Sample records for profit early childhood

  1. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care (United States)

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah


    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  2. Tooth decay - early childhood (United States)

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... inside of your baby's mouth healthy and prevents tooth decay. If you are bottle-feeding your baby: Give babies, ages newborn to ...

  3. Music in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Feierabend, John


    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  4. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  5. Early Childhood Trauma (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010


    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  6. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood


    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER


    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema


    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.


    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  9. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students


    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin


    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka


    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  11. Physical Education in Early Childhood (United States)

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.


    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  12. SEL Interventions in Early Childhood (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Duncan, Robert


    Young children who enter school without sufficient social and emotional learning (SEL) skills may have a hard time learning. Yet early childhood educators say they do not get enough training to effectively help children develop such skills. In this article, Megan McClelland, Shauna Tominey, Sara Schmitt, and Robert Duncan examine the theory and…

  13. Early Childhood Intervention in China (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane


    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  14. International research in early childhood education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    "The journal of International Research in Early Childhood Education (IRECE) is an electronic peer-reviewed journal designed to provide an international forum for scholarship and research within the field of early childhood education...

  15. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin


    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  16. Leadership in Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Arora, Samita Berry


    With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…

  17. Early childhood intervention : rationale, timing, and efficacy


    Orla Doyle; Richard E. Tremblay; Colm Harmon; James J. Heckman


    This paper provides a brief review of the economic rationale for investing in early childhood. It discusses the optimal timing of intervention, with reference to recent work in developmental neuroscience, and asks how early is early? It motivates the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse factors during the antenatal and early childhood period on outcomes later in life. Early childhood interventions, even poorly designed ones, are costly to implement,...

  18. Early Childhood--Love (United States)

    Jackson, Sylvia


    If children are to love themselves and others, they must experience love early. And they need to be taught the value of love, since it tends to fall victim to other lesser emotions. Provides suggestions for helping young children to grow in love. (Author/RK)

  19. Penatalaksanaan early childhood caries Management of early childhood caries


    Fajriani Fajriani; Hendrastuty Handayani


    Early childhood caries (ECC), also known as milk bottle caries is a syndrome of severe tooth decay, occurs in infants and children, is an infectious disease that develops rapidly and lead to health problems in children. This syndrome can be caused by inappropriate use of bottles. Most cases of untreated ECC to children aged 20 months. At this stage many children need serious treatment, because this will result in trauma to both the children and parents. The most common treatment E...

  20. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development (United States)

    Messonnier, Nancy


    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn


    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  2. Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit


    The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

  3. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Early childhood education is recognized by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is the foundation of education for ... addition to keeping the physical space, social and emotional environment of all classroom appropriate, to .... practice in differentiating instruction at the early childhood care education in Owerri educational ...

  4. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern...

  5. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy


    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  6. Prevention of early childhood caries. (United States)

    Ismail, A I


    This paper reviews the methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). The education of mothers or caregivers to promote healthy dietary habits in infants has been the main strategy used for the prevention of ECC. This review found that education has a modest impact on the development of ECC. While education should be promoted especially in high risk communities and population groups (low-income families and native populations), it should not be the only preventive strategy of ECC. Early screening for signs of caries development, starting from the first year of life, could identify infants and toddlers who are at risk of developing ECC and assist in providing information to parents about how to promote oral health and prevent the development of tooth decay. High risk children include those with early signs of ECC, poor oral hygiene, limited exposure to fluorides, and frequent exposure to sugary snacks and drinks. These children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes fluoride varnish application, fluoridated dentifrices, fluoride supplements, sealants, diet counseling, and chlorhexidine. Prevention of ECC also requires addressing the social and economic factors that face many families where ECC is endemic.

  7. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano


    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  8. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  9. Teen Parents in Early Childhood Interventions (United States)

    Korfmacher, Jon


    This article reviews five large national studies that include significant findings about the effects of early care and intervention on the children of teens. Five large-scale, national early childhood intervention research trials have included teen parents: Early Head Start, Nurse Family Partnership, Parents as Teachers, Healthy Start/Healthy…

  10. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie


    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  11. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra


    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  12. Violence prevention and early childhood development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  13. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  14. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  15. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation (United States)

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.


    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  16. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report (United States)

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty


    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  17. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós


    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  18. Early Childhood Education in China: Political Implications. (United States)

    Chiaromonte, Tom

    This paper reviews the history of early childhood education in China between 1949 and 1990. After the Communist revolution in 1949, China's educational policy was modeled after the Soviet Union's. Preschool pedagogy emphasized conditioning children's behavior and providing a comfortable environment for children. The number of nurseries and…

  19. Measurement Practices in Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Evans, Ellis D.

    This overview of measurement practices in early childhood education discusses some of the basic issues and concerns of both researchers and practitioners. Although techniques for the measurement of young children's behavior received primary attention, procedures for measuring parent and teacher behavior are also discussed. Trends in measurement…

  20. Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.


    There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

  1. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou (United States)

    Kalinowski, Michael


    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education…

  2. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs | Stones | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 7 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs. DK Stones. Abstract.

  3. Schematising activities in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poland, M.; van Oers, H.J.M.; Terwel, J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of introducing schematising to children in early childhood and to determine whether schematising can be taught to children. This was done using a longitudinal, quantitative study with a quasi-experimental design (N = 133). In this study, the

  4. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis


    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  5. Constructivism and Jewish Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Muller, Meir


    Having an educational theory as a school's foundation is a key component in successful educational endeavors. However, many Jewish early childhood programs do not commonly use educational theory to support methods of instruction. In this study 14 children from a constructivist-based Jewish kindergarten class are interviewed to determine how they…

  6. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview (United States)

    Young, Susan


    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  7. Art Books for Early Childhood Classroom Communication (United States)

    Pitri, Eliza


    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationships among art, language, and communication through the use of children's art books in early childhood teaching. By children's art books, meaning books for children that serve as contexts for reproductions of artworks, are stunning works of art themselves, engage the curiosity and thinking of…

  8. Creating Music Environments in Early Childhood Programs. (United States)

    Achilles, Elayne


    Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips…

  9. Emotional Intersections in Early Childhood Leadership (United States)

    Baldwin, Nikki A.


    The purpose of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the emotional experiences of three early childhood education leaders directing diverse programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Application of a poststructural theoretical framework was completed to better understand how leaders' emotion was performed within social and…

  10. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education? (United States)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 2010 ... Early childhood caries (ECC) and periodontal diseases are the common enemies of children's oral health. ECC is described as an experience of dental caries on at least one primary tooth in a child under six years of age (1). ECC is considered a major personal and public health problem in the developing ...

  12. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  13. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Home Visiting (United States)

    Korfmacher, Jon; Green, Beth; Staerkel, Fredi; Peterson, Carla; Cook, Gina; Roggman, Lori; Faldowski, Richard A.; Schiffman, Rachel


    This review provides an overview of an important aspect of early childhood home visiting research: understanding how parents are involved in program services and activities. Involvement is defined as the process of the parent connecting with and using the services of a program to the best of the client's and the program's ability. The term…

  14. Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Roof, Virginia


    This article summarizes guidelines developed by the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Early Childhood Research Institute for selecting and adapting materials for young children and their families. Recommendations are provided that community teams should consider in collecting, selecting, and reflecting on materials. Tips are also…

  15. Integrating Computer Technology within Early Childhood Classrooms. (United States)

    Judge, Sharon Lesar


    This article discusses how professionals can integrate computer technology into early childhood classrooms. Strategies are provided for using computers to facilitate learning, selecting developmentally appropriate software, setting up a computer center, and integrating computer technology across the curriculum. A chart pairs level of interactivity…

  16. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan


    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  17. Understanding Early Childhood: Issues and Controversies (United States)

    Penn, Helen


    Drawing on research evidence from across the world, this book offers a wide-ranging perspective on the ways in which we understand and study young children. The book summarizes current debates in child development, and looks at different ways of understanding early childhood and the various methods used to gain understanding, featuring: (1)…



    Sayid Habiburrahman


    Public awareness of the importance of early childhood education is getting better with the emergence of various forms of diverse early childhood institutions. This phenomenon is very interesting to continue to develop early childhood education program. This consciousness departs from understanding the purpose of early childhood education programs that facilitate the optimal growth and development of children in accordance with the norms and values. Through proper educational programs, the chi...

  19. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education and early childhood development. 1304.21... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.21 Education and early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  20. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve


    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  1. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Specialist Teachers, Early childhood, Sustainable. Development. Introduction. Early childhood is one of the major stages .... The relationship at this stage between the teacher and children tends to be closer that the teacher becomes a surrogate parent. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education ...

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.


    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  3. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early childhood intervention is an essential contributor and catalyst for the development of a culture of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... This would provide mutual benefits for children with disabilities, parents and families, educators and professionals and the society at large.

  4. Early childhood tooth decay. Pediatric interventions. (United States)

    Schulte, J R; Druyan, M E; Hagen, J C


    Pediatricians in the greater Chicago area were surveyed to probe their awareness and approaches to management of dental caries in early childhood. A total of 298 pediatricians (21% of those surveyed) responded to the questionnaire. Ninety-five percent of the respondents stated they examined their patients' teeth; 85% considered dental examinations part of their responsibility for children under 3 years of age. However, our data suggest that many pediatricians are unaware of the decay and the dietary patterns associated with tooth decay in early childhood. Although 96% of the respondents referred patients to a dentist when decay was diagnosed, analysis of diet and dietary counseling were performed by only 61% and 65% of the respondents, respectively. Recommendations for preventive measures that can be adopted by pediatricians are offered.

  5. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage in e...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...

  6. The Relationship between Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education: Healthy Marriage or Family Feud? (United States)

    Bredekamp, Sue


    This paper describes (1) common misconceptions about developmentally appropriate practices; (2) areas in which convergence between general and special early childhood education can be achieved; and (3) current collaborative efforts between the two disciplines (e.g., individually appropriate practices, emphasis on early intervention,…

  7. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Status of Early Childhood Care and Development in Aboadze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unavailability of facilities to promote quality childhood care, government's and community's poor involvement in preschool education and lack of training of the. Kindergarten teachers. Keywords: Early Childhood Care and Development, Early Childhood Care Education, Pre-School. International Journal of Educational ...

  9. Clarifying parent-child reciprocities during early childhood: the early childhood coercion model. (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V; Leve, Leslie D


    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less empirical work has evaluated the emergence of early childhood coercive parent-child reciprocities. The proposed early childhood coercion model describes the processes by which coercive parent-child reciprocities emerge. Specifically, the interaction between parenting and infants' propensities toward reactivity influences the development of emotion regulation in children and disciplinary styles in parents. Highly reactive children are expected to experience more difficulty learning to regulate emotions and to evoke harsher parenting. Through a process of mutual reinforcement, harsh parenting, negative emotional reactivity, and poor emotion regulation become coercive parent-child reciprocities during early childhood. The emergence of coercive parent-child interactions further diminishes children's emotional regulatory capacities and affects the formation of peer relationships during kindergarten.

  10. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen


    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  11. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries--clinical cases]. (United States)

    Maxim, Dana; Danilă, I; Balcoş, Carina


    ECC (early childhood caries) and SECC(severe early childhood caries), as a particularization of the dental caries during the early childhood (0-3 years) and the middle childhood (3-6 years), generate important oro-dental problems, with long-term impact, psycho-somatic, psycho-aesthetic, and social-behaviour, in little children as in adults. 35 subjects (20 girls and 15 boys), were evaluated, aged between 3-6 years old, diagnosticated with ECC and SECC. The children were evaluated clinical, paraclinical and psycho-sociological in the Clinic of Paediatric Dentistry, Iasi, Romania. In this article, we present 3 clinical cases that show the implication of the socio-emotional factors that produce the early childhood caries, pacient C.L., 6 years old, pacient C.F., 5, 6 years old, and pacient A.D., 6 years old. In this study we have evaluated a heterogen structure with major impact on caries risk, clinical variability of the carioactivity in decidual dentition. It is known that more than 64% non-cavitary lesions that appear in a 2 year-old child develop to cavitary lesions in less than a year.

  12. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil. (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S


    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies.

  13. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...

  14. Socioeconomic Gaps in Early Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Bassok


    Full Text Available This study compares the early life experiences of kindergarteners in 1998 and 2010 using two nationally representative data sets. We find that (a young children in the later period are exposed to more books and reading in the home, (b they have more access to educational games on computers, and (c they engage with their parents more, inside and outside the home. Although these increases occurred among low- and high-income children, in many cases the biggest changes were seen among the lowest-income children. Our results indicate narrowing but still large early childhood parental investment gaps. In addition, socioeconomic gaps in preschool participation grew over this period, despite substantial investments in public preschool. Implications for early socioeconomic achievement gaps are discussed.

  15. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais


    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  16. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood


    McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Fisher, Abigail


    Objective The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Methods Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14–27 months) using a modified version of the Brie...

  17. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....

  18. Repositioning Early Childhood Leadership as Action and Activism (United States)

    Woodrow, Christine; Busch, Gillian


    Robust leadership is increasingly recognised as a critical element of healthy professions, yet some research suggests that early childhood practitioners do not readily identify with the concept of leadership. This article explores some dimensions of leadership in early childhood and how it is understood and practised in Australian early childhood…

  19. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru (United States)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato


    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  20. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3 (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci


    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  1. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood. (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  2. Early Childhood Trends Worldwide--First Annual World Early Childhood Report. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Presents information on trends in early childhood education in various countries, focusing on educational policy and the role of government. Summarizes trends from Armenia, Canada, Finland, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Moldova, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. (KB)

  3. [Child psychiatric viewpoint towards early childhood feading disorders]. (United States)

    Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Puura, Kaija


    Early childhood feading disorders are estimated to occur in 20% to 40% of normally developing young children. In most severe cases, troubles associated with feading interfere with the child's growth and development and may continue until adulthood. Early childhood feading disorders are discernible into different types of disorder, such as early childhood anorexia, sensory food aversion and posttraumatic feading disorder. Early childhood feading disorders are often associated with problems in parent-child interaction either primarily or secondarily as factors maintaining the disorder. Interactive therapy is often beneficial regardless of the etiology of the disorder.

  4. The Politics of Technology in Early Childhood in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Fitting Early Childhood Educators in the ICT Grid (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew Neil


    This article identifies contemporary issues for educators regarding the integration of new technologies in the early childhood education centre, through critical analysis of discourse associated with the integration of new technologies in early childhood services in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A culture of critique is revealed as an early childhood…

  5. Early childhood feeding practices in northern Cameroon. (United States)

    Einterz, E M; Bates, M E


    Following the identification of differences in disease patterns among infants from households of different social groups (Moslem and non-Moslem) in northern Cameroon, 534 mothers and their children 0-23 months old were studied to determine early childhood feeding practices in the 2 groups. Several significant differences were revealed. Compared with non-Moslem infants, Moslems were more likely to be given animal milk instead of breast milk before the age of 3 d. On average, millet pap was introduced to Moslem babies between their 1st and 2nd months and to non-Moslem babies between their 3rd and 4th months. Moslem mothers more commonly prepared pap with oil or cow butter as an ingredient. Moslem mothers also planned to wean their children at an earlier age than non-Moslems and were less likely to report boiling their children's drinking water. Moslem mothers of infants less than 5 months old were likely to believe their breast milk was insufficient. The implications of these findings on the higher incidence of infant diarrhoea, stunting and early childhood death among Moslems are discussed.

  6. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood (United States)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha


    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  7. [Eating disorders in childhood and early adolescence]. (United States)

    Doyen, Catherine; Asch, Muriel


    During childhood and early adolescence, eating disorders are mainly of the restrictive type and general practitioner plays a central role in treatment. Parental counseling and medical care should be administered to selective and restrictive children without growth retardation. When growth and puberty are delayed a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. Somaticians, psychiatrists and psychotherapists will work together in the fight against the eating disorder. Family approaches yielded the best results in the management of these disorders for the younger subjects but individual therapies are also recommended. If vitamin and calcium supplements are necessary, it is not the case for psychotropic medications, which can have a dangerous impact if nutritional status is not stabilized. Outcome of selective and restrictive disorders in childhood is good however picky eaters need special care because of the risk of anorexia nervosa in later adolescence. Outcomes of prepubertal anorexic patients seem to be better than those of pubertal anorexic subjects but it is not the case for subjects affected by very-early-onset anorexia nervosa.

  8. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors]. (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio


    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.


    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  10. Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Epstein, Ann; Dygdon, Judith A.


    This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific…

  11. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.


    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  12. Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Issues, Challenges, Solutions (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah


    Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…

  13. Early Childhood Music Education in Taiwan: An Ecological Systems Perspective (United States)

    Leu, Jennifer Chau-Ying


    The author examines early childhood music education in Taiwan through Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Factors in the microsystem level that influenced the musical development of children included adult perception of children, child-adult interactions, Taiwanese family structure, and the existing early childhood education system. The…

  14. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly


    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  15. A Cognitive Approach to Stress Reduction for Early Childhood Professionals. (United States)

    Smith, Doris O.

