by yearly effects, industry eff...

  12. Relationship between Non-current Assets & Firms Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Athar; mati, madhu

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relation between capital еxpеnditurе and earnings of the companies which are non-financial. The scope of research is related to the firm’s profitability and the relationship with the noncurrent assets as managing working capital and capital expenditure efficiently affects the profitability of the firm. Last ten years data of non – financial firms listed at KSE 100 index was taken. It includes Cement, Manufacturing, Engineering, Chemical, Paper, Sugar, Textile, T...

  13. Determinants of bank profitability: evidence from CreditCoop

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Raluca DIACONU; Oanea, Dumitru-Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Co-operative banks were not analyzed in great detail in the literature compared to credit unions or even commercial banks. Through this paper we want to identify the main determinants of CreditCoop profitability, determinants: internal determinants (result of bank management) and external determinants (macroeconomic and industry variables). We found that the loan to assets ratio and equity to assets ratio have the highest and significant impact over the CreditCoop profitability. Moreover, we ...

  14. Improving Gross Profit Margin in a quick service restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to try help implementing the corporate strategy in a quick service restaurant environment by offering practical examples. The objective is to improve the profitability of the case company by the management of the sales team. Questions to be answered are how the gross margin can be developed and what results can be gained. Some of the key concepts of this thesis are gross margin and sales management, restaurant profitability and implementing corporate strategy int...

  15. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  16. Towards more profitable and sustainable milk and beef production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Pauliina

    2017-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining national self-sufficiency in milk and meat play important roles in ensuring future food security. Currently, Finland is self-sufficient in milk. However, beef production, which is strongly related to dairy production, has fallen below consumption mainly because of a decreased number of dairy cows and low profitability. Even though the efficiency and productivity in dairy herds have increased substantially during the last decades, the profitability of milk, and especi...

  17. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Richard J.; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  18. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  19. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  20. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  1. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  2. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  3. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  4. Costs, Commitment and Locality: A Comparison of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Health Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) (Schlesinger, Mitchell, and Gray 2003), this study of the New York state market shows significant differences in premiums, administrative overhead and commitment to safety net coverage between nonprofit and for-profit health plans...

  5. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian F; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2015-03-02

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, few studies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the chemical potential. Four strains belonged to the Alternaria infectoria sp.-grp., 6 to the Alternaria arborescens sp.-grp., 6 showed a sporulation pattern similar to that of "M" according to Simmons, 1 to that of Alternaria vaccinii, and the remaining 70 constituted a diverse group belonging to morphological groups "G" and "H". The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A. infectoria sp.-grp. had no metabolites in common with the rest of the strains. Several secondary metabolites isolated from large-spored Alternaria species or other fungal genera were detected, such as dehydrocurvularin, pyrenochaetic acid and alternarienonic acid. The strains isolated from tomato produced lower amounts of metabolites than strains from blueberries, walnut and wheat, although individual strains from tomato produced the highest amount of some metabolites. The A

  6. The role of tyloses in crown hydraulic failure of mature walnut trees afflicted by apoplexy disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Grant, Joseph A; Kluepfel, Daniel A

    2010-06-01

    In the Central Valley of California, mature walnut trees afflicted with apoplexy disorder exhibit rapid and complete crown defoliation within a few weeks of symptom initiation. Symptoms are typically found throughout the entire crown and are initially expressed as wilting and chlorosis followed by scorching of leaves. Since the cause of apoplexy disorder is unknown, we set out to elucidate the water relations physiology underlying this condition. Stem water potential (Psi(s)) of healthy, asymptomatic trees remained high throughout the 2007 growing season, while that of apoplexy-afflicted trees decreased significantly with the onset of symptoms for both healthy-appearing and symptomatic portions of these trees. Psi(s)s were significantly reduced by at least 0.7 MPa in the lower, middle and upper portions of the symptomatic canopies compared with those from asymptomatic trees. Heat pulse velocities measured in the main trunk at three radial depths consistently decreased prior to the onset of symptoms and eventually reached zero with complete crown defoliation. Comparison of sap flow with predicted water use based on walnut evapotranspiration suggests that stomata of symptomatic trees were closing at higher evaporative demand prior to symptom formation. Specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of symptomatic stems was significantly lower than that of asymptomatic stems, and no detectable K(s) could be measured on several of the symptomatic stem samples. However, shallow root K(s) did not significantly differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, suggesting that hydraulic failure was isolated to the crown of these grafted trees. Light and scanning electron microscopy of stem and trunk sapwood revealed extensive tylose development in vessels throughout the crown of symptomatic trees. Analysis of the formation of tyloses on multiple dates revealed rapid development of these vessel occlusions in conjunction with visual symptom formation and dramatic decreases in sap

  7. Enzymatically interesterified fats based on mutton tallow and walnut oil suitable for cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Mendrycka, M; Zbikowska, A; Stawarz, S