    For early childhood educators a cognitive approach to stress therapy is a valuable supplement to other approaches. Early childhood educators, like others, may develop psychological vulnerabilities that contribute to stress and depression. An exaggerated need for approval or an unhealthy demand for perfectionism may contribute to their experience…

  16. Praxis in Early Childhood Research with Infants and Educators (United States)

    Salamon, Andi


    As emerging literature reflects, "praxis" is an important and useful concept for thinking about the many aspects of early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood research. In this article, I seek to contribute to discussions about praxis in ECE as a valuable concept for meeting the ethical challenges that arise in participatory…

  17. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia


    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  18. Parents, Participation, Partnership: Problematising New Zealand Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny


    This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…

  19. The effect of early childhood education on social and emotional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal comparitive study examined the effect of early childhood education on social and emotional development in children ages 3-6 years old in Kwara State of Nigeria. Sixty children who were exposed to early childhood education were selected through cluster sampling from six different schools, that is, 30 boys and ...

  20. Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania | Rwakatema | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania. ... Abstract. Objective: To determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of early childhood caries (ECC) in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania. Design: Cross-sectional ... The severe form of ECC that attacks primary maxillary incisors occurred in 21.2% of the children. The mean dmft ...

  1. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition (United States)

    Morgan, Harry


    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  2. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood (United States)

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.


    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  3. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd


    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  4. Making the Case for Early Childhood Investments: Three Arguments (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…

  5. "It's More than Care": Early Childhood Educators' Concepts of Professionalism (United States)

    Harwood, Debra; Klopper, Audrey; Osanyin, Ajike; Vanderlee, Mary-Louise


    This article reports on the findings from a small-scale study of early childhood educators' perceptions of their roles, responsibilities and ideas related to professionalism. Twenty-five early childhood educators from Canada (Ontario), Nigeria and South Africa participated in qualitative interviews to address the following questions: (1) In what…

  6. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne


    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  7. Early Childhood Training in New Mexico. 1991 Status Report. (United States)

    New Mexico State Office of Child Development, Santa Fe.

    This report describes a study of the training of early childhood educators in the state of New Mexico, undertaken during the summer of 1991. The study sought to: (1) determine the scope and content of training used by a variety of early childhood educators; (2) develop a profile of both agencies and individuals who provide training; (3) identify…

  8. "I Have a Hippopotamus!": Preparing Effective Early Childhood Environmental Educators (United States)

    Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle


    This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…

  9. Early childhood pre-service teachers' concerns and solutions to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to determine early childhood pre-service teachers' concerns and solutions. One hundred early childhood pre-service teachers who were enrolled at Pamukkale University, Turkey, answered two open-ended questions by e-mail. In addition, six of these participants were interviewed for ...

  10. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Park, Sungok R.


    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  11. Family and Professional Priorities for Inclusive Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Horn, Eva M.


    The purpose of this study was to provide information about what characteristics from the variety of inclusive early childhood programs are most valued and least valued by families and professionals. Participants were 10 family members of young children with disabilities being served in inclusive programs and 10 early childhood professionals…

  12. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  13. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula


    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  14. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.


    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  15. Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.


    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…

  16. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki


    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  17. Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia


    This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

  18. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers (United States)

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  19. Perspectives from the field of early childhood special education. (United States)

    Kaderavek, Joan N


    Positive academic outcomes for young children with special education needs can best be facilitated when a combination of professionals including speech-language pathologists (SLPs), general education teachers, occupational and physical therapists, and early childhood special educators (ECSEs) work together. However, it can be challenging to read across disciplines to maintain expertise within the domain of early childhood education because each profession has specialized intradisciplinary terminology. This clinical forum provides an up-to-date summary of the field of early childhood special education, with articles from experts from related professions describing current issues and trends in the field. This prologue introduces the concepts of universal design, differentiated instruction, and embedded learning opportunities. The prologue also outlines the roles, responsibilities, and accountability of professionals who work in early childhood special education. SLPs can work toward strategic alliances with ECSEs when they understand the field from the perspective of related professions in early childhood special education.

  20. Early childhood caries in indigenous communities. (United States)


    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.

  1. Mindful awareness in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Nieminen


    Full Text Available This study is a literature review, drawing mainly on the nine significant and good quality studies (i.e. published in peer-reviewed journals that make up the evidence base for mindful awareness practices in early childhood. Mindful awareness practices in this context means an individual’s awareness of her own body and her inner emotions or tensions. Increased awareness can decrease if individuals tend to impulsiveness or excessive stress. Self-regulation and mindful awareness skills are associated not only with stress regulation but also peer relationships and social skills. This systematic review attempts to look at the research of mindful awareness activities, programmes or interventions used as routine everyday activities. The second aim of this review is to examine the research design that has been used. The third aim of this study is to analyse the main themes and methods of these pieces of research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova


    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  3. Parenting and sleep in early childhood. (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat


    The development of sleep is influenced by complex interactions between biologically driven forces and diverse socio-environmental factors. Among those factors, parents have a critical role. The present review focuses on new studies regarding the links between parenting and the development of sleep in early childhood in the context of a transactional model. Recent findings from longitudinal studies and large cohort studies highlight the contribution of various parenting factors, such as parental bedtime behaviors, parental cognitions, cry tolerance, maternal mood, stress, and the parents' couple relationship, to the development of child sleep. Recent research also demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral sleep interventions in which parents are the main agents of change in the behavioral aspects of child sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dyssomnias and parasomnias in early childhood. (United States)

    Petit, Dominique; Touchette, Evelyne; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Montplaisir, Jacques


    Our aim for this study was to determine the prevalence of dyssomnias and various parasomnias in early childhood and to describe their temporal evolution, gender differences, and correlates. This research is part of a longitudinal study of child development. A randomized, 3-level, stratified survey design was used to study a representative sample of infants who were born in 1997-1998 in the province of Quebec (Canada). When the children were 2.5 years of age, 1997 families agreed to be interviewed. The presence of dyssomnias or parasomnias was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire that was completed by the mother at each round of measures. The percentage of children with frequent night wakings decreased steadily from 36.3% at age 2.5 to 13.2% at age 6. Similarly, the percentage of children who had difficulty falling asleep at night decreased significantly from 16.0% at ages 3.5 and 4 to 10% at age 5 and to 7.4% at age 6. The overall prevalence of each parasomnia for the period studied was as follows: somnambulism, 14.5%; sleep terrors, 39.8%; somniloquy, 84.4%; enuresis, 25.0%; bruxism, 45.6%; and rhythmic movements, 9.2%. Persistent somnambulism at age 6 was significantly correlated with sleep terrors and somniloquy. Persistent sleep terrors at age 6 were also correlated with somniloquy. Finally, persistent sleep terrors at age 6 were correlated with frequent night wakings. Separation anxiety was associated with persistent night wakings and with somnambulism, bruxism, sleep terrors, and somniloquy. There is a high prevalence of night wakings and sleep-onset difficulties in preschool children. Parasomnias are highly prevalent in early childhood and are associated with separation anxiety. However, they have little impact on sleep duration.

  5. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen


    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  6. Childhood intelligence and early tooth wear patterns. (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Rusanen, Jaana; Sato, Koshi; Pesonen, Paula; Harila, Virpi; Alvesalo, Lassi


    The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between early dental wear patterns and preschool IQ (Intelligence Quotient, by Stanford-Binet) of the child to illuminate the historic relationship of mental queries and bruxism. The dental study participants were 864 Euro-American preschool and school children whose IQs were tested for school maturity purposes at the age of 4 years, followed by dental data in a cross-sectional manner at the mean age of 7.8 years. Worn dentitions were classified as "symmetric" or "right-" and "left-sided," based on the faceting of the teeth. In general, the relationships of tooth wear and intelligence were scarce, reflecting social background factors. Statistically significant results between asymmetric wear and gender groups suggest that direction of jaw function has a role in the regulation of processes responsible for individual mental performance in childhood. Increased left-side tooth wear and early advantage in the intelligence test in girls is intriguing due to the fact that they reach maturity earlier than boys in verbal articulation, controlled in most cases by the limited area on the left side of the brain.

  7. Sleep and energy intake in early childhood. (United States)

    Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J


    Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping sleeping 11-sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain.

  8. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood. (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail


    The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14-27 months) using a modified version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of shorter sleep for this study. Using a cut-off of education, non-white ethnic background, being male, low birth weight, living in a home with >1 older child and watching >1 h of TV in the evening were independently associated with shorter sleep. Mediation analyses showed that associations between education, ethnicity, evening TV viewing and sleep were driven predominantly by later bedtimes, while sex differences were driven predominantly by earlier wake times in boys. In this sample, multiple environmental factors were associated with shorter sleep in young children, with several operating predominantly through later bedtime. An emphasis on the importance of an early and consistent bedtime could help promote healthy sleep and reduce inequalities in child health. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development. (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine


    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies. (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L


    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing weight- and YG-related penalties improved profitability. Opportunities may exist with existing and new technology to uniformly allocate cattle into feeding and marketing groups, decrease overfeeding, and increase carcass value and profitability.

  11. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine


    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  12. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting (United States)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra


    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  13. Height and calories in early childhood. (United States)

    Griffen, Andrew S


    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chopsticks and Counting Chips: Do Play and Foundational Skills Need To Compete for the Teacher's Attention in an Early Childhood Classroom? (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.


    Describes negative contributors to young children's pretend play development and how early childhood educators can support both play development and foundational skills. Identifies ways that play influences development and contributes to children's ability to profit from academic activities. Offers suggestions for helping children create an…

  15. Early childhood stunting and later fine motor abilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Susan M; Walker, Susan P; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A


    .... A cohort of stunted children who had participated in a randomized trial of psychosocial stimulation and/or nutritional supplementation in early childhood was compared with a group of non-stunted children...

  16. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood (United States)

    ... htm Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood To use the sharing features on this page, ... on problems, such as drug abuse or family violence. Social Services should follow the family to make ...

  17. Providing Foundations for Social Studies in Early Childhood (United States)

    Pagano, Alicia L.


    Recommends the introduction of social studies/social science content into early childhood and elementary grade curricula. Gives examples of activities based on simple concepts in history, psychology, and geography. (AV)

  18. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Research on Early Childhood Education


    Burger, Kaspar


    There is much debate on early childhood education in research, politics, and society at large. Furthermore, early childhood education research and policy have become increasingly complex and multidimensional. Nonetheless, transdisciplinary research frameworks are still scarce. This report gives insights into a project that used a transdisciplinary approach, outlining its conceptualization and its potential for the definition and analysis of issues that transcend traditional boundaries between...

  19. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini


    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  20. The role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon


    Ashu, F. (Felix)


    This research aims to provide some suggestions for the role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon. It also tries to create an awareness of the current state of educational structures and institutions that are available for early childhood education and to identify gaps where urgent attention is needed. Data for this study was collected through interview with the use of Skype. A stratified random sampling method was used and the focus groups were parents who live both in cities a...

  1. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus


    is limited. One limiting step for research is the large heterogeneity of atopic diseases, especially in early childhood. The diseases are likely to represent several underlying subtypes, and identifying these is essential for improved treatment and prevention. A hallmark of atopic disease is sensitization...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....

  2. Greek In-Service and Preservice Teachers' Views about Bullying in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Psalti, Anastasia


    Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…


    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary


    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak


    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  5. Love-Based leadership in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Uusiautti


    Full Text Available A day care center is not just any place where children can spend their day while parents are at work. How to ensure that children have good childhood experiences and how to support their positive development from the very beginning of their educational career? In this study, we introduce the concept of love-based leadership and discuss its role and implementation in early education. Love-based leadership in early education is a method that renews teachers’ professional skills. The Finnish early childhood education system offers favorable premises for love-based leadership in early education. The method should also be included in the curriculum of future early childhood education teachers.

  6. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia. (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong


    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response to intervention: implications for early childhood professionals. (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Romani, Jeanne M


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of building strong early childhood communities of interdisciplinary practice in the application of a comprehensive curriculum framework. A curriculum framework is proposed as a means of applying and extending the principles of response to intervention (RtI) to early childhood education providers working with young children, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The article presents information regarding the elements of a curriculum framework and suggestions for practice. Literature related to RtI was reviewed to identify common principles of practice. The resulting principles were then aligned to early childhood education recommended practices in order to illustrate the overlapping beliefs. Rationale and support for a curriculum framework as an early childhood education RtI model was then gathered to identify appropriate practices for working with young children who are served in a variety of early childhood settings. SLPs are important members of early educational teams, particularly when applying the principles of RtI using a curriculum framework. SLPs bring the expertise needed to ensure that children achieve critical outcomes. Implementation of the curriculum framework is made possible when everyone involved in supporting young children understands how to apply the elements of a curriculum framework.

  8. We Are Your Children: The Kushanda Early Childhood Education and Care Dissemination Programme, Zimbabwe 1985-1993. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections, Number 7. (United States)

    Booker, Salih

    Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and…

  9. Oral manifestations of systemic alterations in early childhood. (United States)

    Padovani, Maria Cristina Ramos Lima; Barbosa, Patricia Silva; Baeder, Fernando; de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Guaré, Renata Oliveira


    This study aimed to describe certain common oral manifestations during early childhood that should be known by the pediatric dental surgeon. The correct diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations during early childhood is important for children's development. The pediatric dentist is responsible for maintaining oral health in children, since they change constantly during their development and growth. Four cases of oral lesions are described, in which the diagnosis and related approach for each one is reported. The first was an acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, the second, pseudomembranous candidiasis, the third, chickenpox and the last was molluscum. Professionals who treat children in this age group must be able to diagnose and treat common oral manifestations when necessary and should refer the child to a pediatrician for effective treatment if the presence of any systemic alteration is suspected. Pathognomonic signs of the most common oral manifestations in early childhood should be known by dentists to improve early diagnosis and proper management.

  10. Long-term outcome of early childhood wheezing : Population data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strachan, D; Gerritsen, J

    The adult prognosis of early childhood wheezing is reviewed using data from three studies (in Melbourne, Tasmania and Britain) which have followed population-based samples of 7 year old children with a history of asthma or wheezing illness into their early thirties. About one quarter of these wheezy

  11. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences (United States)

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall


    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  12. The Critique of the Implementation of Early Childhood Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a truism that the importance and value of education in the early years of life have been acknowledged for more than 2000 years ago. Relatively, recent factors have brought early childhood education to the forefront of public awareness. Fundamental changes in the economy, family life, public awareness, and public ...

  13. Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood (United States)

    Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica


    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

  14. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca


    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  15. A Study of Early Childhood Education Programmes in Delhi, India (United States)

    Chopra, Neelima


    Early years is the period of rapid physical and mental growth wherein the foundation for the child's development is laid and therefore, these years are considered extremely critical for the overall development of the child. Given the critical significance of these early childhood years, it is imperative for every child to get the opportunity to…

  16. Selecting "Just Right" Electronic Books for the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    McNelly, Tracy A.


    The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.

  17. Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum in Iceland. (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Tryggvadottir, Jonina


    Presents the relationship between Iceland's early childhood curriculum and important elements of its culture, such as population size, weather, terrain, language, literature, and cultural celebrations. Discusses the influence of foreign ideas on Icelandic educational thought and provides information on college curriculum for early childhood…

  18. INHABITED SPACES: childhoods and plays in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Corrêa Fernandes


    Full Text Available n this article, we socialize reflexions whose theme is the relation between the spaces there are appropriate for the children and the construction of their childhoods, their childhood’s conception, in the day-by-day of a kindergarten’s institution. Our interest is, in special, to comprehend how children develop ideas about spaces with the influence of their own experiences. The act of playing is crucial in this investigation, as a former of the human being that dialogues with the place, which is the affective link between people and the spaces. During the challenge of understanding this theme, some topics have been teasing us: what is particular of the children, of their childhoods, in the process of the perception of space? In which ways our places as kindergarten’s teachers, interferes in the perceptions of space and in the constitution of their own childhoods? Some episodes, experienced and watched with the children, are shared as encouragements for the reflexions that were anchored in the Geography of Childhoods. We give a pause in the dialogue, showing that our quotidian, close to the children, have been giving us the opportunity of comprehending that there is a relation between democratic relationships and the relevance of playing, as an affirmation of “place-life”. In this way, our investigations reveal that children act lively in their capacities of transforming the spaces, since we, adults, don’t subdue them, permitting the conditions for it to happen. Neste trabalho socializamos reflexões cuja temática é a relação dos espaços destinados às infâncias e a constituição dessas, suas emergências, no cotidiano de uma instituição de Educação Infantil. Interessa-nos, em especial, compreender como as crianças constituem ideias sobre os espaços a partir de suas vivências. O brincar como estruturante do humano dialoga com lugar, elo afetivo entre pessoas e espaços, ganhando relevância nessa investigação. No

  19. Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Guil


    Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

  20. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen


    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  1. Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY DESCRIPTORS: Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder, Childhood Be- haviour Problems, Emotional disorders, Educational Psychology. ' INTRODUCTION. Attentionodeficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refers to a set of behaviours such as excessive restlessness and short attention span: that are quantitatively ...

  2. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories? (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne


    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  3. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.