    2015-02-01

    Formation of emulsion systems based on interesterified fats was the objective of the study. Enzymatic interesterification was carried out between enzymatic mutton tallow and walnut oil in the proportions 2 : 3 (w/w) to produce fats not available in nature. At the beginning of the interesterification process, the balance between the interesterification and fat hydrolysis was intentionally disturbed by adding more water to the catalyst (Lipozyme IR MR) of the reaction to produce more of the polar fraction monoacylglycerols [MAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]. To obtain a greater quantity of MAGs and DAGs in the reaction environment via hydrolysis, water was added (11, 13, 14, 16 w-%) to the enzymatic preparation. The obtained fats were used to form emulsions. The emulsions were evaluated with respect to sensory and skin moisturizing properties by 83 respondents. Determination of emulsion stability using temperature and centrifugal tests was carried out. Morphology and the type of emulsions were determined. The respondents described the skin to which the emulsions in testing were applied as smooth, pleasant to touch and adequately moisturized. The work has demonstrated that interesterification of a mutton tallow and walnut oil blend resulted in new fats with very interesting characteristics of triacylglycerols that are not present in the environment. The results of the present work indicate the possibility of application of fats with the largest quantity of MAGs and DAGs as a fat base of emulsions in the cosmetic industries. The hypothesis assumed in this work of producing additional quantities of MAGs and DAGs (in the process of enzymatic interesterification) responsible for the stability of the system was confirmed. It should be pointed out that the emulsions based on interesterified fats exhibited a greater level of moisturization of the skin than the emulsions containing non-interesterified fat. Also, in the respondents' opinion, the emulsion containing fat, which

  8. The Poverty Pimpin' Project: How Whiteness Profits from Black and Brown Bodies in Community Service Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Colette N.; McCloskey, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Tutoring programs that link colleges to public schools are seen as a way to improve the academic performance of K12 students while providing a practicum site for college-age students. Prior research on college-K12 partnerships focuses on how the academic achievement of both K12 and college students are enhanced by these relationships. This article…

  9. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient experience and hospital profitability: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Muhlestein, David B

    Patient experience has had a direct financial impact on hospitals since value-based purchasing was instituted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2013 as a method to reward or punish hospitals based on performance on various measures, including patient experience. Although other industries have shown an indirect impact of customer experience on overall profitability, that link has not been well established in the health care industry. Return-to-provider rate and perceptions of health quality have been associated with profitability in the health care industry. Our aims were to assess whether, independent of a direct financial impact, a more positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and whether a more negative patient experience is associated with decreased profitability. We used a sample of 19,792 observations from 3767 hospitals over the 6-year period 2007-2012. The data were sourced from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, we fit four separate models for three dependent variables: net patient revenue, net income, and operating margin. Each model included one of the following independent variables of interest: percentage of patients who definitely recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who definitely would not recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who rated the hospital 9 or 10, and percentage of patients who rated the hospital 6 or lower. We identified that a positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and a negative patient experience is even more strongly associated with decreased profitability. Management should have greater justification for incurring costs associated with bolstering patient experience programs. Improvements in training, technology, and staffing can be justified as a way to improve not only quality but now

  11. Rainfall simulation experiments in the southwestern USA using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Viktor; Stone, Jeffry; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Nearing, Mark A.; Paige, Ginger; Buono, Jared; Gomez-Pond, Rae-Landa

    2018-01-01

    This dataset contains hydrological, erosion, vegetation, ground cover, and other supplementary information from 272 rainfall simulation experiments conducted on 23 semiarid rangeland locations in Arizona and Nevada between 2002 and 2013. On 30 % of the plots, simulations were conducted up to five times during the decade of study. The rainfall was generated using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator on 2 m by 6 m plots. Simulation sites included brush and grassland areas with various degrees of disturbance by grazing, wildfire, or brush removal. This dataset advances our understanding of basic hydrological and biological processes that drive soil erosion on arid rangelands. It can be used to estimate runoff, infiltration, and erosion rates at a variety of ecological sites in the Southwestern USA. The inclusion of wildfire and brush treatment locations combined with long-term observations makes it important for studying vegetation recovery, ecological transitions, and the effect of management. It is also a valuable resource for erosion model parameterization and validation. The dataset is available from the National Agricultural Library at https://data.nal.usda.gov/search/type/dataset" target="_blank">https://data.nal.usda.gov/search/type/dataset (DOI: https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1358583" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1358583).

  12. Use of innovative groundcovers in Mediterranean afforestations: aerial and belowground effects in hybrid walnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest restoration in the Mediterranean area is particularly limited by water scarcity in summer and by weed competition, especially during the first years after establishment. The negative impact of these factors can be mitigated through environmentally friendly and cost-effective techniques which favour root development. This study describes the results of innovative weeding techniques in a reforestation carried out in a former agricultural field in Solsona, NE Spain, under Continental Mediterranean Sub-humid climate conditions. The tested weeding techniques included both novel groundcovers (based on prototypes built on a new biodegradable biopolymer, jute treated with resin and recycled rubber and reference techniques, i.e. herbicide application and polyethylene and commercial biofilm groundcovers. We studied the response of hybrid walnut (Juglans x intermedia to the application of these techniques during the first vegetative period in terms of survival, aerial growth and aboveground and belowground biomass allocation. The innovative groundcovers resulted generally in similar outcomes as the reference techniques with regard to tree survival and growth, and to better results in the case of belowground and, to a lesser extent, total tree biomass. Although preliminary, our results suggest that the tested novel groundcovers, notably the model based on treated jute, represent a promising alternative to plastic mulching and herbicide application in afforestation of agricultural lands in Mediterranean continental conditions. Besides these promising productive results, the novel groundcovers bring together relevant technical and environmental benefits, related to their use (not requiring removal or being reusable and composition, based on biodegradable or recycled materials.

  13. The contribution of the roumanian research concerning the collecting and use of germoplasm from walnut trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane-Teodora STANCIOIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, due to the poor variety of the rootstock, the walnut tree is grafted by mixing different Junglas regia L. saplings. In the County of Gorj, 19 selections corresponding to the mains characteristics of the rootstock have been determinate. On these selections, various studies determinating their biological nature have been done; fruits have been gathered and used for the experimental reproductions in the sapling nursery. According to the selection criteria, every year, on each biotype, the springing percentage have been counted, together with the medium diameter by package, the medium height, the percentage of STAS saplings obtained, and of thriving in the grafting process using the Jupînesti type. The results of this analyse done in the sapling nursery have reached to the conclusion that the selection SL-10-TJ has obtained the highest springing percentage (86%. The medium height of the saplings indicates an irregular growth, which varies between 42 cm (SL-1-TP and 63 cm (EL-7-TJ. As per the diameter by package, it varies between 14.1 mm (SL-1-TJ and 16.5 mm (SL-18-TJ. The percentage of the springing STAS saplings is between 17% for the selection SL-15-TJ and 78% for the selection SL-6-TJ, and the thriving in the grafting process is high for all the selection, except for SL-9-TJ, with only 55%.

  14. The Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Quantification of Adulteration in Virgin Walnut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjuan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the authentication of virgin walnut oil (VWO has become very important due to the possible adulteration of VWO with cheaper plant oils such as soybean oil (SO, puer tea seed oil (PO, and sunflower oil (SFO. Methods involving Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques (partial least square were developed for quantification of SO, PO, and SFO in VWO. IR spectra of oil samples were recorded at frequency regions of 4000–650 cm−1 on horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR attachment of FT-IR. PLS model correlates the actual and FT-IR estimated values of oil adulterants (SO, PO, and SFO with coefficients of determination (R2 of 0.9958, 0.9925, and 0.9952, respectively. The obtained RMSEC values of SO, PO, and SFO in VWO are 1.35%, 1.85%, and 1.43% (v/v, respectively. The method, therefore, has potential as a rapid method for quantification of product adulteration.

  15. Biological and pomological properties of some walnut selections from the native population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milisav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major biological and pomological properties of walnut selections singled out from the region of Central and Eastern Serbia over 2002-2005. The selections are abundant croppers of extremely high vigour. The vegetation cycle begins mainly in the third decade of April, whereas flowering and inflorescence formation occur in first decade of May. Fruits ripen in the third decade of September. These selections are extremely resistant or resistant to low winter temperatures and resistant to moderately resistant to Gnomonia leptostyla. The fruits are mainly medium large or large with fruit weight ranging from 14.0 - 11.3 g. The kernel is light colored or yellow of good or very good taste, with high kernel ratio (50.0 - 45.1%. The majority of these selections have high oil content (68.2 - 61.8% and medium raw protein content (18.3 - 15.4%. All the stated selections should be taken into consideration in respect of collection establishment and deserve to be excessively introduced into production upon testing under the respective conditions. .

  16. Waste walnut shell valorization to iron loaded biochar and its application to arsenic removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Duan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron loaded biochar (ILB was prepared from waste walnut shell by microwave pyrolysis and its application for arsenic removal was attempted. The ILB was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and BET Surface area analyzer. The adsorption isotherm of As (V in ILB covering a temperature range of 25 to 45 °C, as well as the kinetics of adsorption at 25 °C were experimentally generated. The adsorption isotherms were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, while the kinetics of adsorption was modeled using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and intra particle diffusion model. The ILB had a surface area of 418 m2/g with iron present in the form of hematite (Fe2O3 and magnetite (Fe3O4. The arsenic adsorption isotherm matches well with Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 1.91 mg/g at 25 °C. The adsorption capacity of As (V well compares with other porous adsorbents widely reported in literature, supporting its application as a cost effective adsorbent.