    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  4. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus


    and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... is limited. One limiting step for research is the large heterogeneity of atopic diseases, especially in early childhood. The diseases are likely to represent several underlying subtypes, and identifying these is essential for improved treatment and prevention. A hallmark of atopic disease is sensitization...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity. (United States)

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K


    The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity

  6. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators. (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer


    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  7. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw


    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  8. Breastfeeding knowledge and education needs of early childhood centre staff. (United States)

    Manhire, Kathleen Mary; Horrocks, Glenn; Tangiora, Angeline


    This survey investigated the breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes beliefs and education needs of supervisors and staff at 32 early childhood centres in New Zealand. This study explored numbers of mothers who breastfed at or supplied expressed breastmilk to the centres, and how breastfeeding education might enhance an increase in breastfeeding rates and child nutrition. Statistical analysis and open-ended questions revealed a positive attitude towards breastfeeding among staff. All centres recognised a need for breastfeeding education sessions and greater support for breastfeeding mothers. With increasing numbers of children attending early childhood centres, understanding the importance of and implementing support for mothers to continue to breastfeed is crucial.

  9. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Romero Díaz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

  10. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs (United States)

    Keith, Rebecca S.


    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and child health in early adolescence. (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J; Proctor, Laura J; Runyan, Desmond K


    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences, especially when recent and ongoing, affect adolescent health. Efforts to intervene and prevent adverse childhood exposures should begin early in life but continue throughout childhood and adolescence. To examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic concerns and health problems in early adolescence, as well as the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview and questionnaire data when target children were 4, 6, 8, 12, and 14 years old. Children with reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect sites. A total of 933 children who completed an interview at age 14 years, including health outcomes. Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver's substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver's depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior in the household) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second 6 years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity. Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic concerns, and any health problem at age 14 years. More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14 years. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and 3 or more adverse exposures were associated with somatic concerns. Recent adversity appeared to uniquely predict poor health, somatic concerns, and any health problem. Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already show an impact on health outcomes by early adolescence. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health outcome for adolescents and adults.

  12. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke


    assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat......: The Copenhagen Study on Asthma in Childhood is a prospective clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. Eczema was diagnosed, treated, and monitored at the clinical research unit, and complete follow-up for the first 3 years of life was available for 356 children. Risk...

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Bifidobacteria Levels in Early Childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries. (United States)

    Nair, Suraj; Kumar, V Suresh; Krishnan, Ramesh; Rajan, Pooja


    Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3-5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001). Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  14. A comparative evaluation of bifidobacteria levels in early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Nair


    Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  15. Transforming Early Childhood Systems for Future Generations: Obligations and Opportunities (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Roth, Jessica L.


    In a rapidly shifting twenty-first century context, early childhood education and care (ECEC) must consider contextual, scientific, and policy realities in order to realize its social obligations to young children. The current status of ECEC globally bears both good and bad news; many countries are paying attention to the importance of the early…

  16. Early Childhood Directors as Socializers of Emotional Climate (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel


    Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…

  17. Creativity in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives of Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela


    This study examined how preservice teachers view the nature and role of creativity in light of the complexities of contemporary early childhood classrooms. A multiple methods approach was utilized and data were collected with the Questionnaire Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Creativity (Diakidoy & Kanari, 1999) survey instrument and…

  18. The Emotionally Intelligent Early Childhood Educator: Self-Reflective Journaling (United States)

    Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard


    A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…

  19. Early Childhood Education in Neoliberal, Religiously Conservative Times in Turkey (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye; Eren Deniz, Ebru


    This article provides an analysis and discussion of the impacts of neoliberal, religiously conservative educational policies on early childhood education (ECE) in Turkey. After an introduction, the article is presented in four sections. The first section provides an overview of neoliberal, religiously conservative policies in the Turkish…

  20. Critical perspectives on danish early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik


    This paper discusses trends in contemporary Danish early childhood education and care (ECEC). Data are sourced from various policy documents, along with material from ongoing research projects in which the authors are involved. It is claimed that contemporary policy on Danish day care services ha...

  1. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: The OMEP World Project (United States)

    Engdahl, Ingrid


    At the closure of the UNESCO decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this article reports on large research projects on sustainability conducted within the World Organisation for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) through 2009-2014. The overall aim of the projects within OMEP was to enhance awareness of Education for Sustainable…

  2. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina


    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  3. Management Strategies for Funding and Sustaining Early Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the existing management strategies for funding Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nigeria with a view towards its better funding and sustenance. It recognised the commitment of the Nigerian Governments and the support of the community, individuals and foreign sponsors in funding ECE ...

  4. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Pedagogical Beliefs (United States)

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Timmons, Kristy; Lenis, Angelike


    Preservice early childhood educators begin postsecondary programs with established beliefs about children, children's learning, and their roles as future educators. The present study examined 26 first-year students' beliefs about children, classroom practice, and guiding children's behavior. Participants completed the Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort…

  5. Talking Early Childhood Education: Fictional Enquiry with Historical Figures (United States)

    Selbie, Philip; Clough, Peter


    The use of fictional writing, and in particular fictional dialogue, has gained increasing credibility and popularity within the field of qualitative social science research (Clough, 2002; Denzin, 1997; Tierney, 1998) but research in early childhood education has yet to exploit such methodologies. This article asks: what is meant by the term…

  6. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina


    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  7. Writing in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidance for Best Practices (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Wasik, Barbara A.


    Writing is a critical emergent literacy skill that lays the foundation for children's later literacy skills and reading achievement. Recent work indicates that many early childhood programs offer children materials and tools for engaging in writing activities but teachers rarely are seen modeling writing for children or scaffolding children's…

  8. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.


    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  9. Blushing in early childhood: Feeling coy or socially anxious?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.


    Blushing has adaptive social functions. However, blushing is also assumed to be a hallmark of social anxiety and shyness. For the first time, blushing and its relation to the expressions of shyness and social anxiety was examined in early childhood. Four-and-a-half-year-old children (N = 102) were

  10. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko


    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  11. Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education (United States)

    Kersten, Fred


    The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …

  12. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities (United States)

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  13. Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel


    Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…

  14. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge? (United States)

    Vist, Torill


    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  15. Early Childhood Education: Curriculum Organization and Classroom Management. (United States)

    Day, Barbara; Drake, Kay

    Designed to accompany four filmstrips, this manual was developed to help early childhood educators--including curriculum specialists, administrators, teachers, and university faculty--implement a developmental program for young children. Filmstrip 1 introduces six components of curriculum organization and classroom mangement underlying a…

  16. Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries among Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...

  17. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.


    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  18. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann


    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  19. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.


    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  20. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald


    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  1. The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organizations. Volume 2. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie, Ed.; Neugebauer, Roger, Ed.

    The second of two volumes intended for directors of early childhood organizations, this volume compiles selected articles for center directors from the first 20 years of the journal "Child Care Information Exchange." The articles cover personnel management, program development, and community relations. The articles are grouped into…

  2. The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organizations. Volume 1. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie, Ed.; Neugebauer, Roger, Ed.

    The first of two volumes intended for directors of early childhood organizations, this volume compiles selected articles for center directors from the first 20 years of the journal "Child Care Information Exchange." The articles cover leadership, organizational management, and financial management. The articles are grouped into…

  3. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah


    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  4. Worms, Shadows and Whirlpools: Science in the Early Childhood Classroom. (United States)

    Worth, Karen; Grollman, Sharon

    Young children develop science knowledge as they observe and act on the world, asking questions, making predictions, testing those predictions, and reflecting on their experiences. This book offers guidance in integrating inquiry-based science into the early childhood curriculum, focusing on content and providing examples of the work of children…

  5. Research in Early Childhood Music and Movement Education. (United States)

    Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie

    Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…

  6. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors (United States)

    Epstein, Ann


    Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…

  7. Career Perspectives of Male Students in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Beyazkurk, Derya Sahin


    While, in some professions, the gender balance seems to be changing in the direction of equality, the participation of males in early childhood education has not expanded because of stereotypical perceptions of this occupation, low salaries and status, and fear of being accused of sexual abuse. Males may make important contributions to the field…

  8. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian


    , peroneal neuropathy was suspected. The case illustrates that sciatic intraneural perineuriomas do occur in early childhood, and that traction on the sciatic nerve may result in earlier damage to the peroneal nerve than to the tibial nerve, thus mimicking a more peripheral lesion....

  9. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.


    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  10. Prevalence and awareness of early childhood caries among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...

  11. Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming


    This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

  12. Time and Temporality in Early Childhood Educators' Work (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise


    This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…

  13. Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee. (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara


    The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

  14. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.


    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  15. Knowledge, Practice, and the Shaping of Early Childhood Professionalism (United States)

    Hordern, Jim


    This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…

  16. The Challenges of Creativity in Norwegian Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Meyer, Grete Skjeggestad; Eilifsen, Margareth


    Based on many years' work designing introductory, immersive, aesthetic experiences that lead to problem-based learning (PBL) tasks for student teachers (called "INTRO"), we problematize the concept of creativity and playfulness in Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECTE). The article reports on our analysis of students' experiences of…

  17. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina


    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  18. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library. (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  19. Mainstream Early Childhood Education Teacher Preparation for Inclusion in Zimbabwe (United States)

    Majoko, Tawanda


    This study examined mainstream teachers' preparation for inclusion in Early Childhood Education (ECE). Embedded within the "core expertise" of inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study drew on a sample of 23 mainstream teachers purposively drawn from the Midlands educational province of Zimbabwe. A constant comparative approach of…

  20. Early Childhood Policy-Making: Inputs, Processes, and Legislative Outputs. (United States)

    Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.


    Reports on rationales that states have used to support recent early childhood education (ECE) initiatives and describes how reform policies were made in 1971-73 in West Virginia, California, Georgia, New Mexico, and Ohio. Outlines background and initiation of reform, building of support for ECE, opposition, and resulting legislation. (Author/GC)

  1. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar


    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  2. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan


    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  3. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo


    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  4. Psychological Burnout in Early Childhood Teachers: Levels and Reasons (United States)

    Al-Adwan, Fatima Eid Zaid; Al-Khayat, Majed Mohammad


    The primary education plays an important role in the life of an individual as well as the nation as a whole. This study aims at investigating the level of psychological burnout in early childhood female teachers at public and private kindergarten schools. It also aims to prove whether these burnout levels differ according to the type of school,…

  5. The Matter of Silence in Early Childhood Bilingual Education (United States)

    Martín-Bylund, Anna


    The relationship between silence as non-speech and bilingualism in early childhood education is intricate. This article maps this relationship with the help of diverse theoretical entrances to a video-recorded everyday episode from a bilingual (Spanish-Swedish) preschool in Sweden. Though this, three alternative readings of silence are produced.…

  6. Male Teachers in Early Childhood Education: Self & Social Perceptions. (United States)

    Shaham, Dan

    Noting that men make up only a small percentage of early childhood and day care educators, a study was conducted to assess male teachers' points of view and attitudes. The self- and social-perceptions of 5 male preschool teachers between the ages of 22 and 50 were determined through ethnographic interviews. It was found that, as a group, the male…

  7. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments (United States)

    Bankovic, Ivana


    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  8. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian


    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  9. Early Childhood Care and Education and School Readiness in Zambia (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Fink, Günther


    Despite increased investment in early childhood care and education (ECCE) globally, little is known about its effectiveness in low-income countries. Using kernel exact matching within a national sample of 1,623 Zambian 6-year-olds, we test the associations between ECCE participation and seven domains of children's school readiness. We find ECCE…

  10. Home-School Communication in the Early Childhood Development Phase (United States)

    Bridgemohan, Radhike; van Wyk, Noleen; van Staden, Christie


    This article examines the practices of home-school communication in the Early Childhood Development (ECD) phase in South Africa. The aims of this qualitative investigation were to determine the nature and effectiveness of home-school communication practices and to make recommendations on how communication can be improved to facilitate better…

  11. Early Childhood Intervention in China from the Families' Perspective (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley


    Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…

  12. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.


    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  13. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping (United States)

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.


    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  14. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  15. Delivery of Early Childhood Education in Urban Areas of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported here is a case study analysis on provision of early childhood education, its challenges and suggestions for improvement in Tanzania; basing on experience of Dar es Salaam. It was thought to be appropriate to conduct a study in institutionalized childcare settings like nursery and pre-primary schools and ...

  16. Beginning Together: Reforming Schools by Investing in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.


    The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…

  17. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto


    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  18. Quality and best practices in early childhood programs: perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Definitions of quality in early childhood education (ECE) has predominantly adopted a developmental perspective, where quality care is that which promotes optimal child outcomes in all domains of development. This study investigates Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP), an approach designed to promote young ...

  19. Identifying Leadership Roles for Quality in Early Childhood Education Programmes (United States)

    Ho, Dora Choi Wa


    This article aims to identify leadership roles for quality in early childhood programmes in the local settings of a sample of Hong Kong preschools. Two schools were selected for the study, both of which were rated as excellent in the quality assurance inspections of a local education authority. Effective leadership was explored from the multiple…

  20. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M


    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  1. Implementation of Attachment Theory into Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony


    Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…

  2. Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (United States)

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin


    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

  3. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva


    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  4. Turkish Teachers' Accounts of Moral Dilemmas in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Koc, Kevser; Buzzelli, Cary A.


    In all, 26 Turkish early childhood educators were asked to describe a moral dilemma they faced in their classroom, the circumstances that made the situation a dilemma, and why it was a moral dilemma. The dilemmas described arose from conflicts between teachers and children, teachers and parents, and teachers and administrators. Dilemmas described…

  5. Parent Participation in Early Childhood Education in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 17, 2012 ... teachers, administrators, NGOs, and government) value parents' resources and create new ways for parent participation in the extractive model of schooling in place, the ECE cannot be enhanced and advanced. Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ethnotheories.

  6. The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…

  7. How Do They Manage? An Investigation of Early Childhood Leadership (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma


    Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children. (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix


    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  10. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts (ERA) Online (United States)

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2011


    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 17 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and issue (journal citation information for the resource within the…

  11. Inclusion in Early Childhood Education: Pre-Service Teachers Voices (United States)

    Majoko, Tawanda


    This study examined pre-service teachers' understanding, attitudes, preparation and concerns regarding inclusion in early childhood education (ECE) in Zimbabwe. Entrenched within inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study draws on a sample of 24 pre-service teachers purposively selected from the largest teachers' college with the oldest…

  12. The Use of Personal Data Assistants in Early Childhood Assessment (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara


    Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…

  13. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.


    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  14. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.


    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  15. Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion. (United States)

    McMaken, Jessica; Kauerz, Kristie; DeCesare, Dale; Hale, Genevieve

    In July 2002, Knowledge Works Foundation and the Education Commission of the States assembled key stakeholders to focus on the policy opportunities, needs, and challenges of utilizing technology for coordinated early childhood professional development across the nation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the meeting…

  16. Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Stoner, Julia B.; Watts, Emily H.


    With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10…

  17. Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use and Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Rosen, Dina B.; Jaruszewicz, Candace


    Early childhood teacher education methods classes often emphasize the application of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). In today's digital age, it is important for teacher educators and their students to think about how to extend DAP to technology use. In this article, two contrasting classroom scenarios are provided to illustrate…

  18. A Comprehensive Approach to Technology Training for Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; Chang, Charles


    This study describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive approach to computer technology training for early childhood teachers. Departing from the singular goal of conveying skills and knowledge, a comprehensive program targets the development of teachers' attitudes and practices as well as knowledge and skills. All 3 areas are…

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Finnish Early Childhood Environments. (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Marja; Kangassalo, Marjatta


    Describes the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in Finnish early childhood environments from three perspectives. Examines Finnish national policies on the use of ICT; indicates the prevailing state of ICT use, according to results of international and national surveys; and presents some innovative practices involving the use…

  20. Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments to Strengthen Cultural Connections (United States)

    Meadows, Mikki


    This article will discuss the use of technology with young children to strengthen cultural connections. A brief discussion of the use of technology in the field of Early Childhood Education and a brief discussion of diversity and cultural issues is followed by specific ways in which technology can be utilized to help young children understand…

  1. An Early Childhood Educator's Guide to Prosocial Development. (United States)

    Floody, Dale R.

    This paper reviews research findings that are related to fostering prosocial behavior in the early childhood and elementary classroom. A collection of "experimental best bets" for increasing prosocial behavior in young children is outlined. This collection covers the role of reinforcement and modeling or imitation, the importance of group norms,…

  2. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay


    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  3. The Paradox of Power in Leadership in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Ho, Dora


    Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…

  4. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model. (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W


    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  5. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; von Soest, Tilmann; Torgersen, Leila


    .... Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled...

  6. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar


    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  7. Redistributional consequences of early childhood intervention. (United States)

    Lohse, Tim; Lutz, Peter F; Thomann, Christian


    Recently, early investment in the human capital of children from socially disadvantaged environments has attracted a great deal of attention. Programs of such early intervention, aimed at children's health and well-being, are spreading considerably in the US and are currently being tested in several European countries. In a discrete version of the Mirrlees model with a parents' and a children's generation, we model the intra-generational and the inter-generational redistributional consequences of such intervention programs. It turns out that the parents' generation loses whenever such intervention programs are implemented. Furthermore, the rich part of the children's generation always benefits. Despite the expectation that early intervention puts the poor descendants in a better position, our analysis reveals that the poor among the children's generation may even be worse off, if the effect of early intervention on their productivity is not large enough.

  8. An Analysis of New Zealand's Changing History, Policies and Approaches to Early Childhood Education (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire


    New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…

  9. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.