  17. Rainfall simulation experiments in the southwestern USA using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Polyakov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset contains hydrological, erosion, vegetation, ground cover, and other supplementary information from 272 rainfall simulation experiments conducted on 23 semiarid rangeland locations in Arizona and Nevada between 2002 and 2013. On 30 % of the plots, simulations were conducted up to five times during the decade of study. The rainfall was generated using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator on 2 m by 6 m plots. Simulation sites included brush and grassland areas with various degrees of disturbance by grazing, wildfire, or brush removal. This dataset advances our understanding of basic hydrological and biological processes that drive soil erosion on arid rangelands. It can be used to estimate runoff, infiltration, and erosion rates at a variety of ecological sites in the Southwestern USA. The inclusion of wildfire and brush treatment locations combined with long-term observations makes it important for studying vegetation recovery, ecological transitions, and the effect of management. It is also a valuable resource for erosion model parameterization and validation. The dataset is available from the National Agricultural Library at https://data.nal.usda.gov/search/type/dataset (DOI: https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1358583.

  18. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  19. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  20. Profit and loss account in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an economic unit, useful for a wide range of users in making economic decisions, particular attention should be paid to the profit and loss account, which is the main instrument for reflecting the financial performance, because on the one hand it provides the information necessary for their evaluation, and on the other hand the information essential for determining the risk of cash flows. Even if each component of the financial statements provides different pieces of information, they should be correlated because they reflect different aspects of the same transactions or events, and in this article we will address the general aspects of profit and loss account from the perspective of profit and loss account models. In this regard, after a brief theoretical approach of the profit and loss account, we will indicate the advantages of two models of profit and loss account but without forgetting their limitations. Thus, we will provide the income statement structure on two stages of normalization: internationally and nationally.

  1. The importance of internal controls in profit centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Pupovac Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profit centers are relatively independent organization units within a company that realize revenues and expenditures whose numerical difference expresses the results they achieved. There are guided by basic mission and objectives of company, and profit centers managers are assigned to harmonize the business, motivate the employees, make decisions and implement actions that lead to increase of profitability and efficiency on the level of the whole company. In order to monitor the company development, financial statements are put together on the level of the profit center, and, on their basis, managers make decisions about further steps of company's growth and development. Since financial statements play significant role in company's further business operations, it is necessary to form and implement internal control system that can confirm reliability of profit centers financial statements with a great certainty. Internal control examines compliance with current policies and procedures, detects errors and abuses, and checks the accuracy and completeness of accounting records. The purpose of internal controls is to increase company's business efficiency, basing the decision making on timely and accurate information.

  2. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  3. The impact of profitability of hospital admissions on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Konetzka, R Tamara; Navathe, Amol S; Zhu, Jingsan; Chen, Wei; Volpp, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Fiscal constraints faced by Medicare are leading to policies designed to reduce expenditures. Evidence of the effect of reduced reimbursement on the mortality of Medicare patients discharged from all major hospital service lines is limited. We modeled risk-adjusted 30-day mortality of patients discharged from 21 hospital service lines as a function of service line profitability, service line time trends, and hospital service line and year-fixed effects. We simulated the effect of alternative revenue-neutral reimbursement policies on mortality. Our sample included all Medicare discharges from PPS-eligible hospitals (1997, 2001, and 2005). The results reveal a statistically significant inverse relationship between changes in profitability and mortality. A $0.19 average reduction in profit per $1.00 of costs led to a 0.010-0.020 percentage-point increase in mortality rates (p profitable. Policy simulations that target service line inequities in payment generosity result in lower mortality rates, roughly 700-13,000 fewer deaths nationally. The policy simulations raise questions about the trade-offs implicit in universal reductions in reimbursement. The effect of reduced payment generosity on mortality could be mitigated by targeting highly profitable services only for lower reimbursement. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  5. Capital structure and profitability. A case of JSE Listed Companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Mashavave

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find out the relationship between capital structure and profitability focusing on firms listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange in South Africa. Past research on this topic excluded the Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed firms. The research results will be useful to the business people in South Africa because it will be more in line with the South African economic status and thus relevant. From the graphs and tables of the companies analyzed, it appears there is no relationship between the capital structure and profitability. The fluctuations in the debt/equity ratio and profitability ratio are so severe to such an extent that no meaningful conclusion regarding the relationship between capital structure and profitability can be made. The outcomes are haphazard there is no uniformity and consistence on the outcomes. Other hindrances to the relationship between capital structure and profitability were also discovered and these were attributed to the environmental factors of the company such as economic, political, and social and all other external forces that companies under study were exposed to.

  6. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  7. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  8. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  9. The Profit Distribution of Supply Chain under E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of e-commerce, its influence on supply chain and supply chain management is becoming increasingly significant too. In this paper, the literature on the supply chain profit is reviewed first, and then a two-level and four-party supply chain which consists of a supplier, an e-commerce platform, third-party logistics, and demander is taken into consideration. The profit function of supply chain under e-commerce is formulated by taking the price of product and the maximum supply amount under certain investment as decision-making variables and taking the expected value of random variables of price as the setting sales quantity. Finally, the existence of maximum profit in the supply chain is proved in the model, and the coordination of supply chain under e-commerce environment can be achieved by setting coordination parameters when the relevant cost parameters of supply chain members satisfy certain conditions.

  10. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.

  11. Konsep Perjanjian Profit and Loss Sharing dalam Ekonomi islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agreements of Profit and Loss Sharing is an agreement based on the confidence (trust investment, in another sense that financiers or Shahibul Mall will deliver the funds to the fund manager or mudharib after investors feel confident that the managers of these funds both skill and moral can be trusted to manage the capital provided by the expertise and capital will not manipulate it. With this fact it is necessary to examine the concept of profit and loss sharing agreement, with the hope to find a concept that is based on the teachings of Islam. In this paper presents about the concept of Profit and Loss Sharing in the view of Islamic economics is based on the Qur'an and Hadith.

  12. The benefits of customer profitability analysis in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Georgiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the benefits of customer profitability analysis implementation according to the specifics of the hotel product and the state of the management accounting in hotels. On this basis is substantiated the necessity management accounting and information systems in the hotels to be anteriorly adapted and developed in relevance with the objectives and methodological tools of customer profitability analysis, while keeping their function in collecting information for operational revenues and costs by responsibility centers. A model for customer profitability analysis based on ABC method is proposed in this connection, providing an example to clarify its methodological aspects and benefits. The latter consist in providing information for the purposes of taking a variety of management decisions regarding costs, product mix, pricing, performance measurement and implementation of various marketing initiatives.

  13. Applicability of Investment and Profitability Effects in Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether investment and profitability are priced and if they partially explain the variations of stock returns in the Brazilian stock market, according to the Fama and French’s (2015 five-factor model. By using time series and cross-section regression, we found that book-to-market, momentum and liquidity are associated with stock returns whereas investment and profitability were not significant. We also found that there is no investment premium in Brazil. Therefore, motivated by the importance of B/M, momentum and liquidity to the Brazilian stock market, as well as by the poor performance of profitability and investment, we document that Keene and Peterson’s (2007 five-factor model is superior to all other models, especially the five-factor model by Fama and French (2015.

  14. Association between hospital conversions to for-profit status and clinical and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Karen E; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    .4%], P = .26), the proportion of patients with Medicaid (-0.2% vs 0.4%; difference in differences, -0.6% [95% CI, -2.0% to 0.8%]; P = .38) or the proportion of patients who were black (-0.4% vs -0.1%; difference in differences, -0.3% [95% CI, -1.9% to 1.3%]; P = .72) or Hispanic (0.1% vs -0.1%; difference in differences, 0.2% [95% CI, -0.3% to 0.7%]; P = .50). Hospital conversion to for-profit status was associated with improvements in financial margins but not associated with differences in quality or mortality rates or with the proportion of poor or minority patients receiving care.

  15. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  16. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  17. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  18. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the ...

  19. Fluctuations of company yearly profits versus scaled revenue: Fat tail distribution of Levy type

    OpenAIRE

    H. E. Roman; Siliprandi, R. A.; Dose, C.; Riccardi, C.; Porto,M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze annual revenues and earnings data for the 500 largest-revenue U.S. companies during the period 1954-2007. We find that mean year profits are proportional to mean year revenues, exception made for few anomalous years, from which we postulate a linear relation between company expected mean profit and revenue. Mean annual revenues are used to scale both company profits and revenues. Annual profit fluctuations are obtained as difference between actual annual profit and its expected mea...

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted hydroalcoholic extraction of phenolic compounds from walnut leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Violeta; Trandafir, Ion; Cosmulescu, Sina

    2016-10-01

    Context Walnut leaves are highly appreciated for their pharmacological effects and therapeutic properties which are mainly attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds. Objective This study optimizes ultrasound assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from dried walnut leaves by the maximization of total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavanoids content (TFC) of the extracts. Materials and methods Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 12.17-95.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8.17-91.83 min) and liquid-to-solid ratio (X3: 4.96-25.04 v/w) were identified using central composite design combined with response surface methodology. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection was used to quantify phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salicylic, ellagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in the extracts. Results Liquid-to-solid ratio and ethanol concentration proved to be the primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The maximum predicted TPC, under the optimized conditions (61% ethanol concentration, 51.28 min extraction time and 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio) was 10125.4 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter while maximum TFC (2925 mg quercetin equivalents per liter) occurred at 67.83% ethanol concentration, 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio and 49.37 min extraction time. High significant correlations were found between antioxidant activity and both TPC (R(2 )=( )0.81) and TFC (R(2 )=( )0.78). Discussion and conclusion Extracts very rich in polyphenols could be obtained from walnut leaves by using UAE, aimed at preparing dietary supplements, nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.