    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences and Perceptions of Professionalism and Professionalisation in the Asian Context (United States)

    Monk, Hilary; Phillipson, Sivanes


    Increasingly early childhood educators are referred to as "professionals," but how do they view themselves in terms of professionalism? What does it mean to be an early childhood professional? This study explored the views of 78 Asian early childhood educators who were upgrading their qualifications to degree level. In groups of five to…

  11. Teacher Understandings of and Commitment to Gender Equity in the Early Childhood Setting (United States)

    Lee-Thomas, Kerrin; Sumsion, Jennifer; Roberts, Susan


    Despite considerable examination of gender and gender equity within early childhood education, gender inequity remains problematic in many early childhood settings. Using qualitative methods, the study reported in this article investigated four early childhood teachers' understandings about gender and their commitment to promoting gender equity.…

  12. Fostering Connections to Nature -- Strategies for Community College Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Murphy, Debra


    How can early childhood teacher educators at the community college level create opportunities for their students to explore and relate to the natural world? This article discusses three learning opportunities in an early childhood associate-degree program that foster connections between preservice and inservice early childhood teachers and nature…

  13. Equal Access to Early Childhood Education in South Korea Using the Geographic Information System (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jang, Youn Joo


    While the importance of early childhood education is well documented, scant attention is afforded to the access to institutions for early childhood education. Uneven distribution of institutions for early childhood education in segregated metropolitan areas can cause inequality of educational opportunity. By using the Geographic Information System…

  14. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  15. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.


    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  16. Does preterm period sleep development predict early childhood growth trajectories? (United States)

    Winkler, M R; Park, J; Pan, W; Brandon, D H; Scher, M; Holditch-Davis, D


    The current study examined the relationship between sleep state development across the preterm and early post-term periods and subsequent growth trajectories from 1 to 27 months corrected age. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from 111 preterm infants (⩽34 weeks gestation) who participated in a multi-site longitudinal study. Separate longitudinal parallel process models were calculated for each sleep state (active and quiet sleep) and growth (weight, length and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores) variable to estimate the associations between their developmental trajectories. Significant associations were identified between the trajectories of quiet sleep and weight, active sleep and weight, quiet sleep and BMI, and active sleep and BMI. No statistically meaningful associations were identified between the trajectories of early childhood length and the preterm sleep states. Faster preterm period sleep development appears to predict more favorable early childhood growth trajectories, particularly for weight, indicating preterm sleep may be an important biomarker for subsequent growth outcomes.

  17. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity. (United States)

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R


    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Sharing Alphabet Books in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer


    To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…

  19. Cultural Constructions of Childhood and Early Literacy. (United States)

    David, T.; Goouch, K.; Jago, M.


    Adopts a cross-cultural approach to understand contexts in which young children become familiar with literacy. Notes that early years practitioners in Singapore, Australia, France, and England responded to questionnaires, were observed in action and interviewed. Finds that learning experiences practitioners provided for children were influenced by…

  20. Literacy and Music in Early Childhood


    Michelle M. Tomlinson


    This review of literature examines relevant research that supports new ways of viewing children as active transmitters of culture in situated learning contexts, where case studies explore children’s redesign of semiotic modes of music and verbal linguistics. Some recent research discussed in this article supports the premise that cognitive abilities of children in early learning settings may be transformed through embo...

  1. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M


    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  2. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan


    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  3. When Do Socioeconomic Resources Matter Most in Early Childhood? (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula


    Research has established the importance of early socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage for understanding later life outcomes, but less is known about change in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child development within the period of early childhood. Competing hypotheses drawn from the literature posited: (1) a stable SES-development relationship, (2) a stronger relationship in infancy than at older ages, and (3) a stronger relationship at school entry than at younger ages. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007), we followed 8600 children from infancy through kindergarten entry to model change over time in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cognitive and behavioral development. The unexpected main finding was that the relationships between three socioeconomic measures (household income, assets, and maternal educational attainment) strengthened from infancy through age 4 or 4½, then weakened slightly until the start of kindergarten. Indirect evidence suggested preschool education as one possible explanation. We argue for researchers to expand the school transition concept to include the now widespread prekindergarten year, as well as for attention to psychological and physiological developmental factors that may shape the relationship between SES and cognitive and behavioral development throughout early childhood.

  4. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.


    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  5. A Model of Clinical Supervision for Preservice Professionals in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Clifford, Jantina R.; Macy, Marisa G.; Albi, Linda D.; Bricker, Diane D.; Rahn, Naomi L.


    The authors present a model of clinical supervision to guide preservice professionals embarking on a career in early intervention and early childhood special education. Established models of clinical supervision in the general education field are described, followed by a description of the clinical supervision model used by the University of…

  6. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric


    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  7. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy (United States)

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.


    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  8. Should Science be Taught in Early Childhood? (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Fried, Michael N.


    This essay considers the question of why we should teach science to K-2. After initial consideration of two traditional reasons for studying science, six assertions supporting the idea that even small children should be exposed to science are given. These are, in order: (1) Children naturally enjoy observing and thinking about nature. (2) Exposing students to science develops positive attitudes towards science. (3) Early exposure to scientific phenomena leads to better understanding of the scientific concepts studied later in a formal way. (4) The use of scientifically informed language at an early age influences the eventual development of scientific concepts. (5) Children can understand scientific concepts and reason scientifically. (6) Science is an efficient means for developing scientific thinking. Concrete illustrations of some of the ideas discussed in this essay, particularly, how language and prior knowledge may influence the development of scientific concepts, are then provided. The essay concludes by emphasizing that there is a window of opportunity that educators should exploit by presenting science as part of the curriculum in both kindergarten and the first years of primary school.

  9. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.


    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  10. A function of social institutions of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Acires Candal Rocha


    Full Text Available Try to explain this text, in my view, essential aspects of the social function of institutions for children's education. The principles and general guidelines for early childhood education that we presents the results of a discussion process to coordinate with the Municipal Department of Education Florianópolis (Division of Child Education between 2000 and 2001. The aim of the debate was to subsidize the movement of defining guidelines for action for childcare and educational Neise (Centers for Children's Education of the municipal network. As a starting point, were recovered documents previously produced a guidance curriculum. The idea was to get a deeper understanding to help rewrite the curriculum guidelines of the city, both in the light of experience by educators of the network as a function of the definitions given for early childhood education by more current legislation.

  11. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil


    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  12. Building teaching in early childhood education: from observation to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Martinez


    Full Text Available This work is the result of teaching practice period in early childhood education , curriculum component of the Bachelor's Degree in Education from the Federal University of Pampa, campus Jaguarão/RS . In this sense , the main objective of this study is to contextualize how you can build meaningful themes to work on teaching practice in kindergarten under the stage but also in the context of professional practice. From a Freire's concept of education , what is proposed is to find themes that emerge from the reality, because think of Paulo Freire in early childhood education is to understand that education is permanent life, not just preparing to live, but to educate in life, in a continuous reading of the world , more and more critical

  13. A longitudinal intergenerational analysis of executive functions during early childhood. (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann


    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the aetiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EFs were modestly correlated by 24 months of age, and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socio-economic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  14. New Zealand early childhood curriculum: The politics of collaboration


    Farquhar Sandy


    The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996), is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative, democratic, responsive and inclusive. But community and collaboration can also be about exclusion, alienation and loss. This paper engages with Te Whāriki as a contest...

  15. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Leading Steps for State Policymakers


    Leslie Foster; Meg Booth; Colin Reusch


    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt. Children with ECC may experience pain, difficulty eating, developmental complications, and loss of days in day care or preschool. ECC is expensive to treat and untreated ECC can lead to other serious infections.

  16. Parent and Teacher Expectations for Early Childhood Education in Oman


    Al-Lawati, Fatma Anwar Khamis


    The purpose of this study was to examine parent and teacher expectations for early childhood educational programs in Muscat, the capital city of Oman. Questionnaires were distributed in three private schools in Muscat; these schools differed from one another in terms of their socioeconomic (SES) levels. Parent and teacher expectations were assessed, as reflected in their educational levels and socioeconomic status, in jobs and income level, and by the c hi !d 's level in kindergarten. Partici...

  17. Multicultural Education in Early Childhood : Issues and Challenges


    Abdullah, Anna Christina


    The writer is proposing that multicultural education be made an important component in early childhood education. The current trend in demography in most countries is one of increasing heterogeneity which gives rise to racial tensions and cultural conflicts. People need to come to terms with the fact that we need to co-exist in harmony, and this can only happen if there is genuine respect and acceptance of differences. Attitudinal and value systems can change only with knowledge and understan...

  18. Leadership in Early Childhood Education:cross-cultural perspectives


    Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)


    Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...

  19. Closing the Opportunity Gap in Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Solano, Isaac S; Weyer, Matt


    (1) Nineteen percent of low-income families enroll in high-quality early childhood education, while 29 percent of high income families do. (2) African-American, Hispanic/Latino and low-income children enter kindergarten, on average, significantly behind in reading and math skills. (3) Gaps in math and reading achievement generally persist in fourth grade and are even larger by eighth grade.

  20. Review of Studies of Peer Relationships in Early Childhood


    高櫻, 綾子


    This paper reviews studies of peer relationships in early childhood and examines the relation between play in young children and peer relationships. First, it focuses on playgroup entry and intimacy with peers to examine the influence of peer relationships on play. Second, it considers the influence of play on peer relationships. The results show that there is a reciprocal relationship between the two : the success of a child entering a playgroup depends on the quality of peer relationships, ...

  1. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation. (United States)

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N


    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  2. Play and learning in early childhood education in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Lohmander M.


    Full Text Available Learning through play is a common phrase in early childhood education worldwide. Play is often put forward as the overarching principle for working with young children (Johnson, Christie, & Wardle, 2005. However, if we go beyond the rhetorical level and explore how “learning through play” and a “play-based curriculum” are understood and transformed into practice, we may find differences both within and between countries (Karlsson Lohmander & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014a, 2014b; Pramling Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009. In this article we discuss the relationship between the concepts of play and learning and describe how they are enacted in everyday practice in early childhood education in Sweden. Starting with a brief presentation of the development of early childhood education, we then reflect on the challenges preschool teachers may encounter when trying to implement a new learning-oriented curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2011 and still trying to keep play as a central dimension in children’s everyday life in preschool.

  3. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K


    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.


    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  5. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood. (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J


    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  6. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein


    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  7. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming (United States)

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi


    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  8. The national curriculum guidelines of early childhood education: In search of a job to educational quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Carvalho Faria


    childhood education. This paper intends to discuss the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, which define how they should be organized teaching practice, and examine how the activities should be developed in early childhood education institutions, to objectify the holistic development of children in seeking quality care this stage of basic education.

  9. Literacy and Music in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Tomlinson


    Full Text Available This review of literature examines relevant research that supports new ways of viewing children as active transmitters of culture in situated learning contexts, where case studies explore children’s redesign of semiotic modes of music and verbal linguistics. Some recent research discussed in this article supports the premise that cognitive abilities of children in early learning settings may be transformed through embodied ways of representing prior knowledge. Young children have been observed enriching prior knowledge during interactions in music invention, using the gestural mode to interpret rhythmic and melodic motifs, structure and phrasing through movement to music, or extending these elements of music (audio mode in invented song or instrumental play. In engaging literacy tasks, they co-construct texts by drawing on semiotic resources of visual symbols and spatial design elements in written linguistic modes. This cognitive structuring is also revealed in the underlying patterns found in their embodied music invention. How knowledge is represented is crucial to children’s apprehension of knowledge through co-construction. It enables their selection of media and mode for redesign, to promote their understanding of concepts and facilitate problem solving. Multimodal redesign in young children’s music and verbal linguistics is explored as a rich source for communicating meaning and developing higher thinking.

  10. USBCALI Observatory in Early Childhood: Configuring horizons of meaning about childhood


    Aragón Holguín, Ana María


    The Faculty of Education USBCali from a tradition of work, training and social practice in issues that affect the quality of life of children and youth, families and communities in general, has developed a series of proposals for the understanding, explanation and transformation of existing conditions and complex educational and cultural policies of the country. One of the strategies that has been working lately is the positioning of the Observatory in Early Childhood, constituting it into a ...

  11. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.


    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  12. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.


    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  13. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. (United States)

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zucker, Robert A


    No prospective studies exist on the relationship between sleep problems early in life and subsequent alcohol use. Stimulated by the adult literature linking sleep problems to the subsequent onset of alcohol use disorders in some adults, we examined whether sleep problems in early childhood predicted the onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence and whether such a relationship was mediated by other known predictors of this relationship, namely, attention problems, anxiety/depression, and aggression in late childhood. This study is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of risk for alcohol and other substance use disorders. Study participants were 257 boys from a community-recruited sample of high-risk families. Mothers' ratings of their children's sleep problems at ages 3 to 5 years significantly predicted an early onset of any use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, as well as an early onset of occasional or regular use of cigarettes by age 12 to 14. Additionally, although sleep problems in early childhood also predicted attention problems and anxiety/depression in later childhood, these problems did not mediate the relationship between sleep problems and onset of alcohol and other drug use. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that prospectively examines the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of alcohol use, a marker of increased risk for later alcohol problems and alcohol use disorders. Moreover, early childhood sleep problems seem to be a robust marker for use of drugs other than alcohol. Implications for the prevention of early alcohol and other drug use are discussed.

  14. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon


    Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... prospectively to the age of 7 years and asthma was categorised by temporal pattern: transient early respiratory symptoms, persistent symptoms and late-onset symptoms. Bronchial responsiveness was measured at age 6 years. We used additive genetic models. Kaplan-Meier plots revealed early onset in hetero...... for other symptom patterns or bronchial responsiveness. Significant association was observed for atopic dermatitis and rs11167761-A (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, p=0.0026). Common variations in PCDH1 increase the risk of developing both transient early asthma and atopic dermatitis in early childhood....

  15. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine


    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  16. It's Not Rocket Science: The Perspectives of Indigenous Early Childhood Workers on Supporting the Engagement of Indigenous Families in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Grace, Rebekah; Trudgett, Michelle


    This paper presents the findings from semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous Australian early childhood workers who were asked about how Indigenous families might be better supported to engage with early childhood education and care services. The workers identified three key barriers to family participation: transport difficulties, family…

  17. Early Childhood Education and Special Education: How Well Do They Mix? An Examination of Inclusive Practices in Early Childhood Educational Settings in Hong Kong (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili C.


    To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…

  18. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina


    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  19. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Pryor

    Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  20. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood. (United States)

    Pryor, Laura E; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M


    Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %), "late-onset overweight" (16.6%) and "never overweight" (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  1. Early Childhood Education in Mexico: Expansion, quality improvement, and curricular reform


    Robert G. Myers; Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Kathleen McCartney; Bub, Kristen L.; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Maria A. Ramos; Felicia Knaul


    An accumulation of research across hundreds of studies shows the benefits of quality early childhood care and education for children’s later learning, school success and social development. In recognition of the value of providing early learning opportunities, many nations have expanded early childhood care and education in recent years. Mexico provides an interesting case in which expansion of early childhood care and education has occurred in the past 5 years, as have initiatives to improve...

  2. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood. (United States)

    Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C


    Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.

  3. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens


    Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress...... indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  4. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung


    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  5. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Panico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. DATA AND METHODS: The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. RESULTS: Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample; a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%; a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%; and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%. These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. CONCLUSION: Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles

  6. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors. (United States)

    Panico, Lidia; Stuart, Beth; Bartley, Mel; Kelly, Yvonne


    There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema) reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample); a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%); a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%); and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%). These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles. We identified correlated intervenable pathways in infancy

  7. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    at three years of age. Bacterial compositions and diversity indices were determined in fecal samples collected from 114 infants in the SKOT cohort at age 9 and 18 months by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were compared to the presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections.......006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...

  8. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.


    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  9. Early Childhood Education Assembly: Changing the Face of Early Literacy Education within NCTE and Beyond (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Vasquez, Vivian M.


    Literacy begins at birth. As soon as children are born, they start reading the world around them. Yet for years the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) was not regarded as a place for early childhood teachers, researchers, and teacher educators who work with children from birth to age eight. Recently, however, a group has come together…

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Understanding of Early Communication: Application to Their Work with Young Children (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; Jovanovic, Jessie; Lawless, Angela; Young, Jessica


    Young children need rich learning experiences to maximize their potential. Early childhood educators (ECEs) working in childcare have knowledge of individual children as well as skills and professional knowledge that afford opportunities to provide language-rich environments for learning. To successfully work in partnership with ECEs,…

  11. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood? (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.


    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  12. Practices for Parent Participation in Early Intervention/ Early Childhood Special Education


    Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf


    The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...

  13. The readiness of schools in Zimbabwe for the implementation of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezron Mangwaya


    Full Text Available This qualitative study focuses on primary schools' state of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. Adopting a multiple case study design, the article explores, through semi-structured interviews and documentation, school heads, teachers-in-charge and classroom teachers' perceptions of their respective schools' state of readiness for the installation and implementation of early childhood education. The study established that, while classroom teachers were adequately qualified to implement early childhood education, teachers-in-charge were not. Secondly, school heads received limited induction for the introduction and implementation of early childhood education. Additionally, inadequate teaching-learning resources and lack of on-going teacher support contributed to schools' lack of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. The study recommends interventions that curriculum planners and implementers can utilise in order to create conditions that enable primary schools to be ready for introducing and implementing early childhood education.

  14. Determination of preservice special education teachers’ views on early childhood intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Baglama


    Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.