  1. Population Structure of Geosmithia morbida, the Causal Agent of Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrew D.; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W.; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J.; Tisserat, Ned

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

  2. The Effects of Timing and Grafting Methods on Graft Success and Scion Growth in Walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khajeali; A. Mohammadkhani

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the best method and time of budding and grafting in walnut under controlled conditions in Saman, Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Province. The experiment was in completely randomized design with 13 treatments, including cleft, splice and whip-tongue grafting on February 4, chip budding on April 4, 19, May 5 and 20, and T-budding and patch budding each one on first of June, July and August in three replications (each replication, including ten seedlings). All g...

  3. Physical and chemical composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L genotypes grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyuncu, M. Ali

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut ( Juglans regia L. samples were collected during the 2000 and 2001 harvests from different selections of trees grown in Turkey . Important physical and biochemical properties of fruit were examined in these walnut types. At the end of this study, 10 types were selected and nut and kernel properties, fatty acid composition and the proximate composition of these selections which are commonly grown in Turkey were evaluated. Physical properties are attributed to the quality criteria of nuts. Investigated genotypes showed good quality according to the test results. The total oil content ranged from 61.97 to 70.92 % while the crude protein ranged from 15.17 to 19.24 %. Ash ranged from 1.26 to 2.06 % while the moisture was found between 3.25-3.91 % of the kernel. The total carbohydrate was calculated as between 8.05-13.23 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 21.18 to 40.20% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 43.94 to 60.12 % and the linolenic contents from 6.91 to11.52 %. It was found that palmitic acid was between 5.24 and 7.62 %, while stearic acid ranged from 2.56 to 3.67 %Las nueces ( Juglans regia L. fueron recolectadas durante los años 2000 y 2001 en diversos nogales seleccionados de Turquía y analizadas para determinar sus propiedades físicas y bioquímicas. Se seleccionaron 10 genotipos en los que fueron determinadas las propiedades de la cáscara y la semilla, la composición en ácidos grasos, así como su composición general. Las propiedades físicas son un atributo de calidad de las nueces. Los genotipos investigados mostraron una buena calidad de acuerdo a los resultados. El contenido total en aceite varió entre el 61.97 y el 70.92 % mientras que la proteína cruda fue del 15.17-19.24 %. La ceniza fue del 1.26-2.06 % y la humedad fue del 3.25-3.91 % de la semilla. Los carbohidratos totales fueron el 8.05-13.23 %. El contenido en ácido oleico fue del 21.18-40.20 % de los

  4. Walnut kernel-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles as effective drug carrier for cancer therapy in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Kun; Ren, Huihui; Sun, Wentong [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Environmental Science (China); Zhao, Qi [Hebei University, College of Clinical Science (China); Jia, Guang [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Environmental Science (China); Zang, Aimin [Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University (China); Zhang, Cuimiao, E-mail: cmzhanghbu@163.com; Zhang, Jinchao, E-mail: jczhang6970@163.com [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Environmental Science (China)

    2016-03-15

    In drug delivery systems, nanocarriers could reduce the degradation and renal clearance of drugs, increase the half-life in the bloodstream and payload of drugs, control the release patterns, and improve the solubility of some insoluble drugs. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are considered to be attractive nanocarriers for application of delivery systems because of their large surface areas, large pore volume, tunable pore sizes, good biocompatibility, and the ease of surface functionalization. However, the large-scale synthesis of monodisperse MSNs that are smaller than 200 nm remains a challenge. In this study, monodisperse walnut kernel-like MSNs with diameters of approximately 100 nm were synthesized by a sol–gel route on a large scale. The morphology and structure of MSNs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, Zeta potentials, and dynamic light scattering. Drug loading and release profile, cellular uptake, subcellular localization, and anticancer effect in vitro were further investigated. The results indicated that the loading efficiency of doxorubicinhydrochloride (DOX) into the MSNs was 57 %. The MSNs–DOX delivery system exhibited a drug-pronounced initial burst release within 12 h, followed by the slow sustained release of DOX molecules; moreover, MSNs could improve DOX release efficiency in acidic medium. Most free DOX was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the MSNs–DOX was primarily distributed in lysosome. MSNs–DOX exhibited a potential anticancer effect against MCF-7, HeLa, and A549 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. In summary, the as-synthesized MSNs may have well function as a promising drug carrier in drug delivery fields.Graphical Abstract.

  5. Walnut kernel-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles as effective drug carrier for cancer therapy in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kun; Ren, Huihui; Sun, Wentong; Zhao, Qi; Jia, Guang; Zang, Aimin; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-03-01

    In drug delivery systems, nanocarriers could reduce the degradation and renal clearance of drugs, increase the half-life in the bloodstream and payload of drugs, control the release patterns, and improve the solubility of some insoluble drugs. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are considered to be attractive nanocarriers for application of delivery systems because of their large surface areas, large pore volume, tunable pore sizes, good biocompatibility, and the ease of surface functionalization. However, the large-scale synthesis of monodisperse MSNs that are smaller than 200 nm remains a challenge. In this study, monodisperse walnut kernel-like MSNs with diameters of approximately 100 nm were synthesized by a sol-gel route on a large scale. The morphology and structure of MSNs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Zeta potentials, and dynamic light scattering. Drug loading and release profile, cellular uptake, subcellular localization, and anticancer effect in vitro were further investigated. The results indicated that the loading efficiency of doxorubicinhydrochloride (DOX) into the MSNs was 57 %. The MSNs-DOX delivery system exhibited a drug-pronounced initial burst release within 12 h, followed by the slow sustained release of DOX molecules; moreover, MSNs could improve DOX release efficiency in acidic medium. Most free DOX was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the MSNs-DOX was primarily distributed in lysosome. MSNs-DOX exhibited a potential anticancer effect against MCF-7, HeLa, and A549 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. In summary, the as-synthesized MSNs may have well function as a promising drug carrier in drug delivery fields.

  6. Long-term evapotranspiration estimates in the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Klazura, G. E.; Lesht, B. M.; Wesely, M. L.

    1999-08-04

    This project focuses on improving and testing a simple method for using reflectance data obtained from satellites to infer the effects on evapotranspiration of variations in soil moisture availability. The major advantage to the method, which is based on the parameterization of subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) model (Gao 1995; Gao et al. 1998), is that it can be applied to areas having diverse surface characteristics where direct surface flux measurements either do not exist or are not feasible and where meteorological data are available from only a limited number of ground stations. The emphasis of the PASS model is on improving (1) methods for using high-resolution satellite remote sensing data to derive the essential parameters for individual types of surfaces overlarge areas, (2) algorithms for describing the interactions of near-surface atmospheric conditions with surface processes, and (3) algorithms for computing surface energy and water vapor flux at a scale close to the size of a satellite pixel. An operational modeling system is being developed. Testing of the system is accomplished by applying it to the Walnut River Wak-shed (WRW), instrumented watershed of moderate area (5,000 km{sup 2}) located just east of Wichita, Kansas. Data from field experiments such as the intensive field campaign in 1997 by the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES) and from routine operation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) in the WRW are used to evaluate the ability of the PASS model to estimate accumulated water loss over a growing season. The research goals of the project areas follow: (1) Improve the existing satellite-data interfacing modules, especially the parameterization of soil moisture availability and water vapor flux; (2) Apply and evaluate the methods by using measurements at ground stations distributed within the WRW; and (3) Develop an operational version of the modeling system, and apply it to derive long

  7. Lightweight and efficient microwave absorbing materials based on walnut shell-derived nano-porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xu; Wang, Lixi; Zhu, Hongli; Guan, Yongkang; Zhang, Qitu

    2017-06-08

    Lightweight microwave absorbing materials have drawn tremendous attention. Herein, nano-porous biomass carbon materials have been prepared by carbonization with a subsequent potassium hydroxide activation of walnut shells and the microwave absorption properties have also been investigated. The obtained samples have large specific surface areas with numerous micropores and nanopores. The sample activated at 600 °C with a specific surface area of 736.2 m2 g-1 exhibits the most enhanced microwave absorption performance. It has the maximum reflection loss of -42.4 dB at 8.88 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss below -10 dB) is 1.76 GHz (from 8.08 GHz to 9.84 GHz), corresponding to a thickness of 2 mm. Additionally, the effective absorption bandwidth can reach 2.24 GHz (from 10.48 GHz to 12.72 GHz) when the absorber thickness is 1.5 mm. Three-dimensional porous architecture, interfacial polarization relaxation loss, and the dipolar relaxation loss make a great contribution to the excellent microwave absorption performance. In contrast, the non-activated sample with lower specific surface area (435.3 m2 g-1) has poor microwave absorption performance due to a poor dielectric loss capacity. This comparison highlights the role of micropores and nanopores in improving the dielectric loss property of porous carbon materials. To sum up, porous biomass carbon has great potential to become lightweight microwave absorbers. Moreover, KOH is an efficient activation agent in the fabrication of carbonaceous materials.