  15. The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)


    Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

  16. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement. (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I


    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors and consequences of early childhood dyssomnias: New perspectives. (United States)

    Touchette, Evelyne; Petit, Dominique; Tremblay, Richard E; Montplaisir, Jacques Y


    Dyssomnias are largely under-diagnosed in infants and toddlers. This literature review proposes an integrative model based on empirical data on determinants and consequences of sleep disturbances occurring in early life. This model proposes that parental behaviors that impede the child's autonomy toward sleep periods are primary grounds for the development of dyssomnias, e.g., parental presence until the child falls asleep, and putting an already sleeping child to bed. The model also indicates the serious potential consequences of a modest but chronic loss of sleep in childhood. At least three developmental domains could be directly affected: behavioral/social competence, cognitive performance, and physical condition. Thus, children with short nocturnal sleep duration before age 3.5 years show increased risk of high hyperactivity-impulsivity scores and low cognitive performance at 6 years compared to children who sleep 11 h per night, after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, persistent short sleep duration in early infancy increased the risk of suffering of obesity at 6 years of age, after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Finally, the importance of allowing the child to sleep at least 10 h per night in early childhood is stressed, as the National Sleep Foundation Poll suggests, for optimal child development.

  18. Everyday vs academic knowledge among early childhood teachers (six questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Julia Guzmán


    Full Text Available This paper, the result of a qualitative research process, serves as a reflection on the ways in which early childhood teachers who belong to schools with different characteristics and possess different levels of training, learn to teach reading and writing to boys and girls. It was found that, independent of their level of training and education, practice in the classroom served as their main source of learning. From these findings, some questions emerge about the relationship between the theory and the everyday practice in the training of educators and what this suggests for the institutions responsible for such activity.

  19. Response to Horowitz: research issues in early childhood caries. (United States)

    Johnsen, D C


    Interest in early childhood caries (ECC) remains strong internationally, yet a name remains elusive. Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) was widely recognized by non-dental health professionals--a factor to consider in choosing a more appropriate name. Due to limits in historic data, progress against the disease remains difficult to determine. As reflected by Dr Horowitz's list of recommendations, a focused agenda is not at hand on research leading to specific interventions. We also struggle to develop a specific set of interventions suitable for public health settings. In the absence of research-based effective interventions, I hope we do not withdraw from efforts to reduce ECC.

  20. The Nordic perspective on early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottier, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid


    as a positive societal view on ECEC. The section Development of ECEC pedagogies in Nordic countries discusses the basic educational ideas for each country and gives an account of how early childhood services and education have progressed in recent decades. Following this, the section Guidelines for ECEC...... presents details about the development of curricula in each Nordic country during the past two decades. Subsequently, in the sections What does research tell us about what everyday reality looks like for children in Nordic ECEC? we focus on some current as well as upcoming tasks and problems related...... to children’s learning and development, and discuss the concept of ECEC Didaktik....

  1. The nordic perspective on early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid


    reflects the positive view of society with regard to ECEC. Then in Sect. 45.5, basic educational ideas are introduced, and for each country, there is an account of how early childhood services and education have progressed during recent decades. In continuation of this, Sect. 45.6 presents details from...... the development of curricula in each Nordic country during the last two decades. Subsequently, in Sect. 45.7, we focus on some current as also as upcoming tasks and problems related to children’s learning and development, which are also related to the question of ECEC Didaktik....

  2. Quality Early Childhood Education and Care--The Role of Attitudes and Dispositions in Professional Development (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity


    The early childhood workforce is routinely demonstrated as being central to the quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC). Frequently, discussions of quality focus on structural features of training, such as level and duration. However, the literature demonstrates that quality extends beyond the structural and that early childhood…

  3. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey


    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Arce


    Full Text Available This article is the result of the research work been carried on by the research group History of Education and Early Childhood Education at Federal University of São Carlos. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities and paths for the application of the principles of Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica for Early Childhood Education. Therefore we expect that this article generate discussions in order to improve methodologically and pedagogically our Early Childhood Education.

  5. Early Childhood Development and Education in Sierra Leone: Constraints and Possibilities


    Athinodorou, Eleni


    The importance of early childhood education as the process for building strong foundation for children’s further learning has been supported by scientific research. Currently, countries in Africa are incorporating early childhood development and education into their country development and policy plans. This study explored the post-war early childhood development through a critical ethnographic case study in order to identify and critically analyse the facilitators and barriers...

  6. The Place of the Arts in Early Childhood Learning and Development


    French, Geraldine


    This paper has been commissioned by Arts Council Ireland to inform the development of a national strategy for early childhood arts in Ireland. The paper is based on contemporary thinking and knowledge of child psychology, early learning and development and childhood studies, in particular the theoretical principles and pedagogical approaches to early childhood art-based learning. It begins with an exploration of the concept of pedagogy. International research on the importance of effective pe...

  7. Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood. (United States)

    Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph


    Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges.

  8. Early childhood lung function is a stronger predictor of adolescent lung function in cystic fibrosis than early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (United States)

    Pittman, Jessica E; Noah, Hannah; Calloway, Hollin E; Davis, Stephanie D; Leigh, Margaret W; Drumm, Mitchell; Sagel, Scott D; Accurso, Frank J; Knowles, Michael R; Sontag, Marci K


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been suggested as a major determinant of poor pulmonary outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF), although other factors play a role. Our objective was to investigate the association of early childhood Pseudomonas infection on differences in lung function in adolescence with CF. Two populations of subjects with CF were studied: from the Gene Modifier Study (GMS), 346 F508del homozygotes with severe vs. mild adolescent lung disease, and from the Colorado Newborn Screen Study (NBS) 172 subjects diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. Associations of Pseudomonas infection and lung function in early childhood with lung function in adolescence were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. Among GMS subjects, those with severe adolescent lung disease had worse lung function in childhood (FEV1 25 percentage points lower) compared to subjects with mild adolescent lung disease, regardless of early childhood Pseudomonas status. Among NBS subjects, those with lowest adolescent lung function had significantly lower early childhood lung function and faster rate of decline in FEV1 than subjects with highest adolescent lung function; early Pseudomonas infection was not associated with rate of FEV1 decline. The strongest predictor of adolescent lung function was early childhood lung function. Subjects with a higher percentage of cultures positive for Pseudomonas before age 6 or a lower BMI at 2-4 years old also had lower adolescent lung function, though these associations were not as strong as with early childhood lung function. In separate analyses of two distinct populations of subjects with CF, we found a strong correlation between lower lung function in early childhood and adolescence, regardless of early childhood Pseudomonas status. Factors in addition to early Pseudomonas infection have a strong impact on lung function in early childhood in CF. Further exploration may identify novel underlying genetic or environmental factors that

  9. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie


    ...:// Web End 99 Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma? [notdef][notdef][notdef...

  10. Touch Screen Technology Adoption and Utilisation by Educators in Early Childhood Educational Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, Melinda; Kautz, Karlheinz; Tootell, Holly


    The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood educational settings, in particular touch screen technology such as interactive whiteboards and tablet computing devices has potential for use within early childhood educational institutions. We conducted a literature...... that can support the successful implementation of touch screen technology within early childhood educational institutions....... in regards to touch screen technology in early childhood, particularly from a process perspective, and suggest that further research is required to understand the interplay between individual actions and organisational structural influences. This will contribute to the development of an understanding...

  11. Unveiling Malaysian Preschool Teachers’ Perceptions and Attitudes in Multicultural Early Childhood Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina


    .... The preschool teachers completed a questionnaire to demonstrate their understandings of multicultural education, their perceptions of its importance in early childhood education and their opinions...

  12. Development of nap neurophysiology: preliminary insights into sleep regulation in early childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Jenni, Oskar G; McClain, Ian J; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K


    .... Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children...

  13. Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) in Botswana: In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabita BOSE


    Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) aims to identify themost appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support thedevelopment of children under eight years of age...

  14. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes. (United States)

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E


    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter


    BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...... vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...

  16. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter


    BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...... vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...

  17. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus


    predictive value of elevated cord blood IgE found in recent studies. Future studies should control for materno-fetal transfer of IgE or preferably use other markers of atopy. Variation in the gene coding for the skin barrier protein filaggrin (FLG) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for eczema. FLG......The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  18. Planning in middle childhood: early predictors and later outcomes. (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah L; Scholnick, Ellin K; Bender, Randall H; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Hirsh Pasek, Kathy; Keating, Daniel P; Park, Yoonjung


    Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when children were 54 months old, predicts their concurrent performance on sustained attention, inhibition, and short-term verbal memory tests. This performance predicts planning in first grade, which predicts third-grade reading and mathematics attainment, but not the rate of growth in academic skills from first to fifth grades. This path was also found when the same parenting, cognitive, and academic constructs were measured at later time points. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Oral health of indigenous children and the influence of early childhood caries on childhood health and well-being. (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Harrison, Rosamund L; Moffatt, Michael E K


    Dental caries in Indigenous children is a child health issue that is multifactorial in origin and strongly influenced by the determinants of health. The evidence suggests that extensive dental caries has an effect on health and well-being of the young child. This article focuses on early childhood caries as an overall proxy for Indigenous childhood oral health because decay during early life sets the foundation for oral health throughout childhood and adolescence. Strategies should begin with community engagement and always include primary care providers and other community health workers.

  20. Relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In primary education is essential to know and develop methodologies using the development of creativity and laterality in the process of teaching and learning in our student. It is an ideal place to study the relationship between these variables period. As we understand creativity as an integral part of all the languages in which student in early childhood education (verbal and written language, plastic body… are expressed, for all languages represent a creative process, a way to communicate with others, either verbal or written form, plastic. All these forms of communication is also related to another concept as laterality. It is essential to identify and examine the importance of laterality and dominations in kindergarten because all these processes are required before accessing other languages such as literacy. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education. This has been evaluated 60 children in the second cycle of Infant Education and creativity variables defined and undefined laterality. In the development of this research test Torrance Creative Thinking (1974 of figurative expression and the test of laterality of the neuropsychological test (2011 it was applied. The results show that most of the student have defined laterality with 75%. These student earn higher average scores on each component of creativity, the group with undefined laterality and more creativity than the group with undefined laterality.

  1. Early Childhood Development and Iranian Parents' Knowledge: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Habibi, Elham; Sajedi, Firouzeh; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Shahshahanipour, Soheila; Glascoe, Frances Page


    Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016. The purposive sampling method is utilized to select 24 participants among parents and grandparents in Tehran. The inclusion criteria consisted of speaking in Persian and having a child or grandchild growth of children. According to the results, the knowledge of Iranian parent is not enough about ECD; therefore, actions must be taken to increase their knowledge in these domains. Parents look for reliable and valid sources to enhance their knowledge and they rely the most on pediatricians in this regard. Therefore, more studies on assessing parents' knowledge in community and the practical methods for knowledge promotion in this field is recommended.

  2. New Zealand early childhood curriculum: The politics of collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farquhar Sandy


    Full Text Available The New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education [MoE],1996, is frequently hailed as a community inspired curriculum, praised nationally and internationally for its collaborative development, emancipatory spirit and bicultural approach. In its best form community can be collaborative, consultative, democratic, responsive and inclusive. But community and collaboration can also be about exclusion, alienation and loss. This paper engages with Te Whāriki as a contestable political document. It explores this much acclaimed early childhood curriculum within a politics of community, collaboration and control. Driving the direction of the paper is a call for a revitalised understanding of curriculum as practices of freedom, raising issues of how to work with difference and complexity in a democratic and ethical manner. The paper concludes that although official curriculum is unavoidably about control, there is a world of difference in the ways such control might be exercised. The real curriculum exists where teachers are working with children - it is in the everyday micro-practices that impacts are felt and freedoms played out.

  3. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study]. (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria


    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Clonal analysis of the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. (United States)

    Kanasi, E; Dewhirst, F E; Chalmers, N I; Kent, R; Moore, A; Hughes, C V; Pradhan, N; Loo, C Y; Tanner, A C R


    Severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. Dental plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, and by specific PCR amplification for Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacteriaceae species. Children with severe caries (n = 39) had more dental plaque and gingival inflammation than caries-free children (n = 41). Analysis of phylotypes from operational taxonomic unit analysis of 16S rRNA clonal metalibraries from severe caries and caries-free children indicated that while libraries differed significantly (p children included Capnocytophaga gingivalis (p severe caries. Clonal analysis of 80 children identified a diverse microbiota that differed between severe caries and caries-free children, but the association of S. mutans with caries was from specific PCR analysis, not from clonal analysis, of samples. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Social Support and Cognition: Early Childhood Versus Older Adulthood. (United States)

    Kang, Duck-Hee; Boss, Lisa; Clowtis, Licia


    Cognitive development in early childhood and cognitive preservation in older adulthood are critical for leading healthy life. Social engagement can significantly affect cognition, but their relationships are unclear. The purpose of this review was to synthesize current findings on the relationship between social engagement and cognition in early childhood and older adulthood. PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published in 1995-2015 for a comprehensive review. Included in this review were 42 articles written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals with participants' age being 2 to 6 or ≥65 years, and measurement of social engagement and cognition. Overall, greater social engagement was associated with higher levels of cognition across the life span, association of which seemed more prominent in populations at risk of cognitive impairment. Additional research is needed to elucidate biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these relationships and to test the efficacy of new interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Child temperament and risk factors for early childhood caries. (United States)

    Spitz, Amanda Seiser; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Kanellis, Michael J; Qian, Fang


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between a mother's perception of her child's temperament and the child's risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). Data was collected from 629 records of children ages 0 to 4 who were patients of the University of Iowa's Infant Oral Health Program. Data included: (1) maternal report of child's temperament; (2) knowledge of ECC; (3) dietary and oral hygiene habits; and (4) clinical evidence of cavitated and noncavitated lesions and visible plaque on maxillary incisors. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Bivariate analyses showed that children reported as "easy" were more likely to: (1) be younger (P=.001); (2) be breast-fed to sleep (P=.046); (3) be breast-fed throughout the night (P=.012); and (4) have their teeth brushed twice daily (P=.006). Children reported as "difficult" were more likely to: (1) be bottle-fed to sleep (P=.002); and (2) have noncavitated lesions (P=.044). Final logistic regression analysis indicated that children perceived as "easy" were more likely to breast-fed throughout the night (odds ratio [OR]= 1.77; P=.016), while those perceived as "difficult" were more likely to be bottle-fed to sleep (OR=1.74; P=.016). Maternal reported child temperament may be related to important early childhood caries risk factors.

  7. Clonal Analysis of the Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries (United States)

    Kanasi, E.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Chalmers, N.I.; Kent, R.; Moore, A.; Hughes, C.V.; Pradhan, N.; Loo, C.Y.; Tanner, A.C.R.


    Background/Aims Severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. Methods Dental plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, and by specific PCR amplification for Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacteriaceae species. Results Children with severe caries (n = 39) had more dental plaque and gingival inflammation than caries-free children (n = 41). Analysis of phylotypes from operational taxonomic unit analysis of 16S rRNA clonal metalibraries from severe caries and caries-free children indicated that while libraries differed significantly (p caries-associated taxa included Granulicatella elegans (p caries-free children included Capnocytophaga gingivalis (p Streptococcus sanguinis (p Streptococcus cristatus (p mutans (p caries. Conclusion Clonal analysis of 80 children identified a diverse microbiota that differed between severe caries and caries-free children, but the association of S. mutans with caries was from specific PCR analysis, not from clonal analysis, of samples. PMID:20861633

  8. Infusing Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Yoon, Jiyoon; Martin, Leisa A.


    Previous research studies in early childhood teacher education have indicated that teacher candidates are not adequately prepared to demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to teach science to all children including culturally and linguistically diverse students. To address this issue, the researchers provided 31 early childhood teacher candidates with instructions through a culturally responsive science education curriculum that integrates American and Korean science curriculum corresponding to the American and Korean standards for teacher education. The results showed a statistically significant increase in their Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE). In addition, the teacher candidates were able to create a multicultural/diverse lesson in the developing and proficiency levels based on Ambrosio's lesson matrix. This study provides teacher candidates' knowledge as well as an additional resource for developing their self-efficacy and understanding the role of multicultural/diverse lesson planning for science instruction. Also, teacher candidates could be better prepared by understanding how other countries approach science education and integrating this knowledge to enrich their own science instruction.

  9. Does early childhood callous-unemotional behavior uniquely predict behavior problems or callous-unemotional behavior in late childhood? (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.


    Callous unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in early childhood predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in late childhood. This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2–4 predicted aggression, rule-breaking, and CU behavior across informants at age 9.5. To test the unique predictive and convergent validity of CU behavior in early childhood, we accounted for stability in behavior problems and method effects to rule out the possibility that rater biases inflated the magnitude of any associations found. Cross-informant data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample (N = 731; female = 49%) at ages 2–4 and again at age 9.5. From age 3, CU behavior uniquely predicted aggression and rule-breaking across informants. There were also unique associations between CU behavior assessed at ages 3 and 4 and CU behavior assessed at age 9.5. Findings demonstrate that early-childhood indicators of CU behavior account for unique variance in later childhood behavior problems and CU behavior, taking into account stability in behavior problems over time and method effects. Convergence with a traditional measure of CU behavior in late childhood provides support for the construct validity of a brief early childhood measure of CU behavior. PMID:27598253

  10. Diverse Pathways in Early Childhood Professional Development: An Exploration of Early Educators in Public Preschools, Private Preschools, and Family Child Care Homes. (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Karoly, Lynn


    This paper presents a naturalistic investigation of the patterns of formal education, early childhood education training, and mentoring of a diverse group of urban early childhood educators participating in the Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings (LA ExCELS) study. A total of 103 preschool teachers and family child care providers serving primarily low-income 3- and 4-year-old children in Los Angeles County provided data on their education, training, and beliefs about teaching. This sample worked in public center based preschool programs including Head Start classrooms and State preschool classrooms (N=42), private non-profit preschools including community based organizations and faith-based preschools (N=42), and licensed family child care homes (N=19). This study uses a person-centered approach to explore patterns of teacher preparation, sources of support, supervision, and mentoring across these 3 types of education settings, and how these patterns are associated with early childhood educators' beliefs and practices. Findings suggest a set of linkages between type of early education setting, professional development, and supervision of teaching. Public preschools have the strongest mandates for formal professional development and typically less variation in levels of monitoring, whereas family child care providers on average have less formal education and more variability in their access to and use of other forms of training and mentorship. Four distinct patterns of formal education, child development training, and ongoing mentoring or support were identified among the educators in this study. Associations between professional development experiences and teachers' beliefs and practices suggested the importance of higher levels of formal training for enhancing the quality of teacher-child interactions. Implications of the findings for changing teacher behaviors are discussed with respect to considering the setting context.

  11. Influence of first-time mothers' early employment on severe early childhood caries in their child. (United States)

    Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J N C


    Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.

  12. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner


    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  13. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes. (United States)

    Turner, Steve


    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  14. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale to primary dental care for early childhood caries. (United States)

    Arrow, Peter


    This study examined the responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) to dental treatment of early childhood caries (ECC) in a primary dental care setting. Parents of children participating in a randomized controlled trial completed the ECOHIS at baseline and follow-up, and rated the global oral health transition of their child at follow-up ('worsened', 'no change', 'improved'). Change scores were calculated and longitudinal construct validity assessed by examining the association between change scores and global oral health transition groups. ECOHIS changes from baseline to follow-up within global transition groups were also evaluated. Effect sizes, minimally important difference, and Guyatt's responsiveness index were calculated to examine the scale's sensitivity and responsiveness. After 11.3 months, complete questionnaire data were available for 189 participants; 59% reported 'improved' oral health. The follow-up scores were significantly lower in the child psychology, parental distress and family impact section, P dental care settings was modest, and its use to measure treatment effects in primary care settings requires further investigations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early childhood caries among Hutterite preschool children in Manitoba, Canada. (United States)

    Schroth, Robert; Dahl, Pamel; Haque, Mohammad; Kliewer, Eleonore


    This study investigated the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among Hutterite preschool children from different colonies in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Following informed consent from the child's parent, children under 72 months of age underwent a dental screening examination. Approval was granted by the University of Manitoba's Health Research Ethics Board. A total of 66 children with a mean age of 40.1 ± 20.1 months participated. The prevalence of ECC was 53%, while the mean decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) score was 2.8 ± 4.0 (range 0-20). A total of 42.4% had severe ECC (S-ECC). There was no difference in prevalence among the 6 participating colonies. Only 15 children had already been to the dentist, with the majority of these visits due to decay or dental pain. Of those, the mean age for a first visit was 2.7 ± 0.6 years. Children with ECC were determined to be significantly older than those who were caries-free (pEarly childhood caries and higher caries rates were associated with lower maternal ratings of their child's dental health. Both ECC and increased deft scores were significantly associated with the number of children in the home. This is the first study to report the prevalence of primary tooth decay in Hutterite children. Rates were comparable with other Canadian data for rural dwelling children. Effective and culturally appropriate prevention and health promotion activities are warranted, including fluoride varnish and early dental visits.

  16. Personality Traits Elucidate Sex Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbidity During Early Childhood


    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica L.; Tackett, Jennifer L.


    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with other childhood disorders, and there are striking sex differences in this comorbidity, particularly during early childhood. For example, boys with ADHD are more likely to exhibit comorbid disruptive behavior and neurodevelopmental disorders, compared to girls, during early childhood. Yet, explanations for these well-established sex differences remain in short supply. The current study evaluated the novel hypothesis that p...

  17. Predictors of the Social Validity Judgments of Early Childhood Intervention Performance Checklists and Practice Guides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunst, Carl; Hamby, Deborah


    Early childhood intervention practitioners (N = 42) reviewed three early intervention performance checklists and three intervention practice guides and made social validity judgments of the acceptability and importance of the products...

  18. Theorizing an Early Childhood Educator's Authority for the Advancement of Social Goods (United States)

    Langford, Rachel


    Authority is an uncomfortable subject for early childhood educators. This article outlines some tensions between the theory and practice of an early childhood educator's authority and the implications of these tensions for educators themselves and the social changes they envisage. Drawing on a range of feminist educational philosophers and…

  19. Approaches to Teaching in Thematic Work: Early Childhood Teachers' Integration of Mathematics and Art (United States)

    Björklund, Camilla; Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva


    Thematic work that integrates different knowledge areas is considered suitable for developing young children's knowledge and skills in early childhood education. This paper reports evidence from a survey of early childhood teachers' work with mathematics and art integrated in thematic work. In this study, we aim to explore how teachers perceive…

  20. Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee


    This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

  1. Poverty and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood: The Mediating Role of Maternal Depression Symptoms and Parenting (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana


    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…

  2. Early Childhood Sexuality Education: Future Educators' Attitudes and Considerations (United States)

    Brouskeli, Vasiliki; Sapountzis, Antonis


    Sexuality education is one of the most disputable health education programs as far as its inclusion in Early Childhood Education is concerned. This study was conducted in order to investigate early childhood future educators' attitudes and considerations about introducing sexuality education to their future pupils. We used a qualitative research…

  3. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth


    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  4. Early Childhood Investment Zones: A Learning Approach for Authentic Community Partnership (United States)

    Vermilya, Lois; Kerwin, Dorothy


    Many professionals in the early childhood field are inspired by community-driven initiatives that hold great promise for transforming outcomes for the youngest children and their families. However, most collective impact efforts are mobilized in large urban areas, where early childhood professionals and civic leaders take the lead. New Mexico has…

  5. ICT and Play in Preschool: Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis


    This study investigated early childhood teachers' beliefs about information and communications technology (ICT) and play in preschool, as well as their confidence in integrating ICT in the classroom. A 28-item questionnaire was compiled and administered to 190 early childhood teachers in Greece. Although ICT play (which can provide learning…

  6. Lesbian and Gay Parents in Early Childhood Settings: A Systematic Review of the Research Literature (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin


    This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…

  7. Constructions of Social Inclusion within Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy Documents (United States)

    Wong, Sandie; Turner, Kay


    Social inclusion discourses have been powerful in informing early childhood policy contexts, both internationally and in Australia (the context of the current study) for the past decade or so. But little research has examined the productive aspects of social inclusion discourses particularly within early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy…

  8. Tablet Nuff but Life Still Rough: Technology for Early Childhood Sustainable Development in Jamaica (United States)

    Kelly-Williams, Suzette; Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.


    Early childhood education has a role to play in constructing a sustainable society. In particular, increasing global attention has focused on how early childhood may help alleviate poverty among children and their families and promote economic growth. Part of this discourse involves the use of technology as a means to improve the quality of early…

  9. Examining Changes to Michigan's Early Childhood Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS). REL 2015-029 (United States)

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Hawkinson, Laura E.; Greenberg, Ariela C.; Howard, Eboni C.; Brown, Leah


    Documenting and improving early childhood program quality is a national priority, leading to a rapid expansion of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRISs). QRISs document and improve the quality of early childhood education programs and provide clear information to families about their child care choices. The current study described how…

  10. Storytelling Dramas as a Community Building Activity in an Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    Wright, Cheryl; Diener, Marissa L.; Kemp, Jacqueline Lindsay


    Healthy social-emotional development is promoted by building a safe, secure and respectful environment in an early childhood setting with positive and consistent relationships among adults, children, and their peers. This study explored storytelling dramas as an opportunity to build community within the context of one early childhood classroom.…

  11. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug


    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  12. Ready for Robotics: Bringing Together the T and E of STEM in Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda


    Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…

  13. Critically Redefining and Repositioning Media Texts in Early Childhood Teacher Education: What If? And Why? (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Price-Dennis, Detra


    Given the prevalence of popular media in the lives of young children today, early childhood teacher education stands to benefit from fostering critical media literacy practices. Through the use of critical media literary practices, early childhood teacher educators can facilitate a process whereby preservice teachers learn how to critically…

  14. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Curriculum Changes in Singapore and Australia (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Ng, Josephine


    This article explores early childhood curriculum reform in Australia and Singapore in order to identify international trends in early childhood education (ECE), similarities in curriculum reform initiatives and implementation strategies adopted. We have observed the existence of many shared ideas across the two contexts that may influence…

  15. Early Childhood Educators' Well-Being: An Updated Review of the Literature (United States)

    Cumming, Tamara


    Researchers are increasingly recognising the connections between early childhood educators' well-being and their capacity for providing high quality education and care. The past five years have seen an intensification of research concerning early childhood educators' well-being. However, fragmentation along conceptual, contextual and…

  16. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung


    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  17. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet


    The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify ...

  18. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education? (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram


    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  19. Taming the Wild: Approaches to Nature in Japanese Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Burke, Rachael S.


    The Japanese early childhood curriculum provides ample opportunities for children to interact with nature and to learn about natural phenomena. However, using Kalland (1995) and Martinez's (2008) theories about Japanese constructions of nature, this paper argues that most Japanese early childhood experiences do not constitute direct contact with…

  20. Photo-Booklets for English Language Learning: Incorporating Visual Communication into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Britsch, Susan


    Teachers can integrate discussion and writing about photographs into the early childhood curriculum to build speaking, reading, and writing skills in any language. Although little available research focuses on photography and early childhood education as related specifically to English Language Learners, several current teacher resources do focus…

  1. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)


    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984

  2. Supporting Parents and Young Children: Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education Program. (United States)

    Kristensen, Nancy; Billman, Jean


    Describes the Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education Program, which is designed to offer support and information for all parents and their children from birth to kindergarten-enrollment age, and to provide a good early childhood education experience for young children. (Author/PCB)

  3. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  4. Replication and Extension of the Early Childhood Friendship Project: Effects on Physical and Relational Bullying (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper-DeMarco, Kimberly E.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.; Celenza, Lauren


    A replication of a preventive early childhood intervention study for reducing relational and physical aggression and peer victimization was conducted (Ostrov et al., 2009). The present study expanded on the original 6-week program, and the revised Early Childhood Friendship Project (ECFP) 8-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate…

  5. Launching Intergenerational Programs in Early Childhood Settings: A Comparison of Explicit Intervention with an Emergent Approach (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Larkin, Elizabeth


    What began as a case study of intergenerational initiatives in university-based early childhood programs evolved into a comparative study of two different program implementation processes. Despite operating with the same goals, university partners, and resources, two early childhood centers pursued fundamentally different strategies for launching…

  6. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari


    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  7. Advocating for Ethnographic Work in Early Childhood Federal Policy: Problems and Possibilities (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys


    Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…

  8. Children's Perspective Research in Pre-Service Early Childhood Student Education (United States)

    Dayan, Yael; Ziv, Margalit


    An important component in the role of an early childhood teacher is the ability to respect children, interact with them and respond to each child's ideas, thoughts and desires. Therefore, early childhood teacher education should emphasise the significance of relating to children as independent and thoughtful human beings. We suggest that…

  9. Paraprofessionals in Early Childhood Classrooms: An Examination of Duties and Expectations (United States)

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Jones, Cathy R.; Vaden, S. Russell; Sheehan, Heather; Hunt, Gilbert H.


    Millions of dollars are expended, in the USA and elsewhere, to provide paraprofessionals or "teaching assistants" for regular early childhood classrooms. However, little consistent information exists related to best practice in the use of paraprofessionals in these early childhood settings. This article describes a study employing the use of 159…

  10. Early Childhood Special Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Problems and Solutions (United States)

    Kesiktas, A. Dolunay


    Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…

  11. Time in Early Childhood: Creative Possibilities with Different Conceptions of Time (United States)

    Farquhar, Sandy


    Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…

  12. "Te Whariki", the New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum: Is It Effective? (United States)

    Blaiklock, Ken


    "Te Whariki", the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, has received much praise since its introduction in 1996. There is, however, little research evidence about the implementation or effectiveness of the curriculum in early childhood centres. This article raises questions about the structure and content of "Te Whariki". The…

  13. Developing Professional Early Childhood Educators in England and Hungary: Where Has All the Love Gone? (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity; Georgeson, Janet; Varga, Anikó Nagy


    European education agendas have emphasized the importance of early childhood education in providing the foundations for lifelong learning. Central to the success of early childhood education is the quality of provision, with the workforce being key. While qualifications levels are frequently cited as important for the quality of provision here we…

  14. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel


    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  15. Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment among Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Shepherd-Osborne, Tracie


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…

  16. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.


    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  17. The Examination of Teacher Stress among Turkish Early Childhood Education Teachers (United States)

    Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.


    The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…

  18. Early Childhood Investment Zones: A Learning Approach for Authentic Community Partnership (United States)

    Vermilya, Lois; Kerwin, Dorothy

    Many professionals in the early childhood field are inspired by community-driven initiatives that hold great promise for transforming outcomes for the youngest children and their families. However, most collective impact efforts are mobilized in large urban areas, where early childhood professionals and civic leaders take the lead. New Mexico has…

  19. Early Childhood Practitioner Judgments of the Social Validity of Performance Checklists and Parent Practice Guides (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.


    Findings from three field tests evaluations of early childhood intervention practitioner performance checklists and three parent practice guides are reported. Forty-two practitioners from three early childhood intervention programs reviewed the checklists and practice guides and made (1) social validity judgments of both products, (2) judgments of…

  20. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.


    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  1. The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria


    Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

  2. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings (United States)

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi


    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  3. Language Discourses and Ideologies at the Heart of Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; de Almeida, Ana-Elisa Armstrong


    This paper identifies: (a) discourses that shape immigrant parents' and early childhood educators' views of young children's bilingual development, and (b) ways in which these discourses are manifested in the everyday lives of immigrant parents as well as in the practices of early childhood educators. The findings of a study in a mid-size Canadian…

  4. When One of "Them" Is in "Our" Place: Early Childhood Settings as Spaces of Resistance (United States)

    Arndt, Sonja


    When "they" come to "us" in "our" place, what happens, for "them" and for "us"? This article investigates conceptions of Otherness through the story of an immigrant early childhood teacher, seen as the stranger, foreigner, who comes to "our" place, our early childhood setting. It provokes…

  5. Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Perception of Their Support and Readiness for a Teacher Performance Assessment (United States)

    Brown, Carmen Sherry


    Comprehensive early childhood teacher preparation programs offer courses and curricula that are aligned with current research on best practices and related to the knowledge and skills that early childhood teacher candidates are expected to demonstrate on certification exams and teacher performance assessments. To support the alignment of early…

  6. Every Child: The Magazine of the Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc., 2000. (United States)

    Elliott, Alison, Ed.


    This document is comprised of the four 2000 issues of a periodical published by the Australian Early Childhood Association focusing on the needs of children from birth to 8 years and on issues related to child care and early childhood education in Australia. Each issue features articles focusing on a particular theme along with editorials and…

  7. Otherness "without Ostracism or Levelling": Towards Fresh Orientations to Teacher Foreigners in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Arndt, Sonja


    This article attempts to conceptualise the notion of the foreigner in relation to immigrant early childhood teachers. Sparked by Kristeva's challenge, to live with and as others without ostracism or levelling, it highlights tensions that arise in a juxtaposition of the Aotearoa/New Zealand early childhood curriculum document, Te Whariki and other…

  8. Second-Language Learning in Early Childhood: Some Thoughts for Practitioners. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry

    There is much that can be done in early childhood education programs to foster second language learning in young children. The research literature on early childhood bilingualism clearly indicates that children can learn two languages simultaneously without apparent effort, without cognitive strain or interference in learning either language…

  9. "I Am Not a Babysitter": A Case Study of Five Chinese Mainland Early Childhood Teachers' Identity (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Yu, Shulin


    Although studies on teacher identity have proliferated in recent years, and examinations of the said topic have been conducted under various educational contexts, limited focus has been given to teacher identity in the early childhood educational context. Drawing upon data from semi-structured interviews with five early childhood teachers, this…

  10. Job Stress and Coping Strategies among Early Childhood Teachers in Central Taiwan (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Lun


    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between job stress and coping strategies in early childhood teachers in Central Taiwan. A quantitative approach was utilized, and data were collected from 314 participants. The results of the present study suggest that (1) early childhood teachers believed that their job stress was due to a…

  11. Early Childhood Education for Children under 6 in Korea: History and Trends. (United States)

    Lee, Kisook


    Presents an overview of the history of early childhood education (ECE) in Korea from 1897 to the present. Discusses types of early childhood institutions, the rate of attendance in kindergartens and nursery schools, the organization and content of ECE, teacher education, and prospects for the future of ECE in Korea. (BC)

  12. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie


    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  13. Perspectives on Young Boys' Reading: A Survey and Conversations with Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

    Moyers, Stephanie


    The purpose of this multi-method study was to describe early childhood teachers' beliefs regarding what motivates and what presents barriers to reading for boys. This study used the two data collection strategies of an online survey and interviews. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) what do early childhood teachers believe boys…

  14. Making African American Culture and History Central to Early Childhood Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Strickland, Jennifer


    This article provides a conceptualization for including African and African American history in early childhood classrooms. An example of a kindergarten teacher's efforts to counter negative depictions and frequently omitted information in her classroom is shared. While many early childhood educators avoid discussions of history because the…

  15. Recommended Practices for Promoting Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Settings (United States)

    Wright, Paul M.; Stork, Steve


    Although the importance of physical development as an integrated part of early childhood education is well understood, many early childhood teachers lack the specific background and training in this area. To fill this gap, this article presents a framework of recommended practices and a corresponding assessment tool. The Head Start Body Start…

  16. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.