  8. Characteristics of ultrasonic acoustic emissions from walnut branches during freeze-thaw-induced embolism formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Jun; Charrier, Guillaume; Uemura, Matsuo; Améglio, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emission (UAE) methods have been applied for the detection of freeze-thaw-induced embolism formation in water conduits of tree species. Until now, however, the exact source(s) of UAE has not been identified especially in angiosperm species, in which xylem tissues are composed of diverse types of cells. In this study, UAE was recorded from excised branches of walnut (Juglans regia cv. Franquette) during freeze-thaw cycles, and attempts were made to characterize UAEs generated by cavitation events leading to embolism formation according to their properties. During freeze-thaw cycles, a large number of UAEs were generated from the sample segments. However, the cumulative numbers of total UAE during freeze-thawing were not correlated with the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity after thawing, suggesting that the sources of UAE were not only cavitation leading to embolism formation in vessels. Among the UAEs, cumulative numbers of UAEs with absolute energy >10.0 fJ strongly correlated with the increase in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity. The high absolute energy of the UAEs might reflect the formation of large bubbles in the large lumen of vessels. Therefore, UAEs generated by cavitation events in vessels during freeze-thawing might be distinguished from other signals according to their magnitudes of absolute energy. On the other hand, the freezing of xylem parenchyma cells was followed by a certain number of UAEs. These results indicate the possibility that UAE methods can be applied to the detection of both freeze-thaw-induced embolism and supercooling breakdown in parenchyma cells in xylem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Characteristics of ultrasonic acoustic emissions from walnut branches during freeze–thaw-induced embolism formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Jun; Charrier, Guillaume; Uemura, Matsuo; Améglio, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emission (UAE) methods have been applied for the detection of freeze–thaw-induced embolism formation in water conduits of tree species. Until now, however, the exact source(s) of UAE has not been identified especially in angiosperm species, in which xylem tissues are composed of diverse types of cells. In this study, UAE was recorded from excised branches of walnut (Juglans regia cv. Franquette) during freeze–thaw cycles, and attempts were made to characterize UAEs generated by cavitation events leading to embolism formation according to their properties. During freeze–thaw cycles, a large number of UAEs were generated from the sample segments. However, the cumulative numbers of total UAE during freeze–thawing were not correlated with the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity after thawing, suggesting that the sources of UAE were not only cavitation leading to embolism formation in vessels. Among the UAEs, cumulative numbers of UAEs with absolute energy >10.0 fJ strongly correlated with the increase in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity. The high absolute energy of the UAEs might reflect the formation of large bubbles in the large lumen of vessels. Therefore, UAEs generated by cavitation events in vessels during freeze–thawing might be distinguished from other signals according to their magnitudes of absolute energy. On the other hand, the freezing of xylem parenchyma cells was followed by a certain number of UAEs. These results indicate the possibility that UAE methods can be applied to the detection of both freeze–thaw-induced embolism and supercooling breakdown in parenchyma cells in xylem. PMID:25662846

  10. Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women. June 06, 2016. Ibro M Abdoulaye, Baco Mohamed Nasser, Badiori Ouatara, Sogodogo Diakalia, Mahaman Sabiou,Akponikpè PB Irenikatche, Derek Peak, Kimaro Anthony and Koala Saidou. The localized application of small quantities of fertilizer ...

  11. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profitability in existing agricultural activities through agricultural transformation that focuses on investing in more productive technologies and efficient marketing ... only 0.25kg per tree of green coffee; the yields are among the lowest in the world). The study conducted by USAID (2010) in Kilimanjaro and Arusha revealed that ...

  12. Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    negotiation via mediator. Math Forum Spl. 21: 33–40. Borkotokey S and Rupok Neog 2012 Allocating profit among rational players in a fuzzy coalition: A game theoretic model. Group Decis. Negot. 21: 439–459. Branzei R, Dimitrov D and Tijs S 2004 Hypercubes and compromise values for cooperative fuzzy games. Eur.

  13. analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    mostly males (70%) who were in their active age group of 36-45 years. Profitability analysis revealed that yoghurt ... 2007). Poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent throughout Nigeria (Innovative .... Storage problem caused by the epileptic power supply in Maiduguri and improper packaging of products.

  14. Productivity and profitability of robusta coffee agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to understanding the socio-economic impact of shade trees and the returns from robusta coffee farming systems, this study compared the financial profitability of shaded coffee fields which are dependent on nutrient cycling to sustain production (traditional system) and shaded coffee fields where compost ...

  15. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Data collected was entered in SPSS and Excel computer soft ware for analysis. Gross margin was computed to determine the profitability of the intercrops and sole component crops. Gross margin was subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS and results showed that the gross margin of sorghum-cowpea and sorghum- ...

  16. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  17. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insurance companies continue to face intense pressure to improve performance, increase profitability, deliver superior customer service and increase shareholder returns. This is primarily due to the fact that operating efficiency is of particular interest for managers whose aim is to improve the performance of their firm and, ...

  18. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  19. The performance and profitability of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) in ...

  20. Profitability of poultry production among school leavers in Anaocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to investigate the profitability of poultry production in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Ten poultry farmers were randomly drawn from each of the ten autonomous communities that make up the local Government Area to give a sample size of one hundred. Structured ...