    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  17. Early Childhood Educators and the FIS Grant Program: An Interview with Naomi Karp. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    Naomi Karp is the Director of the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (ECI) in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) in the U.S. Department of Education. This interview concerns funding for early childhood education research through OERI's Field-Initiated Studies (FIS) Grant Program. Questions…

  18. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  19. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions (United States)

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo


    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  20. TESOL and Early Childhood Collaborative Inquiry: Joining Forces and Crossing Boundaries (United States)

    Baecher, Laura; Jewkes, Abigail M.


    Preparing early childhood educators to support effective instruction of English language learners (ELLs) is an important dimension of teacher preparation programs, yet often difficult to enact. This article reports on a collaboration between early childhood education (ECE) faculty and teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL)…

  1. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS): Phase 3. Final Report (United States)

    Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Daytner, Gary; Johanson, Joyce; Hutinger, Patricia


    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System 3 (EC-TIIS 3), housed in the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) within the College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois University (WIU), was funded in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) as a…

  2. Understanding Standards-Based Reform in Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study of Implementation (United States)

    Rader, Shannon Natasha


    Standards-based reform has traditionally focused on K-12 educational systems, but there is growing evidence that it is now affecting early childhood programs. While it is increasingly apparent that standards-based reform has arrived in early childhood, there is a significant gap in our understanding of how these policies are being implemented in…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Attitudes of Early Childhood Pre- service Teachers towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Aydın


    Full Text Available As in many countries, early childhood teachers introduce mathematics content in kindergartens in Turkey. Therefore, early childhood teachers should master a certain level of mathematics knowledge and are offered a mathematics methods course in faculties of education. Teacher training programs are also expected to improve early childhood preservice teachers (PSTs attitudes towards mathematics (ATM. In this context, it seems important to investigate whether and how much early childhood PSTs’ attitude towards mathematics changed throughout their university lives. Our study was conducted with a sampling of 43 participants studying at a state university in the north of Turkey, in the Black Sea Region. The data was collected from early childhood PSTs using the same attitude scale in their 1st and 3rd years of study. The quantitative analysis of the data in SPSS 22 using t-test for paired samples demonstrated that the early childhood PSTs’ attitudes towards mathematics have improved from the 1st to the 3rd year. In our sampling, one-way ANOVA and t-test for independent samples revealed that the ATM of the early childhood PSTs were not associated with variables such as gender, the type of completed high school, total family income, and parents’ level of education. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the mathematics methods course offered to early childhood PSTs in their 2nd year might be effective in improving the attitudes towards mathematics.

  4. Current Research in Early Childhood Education: A Compilation and Analysis for Program Planners. (United States)

    Butler, Annie L.

    This publication is particularly concerned with research and writing performed on the outcomes of early childhood education programs during the last five years. The chapters in this research review discuss the following: 1. The Current Scene--Conflicting Philosophy in Early Childhood Education; Difficulties in Analyzing the Research on Values in…

  5. Toddlers in Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne


    Nordic countries were among the rst to introduce parental leave, including a period earmarked for fathers, and have high childcare coverage, also among 6hildren under 3 years of age. While many countries distinguish between childcare (for children aged 0–2) and pre-school (3–6), the so-called Nor......Nordic countries were among the rst to introduce parental leave, including a period earmarked for fathers, and have high childcare coverage, also among 6hildren under 3 years of age. While many countries distinguish between childcare (for children aged 0–2) and pre-school (3–6), the so......-called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and the possibility of achieving a healthy and stimulating childhood comprise the key elements. Furthermore, the chapter demonstrates some of the challenges when attempting to ensure quality childcare and education. The Nordic pedagogic tradition is seen as re ecting both social development and the culture...

  6. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development. (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H


    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Early Childhood Caries: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumaran Anil


    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC is major oral health problem, mainly in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of ECC differs according to the group examined, and a prevalence of up to 85% has been reported for disadvantaged groups. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months (5 years or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown. The main risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorized as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Even though it is largely a preventable condition, ECC remains one of the most common childhood diseases. The major contributing factors for the for the high prevalence of ECC are improper feeding practices, familial socioeconomic background, lack of parental education, and lack of access to dental care. Oral health plays an important role in children to maintain the oral functions and is required for eating, speech development, and a positive self-image. The review will focus on the prevalence, risk factors, and preventive strategies and the management of ECC.

  8. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education. (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J


    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Kvalitetsvurdering med Early Childhood Envirionment Rating Scale (ECERS-3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Pedersen, Birgitte Skov; Skytte, Karsten Brinkmann


    Denne rapport omhandler en undersøgelse af kvalitet i dagtilbud i Frederikshavn Kommune. I undersøgelsen anvendes den internationale evalueringssmetode ECERS-3 (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, version 3 ), der er et instrument til måling af kvalitet og et værktøj til evaluering og...... gode, men for de kognitive kompetencers vedkommende udnyttes læringspotentialet ikke (standardafvigelse er 0,7). Gennemsnittet for sprog og literacy er noget lavt (2,57), hvilket vil kunne medføre, i tråd med andre undersøgelser (MBUL,2016a; Sylva et al, 2004), at der vil være børn, der ved skolestart...

  10. Breastfeeding, Dental Biofilm Acidogenicity, and Early Childhood Caries. (United States)

    Neves, Pierre A M; Ribeiro, Cecília Claudia Costa; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Leitão, Tarcísio J; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Nunes, Ana Margarida M; Cury, Jaime Aparecido


    This study evaluated the acidogenicity of human milk by the dental biofilms of children with and without early childhood caries (ECC). Biofilms of 16 children (7 with ECC; 9 caries free) were exposed to human milk or 10% sucrose solution in the crossover design, and the biofilm pH was determined. Breastfeeding did not provoke a decrease in biofilm pH, irrespective of the children's caries status, whereas sucrose decreased the pH for both groups. In addition, higher x0394;pH5min (pH variation occurring at 5 min) was observed in the biofilms of ECC children (p < 0.05). The results suggest that breastfeeding may not contribute to ECC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Can Early Childhood Interventions Decrease Inequality of Economic Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Magnuson


    Full Text Available This paper considers whether expanding access to center-based early childhood education (ECE will reduce economic inequality later in life. A strong evidence base indicates that ECE is effective at improving young children's academic skills and human capital development. We review evidence that children from low-income families have lower rates of preschool enrollment than their more affluent peers. Our analysis indicates that increasing enrollments for preschoolers in the year before school entry is likely to be a worthy investment that will yield economic payoffs in the form of increased adult earnings. The benefits of even a moderately effective ECE program are likely to be sufficient to offset the costs of program expansion, and increased enrollment among low-income children may reduce later economic inequality.

  12. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia


    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  13. Challenges facing the early childhood development sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atmore


    Full Text Available In this review article, the context of young children in South Africa in 2012 is described and the main challenges affecting children and the early childhood development sector (ECD in South Africa are investigated. A situation analysis of ECD in South Africa was undertaken using South African government ECD policy and programme implementation reports. There has been progress since 1994, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The number of children in Grade R has trebled since 2001, government education and social development budgets have increased substantially and 58% of children at ECD centres nationally are now subsidised. More children are in provision and in better quality provision than before. However, much still remains to be done before we can say with confidence that the needs of our youngest children are being met. This study identifies infrastructure, nutrition, ECD programmes, teacher training, institutional capacity and funding as the major gaps in ECD provision.

  14. [Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Functions in Early Childhood]. (United States)

    Bastian, Laura; Reichenbach, Katrin; Helbig, Lisann; Lenz, Klaus; Rohrbach, Saskia; Pollex-Fischer, Dörte; Schäuble, Martina; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea


    Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Functions in Early Childhood Studies have revealed advantages in cognitive functions among children with bilingualism. In this study we investigate cognitive functions in monolingual and bilingual preschool children taking socioeconomic status into account. The study population consists of 40 monolingual (German) children (Mage = 5.0 ± 0.4) and 23 bilingual (German/English) children (Mage = 5.1 ± 0.6). A neuropsychological test battery was conducted. The analyses revealed better performance for bilingual children. However, significant group differences were only found with respect to phonological short-term memory. Controlling for socioeconomic status, intelligence and balanced bilingualism, only slight advantages in cognitive performance were found for bilingual children. Due to high socioeconomic status in both groups, we suppose a ceiling effect. Children's development might be extensively promoted in upper class families and therefore bilingualism may not have additional impact on cognitive functions in these children.

  15. (More) Men in Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner


    This article reports the results from five recently completed projects funded by the Danish Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality and based on an idea developed in cooperation with the Danish Union of Early Childhood and Youth Educators. The Danish government is obliged not only...... by European legislation but also by national resolutions and therefore is very interested in ways to break down the gender segregated labour market and the gender segregated choices of education. The five projects spread across Denmark in five different municipalities took place in day-care institutions...... of dissimilar character and different extent from January 2014 until June 2015. Different governmental initiatives have already been launched such as on-line information on the opportunities when choosing non-traditional educations; non-traditional educations being defined by having a majority of one gender...

  16. High quality early childhood education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Varona Alabern


    Full Text Available The United States education system, K-12 produced impressive results for most of the 20th century. We trace its origins back to the end of the 19th century, when the America’s social and economical needs and its circumstances were very different from the ones today. Nowadays, American society is far more complex and demands highly qualified citizens, a requirement which inevitably starts with high quality early childhood education, as we will illustrate below. Therefore, experts are currently requesting all public administrations and private sector to take further steps to ensure high quality preschool education for everyone in order to improve Americans’ skills and the United States’ economy, as well as to overcome the existing inequalities.

  17. Health Consequences of Nutrition in Childhood and Early Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzee-Chung Wu


    Full Text Available Medical and scientific studies have proven that the body's metabolic programming can be influenced by diet and nutrition from early infancy. As a result, the incidence and outcome of several metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders have been found to be associated with birth weight, growth and feeding patterns, and the body composition in early childhood. Exclusive or partial breast feeding for at least 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization, while the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends the introduction of complementary foods at 4–6 months of age. The fat content of the diet should not be below 25% of the energy intake in order to maintain ideal growth while dietary proteins above 15% of the energy intake is related to future obesity. Long term benefits of breast feeding include a more ideal serum lipid profile and blood pressure, improved neuro-cognitive scores, and a decreased incidence for atopic dermatitis in children who have family members with atopic diseases. Several studies have also acknowledged the long term benefits for neuro-cognitive development from certain nutrients including long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid. Meat intake has proved to be beneficial to psychomotor development. It is suggested that early introduction for complementary foods before 4 months of age is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis; while no strong evidence showed delaying weaning foods can decrease the risk for allergic diseases.

  18. Psychosocial and behavioral issues in early childhood caries. (United States)

    Reisine, S; Douglass, J M


    Rampant caries in infants and young children has long been recognized as a clinical syndrome referred to by various names, including nursing caries, nursing bottle syndrome, night bottle mouth, and baby bottle tooth decay. The common theme among these terms is the perceived central role of inappropriate use of the baby bottle in the etiology and progression of carious lesions. Use of the baby bottle is not the only, and may not be the most important, factor in caries development. Because of questions about the role of the baby bottle in caries among young children, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently suggested that the term for this clinical syndrome be replaced with early childhood caries (ECC). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the literature on the influence of psychosocial and behavioral factors in early childhood caries. Prevalence of caries and maxillary anterior decay varies greatly in developed and undeveloped countries and among socioeconomic groups in developed countries. However, relatively little is known about the onset and progression of the disease or the antecedents of ECC, such as high risk behaviors, cultural norms, health beliefs and attitudes, or health care delivery factors. Furthermore, studies that do exist are limited by small and possibly biased samples and a lack of clear case definition. Future research should aim to develop a clear case definition of ECC, differentiate patterns of caries and conduct community-based epidemiological studies in order to obtain accurate estimates of the etiology and epidemiology of ECC in the general population, as well as in high risk groups.

  19. Assessment, management, and prevention of early childhood caries. (United States)

    Kagihara, Lynette E; Niederhauser, Victoria P; Stark, Marialiana


    To discuss the role of primary care health providers in identifying infants and young children at risk for dental caries during well-child visits, in providing anticipatory guidance to parents and primary care givers of at-risk children, and in providing appropriate referrals for the timely establishment of a dental home. The search included the following: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, American Academy of Pediatrics Web site, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Web site, and the American Dental Association Web site. The following search terms were used: dental caries prevention, caries process, caries balance, dental home, early childhood caries, oral health disparities, dental caries risk assessment, fluoride varnish, oral health anticipatory guidance. Search was limited to English language sources from 1990 through 2007. Dental caries is a preventable and reversible infectious disease process, yet it continues to be the single most common chronic disease of childhood. Despite a decrease in caries prevalence and a decrease in untreated tooth decay in 6-19-year-olds in the United States, a 15.2% increase in disease was noted among the nation's youngest children aged 2-5 years. Primary care health providers are uniquely positioned to play a significant role in the prevention of dental caries and are encouraged to complete certification courses in caries risk assessment, intervention, education, and referral. Clinicians need to understand the dental caries process, including the process of enamel demineralization and remineralization, and the factors contributing to caries balance. The importance of early identification and intervention for infants and toddlers at high risk for dental caries and primary care health provider-delivered anticipatory guidance during well-child care visits cannot be overestimated.

  20. Associations of Early Childhood Manganese and Lead Coexposure with Neurodevelopment (United States)

    Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María


    Background: Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese–lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese–lead coexposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children were enrolled at birth in an longitudinal cohort study in Mexico City, provided blood samples, and were followed until 36 months of age. We measured lead and manganese at 12 and 24 months and assessed neurodevelopment at 6-month intervals from 12 to 36 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant Development–II. Results: Mean (± SD) blood concentrations at 12 and 24 months were, respectively, 24.7 ± 5.9 μg/L and 21.5 ± 7.4 μg/L for manganese and 5.1 ± 2.6 μg/dL and 5.0 ± 2.9 μg/dL for lead. Mixed-effects models, including Bayley scores at five time points, showed a significant interaction over time: highest manganese quintile × continuous lead; mental development score, β = –1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI): –2.18, –0.37]; psychomotor development score, β = –0.92 (95% CI: –1.76, –0.09). Slopes for the estimated 12-month lead effect on 18-month mental development and 24- through 36-month psychomotor development scores were steeper for children with high manganese than for children with midrange manganese levels. Conclusions: We observed evidence of synergism between lead and manganese, whereby lead toxicity was increased among children with high manganese coexposure. Findings highlight the importance of understanding health effects of mixed exposures, particularly during potentially sensitive developmental stages such as early childhood. PMID:21885384

  1. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators. (United States)

    Argos, Javier


    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  2. Screening for Sleep Problems in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education: A Systematic Review of Screening and Assessment Instruments (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A.; Hyden, Christel; Ury, Guenn; Barnett, Josephine; Ashkinaze, Hannah; Briggs, Rahil D.


    Behavioral insomnias of childhood (BIC) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) disorders cause disrupted and/or inefficient sleep. Left untreated in early childhood, both conditions increase the risk of compromised development, particularly in the areas of behavior, cognition, and growth. This systematic review determined whether and how current…

  3. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Armstrong, Julie; Dorosty, Ahmad R; Emmett, Pauline M; Ness, A; Rogers, I; Steer, Colin; Sherriff, Andrea


    Objective To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. Main outcome measures Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index 3 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. Results Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). Conclusion Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood. PMID:15908441

  4. Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Environments for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Families in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Burt, Tracy; Gelnaw, Aimee; Lesser, Lee Klinger


    Children's identities and sense of self are inextricably tied to their families. The experience of being welcome or unwelcome, visible or invisible begins in early childhood. The goal of early childhood professionals is to ensure that all children and their families are welcomed in early childhood settings and provided with quality care and…

  5. Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning (United States)

    Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy


    Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

  6. Do Master Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs Provide Adequate Coverage of Infants and Toddlers?: A Review of Content (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne; Manning, Matthew


    In Australia, growth in the demand of early childhood services for young children aged birth to three years has placed increased pressure on the early childhood education sector as new policy stipulates the need for qualified teachers. The new policy has resulted in a growth in Master of Early Childhood Education programs in Australian…

  7. Integration of Digital Technologies into Play-Based Pedagogy in Kuwaiti Early Childhood Education: Teachers' Views, Attitudes and Aptitudes (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Fayiz; Palaiologou, Ioanna; Folorunsho, Aderonke


    Scholars in the field of early childhood education are still debating the inclusion of digital technologies in play-based pedagogy and our understanding of digital play in early childhood education is still developing. This research paper examines early childhood education teachers' views, aptitudes and attitudes towards digital technologies in…

  8. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood. (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann


    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental Changes in Sleep Oscillations during Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard Olbrich


    Full Text Available Although quantitative analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG has uncovered important aspects of brain activity during sleep in adolescents and adults, similar findings from preschool-age children remain scarce. This study utilized our time-frequency method to examine sleep oscillations as characteristic features of human sleep EEG. Data were collected from a longitudinal sample of young children (n=8; 3 males at ages 2, 3, and 5 years. Following sleep stage scoring, we detected and characterized oscillatory events across age and examined how their features corresponded to spectral changes in the sleep EEG. Results indicated a developmental decrease in the incidence of delta and theta oscillations. Spindle oscillations, however, were almost absent at 2 years but pronounced at 5 years. All oscillatory event changes were stronger during light sleep than slow-wave sleep. Large interindividual differences in sleep oscillations and their characteristics (e.g., “ultrafast” spindle-like oscillations, theta oscillation incidence/frequency also existed. Changes in delta and spindle oscillations across early childhood may indicate early maturation of the thalamocortical system. Our analytic approach holds promise for revealing novel types of sleep oscillatory events that are specific to periods of rapid normal development across the lifespan and during other times of aberrant changes in neurobehavioral function.

  10. Multimodal optical device for early childhood caries: a clinical prototype (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.

  11. Sleep and anxiety in late childhood and early adolescence. (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Alfano, Candice A


    Adolescence is a period of dynamic change in both sleep and emotional systems, with related increases in problems controlling emotion and behavior. Youth with anxiety enter adolescence with pre-existing vulnerabilities in systems of sleep and emotion that may place them at heightened risk. This review summarizes recent research on sleep and anxiety during the transition to adolescence, and highlights emerging themes. Prospective studies support that sleep predicts anxiety symptoms in early adolescence. Notably, robust evidence for subjective sleep problems in anxious youth is not well corroborated by objective assessments. Longitudinal designs and methodology that carefully examine dimensions of anxiety and sleep may clarify inconsistencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that late childhood to early adolescence may be a sensitive period for escalating problems with sleep and anxiety. Recent advances in the neuroscience of sleep can further refine integrative mechanistic models of developmental psychopathology - the role of sleep in emotional learning and memory is provided as an example. Sleep problems are common and prospectively predict escalating anxiety symptoms. Precision is needed regarding the nature of sleep disruption, and how and when sleep affects various aspects of developmental trajectories. This precision, along with advances in the neuroscience of sleep, may lead to developmentally informed translational interventions.

  12. Translational research to prevent internalizing problems early in childhood. (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Catherine; Wake, Melissa


    This article discusses the importance of and one approach to translational research to prevent internalizing problems very early in life. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts that by 2,030 internalizing problems will be second only to HIV/AIDS in the international burden of disease. Internalizing problems affect one in every seven school age children, with negative impacts on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, adult relationships, and employment. There is persuasive evidence that intervention in the preschool years can have a cost-effective impact on general developmental outcomes, compared to later school or adult intervention. However, the development of early childhood prevention for internalizing problems is in its infancy. Two significant risk factors for child internalizing problems are temperamental inhibition (characterized by fearfulness and withdrawal) and overinvolved/protective parenting practices. Rapee et al. have conducted two randomized "efficacy" trials with inhibited preschoolers in which a parenting group intervention reduced internalizing disorders up to 3 years later. Translational "effectiveness" research is now underway at the population level, to determine the balance of benefits and harms of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition and subsequent intervention for all those affected. This rigorous public health research, followed by effective dissemination, addresses gaps identified in the WHO Prevention of Mental Disorders report. Depression and Anxiety, 2011.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Developmental Changes in Sleep Oscillations during Early Childhood. (United States)

    Olbrich, Eckehard; Rusterholz, Thomas; LeBourgeois, Monique K; Achermann, Peter


    Although quantitative analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) has uncovered important aspects of brain activity during sleep in adolescents and adults, similar findings from preschool-age children remain scarce. This study utilized our time-frequency method to examine sleep oscillations as characteristic features of human sleep EEG. Data were collected from a longitudinal sample of young children (n = 8; 3 males) at ages 2, 3, and 5 years. Following sleep stage scoring, we detected and characterized oscillatory events across age and examined how their features corresponded to spectral changes in the sleep EEG. Results indicated a developmental decrease in the incidence of delta and theta oscillations. Spindle oscillations, however, were almost absent at 2 years but pronounced at 5 years. All oscillatory event changes were stronger during light sleep than slow-wave sleep. Large interindividual differences in sleep oscillations and their characteristics (e.g., "ultrafast" spindle-like oscillations, theta oscillation incidence/frequency) also existed. Changes in delta and spindle oscillations across early childhood may indicate early maturation of the thalamocortical system. Our analytic approach holds promise for revealing novel types of sleep oscillatory events that are specific to periods of rapid normal development across the lifespan and during other times of aberrant changes in neurobehavioral function.

  14. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

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    Alejandrina Cristia

    Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  15. Maternal intestinal flora and wheeze in early childhood. (United States)

    Lange, N E; Celedón, J C; Forno, E; Ly, N P; Onderdonk, A; Bry, L; Delaney, M L; DuBois, A M; Gold, D R; Weiss, S T; Litonjua, A A


    Increasing evidence links altered intestinal flora in infancy to eczema and asthma. No studies have investigated the influence of maternal intestinal flora on wheezing and eczema in early childhood. To investigate the link between maternal intestinal flora during pregnancy and development of wheeze and eczema in infancy. A total of 60 pregnant women from the Boston area gave stool samples during the third trimester of their pregnancy and answered questions during pregnancy about their own health, and about their children's health when the child was 2 and 6 months of age. Quantitative culture was performed on stool samples and measured in log(10)colony-forming units (CFU)/gram stool. Primary outcomes included infant wheeze and eczema in the first 6 months of life. Atopic wheeze, defined as wheeze and eczema, was analysed as a secondary outcome. In multivariate models adjusted for breastfeeding, day care attendance and maternal atopy, higher counts of maternal total aerobes (TA) and enterococci (E) were associated with increased risk of infant wheeze (TA: OR 2.32 for 1 log increase in CFU/g stool [95% CI 1.22, 4.42]; E: OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.06, 2.31]). No organisms were associated with either eczema or atopic wheeze. In our cohort, higher maternal total aerobes and enterococci were related to increased risk of infant wheeze. Maternal intestinal flora may be an important environmental exposure in early immune system development. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Early Childhood Development Operations in Latin and Caribbean Region (LCR) : Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil in Focus


    Holland, Peter; Evans, David


    The rationale and evidence of the effectiveness of investing early in children is compelling: early childhood is the most rapid period of development in a human life, with incredible brain development occurring (85 percent of the brain is wired by age 5). Investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) are among the most effective and cost-effective investments a country can make in its p...

  17. An Investigation of Early Childhood Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Taiwan


    Hsueh-Hua CHUANG; Chao-Ju HO


    This study aimed to investigate technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of early childhood teachers in Taiwan. Quantitative Data was collected from a sample of 335 in-service early childhood teachers in Taiwan. The instrument was translated and adapted from Schmidt et al. (2009) TPACK survey instrument with added items to fit the early educational context in Taiwan. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and MANOVA. Findings from the study were...

  18. Early life factors and risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

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    Anshu eShrestha


    Full Text Available Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children < 6 year old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others diagnosed in 1988-2008. Controls (205,173, frequency matched on birth year (1986-2007, were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000-5250 grams children for term births [OR (95%CI: 1.28 (0.85, 1.92] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95%CI: 1.21 (0.81, 1.81]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95%CI: 1.02, 2.87 was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes among children of fathers ≥ 35 years old at child birth (95%CI: 1.00, 1.75, independent of all covariates. Our finding positive association on male sex for all rhabdomyosarcoma types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on paternal age at childbirth and prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  19. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Nanda, Maya K; LeMasters, Grace K; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E; Assa'ad, Amal H; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E; Ryan, Patrick H


    The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0-9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Early childhood predictors of early onset of smoking: a birth prospective study. (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Mamun, Abdullah A; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M


    Early onset of smoking is associated with subsequent abuse of other substances and development of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to examine early life predictors of onset of smoking in an Australian young cohort. Data were from the Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study (1981-2012). The present study is based on a cohort of 3714 young adults who self-reported smoking status and age of onset of smoking at the 21-year follow-up. Of these, data were available for 3039 on early childhood factors collected between the baseline and 14-year follow-up of the study. Of 3714 young adults, 49.6% (49.9% males and 49.3% females) reported having ever smoked cigarettes. For those who had ever smoked, mean and median ages at first smoke were 15.5 and 16.0years, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis mother's education, change in maternal marital status, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, maternal depression and child externalizing when the child was 5years statistically significantly predicted early onset of smoking. The data suggest that individuals exposed to personal and environmental risk factors during the early stage of childhood are at increased risk of initiation to cigarette smoking at an earlier age. Identification of the pathways of association between these early life factors and initiation to cigarette smoking may help reduce risk of tobacco smoking in adolescents and its adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Manfred PRETIS


    Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) for vulnerable children between the age of 0-3 and 6 can be seen as well established preventive service in Europe. Even though recent epidemiologic data indicate higher rates of vulnerability during childhood and adolescence, traditionally up to 6% of the children are eligible for the ECI treatment. Definitions describing the ECI include from stable or ad hoc trans-disciplinary teams helping the child, to specific professional profiles. There is a scientific...

  2. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study


    Lawlor, D A; Batty, G.D.; Morton, S.M.B.; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.


    Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...

  3. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education (United States)

    Eum, Jungwon

    beliefs toward science teaching. Face-to-face group teachers' comfort with planning and doing different science activities increased significantly after the workshop and after the combination of workshop and face-to-face PLC. This study contributes to the research about various forms of professional development and their process and outcome in early childhood science education and informs early childhood professional communities of creative ways to improve science teaching and learning.

  4. Prevalensi early childhood caries dan severe early childhood caries pada anak prasekolah di Gunung Anyar Surabaya (The prevalences of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries in preschool children at Gunung Anyar Surabaya

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    Rahel Wahjuni Sutjipto


    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is a serious health problem especially in young children. Frequent night time bottle feeding with milk and prolong breast-feeding are reported to be the possible cause. Purpose: The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of ECC and severe early childhood caries (SECC in children at Preschool Gunung Anyar district Surabaya. Methods: The subjects were 65 children consist of children aged 6 months (5 children, 1 year (8 children, 2 years (24 children, and 3 years (28 children. All tooth surface is evaluated. If there was one or more DMFs, it was indicated as ECC, whereas if there was one or more DMFs on smooth surfaces, then indicated as SECC. Results: No caries has found in 6 months and 1 year old children. The higher prevalence of ECC and SECC is in 3 years old children. The most caries was found on mesial maxillary central incisors. Conclusion: This study shows that the prevalence of ECC in group of children aged 6 months - 3 years at Gunung Anyar Surabaya was 30.8 % , while the prevalence was 29.2 % SECC .Latar belakang: Karies anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang serius terutama di kalangan anak-anak. Sering mengkonsumsi susu melalui botol pada malam hari dan pemberian ASI yang berkepanjangan dilaporkan sebagai faktor penyebab. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti prevalensi ECC dan SECC pada kelompok anak di PAUD Gunung Anyar Surabaya. Metode: Subyek penelitian ini adalah 65 anak yang terdiri dari anak usia 6 bulan (5 anak, 1 tahun (8 anak, 2 tahun (24 anak, dan 3 tahun (28 anak. Semua permukaan gigi dievaluasi. Apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs, maka diindikasikan sebagai ECC, sedangkan apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs pada permukaan gigi yang halus, maka diindikasikan sebagai SECC. Hasil: Tidak ditemukan karies pada kelompok anak usia 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun. Prevalensi tinggi ECC dan SECC ditemukan pada kelompok anak usia 3 tahun. Area gigi yang paling sering terkena

  5. Evaluation of Possible Associated Factors for Early Childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Survey. (United States)

    Özen, Bugra; Van Strijp, A J P; Özer, Levent; Olmus, Hulya; Genc, Aysegul; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak


    The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24-71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study conducted at three governmental and university pediatric dentistry clinics in 408 preschool children who were randomly selected from a total of 4116 children. The questionnaires administered to the mothers by interview and intraoral examination performed by calibrated pediatric dentists. The children were evaluated in three groups according to their caries experience as who had caries free, ECC and S-ECC. The following factors were significantly associated with caries formation: 1. Prolonged (i.e., >18 months) breastfeeding in preterm babies (OR=2.4) 2. Prolonged breastfeeding in children who started tooth brushing after 1.5 years of age (OR=3.7), 3. Sugar (pchildren with caries and caries-free associated with the brushing initiation age started before or after 18 months. If a child is under the risk of multiple caries factors, it is very difficult to evaluate which habits affect the caries formation or increase the severity of the caries lesions.

  6. The Family Couch: Considerations for Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health. (United States)

    Dickstein, Susan


    The infant-family field aims to promote infant/early childhood mental health, prevent poor outcomes in the context of risk, and relieve psychological suffering. This article focuses on the power of the family system to support, nurture, and protect (or not) each parent's capacity to manage transitions and relationship demands that come with the addition of a baby, as well as early childhood mental health challenges that might arise. We explore core concepts of infant/early childhood mental health: relationship security within the family system, relationship safety to manage stress, and strategic interventions that involve working with and through relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Re-Inventing Teachers’ Competences at Early Childhood Education in Building Characters Needed for Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmila Machmud


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early childhood teachers is very significant. In terms of shaping children’s character, they should be equipped with some important skills and competences, because they have a significant role in building the Indonesian Children’s characters needed in global competition without abandoning their identity as a dignified Indonesian.

  8. An ecological risk model for early childhood anxiety: the importance of early child symptoms and temperament. (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S


    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms, violence exposure, and sociodemographic risk factors predict school-aged anxiety symptoms. This longitudinal, prospective study was conducted in a representative birth cohort (n = 1109). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized associations between risk factors measured in toddlerhood/preschool (age = 3.0 years) and anxiety symptoms measured in kindergarten (age = 6.0 years) and second grade (age = 8.0 years). Early child risk factors (anxiety symptoms and temperament) emerged as the most robust predictor for both parent-and child-reported anxiety outcomes and mediated the effects of maternal and family risk factors. Implications for early intervention and prevention studies are discussed.

  9. A longitudinal study of emotion regulation and anxiety in middle childhood: Associations with frontal EEG asymmetry in early childhood. (United States)

    Hannesdóttir, Dagmar Kr; Doxie, Jacquelyn; Bell, Martha Ann; Ollendick, Thomas H; Wolfe, Christy D


    We investigated whether brain electrical activity during early childhood was associated with anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation during a stressful situation during middle childhood. Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetries were measured during baseline and during a cognitive control task at 4 1/2 years. Anxiety and emotion regulation were assessed during a stressful situation at age 9 (speech task), along with measures of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Questionnaires were also used to assess anxiety and emotion regulation at age 9. Results from this longitudinal study indicated that children who exhibited right frontal asymmetry in early childhood experienced more physiological arousal (increased HR, decreased HRV) during the speech task at age 9 and less ability to regulate their emotions as reported by their parents. Findings are discussed in light of the associations between temperament and development of anxiety disorders.

  10. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth (United States)

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara


    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  11. Early Childhood Brain Development and Elementary Music Curricula: Are They in Tune? (United States)

    Scott, Larissa K.


    This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…

  12. Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.


    We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

  13. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva


    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  14. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante


    PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...

  15. Experiences Situating Mathematical Problem Solving at the Core of Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Lopes, Celi Espasandin; Grando, Regina Célia; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz Silva


    Our goal in this article is to discuss the importance of problems in early childhood education for the child's development and engagement with the mathematics existing in childhood culture. Our assumption is that an important task for young children's education is to create a democratic and critical environment, in which multiplicity of…

  16. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment (United States)

    May, Joanne C.


    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  17. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John


    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  18. Tracking of Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity in Early Childhood (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Claytor, Randal P.; Daniels, Stephen R.


    Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3 to 7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous(MV), and inactivity(IA)) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r=0.42–0.45) but declined by age 7 (r=0.19–0.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the High age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the High age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the High age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (P<0.05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls. PMID:23877325

  19. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng


    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  20. Lethal head entrapment--a problem characteristic of early childhood. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Charlwood, Cheryl


    Accidental deaths in infancy and early childhood often result from young childrens' lack of understanding of the dangers of certain situations and their physical inability to extricate themselves from potentially lethal circumstances. Two cases are reported to demonstrate an age-related susceptibility in the young to lethal head entrapment. Case 1: a 5-month-old girl smothered when she slipped down in her stroller, trapping her head beneath the frame and forcing her face into the soft material of the base. Case 2: a 14-month-old boy was hanged while exploring a filing cabinet when his head became caught between two lower drawers. Additional mental and physical characteristics that predispose young children and infants to lethal head entrapment include an inability to effectively problem solve once confronted with a hazardous situation, and relatively large heads and weak neck musculature. Because of these features lethal head entrapment represents a particular circumstance that may predispose to accidental asphyxial deaths in the very young. A combination of careful death scene and autopsy evaluations will be required to confirm the alleged circumstances of death in these cases, including mortuary re-enactments and assessment of the deceased infant's level of physical maturity and mobility.